Grupos Investigadores

Miembros del Grupo

Investigadores
Ainhoa
Arriazu Ramos
Nerea
Arriazu Ramos
Silvia
Domingo Irigoyen
Carlos
Fernández Bandera
José Francisco
Glaria Yetano
Jorge
San Miguel Bellod
Kattalin
del Valle de Lersundi Campistegui

Líneas de Investigación

  • Análisis de cliclo de vida y gestión de los materiales. Evaluación de impactos ambientales
  • Arquitectura para la población vulnerable. Envejecimiento. Pobreza energética. Accesibilidad.
  • Certificación ambiental. Monitorización, calibración y simulación energética de edificios
  • Componentes industrializados y sostenibles para edicifios
  • Estrategias para la mitigación y adaptación arquitectónica al cambio climático
  • Rehabilitación sotenible de edificios, barrios y ciudades

Palabras Clave

  • Arquitectura pasiva
  • Calibración energética
  • Calidad del aire interior
  • Cambio climático
  • Ecodiseño
  • EcoMateriales
  • Eficiencia energética
  • Energía embebida
  • Fachadas adaptativas
  • GIS
  • Habitabilidad
  • Impactos ambientales
  • Integración de renovables
  • Monitorización
  • Patología de la edificación
  • Patrones de uso
  • Pobreza energética
  • Rehabilitación energética
  • Renovables
  • Riesgo y diseño prestacional
  • Seguridad incendios
  • Simulación
  • Vulnerabilidad social: envejecimiento

Publicaciones Científicas desde 2018

  • Autores: Fernández Bandera, Carlos (Autor de correspondencia); Bastos Porsani, Gabriela; Fernández-Vigil Iglesias, María
    Revista: BUILDING SIMULATION
    ISSN: 1996-3599 Vol.16 N° 2 2023 págs. 317 - 335
    Resumen
    There is a growing interest in increasing the presence of renewable energy in the electric network. Photovoltaic production from grid-connected systems is leading this growth in terms of households. Alongside this development, concern about network security has emerged, because excesses of intermittent renewable energy on the grid could exceed voltage limits. Self-consumption, understood as the capacity of the producer to consume his or her own production, can partially solve these problems. Thermostatic controllable loads, such as heating and cooling, represent 50% of the total amount of energy consumed by buildings; the proper allocation of these loads could be a driving force for self-consumption. In this study, a demand side management strategy is proposed based on a building energy model equipped with an inverter heat pump coupled with a photovoltaic plant. The goal is to maximize the use of local energy from the photovoltaic plant (self-consumption), reducing the export and import of energy to and from the grid. This goal is achieved by optimizing the set-points in each room. An array of optimal set-points over six years is presented. The results show the capacity of the methodology to match similar values of self-consumption (70% in winter and 50% in summer) obtained by strategies based on chemical batteries. The findings are shown in an energy matching chart at different levels of detail (yearly and monthly). Color bubbles are added to the matching chart to help visualize the unmatched energy of the system graphically. In comparison with actual model predictive control technologies, this study's strategy offers great simplicity and a large saving in computational time.
  • Autores: Arriazu-Ramos, A. (Autor de correspondencia); Bes Rastrollo, Maira; Sánchez-Ostiz Gutiérrez, Ana; et al.
    Revista: BUILDING AND ENVIRONMENT
    ISSN: 0360-1323 Vol.228 2023 págs. 109899
    Resumen
    Overheating in dwellings is a global concern that is increasing due to global warming and more frequent and extreme heatwaves. This study assesses the relationship between different building parameters (built period, floor level, orientation, window area and solar shading) and compares indoor overheating hours during summer in twelve apartments monitored in Pamplona (North of Spain). They were selected as samples from different Spanish built periods related to different energy regulations, without mechanical cooling and with some kind of exterior solar shading. Overheating hours were calculated using the UNE-EN 16798 standard, which establishes a maximum acceptable operative temperature. This limit is adaptive and it is defined as the exponentially weighted running mean of the daily outdoor temperature. Multilevel mixed-effects linear and logistic regressions were used to analyse and compare overheating hours. Floor level, window area and solar shading were the parameters that showed a significant relationship with indoor overheating hours (p < 0.01). Orientation and built period did not reach a statistically significant value (p > 0.01). It is particularly noteworthy that the apartments built under the current Spanish Energy Regulations (after 2006) do not show a significant reduction in indoor overheating hours compared to those built without any energy regulations. This assessment reveals that current building energy regulations may not be enough to avoid overheating or ensure adaptation to warmer conditions. Therefore, this study contributes to establishing the main building parameters to improve in order to adapt Spanish apartment buildings to warming conditions in temperate climates.
  • Autores: Arriazu Ramos, Ainhoa (Autor de correspondencia); Ramos Ruiz, Germán; Pons Izquierdo, Juan José; et al.
    Revista: ENERGY AND BUILDINGS
    ISSN: 0378-7788 Vol.229 2023 págs. 113620
    Resumen
    Indoor overheating is a current problem due to increasingly higher external temperatures and more frequent and extreme heatwaves which specially impact naturally ventilated dwellings. This paper presents a methodology at neighbourhood-scale to analyse indoor overheating hours (IOH) of residential typologies and to investigate building parameters that most influence IOH. This study is based on energy simulations for two climate scenarios: typical meteorological year and extreme warm summer with heatwaves (2022), and the effect of urban microclimate is considered by using the Urban Weather Generator tool. Results with the typical meteorological year show 0% IOH for all dwellings, while those derived from simulation with summer 2022 show a significant increase in IOH with values above 30% IOH in the most overheated ones. The effect of microclimate is especially relevant in the extreme warm summer and increases the IOH by 7,5% on average. Among the building parameters studied, the number of orientations (related to potential of natural ventilation), orientation and the floor level of the dwellings have the highest influence on IOH. These results could help policy-makers and technicians detect the risk of overheating in cities and buildings and prevent it by improving the adaptation of the residential stock to current warming.
  • Autores: Bastos Porsani, Gabriela (Autor de correspondencia); Casquero-Modreg, N.; Echeverria Trueba, Juan Bautista; et al.
    Revista: ENERGY AND BUILDINGS
    ISSN: 0378-7788 Vol.296 2023 págs. 113322
    Resumen
    The European Council has proposed reducing buildings' energy consumption as one way to decarbonization by 2050. Currently, digital twins are used for real-time energy management, but there are discrepancies between predicted and measured energy performance due to uncertainties in building energy models (BEMs). Air leakage is a key parameter that is difficult to obtain and EnergyPlus users often employ a constant value or apply air leakage equations with pre-determined coefficients. This research is a preliminary step in reducing this uncertainty in the author's methodology of BEMs calibration, using EnergyPlus and measured data. The study empirically verifies the ability of the EnergyPlus model's design flow rate to accurately replicate dynamic infiltration values within a zone of a high-rise residential building, where a tracer gas test using CO2 and a blower door test were conducted. Three new methods for calculating Idesrgn were developed and evaluated. The results were assessed based on the American Society for Testing Material D5157 (Standard Guide for Statistical Evaluation of Indoor Air Quality Models). The models generated with ad-hoc coefficients were compared to those from the literature (EnergyPlus, DOE-2, and BLAST). Among the models with off-the-shelf coefficients, the one with Ide,,gn calculated with in situ data and DOE-2 coefficients demonstrates an accuracy that is only 26% lower than the best model with regression coefficients, which has an R2 value of 0.94 and an NMSE value of 0.02 in the training period.
  • Autores: Calama-González, C. M. (Autor de correspondencia); Escandón, R.; Alonso, A.; et al.
    Revista: HELIYON
    ISSN: 2405-8440 Vol.9 N° 5 2023 págs. e16102
    Resumen
    Heat waves are expected to increase the use of air conditioning (AC), deriving in higher energy consumption. This research aims to determine whether thermal insulation is an effective retrofit strategy for tackling overheating. Four occupied dwellings in southern Spain were monitored: two houses built prior to any thermal criteria and two with current thermal standards. Thermal comfort is assessed considering adaptive models and user patterns for the operation of AC and natural ventilation. Results show that a high level of insulation combined with a proper use of night-time natural ventilation can increase thermal comfort hours under heat waves, lasting 2-5 times longer than in poorly-insulated houses and with up to 2 degrees C temperature difference at nights. Long-term effectiveness of insulation under extreme heat presents a better thermal performance, especially in intermediate floors. Yet, the activation of AC usually occurs with indoor tempera-tures of 27-31 degrees C, regardless of the envelope's solution.
  • Autores: Pachano, J. E.; Fernández-Vigil Iglesias, María; Saiz, J. C.; et al.
    Revista: APPLIED THERMAL ENGINEERING
    ISSN: 1359-4311 Vol.230 2023 págs. 120638
    Resumen
    Buildings play a major role in energy expenditure, representing 40% of Europe's total energy consumption. It is estimated that heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems consume between 50-60% of the total energy spent inside the building, thus corresponding to 20% of global worldwide energy consumption. Hence, there is a need to improve the accuracy of building thermal simulation and energy models that are essential in regulatory compliance calculations. In the present study, the authors empirically validate an optimization-based calibration methodology based on its application to a fully operational commercial building located in Pamplona, Navarre. The methodology used a white-box two-stage model in EnergyPlus, which combines a load profile object and a district cooling component to distribute the cooling load inside the building's thermal zones. The study optimized the parameters and performance curves of different cooling system components using a second-generation non-sorting genetic algorithm in jEPlus software and 985 h of ten-minute time-step data. Finally, a multi-level benchmark is executed, which evaluates the electric energy consumption of the building's heat pumps and the interior temperature of the different thermal zones for summer 2020 conditions. The assessment of the thermal and energy performance of the simulation model was conducted according to the requirements of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Guideline 14-2002, and the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, Operation Performance Technical Memoranda 63.
  • Autores: Pachano, J. E.; Fernández-Vigil Iglesias, María (Autor de correspondencia); Peppas, A.; et al.
    Revista: ENERGY AND BUILDINGS
    ISSN: 0378-7788 Vol.298 2023 págs. 113576
    Resumen
    To face the challenge of climate change and achieve the decarbonization target set by the European Union, the current trend is to electrify building services, replacing the use of fossil fuels for renewable energy sources. The installation of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems is becoming a popular strategy. However, the widespread application of PV solutions carries certain concerns about grid-network security and stability, since intermittent renewable energy excess pouring into the grid may exceed voltage limits. Therefore, an optimization of the consumption of a building's own PV production (self-consumption) to reduce the excess output is vital. The following paper performs a demand side optimization strategy of the building's thermostatic controllable loads (heating and cooling), which represent at least 50% of the total energy consumed by the building. The process is applied in a previously calibrated building energy model (BEM) that describes a fully operational building under a typical Mediterranean climate (Greece). The site contains a PV plant and a multi-split Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) system dedicated to maintain indoor comfort conditions. The technology used is simple, able to perform 15 minute time-step yearly optimizations while saving a large amount of computational time. It performs a bi-dimensional optimization of both: indoor thermal-zone set-points and ventilation air supply temperature. The optimization process performed is based on 2019 data gathered from European Project SABINA, resulting in a self-consumption improvement of 11.6% for summer scenario (reaching 69.16%) and 78.7% for winter (reaching 57.47%) in comparison to a non-optimized ¿business as usual¿ base model.
  • Autores: Bastos Porsani, Gabriela; Fernández Bandera, Carlos (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: BUILDINGS
    ISSN: 2075-5309 Vol.13 N° 2 2023 págs. 511
    Resumen
    Building retrofitting is an efficient means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Its first focus is on building facade, as transmission and air leakage are the main sources of energy loss in buildings. Nowadays, building modellers cannot easily implement envelope air leakage and assume constant values, which results in erroneous energy estimates. Additionally, in energy simulations, a weather file is usually inserted with measurements provided by a weather station. In this study, we revealed the use of wind data from the weather file (herein as global wind) to calculate the infiltration of a test case in Spain, using the three algebraic equations of EnergyPlus. Furthermore, four other wind data were applied: eastbound and westbound winds from the weather file and two from in situ measurements (on the southeast and on the northwest facades). The fifteen combinations of the three infiltration models and the five wind data were empirically evaluated, using the tracer gas results performed during three different periods. The combinations were validated according to the American Society for Testing Materials D5157 standard criteria, and the best and the only ones that complied with the standard were those using the wind data from the southeast in situ sensor and the west wind from the weather station. The global wind was not able to generate accurate infiltration models, which raises doubts about its use in the highly-time calibration of energy models. However, its disaggregation was a cost-effective strategy to estimate the infiltration of this case study.
  • Autores: Gutiérrez González, V.; Fernández Bandera, Carlos (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: BUILDING SIMULATION
    ISSN: 1996-3599 Vol.15 N° 11 2022 págs. 1883 - 1898
    Resumen
    Nowadays, building energy models (BEMs) are widely used, particularly in the assessment of energy consumption in buildings to address the potential savings that can be generated. The realisation of a dynamic energy model based on high-fidelity physics (white-box models) requires a tuning process to fit the model to reality, due to many uncertainties involved. Currently some research trends try to reduce this performance gap by modulating different types of experimental parameters such as: capacitances or infiltration. The EnergyPlus simulation software, in its latest versions, has implemented an object: HybridModel:Zone that calculates the infiltration and internal mass of buildings using an inverse modelling approach that employs only the measured indoor temperature data to invert the heat balance equation for the zone under study. The main objective of this paper is to reduce the execution time and uncertainties in the development of quality energy models by generating a new calibration methodology that implements this approach. This uses, as a starting point, a research created by the authors of this study, which was empirically and comparatively validated against the energy models developed by the participants in Annex 58. It is also worth highlighting the empirical validation of the HybridModel:Zone object, since it was activated in all scenarios where its execution is possible: periods of seven days or more of free oscillation and periods in which the building is under load. The findings are promising. The data generated with the new methodology, if compared with those produced by the baseline model, improve their resemblance to the real ones by 22.9%. While those of its predecessor did it by 15.6%. For this study, the two dwellings foreseen in Annex 58 of the IEA ECB project have been modelled and their real monitoring data have been used.
  • Autores: Pachano, J. E.; Peppas, A.; Fernández Bandera, Carlos (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: ENERGY AND BUILDINGS
    ISSN: 0378-7788 Vol.261 2022 págs. 111941
    Resumen
    Today, Building Energy Models (BEM) have become essential in regulatory compliance calculations, the correct assessment of it's Air Conditioning (AC) systems is critical for the reduction of the performance gap between BEMs and reality and increase the accuracy of evaluating buildings energy performance and it's systems efficiency. Given that multi-split Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) systems have grown in the market in recent years becoming a particular trending solution to achieve building indoor comfort; the present paper focus on technical issues when modelling such VRF systems inside EnergyPlus, a whitebox simulation environment, especially regarding the effects weather conditions have on the behaviour of VRF systems and it's correlation with the AC system performance curves. The study performs an empirical validation of an optimization-based calibration methodology assessing multiple levels: average interior temperature of the different building spaces and electric energy consumption from VRF outdoor unit. It is performed using fifteen minute time-step seasonal data obtained from a fully operational building located in a typical Mediterranean climate (Greece), adjusting the parameter and curve values of the VRF system using a genetic NGSA-II algorithm (Jeplus software) for both summer and winter conditions. The generated BEM captures the building's hourly performance for summer conditions using 1717 hours to fit into international standards. Complying with the requirements of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Guidelines 14-2002 for hourly energy consumption, reaching an NMBE 6 +/- 10% ,Cv(RMSE) 630% and R2 P75% while keeping indoor temperatures on every room with a RMSE 61 degrees C. The resulting BEM proved stable during the 2077 hours of it's summer evaluation period, fitting into the new unseen weather and building operation conditions of 2020 which can be considered a step forward in the area of calibrating white box models. While for winter conditions the study demonstrates the value of the calibration methodology while presenting the importance of weather influence on VRF systems. Using a total of 802 hours the applied technology greatly improves the results from the baseline model, reaching a partially calibrated BEM model for winter. Which reinforces the fact that regardless of how good a baseline model is, building operating conditions and weather may will always generate a design/performance gap and therefore the calibration of a BEM is unavoidable.
  • Autores: Gamero Salinas, Juan Carlos (Autor de correspondencia); Kishnani, N.; Sánchez-Ostiz Gutiérrez, Ana; et al.
    Revista: ENERGY AND BUILDINGS
    ISSN: 0378-7788 Vol.272 2022 págs. 112339
    Resumen
    The lack of green open spaces undermines the environmental and social quality of tropical highly-dense cities (i.e. raises urban temperatures, limits social interaction). The goal of this study, which focused on environmental aspects, was to identify underlying factors (i.e. hypothetical constructs) in semi-outdoor spaces within building forms that explain their microclimatic behaviour, thermal comfort levels, and clustering. Sixty-three semi-outdoor spaces in four high/mid-rise building forms of Singapore were stud-ied using microclimatic data collected from field measurements and analysed via inferential statistical methods (e.g., exploratory factor analysis, multivariate regression analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis). Findings demonstrate: (1) that spatial attributes (i.e. height, depth, void, solid, total frontage, open frontage, area, volume, perimeter, sky view factor, green plot ratio) are manifestations of three underlying factors: volume porosity (VP), perimeter openness (PO) and exposure to sky (ES); (2) that VP and PO are sig-nificantly associated with air velocity and predicted thermal comfort; and (3) that vertical breezeways appear to be the most thermally comfortable cluster due to high VP and low PO. This study sheds new light on the spatial nature of semi-outdoor spaces, which designers can consider in order to enhance wind movement for promoting thermally comfortable semi-outdoor environments in highly-dense Singapore.(c) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • Autores: Ramos Ruiz, Germán (Autor de correspondencia); Olloqui del Olmo, A.
    Revista: BUILDINGS
    ISSN: 2075-5309 Vol.12 N° 10 2022 págs. 1755
    Resumen
    Buildings are one of the key factors in working towards a low-carbon economy to help mitigate climate change. For this reason, many of the current regulations aim to reduce their consumption and increase their efficiency, as is the case in the European Union with the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). Terms such as nearly zero-energy buildings (nZEB) or zero-emission buildings (ZEB) are increasingly used. However, these terms and regulations focus on energy and emissions, ignoring user comfort. This research shows the performance of these buildings in the face of climate change, as their strengths are not limited to energy consumption or emissions, but also to improving user comfort. By examining the compliance of a real semi-detached house with the different Spanish energy regulations (NBE-CTE 79, CTE-DB HE 2013 and CTE-DB HE 2019), its performance in terms of energy and comfort in different future scenarios defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is evaluated. The results show that the building with nZEB criteria (CTE-DB-HE 2019) reduces its energy consumption by an average of 84.36% compared to the other two energy standards. In terms of comfort, measured according to the Fanger criteria (steady state model), the hours throughout the year in the "neutral" thermal sensation category are similar; however, the hours in the "slightly cool" category are reduced by 57%, improving by up to eight times the "slightly warm" category. The nZEB building proves to be more resilient to climate change by mitigating and homogenizing its response to climatic variations.
  • Autores: Monge Barrio, Aurora; Bes Rastrollo, Maira; Dorregaray Oyaregui, Sara; et al.
    Revista: ENERGY AND BUILDINGS
    ISSN: 0378-7788 Vol.254 2022 págs. 111567
    Resumen
    The COVID pandemic has strongly affected daily life both in Spanish schools and worldwide. Providing the best environmental conditions for children allowing face-to-face learning with healthy and safe indoor spaces is a challenge. In the present study, empirical research about how these environmental conditions change with COVID is presented comparing the situation from March 2020 to January 2021. The methodology combines surveys conducted in nine schools with a case study in a selected school where a detailed monitoring of the building was developed during both heating seasons. This data analyzes the impact of the new COVID prevention protocols on indoor environmental conditions (especially those related to natural ventilation). Results show a mean CO2 reduction of 1,400 ppm, having in the second term values around 1,000 ppm, although temperatures diminished nearly 2 degrees C to mean values of 18 degrees C. Evolution of temperature and CO2 concentration throughout the day was also analyzed, being these indoor conditions especially important for the children with poorer health. Mechanical ventilation with heating recovery should complement natural ventilation, at least during the coldest months or hours of the day, although systems have to be carefully designed and installed to work effectively. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Autores: Gutiérrez González, V.; Ramos Ruiz, Germán (Autor de correspondencia); Fernández Bandera, Carlos
    Revista: ENERGY AND BUILDINGS
    ISSN: 0378-7788 Vol.254 2022 págs. 111565
    Resumen
    The calibration of building energy models is crucial for their use in some applications that depend on their accuracy for adequate performance, such as demand response and model predictive control (MPC). In general, energy models offer many possibilities/strategies when characterizing a construction system, and such a characterization is key when analyzing both its thermal behavior and its energy impact. This research analyzes the different ways to characterize the thermal interaction of the building energy model (BEM) with the ground, comparing conventional approaches with new approaches based on both optimization of the former and dynamic ground characterizations. Using a model adjusted to a real case study, each of the existing options are analyzed, in which a different control of the ground temperature both in terms of its temporal oscillation and its location in the building (based on thermal zones) is taken into account. Exhaustive monitoring of a real building and measuring the ground and ground floor surface temperatures have made establishing which EnergyPlus components/objects best characterize the ground-slab interaction possible, both in terms of the simplicity of modeling and the cost (economic and technical) required for each of them. As will be seen, there are objects with an excellent cost/effectiveness ratio when characterizing the ground. (c) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • Autores: Juaristi Gutiérrez, Miren (Autor de correspondencia); Favolino, F.; Gómez-Acebo Temes, Tomás; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF BUILDING PHYSICS
    ISSN: 1744-2591 Vol.45 N° 5 2022 págs. 675 - 720
    Resumen
    Adaptive facades are a promising choice to achieve comfortable low-energy buildings. Their effective performance is highly dependent on the local boundary conditions of each application and on the way the dynamic properties are controlled. The evaluation of whole building performance through building performance simulation can be useful to understand the potential of different Adaptive opaque facades (AOF) in a specific context. This paper evaluates through dynamic simulations promising design solutions of AOF for a residential building use in six different climates. It quantifies the total delivered thermal energy of 15 typologies of AOFs which consist of alternative adaptation strategies: (i) variation of solar absorptance of the cladding, (ii) variation of the convective heat transfer of air cavities and (iii) adaptive insulation strategies. For the first time, it also quantifies the performance of AOF which combine more than one adaptation strategy. The results show that the variation of the heat transfer by means of Adaptive Insulation components has the most significant impact on the reduction of the thermal energy use. The variation of the solar absorptance has also a significant positive impact when reducing heating consumption, but only if this adaptation strategy is actively controlled and combined with Adaptive Insulation components.
  • Autores: Gutiérrez González, V.; Ramos Ruiz, Germán; Du, H.; et al.
    Revista: APPLIED SCIENCES
    ISSN: 2076-3417 Vol.12 N° 15 2022 págs. 7361
    Resumen
    In the fight against climate change, energy modeling is a key tool used to analyze the performance of proposed energy conservation measures for buildings. Studies on the integration of photovoltaic energy in buildings must use calibrated building energy models, as only with them is the demand curve real, and the savings obtained at the self-consumption level, energy storage in the building, or feed into the grid are accurate. The adjustment process of a calibrated model depends on aspects inherent to the building properties (envelope parameters, internal loads, use schedules) as well as external to them (weather, ground properties, etc.). Naturally, the uncertainty of each is essential to obtaining good results. As for the meteorological data, it is preferable to use data from a weather station located in the building or its surroundings, although this is not always possible due to the cost of the initial investment and its maintenance. As a result, weather stations with public access to their data, such as those located at airports or specific locations in cities, are largely used to perform calibrations of building energy models, making it challenging to converge the simulated model with measured data. This research sheds light on how this obstacle can be overcome by using weather data provided by a third-party company, bridging the gap between reality and energy models. For this purpose, calibrations of the two buildings proposed in Annex 58 were performed with different weather configurations, using the mean absolute error (MAE) uncertainty index and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho) as comparative measures. An optimal and cost-effective solution was found as an alternative to an on-site weather station, based on the use of a single outdoor temperature sensor in combination with third-party weather data, achieving a robust and reliable building energy model.
  • Autores: Gamero Salinas, Juan Carlos (Autor de correspondencia); Kishnani, N.; Monge Barrio, Aurora; et al.
    Revista: ENERGY AND BUILDINGS
    ISSN: 0378-7788 Vol.230 2021 págs. 110544
    Resumen
    This study delved on the role of semi-outdoor spaces (SOS), as form-based strategies, in providing enhanced, thermally comfortable environments in highly dense urban contexts. A sample of sixtythree (63) SOS was studied, within four different mid-rise and high-rise buildings located in the warm-humid tropical city of Singapore. It was found: (i) that SOS may act as thermal buffer spaces; (ii) that microclimate creation in SOS is linked to form, specifically to geometrical variables such as void-to-solid ratio, height, height-to-depth ratio, height from ground level, green plot ratio and open space ratio, which influence significantly the environmental factors of air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air velocity and relative humidity; (iii) that some aforementioned geometrical variables (height-to-depth ratio and open space ratio) are linked to thermal comfort when estimated with SET* and PMV* thermal indices; (iv) and that thermal comfort (between-1 and +1 PMV*) can be achieved in SOS considering a typical Singaporean outdoor CLO of 0.3, especially for 1 MET (85.7% of SOS). In the context of Singapore, this study demonstrates that incorporating SOS to mid-rise and high-rise building forms promotes the creation of thermally comfortable microclimates suitable for human activity, even during the hottest hours. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Autores: Echarri Iribarren, V. (Autor de correspondencia); Hien Wong, N.; Sánchez-Ostiz Gutiérrez, Ana
    Revista: SUSTAINABILITY
    ISSN: 2071-1050 Vol.13 N° 2 2021 págs. 588
    Resumen
    The present study focuses on the application of large-format thermal ceramic conditioning panels (TCPs) containing polypropylene (PPR) capillary tube mats in dwellings on the Mediterranean coast. The thermal and energy behaviours were examined once the underfloor heating was installed, and they were compared with an alternative wall application. The system was implemented in a single-family house located on the Spanish Mediterranean coast. After having monitored the house during a complete one-year cycle, the annual energy demand was quantified using the Design Builder tool. TCP panels applied to radiant floors reduced energy demand by 5.15% compared to the wall-layout alternative. Significant reductions in CO2 emissions were also achieved, as well as a 25.19% reduction in energy demand compared to convection systems. The incorporation of 24 m(2) of solar thermal panels into the system, combined with solar cooling systems based on lithium chloride, was also analysed. A reduction in energy demand of 57.46% was obtained compared to all-air convection systems. Finally, the amortisation periods of the investments in TCP panels and solar panels were calculated and compared to a convection system. Underfloor TCP panels proved to be more cost-effective than a wall installation. The additional cost of EUR 21,844 could be amortised over approximately 14 years with the radiant underfloor TCP system, while the wall TCP would be amortised over 17.4 years.
  • Autores: Bastos Porsani, G.; Del Valle de Lersundi, K.; Sánchez-Ostiz Gutiérrez, Ana; et al.
    Revista: APPLIED SCIENCES
    ISSN: 2076-3417 Vol.11 N° 5 2021 págs. 2167
    Resumen
    Building information modelling (BIM) is the first step towards the implementation of the industrial revolution 4.0, in which virtual reality and digital twins are key elements. At present, buildings are responsible for 40% of the energy consumption in Europe and, so, there is a growing interest in reducing their energy use. In this context, proper interoperability between BIM and building energy model (BEM) is paramount for integrating the digital world into the construction sector and, therefore, increasing competitiveness by saving costs. This paper evaluates whether there is an automated or semi-automated BIM to BEM workflow that could improve the building design process. For this purpose, a residential building and a warehouse are constructed using the same BIM authoring tool (Revit), where two open schemas were used: green building extensible markup language (gbXML) and industry foundation classes (IFC). These transfer files were imported into software compatible with the EnergyPlus engine-Design Builder, Open Studio, and CYPETHERM HE-in which simulations were performed. Our results showed that the energy models were built up to 7.50% smaller than in the BIM and with missing elements in their thermal envelope. Nevertheless, the materials were properly transferred to gbXML and IFC formats. Moreover, the simulation results revealed a huge difference in values between the models generated by the open schemas, in the range of 6 to 900 times. Overall, we conclude that there exists a semi-automated workflow from BIM to BEM which does not work well for big and complex buildings, as they present major problems when creating the energy model. Furthermore, most of the issues encountered in BEM were errors in the transfer of BIM data to gbXML and IFC files. Therefore, we emphasise the need to improve compatibility between BIM and model exchange formats by their developers, in order to promote BIM-BEM interoperability.
  • Autores: Rose, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Thomsen, K. E.; Domingo-Irigoyen, S.; et al.
    Revista: SUSTAINABLE CITIES AND SOCIETY
    ISSN: 2210-6707 Vol.72 2021 págs. 103037
    Resumen
    Renovation at district scale is a key strategy to reduce CO2 emissions by optimising the implementation of renewable energy sources and taking advantage of economy of scale. This paper focuses on analysing good practice examples on energy renovations at district scale. The paper adapts a qualitative research methodology in four phases, including the multi-perspective analysis of nine exemplary renovation projects in six European countries, including identification of drivers and barriers of different stakeholders. It is found that the drivers for a district renovation are not restricted to energy savings, but typically also include improving the overall quality of life as well as the image and economic value of a district. Moreover, the need for financial models that can alleviate split-incentive problems between investors and resident organizations is identified. Barriers for carrying out a district renovation include that there is a need to comply with energy standards, that the renovation scope had to be limited to avoid a noticeable rent increase and that resettling of tenants during the renovation is often not possible. Lessons learned include that good communication amongst the different stakeholders, especially with residents, plays a key role for the success of the project. Furthermore, a strong leadership is needed to coordinate activities due to the great number of stakeholders.
  • Autores: Pachano, J. E.; Fernández Bandera, Carlos (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: ENERGY AND BUILDINGS
    ISSN: 0378-7788 Vol.252 2021 págs. 111380
    Resumen
    Building energy models are a key element in regulatory compliance calculations. These energy performance calculations often do not accurately reflect actual operating conditions. Therefore, evaluation of energy performance comparing actual energy use of a building with the outcome of dynamic simulation models can be misleading, this difference is also known as the energy performance gap. The reduction of the gap is an important task aimed to provide confidence in the use of models for evaluation of energy efficiency. This paper is focused on reducing the technical issues (e.g. poorly adjusted thermal parameters in the envelope, inefficient boiler operator or lack of adjustment in parameters of heat pumps, baseboard radiators or air handling units) which are one of the main causes of the energy performance gap. The application of a multi-step, optimization-based, calibration methodology performed in a white-box simulation environment (EnergyPlus) using three months of ten minute time-step data to adjust HVAC parameter values with a genetic algorithm software (Jeplus) is validated on a real test site. Resulting in a BEM that fits the building's hourly performance benchmark into international standards on three key levels: indoor temperature by Thermal Zone (TZ), heat production and electric consumption from heat pumps, which comprise all the components of a building energy model. A batch of 1500 h of heating operation, obtained from the building management system, has been used to calibrate the model. The results complied with the requirements of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Guideline 14-2002 at hourly interval, with NMBE 6 +/- 10%,Cv (RMSE) 630% and R2 >75% and with the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (EVO) for Cv(RMSE) 620% and R2 >75% in the three aforementioned levels, which can be considered a step forward in the area of calibrating white box models. In addition, to prove the strength and robustness of the results, the model has been checked in a long testing and independent period of 2.500 h of heating operations with the same level of compliance. The demonstrator is the library of a school located in Denmark. The HVAC system is composed of four air-water heat pumps that deliver heating to the whole compound with the backup support of a gas boiler. The library is heated with baseboard radiators system with the support of an air handling unit used for ventilation purposes. (c) 2021 Universidad de Navarra. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • Autores: Arriazu-Ramos, A. (Autor de correspondencia); Monge Barrio, Aurora; San Miguel Bellod, Jorge; et al.
    Revista: SUSTAINABLE CITIES AND SOCIETY
    ISSN: 2210-6707 Vol.75 2021 págs. 103246
    Resumen
    Renovation at district scale is a key strategy to reduce CO2 emissions and energy consumptions by optimising the implementation of renewable energy sources and taking advantage of economies of scale. In this context, this paper focuses on assessing the positive impacts and difficulties after the energy rehabilitation of thermal envelopes in two buildings that belong to two different District Heating systems. The methodology is based on the comparative analysis of indoor temperatures data and energy consumption data of 17 monitored dwellings. The results showed a significant association between the improvement of envelopes and the increase of indoor temperatures in winter (ß=0,644). Due to some technical and social barriers, the heating system was not regulated after the rehabilitation, so energy consumption was unnecessarily high, there were situations of indoor overheating in winter (maximum average indoor temperatures between 24-26°C) and these issues produced dissatisfaction on neighbours. In order to avoid these negative consequences, some recommendations are provided, such as informing neighbours about expectations in each step of the long rehabilitation process, reconsidering payments to promote the envelope rehabilitation but maintaining a fixed cost to protect vulnerable groups, and promoting post-occupational studies that contribute to the viability and up-date of this kind of District Heating systems.
  • Autores: Gutiérrez González, V.; Ramos Ruiz, Germán; Fernández Bandera, Carlos (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: ENERGIES
    ISSN: 1996-1073 Vol.14 N° 4 2021 págs. 1187
    Resumen
    The need to reduce energy consumption in buildings is an urgent task. Increasing the use of calibrated building energy models (BEM) could accelerate this need. The calibration process of these models is a highly under-determined problem that normally yields multiple solutions. Among the uncertainties of calibration, the weather file has a primary position. The objective of this paper is to provide a methodology for selecting the optimal weather file when an on-site weather station with local sensors is available and what is the alternative option when it is not and a mathematically evaluation has to be done with sensors from nearby stations (third-party providers). We provide a quality assessment of models based on the Coefficient of Variation of the Root Mean Square Error (CV(RMSE)) and the Square Pearson Correlation Coefficient (R-2). The research was developed on a control experiment conducted by Annex 58 and a previous calibration study. This is based on the results obtained with the study case based on the data provided by their N2 house.
  • Autores: Osacar, A.; Echeverria Trueba, Juan Bautista; Meacham, B.
    Revista: BUILDINGS
    ISSN: 2075-5309 Vol.11 N° 2 2021 págs. 51
    Resumen
    There is a trend in Europe towards increasing the quality and performance of regulations. At the same time, regulatory failure has been observed in the area of building fire safety regulation in England and elsewhere. As a result, an analysis of the appropriateness of fire safety regulations in Spain is warranted, with the objective being to assess whether a suitable level of fire safety is currently being delivered. Three basic elements must be considered in such analysis: the legal and regulatory framework, the level of fire risk/safety of buildings that is expected and the level which actually results, and a suitable method of analysis. The focus of this paper is creating a legal and regulatory framework, in particular with respect to fire safety in buildings. Components of an ¿ideal¿ building regulatory framework to adequately control fire risk are presented, the existing building regulatory framework is summarized, and an analysis of the gaps between the ideal and the existing systems is presented. It is concluded that the gaps between the ideal and the existing framework are significant, and that the current fire safety regulations are not appropriate for assuring delivery of the intended level of fire risk mitigation.
  • Autores: Gamero Salinas, Juan Carlos (Autor de correspondencia); Monge Barrio, Aurora; Kishnani, N.; et al.
    Revista: ENERGY AND BUILDINGS
    ISSN: 0378-7788 Vol.252 2021
    Resumen
    Year-round high temperatures and humidity in the Tropics, coupled with poor design decisions and climate change, can cause indoor environments to overheat, affecting health and increasing energy demand and carbon emissions. Passive cooling could help lower the indoor overheating risk. Given the gap in the relative influence of passive cooling design strategies on lowering the indoor overheating risk in tropical locations, this study investigated their impact in two warm tropical cities (i.e., Tegucigalpa and San Pedro Sula), considering both current and future climate scenarios, with a total of 3840 thermal simulations performed. Indoor overheating risk in apartment-type dwellings was assessed using two metrics (i.e., hours of exceedance and the indoor overheating degree), and considering fixed and adaptive thermal comfort limits. Simulation results show that the overheating risk can be significantly lowered in these tropical contexts using solely passive cooling strategies as heat adaptation measures. Multivariate regression models demonstrate that natural ventilation, wall absorptance, the solar heat gain coefficient, and semi outdoor spaces have the greatest impact in lowering the risk in vertical social housing projects. This study emphasizes the importance of passive cooling and overheating protection design strategies in tropical building codes and building design while considering current and future risk. (c) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • Autores: Gamero Salinas, Juan Carlos (Autor de correspondencia); Kishnani, Nirmal; Monge Barrio, Aurora; et al.
    Revista: BUILDING AND ENVIRONMENT
    ISSN: 0360-1323 Vol.205 2021 págs. 108255
    Resumen
    In highly dense tropical cities, a semi-outdoor space (SOS) is frequently used as a social space within tall building forms where people can interact and connect. Thermal comfort in SOSs within tall buildings, however, may vary depending on the type and form attributes that define it. This study classifies 63 SOSs in four tall buildings of Singapore into five types based on literature review: perimeter buffers, sky terraces, horizontal breezeways, breezeway atria and vertical breezeways. Findings suggest that the five SOS types perform differently in terms of thermal comfort (based on PMV*), environmental parameters (air temperature, mean radiant temperature, relative humidity, and air velocity), and building form attributes (height-to-depth ratio, open space ratio, and green plot ratio). Of these five, vertical breezeways and horizontal breezeways are the most thermally comfortable for all activities during a typically warm hour. It is postulated that higher thermal comfort levels in these SOS types are linked to form attributes that enhance air velocity. This study examines the pros and cons of each SOS type in terms of thermal comfort in their role as communal spaces in tall buildings situated within a highly dense tropical city.
  • Autores: Lucas Segarra, Eva; Ramos Ruiz, Germán (Autor de correspondencia); Fernández Bandera, Carlos
    Revista: SENSORS
    ISSN: 1424-8220 Vol.21 N° 9 2021 págs. 3299
    Resumen
    Accurate load forecasting in buildings plays an important role for grid operators, demand response aggregators, building energy managers, owners, customers, etc. Probabilistic load forecasting (PLF) becomes essential to understand and manage the building¿s energy-saving potential. This research explains a methodology to optimize the results of a PLF using a daily characterization of the load forecast. The load forecast provided by a calibrated white-box model and a real weather forecast was classified and hierarchically selected to perform a kernel density estimation (KDE) using only similar days from the database characterized quantitatively and qualitatively. A real case study is presented to show the methodology using an office building located in Pamplona, Spain. The building monitoring, both inside¿thermal sensors¿and outside¿weather station¿is key when implementing this PLF optimization technique. The results showed that thanks to this daily characterization, it is possible to optimize the accuracy of the probabilistic load forecasting, reaching values close to 100% in some cases. In addition, the methodology explained is scalable and can be used in the initial stages of its implementation, improving the values obtained daily as the database increases with the information of each new day.
  • Autores: Luna-Navarro, A. (Autor de correspondencia); Loonen, R. ; Juaristi Gutiérrez, Miren; et al.
    Revista: BUILDING AND ENVIRONMENT
    ISSN: 0360-1323 Vol.177 2020 págs. 106880
    Resumen
    The interest in occupant interaction with building controls and automation systems is growing due to the wider availability of embedded sensing devices and automated or intelligent building components that can integrate building control strategies with occupant-centred data and lead to greater occupant satisfaction and reduction in energy consumption. An area of particular interest is the interaction strategies between occupants and the so called automated facades, such as dynamic shading devices and switchable glazing. Occupant-Facade interactions are often disruptive and source of dissatisfaction because of conflicts between competing requirements, e.g. energy-efficiency and indoor environmental quality. To solve these conflicts, expertise from several disciplines is required, including Behavioural Science and Building Physics, but the absence of common research frameworks impedes knowledge transfer between different fields of expertise. This paper reviews existing multi-disciplinary research on occupant interaction with facades, buildings and automation systems and provides a new classification scheme of Occupant-Facade interaction. The scheme is based on an extensive review of interactive scenarios between occupants and facades that are summarised in this paper. The classification scheme was found to be successful in: 1) capturing the multidisciplinary nature of interactive scenarios by clarifying relationships between components; 2) identifying similarities and characteristics among interactive scenarios; 3) understanding research gaps. The classification scheme proposed in this paper has the potential to be a useful tool for the multi-disciplinary research community in this field. The review also showed that more research is needed to characterise the holistic and multi-disciplinary effect of occupant interaction with intelligent building components.
  • Autores: Aparicio González, María Elena (Autor de correspondencia); Domingo Irigoyen, Silvia; Sánchez-Ostiz Gutiérrez, Ana
    Revista: SUSTAINABLE CITIES AND SOCIETY
    ISSN: 2210-6707 Vol.57 2020 págs. 102109
    Resumen
    In order to achieve the emission reduction target for 2030, European Commission requires member countries that from the end of the decade onwards, only nearly zero-energy buildings (NZEB) are built. The renovation of the building stock is essential to achieve this goal. Working in consolidated urban contexts is very complex, so in this paper a solution to facilitate the process is proposed. This paper has developed a methodology for designing a roof extension and renovating an existing residential building as a measure of housing creation in already consolidated neighborhoods, and achieve a nZEB and ZEB renovated buildings. Based on typological classification of residential buildings, a single solution applicable to a multiple number of cases is provided to maximize the potential of the proposed solution. This solution was implemented in Chantrea neighborhood in Pamplona, Spain. The results show that it is possible to carry out the renovation of a residential building with a rooftop extension that complies with requirements for models nZEB and ZEB, and to apply this solution on 27 % of the neighborhood stock residential buildings. This would provide a reduction of total primary energy consumption of 62 % (nZEB) and 74 % (ZEB).
  • Autores: Gamero Salinas, Juan Carlos (Autor de correspondencia); Monge Barrio, Aurora; Sánchez-Ostiz Gutiérrez, Ana
    Revista: BUILDING AND ENVIRONMENT
    ISSN: 0360-1323 Vol.171 2020 págs. 106664
    Resumen
    Cities with hot tropical climate suffer generally from warm conditions during all year long, which could result on buildings 'overheating' or high energy consumption by cooling. This paper is the first of its kind in Central America, region that lacks studies regarding thermal performance of buildings. This study develops an overheating risk assessment to twelve dwellings of Tegucigalpa, Honduras, with a warm tropical climate, based on 41-day field study measurements of indoor air temperatures during its hottest season of the year. The aim of the study was to find if overheating risk differed depending on the building typology, single-family (SD) or apartment-type (AT), and based on the latter, to what extent roof exposure to solar gains and material properties, such as u-values and thermal mass, are parameters that influence the risk of overheating. The adopted methodology followed CIBSE TM52 Overheating Risk Methodology, and EN15251 and ASHRAE 55 adaptive thermal comfort approaches. Overheating risk was found to vary depending on the residential building typology. Dwellings with high roof exposure and high u-values in roof were found to be 'overheating' more. Following CIBSE TM52 methodology, some AT and SD dwellings experienced hours of exceedance above 3% of occupied hours, reaching up to 12.5% (61 h) and 20.3% (133 h) of occupied hours, respectively. Passive strategies such as improving roof properties (e.g. low u-values), shading and night ventilation may be necessary to reduce the risk of overheating in Tegucigalpa and similar tropical contexts where air conditioning is less affordable.
  • Autores: Gonzalez, V. G. (Autor de correspondencia); Ramos Ruiz, Germán; Fernández Bandera, Carlos
    Revista: SENSORS
    ISSN: 1424-8220 Vol.20 N° 17 2020
    Resumen
    The digital world is spreading to all sectors of the economy, and Industry 4.0, with the digital twin, is a reality in the building sector. Energy reduction and decarbonization in buildings are urgently required. Models are the base for prediction and preparedness for uncertainty. Building energy models have been a growing field for a long time. This paper proposes a novel calibration methodology for a building energy model based on two pillars: simplicity, because there is an important reduction in the number of parameters (four) to be adjusted, and cost-effectiveness, because the methodology minimizes the number of sensors provided to perform the process by 47.5%. The new methodology was validated empirically and comparatively based on a previous work carried out in Annex 58 of the International Energy Agency (IEA). The use of a tested and structured experiment adds value to the results obtained.
  • Autores: Fernández-Vigil Iglesias, María; Gil Rodríguez, Beatriz; Echeverria Trueba, Juan Bautista
    Revista: FIRE TECHNOLOGY
    ISSN: 0015-2684 Vol.56 2020 págs. 2257 - 2281
  • Autores: Lucas Segarra, Eva; Ramos Ruiz, Germán; Gutiérrez González, V; et al.
    Revista: SUSTAINABILITY
    ISSN: 2071-1050 Vol.12 N° 17 2020 págs. 6788
    Resumen
    The use of building energy models (BEMs) is becoming increasingly widespread for assessing the suitability of energy strategies in building environments. The accuracy of the results depends not only on the fit of the energy model used, but also on the required external files, and the weather file is one of the most important. One of the sources for obtaining meteorological data for a certain period of time is through an on-site weather station; however, this is not always available due to the high costs and maintenance. This paper shows a methodology to analyze the impact on the simulation results when using an on-site weather station and the weather data calculated by a third-party provider with the purpose of studying if the data provided by the third-party can be used instead of the measured weather data. The methodology consists of three comparison analyses: weather data, energy demand, and indoor temperature. It is applied to four actual test sites located in three different locations. The energy study is analyzed at six different temporal resolutions in order to quantify how the variation in the energy demand increases as the time resolution decreases. The results showed differences up to 38% between annual and hourly time resolutions. Thanks to a sensitivity analysis, the influence of each weather parameter on the energy demand is studied, and which sensors are worth installing in an on-site weather station are determined. In these test sites, the wind speed and outdoo
  • Autores: Juaristi Gutiérrez, Miren (Autor de correspondencia); Loonen, R. ; Isaia, F. ; et al.
    Revista: SUSTAINABLE CITIES AND SOCIETY
    ISSN: 2210-6707 Vol.60 2020 págs. 102232
    Resumen
    Mainstream design approaches for low-energy buildings make use of highly-insulated building envelopes. However, if facades are always blocking energy exchange, the climatic resources surrounding the built environment might remain untapped or issues like overheating could arise. By reducing energy demand or improving indoor comfort, adaptive opaque facades are considered a promising sustainable alternative. The usual approach for designing adaptive facades relies on detailed simulations of specific facade components. Such technology-oriented approaches tend to be incompatible with the early-stage design process and do rarely make a conscious analysis of the potential climatic resources, which could result in sub-optimal facade adaptation strategies. This paper presents a new methodological approach called Dynamic Climate Analysis (DCA) and shows that it is possible to narrow down the preferable adaptive opaque facade responses at early design stages by extracting relevant transient information from weather files. Users only define the location, geometry and placement of the facade. It was concluded that DCA represents a broadly useful early-stage design decision support because of its ability to estimate the proportion of preferred adaptive thermal behaviours without proposing defined technological solutions. Therefore, DCA is an effective approach to test the potential application of upcoming responsive technologies in specific built contexts.
  • Autores: Juaristi Gutiérrez, Miren (Autor de correspondencia); Konstantinou, T. ; Gómez-Acebo Temes, Tomás; et al.
    Revista: SUSTAINABILITY
    ISSN: 2071-1050 Vol.12 N° 23 2020 págs. 10118
    Resumen
    Adaptive Opaque Facades (AOF) is an innovative concept with potential to achieve low carbon energy buildings. However, so far AOF are not integrated in the construction industry. One remarkable issue that designers have when dealing with alternative low-carbon technologies, such as AOF, is the absence of previous built experiences and the lack of specialised technical knowledge. Design roadmaps can be convenient solutions to guide pioneer low carbon technology applications. This work presents a roadmap to assist the performance-based early-stage design process of Adaptive Opaque Facades. Previous research developed new approaches and tools to assist on the construction definition of AOF, so that their adaptive thermal performance was considered when specific design decisions needed to be made. The roadmap presented in this paper organises the implementation sequence of each methodological approach and tools in dierent design stages, which aims to provide a holistic design approach for AOF. The usability of the roadmap was validated in a workshop called ¿Performance-based Design and Assessment of Adaptive Facades¿ with master students representing the target group of this roadmap. Even though these students had never heard about AOF before, they could successfully design, define the early-stage characteristics of an AOF and quantify the thermal performance of their AOF designs. The roadmap was proven to be a useful support, which might make the implementation of AOF more appr
  • Autores: Echeverria Trueba, Juan Bautista (Autor de correspondencia); Rubio, Nieves ; Rodríguez, Itziar; et al.
    Revista: INFORMES DE LA CONSTRUCCION
    ISSN: 0020-0883 Vol.72 N° 559 2020 págs. e351
  • Autores: Campos Gordillo, Germán; Ramos Ruiz, Germán; Stauffer, Y.; et al.
    Revista: SUSTAINABILITY
    ISSN: 2071-1050 Vol.12 N° 2 2020 págs. 672
    Resumen
    There is a growing concern about how to mitigate climate change, in which the production and use of energy has a great impact as one of the largest sources of global greenhouse gases (GHG). Buildings are responsible for a large percentage of these emissions. Therefore, there has been an increase in research in this area, in order to reduce their consumption and increase their efficiency. One of the major simulation programs used in optimization research is EnergyPlus. The purpose of this software is the complete energy simulation of a building, although it lacks tools to analyze its results and, above all, to manage and edit its simulations. For this reason, we developed an application programming interface (API) that serves to merge two areas which are highly demanded by researchers: energy building simulation (using EnergyPlus) and tools for the management and design of research experiments (in this case, MATLAB®). The developed API allows the user to perform complex simulations using EnergyPlus in a simple way, as it allows the editing of each simulation and the analysis of the simulation results through MATLAB®. In addition, it enables the user to simultaneously run multiple simulations, using either all computer core processors or a selection of them (i.e., allowing parallel computing), reducing the simulation time. The API was developed in the C# language, such that it can be used with any software that can import .NET libraries.
  • Autores: Fernández Bandera, Carlos; Pachano, José; Salom, Jaume; et al.
    Revista: SUSTAINABILITY
    ISSN: 2071-1050 Vol.12 N° 2 2020 págs. 553
    Resumen
    The self-consumption without surplus to the grid is one of the aspects of the new Spanish law for prosumers. Increasing the share of renewable energy sources into the grid inherently leads to several constraints. The mismatch between the energy demand and the renewable energy production, which is intermittent in nature, is one of those challenges. Storage offers the possibility to decouple demand and supply, and therefore, it adds flexibility to the electric system. This research evaluates expanding electricity self-consumption without surplus to the grid by harnessing thermal mass storage in the residential sector. The methodology is investigated by using a variable refrigerant flow air conditioner system. Because there is no option to export the excess capacity to the grid, this research proposes an approach to profiting from this surplus energy by activating structural thermal mass, which is quantified from the information acquired using a building energy model. For this purpose, an EnergyPlus model of a flat in Pamplona (Spain) was used. The optimization analysis was based on a set-point modulation control strategy. Results show that under adequate climatological circumstances, the proposed methodology can reduce the total electric energy from the grid between by 60¿80%.
  • Autores: Torres Ramo, Joaquín; González Martínez, Purificación (Autor de correspondencia); Arriazu-Ramos, N.; et al.
    Revista: SUSTAINABILITY
    ISSN: 2071-1050 Vol.12 N° 24 2020 págs. 10480
    Resumen
    The air-tightness of the thermal envelope of buildings is one of the measures to reduce their energy demands in order to achieve global warming reduction targets. To this end, airtight sheets with different water vapour permeability characteristics are used. The different products studied are highly dispersed in terms of equivalent air thickness values, leading to confusion. After the analysis carried out, it is concluded that all airtight sheets are vapour barriers. To clarify whether or not these sheets are necessary as vapour barriers, a condensation analysis was carried out on 13 different facades for 3 climate zones with severe winters as defined in Spanish regulations. The results reveal that interstitial condensation occurs in only 7 of the 39 case studies, with the traditional facades of brickwork with render causing the greatest problems if the appropriate products are not used. In these cases, airtight sheets with water vapour barrier characteristics must be applied on the interior face of the insulating material. In all other cases (32), the airtight sheets must be permeable to water vapour if it is looked for a more breathable wall to water vapour and a better control of the interior humidity conditions.
  • Autores: González Presencio, Mariano; Echeverria Trueba, Juan Bautista
    Revista: CUADERNO DE NOTAS
    ISSN: 1138-1590 Vol.21 N° 21 2020 págs. 99 - 111
  • Autores: Lucas Segarra, E.; Ramos Ruiz, Germán (Autor de correspondencia); Fernández Bandera, Carlos
    Revista: SENSORS
    ISSN: 1424-8220 Vol.20 N° 22 2020 págs. 6525
    Resumen
    In the current energy context of intelligent buildings and smart grids, the use of load forecasting to predict future building energy performance is becoming increasingly relevant. The prediction accuracy is directly influenced by input uncertainties such as the weather forecast, and its impact must be considered. Traditional load forecasting provides a single expected value for the predicted load and cannot properly incorporate the effect of these uncertainties. This research presents a methodology that calculates the probabilistic load forecast while accounting for the inherent uncertainty in forecast weather data. In the recent years, the probabilistic load forecasting approach has increased in importance in the literature but it is mostly focused on black-box models which do not allow performance evaluation of specific components of envelope, HVAC systems, etc. This research fills this gap using a white-box model, a building energy model (BEM) developed in EnergyPlus, to provide the probabilistic load forecast. Through a Gaussian kernel density estimation (KDE), the procedure converts the point load forecast provided by the BEM into a probabilistic load forecast based on historical data, which is provided by the building¿s indoor and outdoor monitoring system. An hourly map of the uncertainty of the load forecast due to the weather forecast is generated with different prediction intervals. The map provides an overview of different prediction intervals for each hour, along
  • Autores: Lucas Segarra, Eva; Du, Hu; Ramos Ruiz, Germán; et al.
    Revista: ENERGIES
    ISSN: 1996-1073 Vol.12(7) N° 1309 2019 págs. 1 - 16
    Resumen
    The use of Building Energy Models (BEM) has become widespread to reduce building energy consumption. Projection of the model in the future to know how different consumption strategies can be evaluated is one of the main applications of BEM. Many energy management optimization strategies can be used and, among others, model predictive control (MPC) has become very popular nowadays. When using models for predicting the future, we have to assume certain errors that come from uncertainty parameters. One of these uncertainties is the weather forecast needed to predict the building behavior in the near future. This paper proposes a methodology for quantifying the impact of the error generated by the weather forecast in the building¿s indoor climate conditions and energy demand. The objective is to estimate the error introduced by the weather forecast in the load forecasting to have more precise predicted data. The methodology employed site-specific, near-future forecast weather data obtained through online open access Application Programming Interfaces (APIs). The weather forecast providers supply forecasts up to 10 days ahead of key weather parameters such as outdoor temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction. This approach uses calibrated EnergyPlus models to foresee the errors in the indoor thermal behavior and energy demand caused by the increasing day-ahead weather forecasts. A case study investigated the impact of using up to 7-day weather forecasts on...
  • Autores: Ramos Ruiz, Germán; Lucas Segarra, Eva; Fernández Bandera, Carlos
    Revista: ENERGIES
    ISSN: 1996-1073 Vol.12(1) N° 34 2019 págs. 1 - 18
    Resumen
    There is growing concern about how to mitigate climate change in which the reduction of CO2 emissions plays an important role. Buildings have gained attention in recent years since they are responsible for around 30% of greenhouse gases. In this context, advance control strategies to optimize HVAC systems are necessary because they can provide significant energy savings whilst maintaining indoor thermal comfort. Simulation-based model predictive control (MPC) procedures allow an increase in building energy performance through the smart control of HVAC systems. The paper presents a methodology that overcomes one of the critical issues in using detailed building energy models in MPC optimizations¿computational time. Through a case study, the methodology explains how to resolve this issue. Three main novel approaches are developed: a reduction in the search space for the genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) thanks to the use of the curve of free oscillation; a reduction in convergence time based on a process of two linked stages; and, finally, a methodology to measure, in a combined way, the temporal convergence of the algorithm and the precision of the obtained solution.
  • Autores: Gutiérrez-González, V. (Autor de correspondencia); Álvarez-Colmenares, L.; López Fidalgo, Jesús Fernando; et al.
    Revista: ENERGIES
    ISSN: 1996-1073 Vol.12 N° 11 2019 págs. 2096
    Resumen
    Building Energy Models (BEMs) are a key element of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD), and they are at the basis of Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs). The main goal of BEMs is to provide information for building stakeholders; they can be a powerful market tool to increase demand for energy efficiency solutions in buildings without affecting the comfort of users, as well as providing other benefits. The next generation of BEMs should value buildings in a holistic and cost-effective manner across several complementary dimensions: envelope performances, system performances, and controlling the ability of buildings to offer flexible services to the grid by optimizing energy consumption, distributed generation, and storage. SABINA is a European project that aims to look for flexibility to the grid, targeting the most economic source possible: existing thermal inertia in buildings. In doing so, SABINA works with a new generation of BEMs that tend to mimic the thermal behavior of real buildings and therefore requires an accurate methodology to choose the model that complies with the requirements of the system. This paper details our novel extensive research on which statistical indices should be chosen in order to identify the best model offered by the calibration process developed by Fernandez et al. in a previous paper and therefore is a continuation of that work.
  • Autores: Fernández-Vigil Iglesias, María (Autor de correspondencia); Echeverria Trueba, Juan Bautista
    Revista: FIRE TECHNOLOGY
    ISSN: 0015-2684 Vol.55 N° 6 2019 págs. 2215 - 2244
    Resumen
    At the present time, there is no nation-wide, systematic approach to collecting, analyzing and presenting fire loss data in Spain. This makes it very difficult to understand the fire problem in general, and more specifically with respect to vulnerable populations, such as the elderly. As first steps to overcome the lack of a nationally populated and managed fire incident database, a methodology for collecting fire data, based on information extracted from the media, was developed. This approach is modeled in part on the Fire Incident Data Organization system from the National Fire Protection Association in the United States, which identifies significant fires through a clipping service, the Internet and other sources. For the initial Spanish database, selected variables were chosen from similar statistics gathered in other countries. The variables are related to the place and moment of the fire, its causes and consequences, the building typology and state, and the fatal and non-fatal victims involved, among other factors. In the initial data set, data concerning residential fires occurred between January 2016 and December 2016 was collected, and variables were analyzed. An initial focus was to identify the risk factors for one of the most vulnerable groups in case of fire, the elderly people. The development of this first-ever nationally-representative database of fire incidents in Spain is overviewed, and analysis of elderly population in dwelling fires is presented as a stu
  • Autores: Juaristi Gutiérrez, Miren (Autor de correspondencia); Gómez-Acebo Temes, Tomás; Monge Barrio, Aurora
    Revista: BUILDING AND ENVIRONMENT
    ISSN: 0360-1323 Vol.144 2018 págs. 482 - 501
    Resumen
    Over the last decades, new concepts of building envelopes have been proposed to achieve environmental targets. Adaptability of transparent components and facade integration of renewable energy harvesters are being widely studied. However, opaque facade components are less developed, even if their performance can be further optimized. When searching responsive technologies to propose new opaque facades, we learned they were usually created for other fields, which hampers their direct application in new envelopes. The successful implementation of these technologies in fa ade industry depends on the fulfilment of diverse requirements, such as durability, security or flexibility in design among others, but this information was not easy to get when they were not developed for the built environment. There is a lack of empirical studies evaluating these characteristics for adaptive technologies, which are mandatory to define the technical specifications of a fa ade. However, literature review provides a great amount of qualitative information and this study uses it for its analysis in order to gain insights into the degree of accomplishments of aforementioned requirements. Analysed technologies were kinetic elements, shifting thermal behaviour elements, dynamic components and systems. Overall, they still need to face several technical challenges for their suitable fa ade application. The novel visual analysis proposed in this paper is an useful tool for researchers undertaking this task, as it allows a fast and holistic comparison of the potentials and weaknesses of the dynamic technologies. It was concluded that a suitable combination among them could help to achieve the broad functionalities of the facades.
  • Autores: Glaria Yetano, José Francisco; Arnedo, I.; Sánchez-Ostiz Gutiérrez, Ana
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH
    ISSN: 1660-4601 Vol.15 N° 2 2018 págs. E387
    Resumen
    Since the origin of the Modern Movement, there has been a basic commitment to improving housing conditions and the well-being of occupants, especially given the prediction that 2/3 of humanity will reside in cities by 2050. Moreover, a compact model of the city with tall buildings and urban densification at this scale will be generated. Continuous constructive and technological advances have developed solid foundations on safety, energy efficiency, habitability, and sustainability in housing design. However, studies on improving the quality of life in these areas continue to be a challenge for architects and engineers. This paper seeks to contribute health-related information to the study of residential design, specifically the influence of the geomagnetic field on its occupants. After compiling information on the effects of geomagnetic fields from different medical studies over 23 years, a case study of a 16-story high-rise building is presented, with the goal of proposing architectural design recommendations for long-term occupation in the same place. The purpose of the present work is three-fold: first, to characterize the geomagnetic field variability of buildings; second, to identify the causes and possible related mechanisms; and third, to define architectural criteria on the arrangement of uses and constructive elements for housing.
  • Autores: Juaristi Gutiérrez, Miren; Monge Barrio, Aurora; Sánchez-Ostiz Gutiérrez, Ana; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF FACADE DESIGN AND ENGINEERING
    ISSN: 2213-302X Vol.6 N° 2 2018 págs. 109 - 119
  • Autores: Juaristi Gutiérrez, Miren; Monge Barrio, Aurora; Knaack, Ulrich; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF FACADE DESIGN AND ENGINEERING (ONLINE)
    ISSN: 2213-3038 Vol.6 N° 3 2018 págs. 19 - 33
    Resumen
    Today¿s society needs to face challenging targets relating to environment and energy efficiency, and therefore the development of efficient façade systems is essential. Innovative concepts such as Adaptive Building Façades might play a role in the near future, as their dynamic behaviour could optimise the performance of a building. For their successful development, a balance between sophistication and benefit is necessary and the implementation of Smart and Multifunctional Materials in building envelopes could be the key, as they have the ability to repeatedly and reversibly change some of their functions, features, or behaviours over time in response to environmental conditions. However, these materials were predominantly developed for use in other fields, and there is a lack of specific technical information to evaluate their usefulness in façade engineering. The aim of this paper is to collect the critical information about promising responsive materials for use in the design of Adaptive Façades, in order to help designers and technicians in decision-making processes and to scope possible future applications in façades. Investigated materials were analysed from the Building Science standpoint; their weaknesses and threats in the built environment were highlighted, and their technical feasibility was examined through the study of their availability in the current market.
  • Autores: San Miguel Bellod, Jorge (Autor de correspondencia); González Martínez, Purificación; Sánchez-Ostiz Gutiérrez, Ana
    Revista: ENERGY AND BUILDINGS
    ISSN: 0378-7788 Vol.173 2018 págs. 428 - 442
    Resumen
    The provision of proper indoor thermal conditions in winter is a requirement for health and comfort that is seriously compromised in Southern European countries by poverty and inadequate housing. According to Eurostat (EU-SILC, 2016), 10.1% of the population in Spain state they are "unable to keep their home adequately warm" in winter, unveiling one of the critical consequences of energy poverty. Although relevant field monitoring assessment have been conducted in other European countries, very little research has been carried out in the context of Spain. In this study we collected winter indoor temperature data, socio-economic, building and heating system characteristics from 112 multi-family dwellings in social housing built in the 40-80s in the North of Spain. The main building determinants of temperature variation were examined and assessed according to the socioeconomic situation through a mediation analysis. The principal findings showed that households living within district heating networks maintained temperatures above 18 degrees C on a continuous basis, whereas 54% of households living outside these heating networks presented temperatures below this threshold during night periods in bedrooms, while 25% had temperatures below 18 degrees C during both day-time and night-time occupied periods. Within this 25% of cold homes, 16.4% corresponded to households under the poverty threshold. As the mediation analyses showed, poorer households in the sample were associated with lower temperatures and higher temperature contrast throughout their dwellings for the following reasons: a lower incidence of vulnerable cases within district heating networks, heating restriction behaviours, higher dependency on room-heaters, lack of central heating and more thermally inefficient dwellings. The evidence presented in this paper offers a new framework for comparing the assumptions derived from other contexts to the situation in Spain about the effects of space heating and housing deprivation on thermal conditions, provides a basis for reviewing some possible intervention, and aims to raise social and political awareness further about this issue. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Autores: Fernández Bandera, Carlos (Autor de correspondencia); Muñoz Mardones, Ana Fei; Du, H.; et al.
    Revista: ENERGIES
    ISSN: 1996-1073 Vol.11 N° 11 2018 págs. 3139
    Resumen
    This study presents a novel optimization methodology for choosing optimal building retrofitting strategies based on the concept of exergy analysis. The study demonstrates that the building exergy analysis may open new opportunities in the design of an optimal retrofit solution despite being a theoretical approach based on the high performance of a Carnot reverse cycle. This exergy-based solution is different from the one selected through traditional efficient retrofits where minimizing energy consumption is the primary selection criteria. The new solution connects the building with the reference environment, which acts as an unlimited sink or unlimited sources of energy, and it adapts the building to maximize the intake of energy resources from the reference environment. The building hosting the School of Architecture at the University of Navarra has been chosen as the case study building. The unique architectural appearance and bespoke architectural characteristics of the building limit the choices of retrofitting solutions. // therefore, retrofitting solutions on the facade, roof, roof skylight and windows are considered in multi-objective optimization using the jEPlus package. It is remarkable that different retrofitting solutions have been obtained for energy-driven and exergy-driven optimization, respectively. Considering the local contexts and all possible reference environments for the building, three unlimited sinks or unlimited sources of energy are selected for the case study building to explore exergy-driven optimization: the external air, the ground in the surrounding area and the nearby river. The evidence shows that no matter which reference environment is chosen, an identical envelope retrofitting solution has been obtained.
  • Autores: Shady Attia; Luna-Navarro, Alessandra; Juaristi Gutiérrez, Miren; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF FACADE DESIGN AND ENGINEERING (ONLINE)
    ISSN: 2213-3038 Vol.6 N° 3 2018 págs. 1 - 9
    Resumen
    Post-occupancy evaluation is a valuable method of generating information on the performance of adaptive building façades in relation to users. This evaluation technique involves both procedural methods, such as soft-landing, and empirical measuring, such as environmental monitoring or self-reporting techniques including surveys. Several studies have been carried out in recent decades to identify the most appropriate methods for occupant comfort, well-being, productivity, satisfaction, and health assessments in workplaces. Post-occupancy evaluation of adaptive façades can, however, be a challenging task and information on this topic is still scarce and fragmented. The main contribution of this paper is to bring together and classify the post-occupancy evaluation methods for adaptive façades and suggest a framework for their holistic evaluation. Specific recommendations for improving current standards and guidelines are outlined here to enhance occupant satisfaction and environmental conditions in workplaces for future design projects. Finally, we discuss various ongoing trends and research requirements in this field.
  • Autores: Echeverria Trueba, Juan Bautista; Fernández-Vigil Iglesias, María
    Libro: Advancing STEM Education and Innovation in a Time of Distance Learning
    ISSN: 9781668450536 2023 págs. 189 - 210
    Resumen
    Fire safety teaching in schools of architecture has become more relevant over the last years in Spain due to the influence that it has in the professional architectural project. The introduction of fire safety knowledge in the intermediate courses of architectural studies has important advantages for the student, who quickly perceives the project as a normative discipline. However, fire safety regulations are complex and difficult to understand for the students. The experience along the last years has progressively evolved from an analysis of the legal documents to a more frequent use of graphical representations. A combination of symbols, diagrams, and simple drawings has proven to be quite effective: Symbols actas anchor repeated throughout the learning process. Diagrams are a first approach to the characteristics of the building. And the simple drawings complete the information so the students can work on the proposed exercise.
  • Autores: Fernández-Vigil Iglesias, María; Corrales, Carmen; Garín, Raquel; et al.
    Libro: Urban Sustainability and Energy Management of Cities For Improved Health and Well-Being
    ISSN: 9781668440308 2022 págs. 135 - 158
  • Autores: Monge Barrio, Aurora; San Miguel Bellod, Jorge; Arriazu Ramos, Ainhoa; et al.
    Libro: Handbook of Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation
    ISSN: 978-1-4614-6431-0 2021 págs. 1 - 63
    Resumen
    In Spain and other Mediterranean countries, some museums lack cooling and ventilation systems. They usually are located in historical buildings with heritage protection requirements. This is particularly complex in a building with a use that has to attend to comfort conditions for visitors and workers, and to very specific and demanding indoor thermal and relative humidity fluctuations for the conservation of its artwork collection. So, current requirements for museums and the hardening of summer conditions and the heatwaves events related to Climate Change require facing refurbishment measures usually related with the building envelope and the implementation of HVAC systems that require energy. This chapter presents a case study of a museum in the north of Spain, that has monitored data of 10 years (temperature and relative humidity), more detailed monitored data of 2019 summer with two very early heatwaves, and the analysis of different passive measures to implement attending to the characteristics of the building (with high thermal mass, without solar shading, and without ventilation and AC systems) in order to achieve suitable environmental conditions in a museum and with the lowest energy consumption, and ¿ready¿ for the hardening of summer conditions due to global warming.
  • Autores: Echeverria Trueba, Juan Bautista; Gabilondo, Iosu; Meana, Teresa; et al.
    Libro: Advancements in sustainable architecture and energy e
    ISSN: 9781799870234 2021 págs. 96 - 117
  • Autores: Brown, M.; Sánchez-Ostiz Gutiérrez, Ana; Gekic, H.; et al.
    Libro: Scale jumping: Regenerative systems thinking within the built environment. A guidebook for regenerative implementation: interactions, tools, platforms, metrics, practice
    ISSN: 978-3-9504607-9-7 2021 págs. 43 - 46
  • Autores: Šulc, I.; Sánchez-Ostiz Gutiérrez, Ana; Gekic, H.; et al.
    Libro: Scale jumping: Regenerative systems thinking within the built environment. A guidebook for regenerative implementation: interactions, tools, platforms, metrics, practice
    ISSN: 978-3-9504607-9-7 2021 págs. 51 - 55
  • Autores: Sánchez-Ostiz Gutiérrez, Ana; Nenadich, N.; San Miguel Bellod, Jorge; et al.
    Libro: REHABEND 2020 8th Euro-American Congress: Construction Pathology, Rehabilitation Technology and Heritage Management
    ISSN: 978-84-09-17873-5 2020 págs. 430 - 439
  • Autores: Gamero Salinas, Juan Carlos; Kishnani, N.; Monge Barrio, Aurora; et al.
    Libro: Planning Post Carbon Cities: Proceedings of the 35th PLEA Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture
    ISSN: 978-84-9749-794-7 Vol.1 2020 págs. 61 - 66
    Resumen
    Two recently completed high-rise residential developments, located side-by-side in a neighbourhood in Singapore, are compared in a post-occupancy study. Both have near identical demographics, are exposed to the same microclimate, and constructed with a similar palette of materials. The primary difference is form. One has a high degree of porosity with inner voids that act as conduits for natural air flow and offer a sheltered space for social engagement. The other is more compact, less porous and has social spaces attached to the building¿s exterior. The study included surveys of residents, behavioural observations and environmental measurements. On three counts ¿ self-reported energy use, thermal comfort and social interaction ¿ the former appears to be more successful than the latter. Findings suggest that building form affects multiple outcomes at once. A form strategy that lowers energy use, for instance, can also improve social engagement. The implication of this socioenvironmental approach to form-making is discussed in the context of high-density tropical typologies.
  • Autores: Gamero Salinas, Juan Carlos; Monge Barrio, Aurora; Sánchez-Ostiz Gutiérrez, Ana
    Libro: REHABEND 2020 8th Euro-American Congress: Construction Pathology, Rehabilitation Technology and Heritage Management
    ISSN: 978-84-09-17873-5 2020 págs. 1849 - 1856
  • Autores: Aparicio, X.; Erkoreka, A.; del Portillo, L. A.; et al.
    Libro: Planning Post Carbon Cities: Proceedings of the 35th PLEA Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture
    ISSN: 978-84-9749-794-7 Vol.1 2020 págs. 205 - 210
  • Autores: Aparicio González, María Elena; Domingo Irigoyen, Silvia; Sánchez-Ostiz Gutiérrez, Ana
    Libro: Construction, pathology, rehabilitation, technology and heritage, rehabend 2018.
    ISSN: 978-84-697-7033-7 2018 págs. 1858 - 1868
  • Autores: Fernández-Vigil Iglesias, María; Echeverria Trueba, Juan Bautista; Gil Rodríguez, Beatriz
    Libro: Abitazioni Sicure e Inclusive per Anziani
    ISSN: 978-88-32050-02-8 2018 págs. 337 - 346
  • Autores: Alessandra Luna Navarro; Roiel Loonen; Shady Attia; et al.
    Libro: Conference: Adaptive Facades Network Final Conference
    ISSN: 9789463667027 2018 págs. 371-377
    Resumen
    Adaptive or Intelligent façades are those that can interact with users and dynamically vary their performance or properties (controlling thermal or solar energy, air flow and/or daylight) in response to changing external conditions and indoor demands. Consequently, adaptive façades could help to ensure occupant comfort, health, well-being and satisfaction, while allowing resource-efficient building operation. However, effective adaptive façade solutions that provide an optimal balance between user comfort, satisfaction and energy efficiency cannot be achieved without knowledge of the multidisciplinary complexity of the user-façade interaction. The main objective of this paper is to preliminary review and analyse the existing literature on user interaction with intelligent buildings, especially with façades, and to propose a conceptual framework to capture the multi-disciplinary and multi-domain complexity of user interaction with adaptive façades. The interaction between adaptive façades and occupants is then modelled as a closed loop of information and action exchange. This paper concludes indicating which are the future research needs to be addressed in order to define what is a satisfactory interaction strategy between occupants and façades.

Proyectos desde 2018

  • Título: Diseño y caracterización de elementos constructivos prefabricados de hormigón con áridos reciclados
    Código de expediente: 0011-4387-2023-000003
    Investigador principal: GERMAN RAMOS RUIZ.
    Financiador: GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA
    Convocatoria: 2023 GN Subvención del Fondo de Residuos
    Fecha de inicio: 01-01-2024
    Fecha fin: 31-12-2025
    Importe concedido: 91.822,50€
    Otros fondos: -
  • Título: Smart Green Campus como LivingLAB, GREENLAB
    Código de expediente: 0011-1411-2023-000099
    Investigador principal: CARLOS JAVIER NAYA VILLAVERDE, CARLOS JAVIER NAYA VILLAVERDE.
    Financiador: GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA
    Convocatoria: 2023 GN PROYECTOS ESTRATEGICOS DE I+D 2023-2026
    Fecha de inicio: 16-08-2023
    Fecha fin: 31-12-2025
    Importe concedido: 49.712,00€
    Otros fondos: Fondos FEDER
  • Título: GEMELO DIGITAL DE NUEVA GENERACIÓN DE EDIFICIOS INTELIGENTES (DigiTwin)
    Código de expediente: CPP2021-008909
    Investigador principal: CARLOS FERNANDEZ BANDERA, JUAN BAUTISTA ECHEVERRIA TRUEBA.
    Financiador: AGENCIA ESTATAL DE INVESTIGACION
    Convocatoria: 2021 AEI Proyectos en Colaboración Público Privada
    Fecha de inicio: 01-09-2022
    Fecha fin: 31-08-2025
    Importe concedido: 248.967,75€
    Otros fondos: Fondos MRR
  • Título: Ayuda Movilidad Senior 2021
    Código de expediente: PRX21-00730
    Investigador principal: ANA SANCHEZ-OSTIZ GUTIERREZ.
    Financiador: MINISTERIO DE EDUCACION , CULTURA Y DEPORTE
    Convocatoria: 2021 MECD Movilidad SENIOR
    Fecha de inicio: 01-07-2022
    Fecha fin: 31-12-2022
    Importe concedido: 14.135,00€
    Otros fondos: -
  • Título: Gemelos Digitales para la climatización de edificios (BuildTwin)
    Código de expediente: 0011-1383-2022-000015 PC032-033 BuildTwin
    Investigador principal: JESUS FERNANDO LOPEZ FIDALGO.
    Financiador: GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA
    Convocatoria: 2022 GN Proyectos Colaborativos
    Fecha de inicio: 01-04-2022
    Fecha fin: 30-11-2024
    Importe concedido: 370.917,55€
    Otros fondos: -
  • Título: Preparados para el clima. Evaluación de la adaptación de las viviendas españolas a condiciones más cálidas y olas de calor.
    Código de expediente: PID2019-109008RB-C21
    Investigador principal: AURORA MONGE BARRIO, ANA SANCHEZ-OSTIZ GUTIERREZ.
    Financiador: MINISTERIO DE CIENCIA, INNOVACIÓN Y UNIVERSIDADES
    Convocatoria: 2019 AEI PROYECTOS I+D+i (incluye Generación del conocimiento y Retos investigación)
    Fecha de inicio: 01-06-2020
    Fecha fin: 31-12-2023
    Importe concedido: 108.900,00€
    Otros fondos: Fondos FEDER
  • Título: De un modelo BIM a un modelo BEM (B&B)
    Código de expediente: 0011-1365-2020-000227
    Investigador principal: CARLOS FERNANDEZ BANDERA.
    Financiador: GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA
    Convocatoria: 2020 GN I+D Transferencia del conocimiento (empresas)
    Fecha de inicio: 01-04-2020
    Fecha fin: 30-03-2022
    Importe concedido: 198.240,00€
    Otros fondos: Fondos FEDER
  • Título: Metodología para el diagnóstico de las condiciones ambientales interiores de edificios escolares para la eficiencia energética.
    Código de expediente: GN EDUCACION
    Investigador principal: AURORA MONGE BARRIO.
    Financiador: GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA / DPTO. EDUCACIÓN CULTURA Y TURISMO
    Convocatoria: 2019 GNE Centros educativos
    Fecha de inicio: 02-09-2019
    Fecha fin: 30-06-2021
    Importe concedido: 9.919,00€
    Otros fondos: -
  • Título: Solución de papel para sustituir materiales plásticos en láminas anti-infiltraciones de aire para edificios de consumo casi nulo o passivhaus.
    Código de expediente: 0011-1365-2019-000042
    Investigador principal: JOAQUIN TORRES RAMO.
    Financiador: GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA
    Convocatoria: 2019 GN I+D
    Fecha de inicio: 01-01-2019
    Fecha fin: 31-12-2020
    Importe concedido: 141.883,36€
    Otros fondos: Fondos FEDER
  • Título: EVRISK Electric Vehicles Fire Risk Assessment in Indoor Car Parks
    Código de expediente: 101064984
    Investigador principal: ZAHIR MOHD TOHIR CESAR MARTIN GOMEZ
    Financiador: COMISIÓN EUROPEA
    Convocatoria: HORIZON-MSCA-2021-PF-01
    Fecha de inicio: 01-05-2023
    Fecha fin: 30-04-2025
    Importe concedido: 181.152,96€
    Otros fondos: -
  • Título: Exploit4InnoMat An Open Innovation Ecosystem for exploitation of materials for building envelopes towards zero energy buildings
    Código de expediente: 101092339
    Investigador principal: CARLOS FERNANDEZ BANDERA
    Financiador: COMISIÓN EUROPEA
    Convocatoria: HORIZON-CL4-2022-RESILIENCE-01-20
    Fecha de inicio: 01-01-2023
    Fecha fin: 31-12-2026
    Importe concedido: 441.875,00€
    Otros fondos: -
  • Título: SABINA SmArt BI-directional multi eNergy gAteway
    Código de expediente:
    Investigador principal: CARLOS FERNANDEZ BANDERA
    Financiador: COMISIÓN EUROPEA
    Convocatoria: H2020-LCE-01-2016
    Fecha de inicio: 01-11-2016
    Fecha fin: 31-10-2020
    Importe concedido: 496.560,00€
    Otros fondos: -