Grupos Investigadores

Miembros del Grupo

Colaboradores
Sara
Arcelus Echevarri
María Teresa
Azcona Leiza
Roberto Carlos
Barbero Lopez
Leticia
Colyn Pedrero
Karol Marcela
Córdoba Quiñones
María
Elizalde Arbilla
María
Gárate Rascón
José María
Herranz Alzueta
Daniel
Jericó Asenjo
Miriam
Recalde Dominguez de Vidarrueta

Líneas de Investigación

  • Estudio de los mecanismos de la progresión de la enfermedad hepática crónica desde la pérdida de función hasta la transformación tumoral, papel del factor SLU7. Caracterización de alteraciones metabólicas y desarrollo de nuevas estrategias para restaurar
  • Estudio de la respuesta hepática al daño agudo y regeneración: identificación de mecanismos y estrategias terapéuticas hepatoprotectoras y pro-regenerativas.
  • Estudio de la fisiopatología de la porfiria aguda intermitente. Desarrollo de nuevas estrategias terapéuticas para restituir la actividad PBGD hepática.
  • Caracterización de nuevas dianas y mecanismos en el desarrollo de tumores hepáticos primarios: implicación de modificadores epigenéticos.

Palabras Clave

  • Regulación genética y epigenética
  • Porfiria
  • Metabolismo
  • Hepatocarcinogénesis
  • Factores de crecimiento

Publicaciones Científicas desde 2018

  • Autores: Braghini, M. R.; Lo Re, O.; Romito, I.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH
    ISSN 1756-9966 Vol.41 N° 1 2022 págs. 107
    Resumen
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent primary liver cancer, being the sixth most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death. As other heterogeneous solid tumours, HCC results from a unique synergistic combination of genetic alterations mixed with epigenetic modifications. In HCC the patterns and frequencies of somatic variations change depending on the nearby chromatin. On the other hand, epigenetic alterations often induce genomic instability prone to mutations. Epigenetics refers to heritable states of gene expression without alteration to the DNA sequence itself and, unlike genetic changes, the epigenetic modifications are reversible and affect gene expression more extensively than genetic changes. Thus, studies of epigenetic regulation and the involved molecular machinery are greatly contributing to the understanding of the mechanisms that underline HCC onset and heterogeneity. Moreover, this knowledge may help to identify biomarkers for HCC diagnosis and prognosis, as well as future new targets for more efficacious therapeutic approaches. In this comprehensive review we will discuss the state-of-the-art knowledge about the epigenetic landscape in hepatocarcinogenesis, including evidence on the diagnostic and prognostic role of non-coding RNAs, modifications occurring at the chromatin level, and their role in the era of precision medicine. Apart from other better-known risk factors that predispose to the development of HCC, characterization of the epigenetic remodelling that occurs during hepatocarcinogenesis could open the way to the identification of personalized biomarkers. It may also enable a more accurate diagnosis and stratification of patients, and the discovery of new targets for more efficient therapeutic approaches.
  • Autores: Karlsen, T. H. (Autor de correspondencia); Sheron, N.; Zelber-Sagi, S.; et al.
    Revista: LANCET
    ISSN 0140-6736 Vol.399 N° 10319 2022 págs. 61 - 116
  • Autores: Reig, M. (Autor de correspondencia); Forner, A.; Rimola, J.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.76 N° 3 2022 págs. 681 - 693
    Resumen
    There have been major advances in the armamentarium for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) since the last official update of the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer prognosis and treatment strategy published in 2018. Whilst there have been advances in all areas, we will focus on those that have led to a change in strategy and we will discuss why, despite being encouraging, data for select interventions are still too immature for them to be incorporated into an evidence-based model for clinicians and researchers. Finally, we describe the critical insight and expert knowledge that are required to make clinical decisions for individual patients, considering all of the parameters that must be considered to deliver personalised clinical management.
  • Autores: Vogel, A.; Cervantes, A.; Chau, I.; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY
    ISSN 0923-7534 Vol.33 N° 6 2022 págs. 666
  • Autores: Clavería Cabello, Alex; Ávila Zaragoza, Matías Antonio (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: CMGH
    ISSN 2352-345X Vol.13 N° 2 2022 págs. 678 - 680
  • Autores: Garcia Garcia, Jorge; de Miguel Vázquez, Carlos; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: ANTIOXIDANTS
    ISSN 2076-3921 Vol.11 N° 1 2022 págs. 30
    Resumen
    Obesity is a global health issue associated with the development of metabolic syndrome, which correlates with insulin resistance, altered lipid homeostasis, and other pathologies. One of the mechanisms involved in the development of these pathologies is the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). One of the main producers of ROS is the family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases, among which NOX5 is the most recently discovered member. The aim of the present work is to describe the effect of endothelial NOX5 expression on neighboring adipose tissue in obesity conditions by using two systems. An in vivo model based on NOX5 conditional knock-in mice fed with a high-fat diet and an in vitro model developed with 3T3-L1 adipocytes cultured with conditioned media of endothelial NOX5-expressing bEnd.3 cells, previously treated with glucose and palmitic acid. Endothelial NOX5 expression promoted the expression and activation of specific markers of thermogenesis and lipolysis in the mesenteric and epididymal fat of those mice fed with a high-fat diet. Additionally, the activation of these processes was derived from an increase in IL-6 production as a result of NOX5 activity. Accordingly, 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with conditioned media of endothelial NOX5-expressing cells, presented higher expression of thermogenic and lipolytic genes. Moreover, endothelial NOX5-expressing bEnd.3 cells previously treated with glucose and palmitic acid also showed interleukin (IL-6) production. Finally, it seems that the increase in IL-6 stimulated the activation of markers of thermogenesis and lipolysis through phosphorylation of STAT3 and AMPK, respectively. In conclusion, in response to obesogenic conditions, endothelial NOX5 activity could promote thermogenesis and lipolysis in the adipose tissue by regulating IL-6 production.
  • Autores: Schott, M.; Kappelmann-Fenzl, M.; Fischer, S.; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR MEDICINE
    ISSN 1107-3756 Vol.49 N° 5 2022 págs. 66
    Resumen
    The tumor suppressive role of CYLD lysine 63 deubiquitinase (CYLD) is known in melanoma. To the best of our knowledge, however, the precise mechanism underlying the tumor suppressive function of CYLD has yet to be clarified. In the present study, a novel melanoma mouse model was generated, which revealed accelerated tumor growth in Cyld-knockout (Cyld(-/-)) compared with Cyld-wild-type (Cyld(+/+)) mice. To determine the underlying molecular mechanism, mutation analysis of primary tumor-derived cell lines from Cyld(+/+) and Cyld(-/-) mice was performed using RNA sequencing data. Variant calling revealed no common mutations in Cyld(-/-) compared with Cyld(+/+) cells. Thus, the epigenetic processes influencing development and progression of melanoma were investigated. Initial analysis of expression pattern of known hypermethylated genes in melanoma (suppressor of cytokine signalling, methylthioadenosine phosphorylase, cadherin 1) in the presence or absence of 5 '-Aza-deoxyctidine treatment revealed that CYLD does not play a key role in DNA methylation. Chromatin accessibility and histone H3 modification assay uncovered a role of CYLD in the formation of chromatin structure. Subsequent inhibitor experiments confirmed the effect of CYLD on H3K9me2 level associated with heterochromatin. Furthermore, enhanced H3K9 dimethylation in Cyld(-/-) melanoma cells was associated with upregulation of euchromatic histone lysine methyltransferase 2 (EHMT2). Moreover, the specific inhibitor of EHMT2, CM272, resulted in decreased proliferation and relaxation of compact chromatin in Cyld-deficient melanoma cells. These results reveal a novel role of CYLD in histone methylation and chromatin packaging.
  • Autores: Ye, H.; Chen, C.; Wu, H.; et al.
    Revista: CELL DEATH AND DISEASE
    ISSN 2041-4889 Vol.13 N° 2 2022 págs. 143
    Resumen
    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress which triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) in hepatocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying ER stress remain poorly understood, thus reducing the options for exploring new pharmacological therapies for patients with hyperacute liver injury. Eight-to-twelve-week-old C57BL/6J Xbp1-floxed (Xbp1(f/f)) and hepatocyte-specific knockout Xbp1 mice (Xbp1( increment hepa)) were challenged with either high dose APAP [500 mg/kg] and sacrificed at early (1-2 h) and late (24 h) stages of hepatotoxicity. Histopathological examination of livers, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, Western blot, real time (RT)-qPCR studies and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were performed. Pharmacological inhibition of XBP1 using pre-treatment with STF-083010 [STF, 75 mg/kg] and autophagy induction with Rapamycin [RAPA, 8 mg/kg] or blockade with Chloroquine [CQ, 60 mg/kg] was also undertaken in vivo. Cytoplasmic expression of XBP1 coincided with severity of human and murine hyperacute liver injury. Transcriptional and translational activation of the UPR and sustained activation of JNK1/2 were major events in APAP hepatotoxicity, both in a human hepatocytic cell line and in a preclinical model. Xbp1( increment hepa) livers showed decreased UPR and JNK1/2 activation but enhanced autophagy in response to high dose APAP. Additionally, blockade of XBP1 splicing by STF, mitigated APAP-induced liver injury and without non-specific off-target effects (e.g., CYP2E1 activity). Furthermore, enhanced autophagy might be responsible for modulating CYP2E1 activity in Xbp1( increment hepa) animals. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of Xbp1 specifically in hepatocytes ameliorated APAP-induced liver injury by enhancing autophagy and decreasing CYP2E1 expression. These findings provide the basis for the therapeutic restoration of ER stress and/or induction of autophagy in patients with hyperacute liver injury.
  • Autores: Spoto, S. (Autor de correspondencia); Markley, J. D.; Valeriani, E.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY
    ISSN 1664-302X Vol.13 2022 págs. 797932
    Resumen
    ObjectiveThe prevalence of colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) has increased over the last decade, reaching levels as high as 23% in certain patient populations. Active surveillance cultures (ASC) represent a valuable tool to identify patients colonized with MDRO to apply preventive measures, reduce transmission, and guide empiric antimicrobial therapy. There is a paucity of data evaluating the impact of admission ASCs to predict future infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concordance between ASCs results and the development of clinical infection by the same microorganism identified in the surveillance swab (swab-related infection), in hospitalized septic patients, and to evaluate the presence of specific risk factors associated with the development of a swab-related infection. MethodsAll adults admitted to the Diagnostic and Therapeutic Medicine Department of the University Hospital Campus Bio-Medico of Rome with a diagnosis of infection or any other medical reason with admission surveillance swabs (rectal or nasal) between January 2018 and February 2021 were included in the study. A retrospective chart review was conducted to identify patients that developed infections with concordant MDROs identified on ASC, and the risk factors for swab-related infection. Secondary outcomes were need of intensive care unit transfer, length of stay, sepsis or septic shock development, and all-cause mortality. ResultsA total of 528 patients were included in the study, of which 97 (18.3%) had a positive surveillance swab. Among patients with positive surveillance swabs, 18 (18.5%) developed an infection with the same microorganism recovered from the swab, 57 (58.8%) developed an infection with a different microorganism than that recovered from the surveillance swab, and 22 (22.7%) did not develop an infection during hospitalization. The number of colonized sites, an interventional procedure within the previous 3 months, a Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) score >= 2, and a quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (q-SOFA) score >= 2 were associated with a significantly higher risk of developing a swab-related infection. SIRS and q-SOFA scores >= 2 and procalcitonin >= 0.43 ng/ml help for identifying patients with a swab-related infection. ConclusionPatients with positive surveillance swabs were at increased risk for development of infections by the same MDRO identified in surveillance swabs (swab-related infection). This study is the first to show that the positivity of surveillance swabs, in combination with anamnestic data, PCT values, and SIRS or q-SOFA scores, serves as a valuable tool to help clinicians predict patients at higher risk for swab-related infection development and guide the administration of appropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy in septic patients.
  • Autores: Rodríguez-Perálvarez, M. (Autor de correspondencia); Colmenero, J.; González, A.; et al.
    Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION
    ISSN 1600-6135 Vol.22 N° 6 2022 págs. 1671 - 1682
    Resumen
    Cancer is the leading cause of death after liver transplantation (LT). This multicenter case-control nested study aimed to evaluate the effect of maintenance immunosuppression on post-LT malignancy. The eligible cohort included 2495 LT patients who received tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. After 13 922 person/years follow-up, 425 patients (19.7%) developed malignancy (cases) and were matched with 425 controls by propensity score based on age, gender, smoking habit, etiology of liver disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) before LT. The independent predictors of post-LT malignancy were older age (HR = 1.06 [95% CI 1.05-1.07]; p < .001), male sex (HR = 1.50 [95% CI 1.14-1.99]), smoking habit (HR = 1.96 [95% CI 1.42-2.66]), and alcoholic liver disease (HR = 1.53 [95% CI 1.19-1.97]). In selected cases and controls (n = 850), the immunosuppression protocol was similar (p = .51). An increased cumulative exposure to tacrolimus (CET), calculated by the area under curve of trough concentrations, was the only immunosuppression-related predictor of post-LT malignancy after controlling for clinical features and baseline HCC (CET at 3 months p = .001 and CET at 12 months p = .004). This effect was consistent for de novo malignancy (after excluding HCC recurrence) and for internal neoplasms (after excluding non-melanoma skin cancer). Therefore, tacrolimus minimization, as monitored by CET, is the key to modulate immunosuppression in order to prevent cancer after LT.
  • Autores: Serrano Alonso, María; Martín Moreno, Paloma Leticia; Rabago Juan Aracil, Gregorio; et al.
    Revista: MEDICINA CLINICA
    ISSN 0025-7753 Vol.158 N° 11 2022 págs. 543 - 546
    Resumen
    Background and objective: We compared the efficacy and safety of standard vs. extended primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis in solid organ transplantation. Materials and methods: Retrospective cohort study of CMV seronegative recipients who received CMV prophylaxis after solid organ transplantation from seropositive donor (D+/R-) (2007-2017). CMV infection in the first two years after transplantation in recipients with prophylaxis longer or shorter than 100 days were compared. Results: CMV infection occurred in 29 of 66 patients (43.9%) with prophylaxis. Forty-five patients (68.2%) received extended prophylaxis. CMV infection and disease rates were not different between patients with extended and standard prophylaxis. However, extended prophylaxis was associated with a higher rate of myelotoxicity (68.9% vs. 42.9%, p<0.05). Conclusions: Extending primary CMV prophylaxis over 100 days did not prevent late-onset infection but it was associated with hematological toxicity.
  • Autores: Ocal, O.; Schinner, R.; Schutte, K.; et al.
    Revista: CANCER IMAGING
    ISSN 1740-5025 Vol.22 N° 1 2022 págs. 1
    Resumen
    Background The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between follow-up imaging characteristics and overall survival (OS) in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients under sorafenib treatment. Methods Associations between OS and objective response (OR) by mRECIST or early tumor shrinkage (ETS; >= 20% reduction in enhancing tumor diameter at the first follow-up imaging) were analyzed in HCC patients treated with sorafenib within a multicenter phase II trial (SORAMIC). 115 patients were included in this substudy. The relationship between survival and OR or ETS were explored. Landmark analyses were performed according to OR at fixed time points. Cox proportional hazards models with OR and ETS as a time-dependent covariate were used to compare survival with factors known to influence OS. Results The OR rate was 29.5%. Responders had significantly better OS than non-responders (median 30.3 vs. 11.4 months; HR, 0.38 [95% CI, 0.22-0.63], p < 0.001), and longer progression-free survival (PFS; median 10.1 vs. 4.3 months, p = 0.015). Patients with ETS >= 20% had longer OS (median 22.1 vs. 11.4 months, p = 0.002) and PFS (median 8.0 vs. 4.3 months, p = 0.034) than patients with ETS < 20%. Besides OR and ETS, male gender, lower bilirubin and ALBI grade were associated with improved OS in univariate analysis. Separate models of multivariable analysis confirmed OR and ETS as independent predictors of OS. Conclusion OR according to mRECIST and ETS in patients receiving sorafenib treatment are independent prognostic factors for OS. These parameters can be used for assessment of treatment benefit and optimal treatment sequencing in patients with advanced HCC.
  • Autores: Loi, E.; Zavattari, C.; Tommasi, A.; et al.
    Revista: BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER
    ISSN 0007-0920 Vol.126 N° 12 2022 págs. 1783 - 1794
    Resumen
    Background Biliary tract cancers (BTC) are rare but highly aggressive tumours with poor prognosis, usually detected at advanced stages. Herein, we aimed at identifying BTC-specific DNA methylation alterations. Methods Study design included statistical power and sample size estimation. A genome-wide methylation study of an explorative cohort (50 BTC and ten matched non-tumoral tissue samples) has been performed. BTC-specific altered CpG islands were validated in over 180 samples (174 BTCs and 13 non-tumoral controls). The final biomarkers, selected by a machine-learning approach, were validated in independent tissue (18 BTCs, 14 matched non-tumoral samples) and bile (24 BTCs, five non-tumoral samples) replication series, using droplet digital PCR. Results We identified and successfully validated BTC-specific DNA methylation alterations in over 200 BTC samples. The two-biomarker panel, selected by an in-house algorithm, showed an AUC > 0.97. The best-performing biomarker (chr2:176993479-176995557), associated with HOXD8, a pivotal gene in cancer-related pathways, achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity in a new series of tissue and bile samples. Conclusions We identified a novel fully efficient BTC biomarker, associated with HOXD8 gene, detectable both in tissue and bile by a standardised assay ready-to-use in clinical trials also including samples from non-invasive matrices.
  • Autores: Ocal, O.; Rossler, D.; Gasbarrini, A.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CANCER RESEARCH AND CLINICAL ONCOLOGY
    ISSN 0171-5216 Vol.148 N° 9 2022 págs. 2487 - 2496
    Resumen
    Purpose Gadoxetic acid uptake on hepatobiliary phase MRI has been shown to correlate with ss-catenin mutation in patients with HCC, which is associated with resistance to certain therapies. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of gadoxetic acid uptake on hepatobiliary phase MRI in patients with advanced HCC receiving sorafenib. Methods 312 patients with available baseline hepatobiliary phase MRI images received sorafenib alone or following selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) within SORAMIC trial. The signal intensity of index tumor and normal liver parenchyma were measured on the native and hepatobiliary phase MRI images, and relative tumor enhancement higher than relative liver enhancement were accepted as high gadoxetic acid uptake, and its prognostic value was assessed using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. Results The median OS of the study population was 13.4 (11.8-14.5) months. High gadoxetic acid uptake was seen in 51 (16.3%) patients, and none of the baseline characteristics was associated with high uptake. In univariate analysis, high gadoxetic acid uptake was significantly associated with shorter overall survival (10.7 vs. 14.0 months, p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis confirmed independent prognostic value of high gadoxetic acid uptake (HR, 1.7 [1.21-2.3], p = 0.002), as well as Child-Pugh class (p = 0.033), tumor diameter (p = 0.002), and ALBI grade (p = 0.015). Conclusion In advanced HCC patients receiving sorafenib (alone or combined with SIRT), high gadoxetic acid uptake of the tumor on pretreatment MRI, a surrogate of ss-catenin mutation, correlates with shorter survival. Gadoxetic acid uptake status might serve in treatment decision-making process.
  • Autores: Guerrero, L.; Sangro Gómez-Acebo, Bruno Carlos; Ambao, V.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
    ISSN 1138-7548 Vol.78 N° 1 2022 págs. 229 - 243
    Resumen
    Precision medicine promises to overcome the constraints of the traditional one-for-all healthcare approach through a clear understanding of the molecular features of a disease, allowing for innovative and tailored treatments. State-of-the-art proteomics has the potential to accurately explore the human proteome to identify, quantify, and characterize proteins associated with disease progression. There is a pressing need for informative biomarkers to diagnose liver disease early in its course to prevent severe disease for which no efficient treatment is yet available. Here, we propose the concept of a cellular pathway as a functional biomarker, whose monitorization may inform normal and pathological status. We have developed a standardized targeted selected-reaction monitoring assay to detect and quantify 13 enzymes of one-carbon metabolism (1CM). The assay is compliant with Clinical Proteomics Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) guidelines and has been included in the protein quantification assays that can be accessed through the assay portal at the CPTAC web page. To test the feasibility of the assay, we conducted a retrospective, proof-of-concept study on a collection of liver samples from healthy controls and from patients with cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our results indicate a significant reconfiguration of 1CM upon HCC development resulting from a process that can already be identified in cirrhosis. Our findings indicate that the systematic and integrated quantification of 1CM enzymes is a promising cell function-based biomarker for patient stratification, although further experiments with larger cohorts are needed to confirm these findings.
  • Autores: Colmenero, J.; Tabrizian, P.; Bhangui, P.; et al.
    Revista: TRANSPLANTATION
    ISSN 0041-1337 Vol.106 N° 1 2022 págs. e30 - e45
    Resumen
    De novo malignancies (DNMs) following liver transplantation (LT) have been reported as 1 of the major causes of late mortality, being the most common cause of death in the second decade after LT. The overall incidence of DNMs is reported to be in the range of 3.1% to 14.4%, and the incidence is 2- to 3-fold higher in transplant recipients than in age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Long-term immunosuppressive therapy, which is the key in maintaining host tolerance and achieving good long-term outcomes, is known to contribute to a higher risk of DNMs. However, the incidence and type of DNM also depends on different risk factors, including patient demographics, cause of the underlying chronic liver disease, behavior (smoking and alcohol abuse), and pre-existing premalignant conditions. The estimated standardized incidence ratio for different DNMs is also variable. The International Liver Transplantation Society-Spanish Society of Liver Transplantation Consensus Conference working group on DNM has summarized and discussed the current available literature on epidemiology, risk factors, management, and survival after DNMs. Recommendations for screening and surveillance for specific tumors, as well as immunosuppression and cancer-specific management in patients with DNM, are summarized.
  • Autores: Hu, K.; Pérez-Matos, M. C.; Argemí Ballbé, José María; et al.
    Revista: HEPATOLOGY
    ISSN 0270-9139 Vol.75 N° 4 2022 págs. 968 - 982
    Resumen
    Background and Aims Lipoprotein Z (LP-Z) is an abnormal free cholesterol (FC)-enriched LDL-like particle discovered from patients with cholestatic liver disease. This study aims to define the diagnostic value of LP-Z in alcohol-associated hepatitis (AH) and interrogate the biology behind its formation. Approach and Results We measured serum levels of LP-Z using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, a well-established clinical assay. Serum levels of LP-Z were significantly elevated in four AH cohorts compared with control groups, including heavy drinkers and patients with cirrhosis. We defined a Z-index, calculated by the ratio of LP-Z to total apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, representing the degree of deviation from normal VLDL metabolism. A high Z-index was associated with 90-day mortality independent from the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) and provided added prognosticative value. Both a Z-index <= 0.6 and a decline of Z-index by >= 0.1 in 2 weeks predicted 90-day survival. RNA-sequencing analyses of liver tissues demonstrated an inverse association in the expression of enzymes responsible for the extrahepatic conversion of VLDL to LDL and AH disease severity, which was further confirmed by the measurement of serum enzyme activity. To evaluate whether the FC in LP-Z could contribute to the pathogenesis of AH, we found significantly altered FC levels in liver explant of patients with AH. Furthermore, FC in reconstituted LP-Z particles caused direct toxicity to human hepatocytes in a concentration-dependent manner, supporting a pathogenic role of FC in LP-Z. Conclusions Impaired lipoprotein metabolism in AH leads to the accumulation of LP-Z in the circulation, which is hepatotoxic from excessive FC. A Z-index <= 0.6 predicts 90-day survival independent from conventional biomarkers for disease prognostication.
  • Autores: Recalde, M.; Gárate Rascón, María; Herranz, J. M.; et al.
    Revista: CANCERS
    ISSN 2072-6694 Vol.14 N° 9 2022 págs. 2048
    Resumen
    Simple Summary Hepatocarcinogenesis is a long process which implies the loss of hepatic functions. Our effort is to understand the mechanisms implicated in this pathological process in order to contribute to the development of new diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. In this study we have identified a set of lncRNAs significantly downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in correlation with the grade of tumor dedifferentiation and patients' worse prognosis. Mechanistically, our results show that they are related with hepatic differentiation and at least a subset of those lncRNAs are essential to ensure the expression of other hepato-specific genes required for liver function. Moreover, we demonstrate that the expression of these lncRNAs in HCC is silenced by DNA methylation. All in all, we uncover connected epigenetic alterations involved in the progression of liver cancer and identify potential new biomarkers. Background: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as key players in cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here we identify the mechanism implicated in the HCC inhibition of a set of lncRNAs, and their contribution to the process of hepatocarcinogenesis. Methods and Results: The top-ranked 35 lncRNAs downregulated in HCC (Top35 LNDH) were validated in several human HCC cohorts. We demonstrate that their inhibition is associated with promoter hypermethylation in HCC compared to control tissue, and in HCC human cell lines compared to primary hepatocytes. Moreover, demethylating treatment of HCC human cell lines induced the expression of these lncRNAs. The Top35 LNDH were preferentially expressed in the adult healthy liver compared to other tissues and fetal liver and were induced in well-differentiated HepaRG cells. Remarkably, their knockdown compromised the expression of other hepato-specific genes. Finally, the expression of the Top35 LNDH positively correlates with the grade of tumor differentiation and, more importantly, with a better patient prognosis. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that the selected Top35 LNDH are not only part of the genes that compose the hepatic differentiated signature but participate in its establishment. Moreover, their downregulation through DNA methylation occurs during the process of hepatocarcinogenesis compromising hepatocellular differentiation and HCC patients' prognosis.
  • Autores: Loffler, M. W.; Gori, S.; Izzo, F.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH
    ISSN 1078-0432 Vol.28 N° 12 2022 págs. 2555 - 2566
    Resumen
    Purpose: Immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) shows considerable promise in improving clinical outcomes. HepaVac-101 represents a single-arm, first-in-human phase I/II multicenter cancer vaccine trial for HCC (NCT03203005). It combines multipeptide antigens (IMA970A) with the TLR7/8/RIG I agonist CV8102. IMA970A includes 5 HLA-A*24 and 7 HLA-A*02 as well as 4 HLA-DR restricted peptides selected after mass spectrometric identification in human HCC tissues or cell lines. CV8102 is an RNA-based immunostimulator inducing a balanced Th1/Th2 immune response. Patients and Methods: A total of 82 patients with very early-to intermediate-stage HCCs were enrolled and screened for suitable HLA haplotypes and 22 put on study treatment. This consisted in a single infusion of low-dose cyclophosphamide followed by nine intradermal coadministrations of IMA970A and CV8102. Only patients with no disease relapse after standard-of-care treatments were vaccinated. The primary endpoints of the HepaVac-101 clinical trial were safety, tolerability, and antigen-specific T-cell responses. Secondary or exploratory endpoints included additional immunologic parameters and survival endpoints. Results: The vaccination showed a good safety profile. Transient mild-to-moderate injection-site reactions were the most frequent IMA970A/CV8102-related side effects. Immune responses against >= 1 vaccinated HLA class I tumor-associated peptide (TAA) and >= 1 vaccinated HLA class II TAA were respectively induced in 37% and 53% of the vaccinees. Conclusions: Immunotherapy may provide a great improvement in treatment options for HCC. HepaVac-101 is a first-in-human clinical vaccine trial with multiple novel HLA class I- and class II-restricted TAAs against HCC. The results are initial evidence for the safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine. Further clinical evaluations are warranted.
  • Autores: Oecal, O.; Schuette, K.; Kupcinskas, J.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CANCER RESEARCH AND CLINICAL ONCOLOGY
    ISSN 0171-5216 Vol.148 N° 2 2022 págs. 475 - 485
    Resumen
    Purpose To explore the potential correlation between baseline interleukin (IL) values and overall survival or objective response in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) receiving sorafenib. Methods A subset of patients with HCC undergoing sorafenib monotherapy within a prospective multicenter phase II trial (SORAMIC, sorafenib treatment alone vs. combined with Y90 radioembolization) underwent baseline IL-6 and IL-8 assessment before treatment initiation. In this exploratory post hoc analysis, the best cut-off points for baseline IL-6 and IL-8 values predicting overall survival (OS) were evaluated, as well as correlation with the objective response. Results Forty-seven patients (43 male) with a median OS of 13.8 months were analyzed. Cut-off values of 8.58 and 57.9 pg/mL most effectively predicted overall survival for IL-6 and IL-8, respectively. Patients with high IL-6 (HR, 4.1 [1.9-8.9], p < 0.001) and IL-8 (HR, 2.4 [1.2-4.7], p = 0.009) had significantly shorter overall survival than patients with low IL values. Multivariate analysis confirmed IL-6 (HR, 2.99 [1.22-7.3], p = 0.017) and IL-8 (HR, 2.19 [1.02-4.7], p = 0.044) as independent predictors of OS. Baseline IL-6 and IL-8 with respective cut-off values predicted objective response rates according to mRECIST in a subset of 42 patients with follow-up imaging available (IL-6, 46.6% vs. 19.2%, p = 0.007; IL-8, 50.0% vs. 17.4%, p = 0.011). Conclusion IL-6 and IL-8 baseline values predicted outcomes of sorafenib-treated patients in this well-characterized prospective cohort of the SORAMIC trial. We suggest that the respective cut-off values might serve for validation in larger cohorts, potentially offering guidance for improved patient selection.
  • Autores: Páramo Alfaro, María; Santa María Monasterio, Eva; Idoate Gastearena, Miguel Ángel; et al.
    Revista: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
    ISSN 2045-2322 Vol.12 N° 1 2022 págs. 1777
    Resumen
    Lobar selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) is widely used to treat liver tumors inducing atrophy of the treated lobe and contralateral hypertrophy. The lack of animal model has precluded further investigations to improve this treatment. We developed an animal model of liver damage and atrophy-hypertrophy complex after SIRT. Three groups of 5-8 rabbits received transportal SIRT with Yttrium 90 resin microspheres of the cranial lobes with different activities (0.3, 0.6 and 1.2 GBq), corresponding to predicted absorbed radiation dose of 200, 400 and 800 Gy, respectively. Another group received non-loaded microspheres (sham group). Cranial and caudal lobes volumes were assessed using CT volumetry before, 15 and 30 days after SIRT. Liver biochemistry, histopathology and gene expression were evaluated. Four untreated rabbits were used as controls for gene expression studies. All animals receiving 1.2 GBq were euthanized due to clinical deterioration. Cranial SIRT with 0.6 GBq induced caudal lobe hypertrophy after 15 days (median increase 34% -ns-) but produced significant toxicity. Cranial SIRT with 0.3 GBq induced caudal lobe hypertrophy after 30 days (median increase 82%, p = 0.04). No volumetric changes were detected in sham group. Transient increase in serum transaminases was detected in all treated groups returning to normal values at 15 days. There was dose-dependent liver dysfunction with bilirubin elevation and albumin decrease. Histologically, 1.2 GBq group developed permanent severe liver damage with massive necrosis, 0.6 and 0.3 GBq groups developed moderate damage with inflammation and portal fibrosis at 15 days, partially recovering at 30 days. There was no difference in the expression of hepatocyte function and differentiation genes between 0.3 GBq and control groups. Cranial SIRT with 0.3 GBq of Y-90 resin microspheres in rabbits is a reliable animal model to analyse the atrophy-hypertrophy complex and liver damage without toxicity.
  • Autores: Morales-Arráez, D.; Ventura-Cots, M.; Altamirano, J.; et al.
    Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY
    ISSN 0002-9270 Vol.117 N° 2 2022 págs. 301 - 310
    Resumen
    INTRODUCTION: Several scoring systems predict mortality in alcohol-associated hepatitis (AH), including the Maddrey discriminant function (mDF) and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score developed in the United States, Glasgow alcoholic hepatitis score in the United Kingdom, and age, bilirubin, international normalized ratio, and creatinine score in Spain. To date, no global studies have examined the utility of these scores, nor has the MELD-sodium been evaluated for outcome prediction in AH. In this study, we assessed the accuracy of different scores to predict short-term mortality in AH and investigated additional factors to improve mortality prediction. METHODS: Patients admitted to hospital with a definite or probable AH were recruited by 85 tertiary centers in 11 countries and across 3 continents. Baseline demographic and laboratory variables were obtained. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at 28 and 90 days. RESULTS: In total, 3,101 patients were eligible for inclusion. After exclusions (n = 520), 2,581 patients were enrolled (74.4% male, median age 48 years, interquartile range 40.9-55.0 years). The median MELD score was 23.5 (interquartile range 20.5-27.8). Mortality at 28 and 90 days was 20% and 30.9%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for 28-day mortality ranged from 0.776 for MELD-sodium to 0.701 for mDF, and for 90-day mortality, it ranged from 0.773 for MELD to 0.709 for mDF. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for mDF to predict death was significantly lower than all other scores. Age added to MELD obtained only a small improvement of AUC. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that the mDF score should no longer be used to assess AH's prognosis. The MELD score has the best performance in predicting short-term mortality.
  • Autores: Aliseda Jover, Daniel; Martí Cruchaga, Pablo; Zozaya Larequi, Gabriel Nicolás; et al.
    Revista: LANGENBECKS ARCHIVES OF SURGERY
    ISSN 1435-2443 Vol.407 N° 3 2022 págs. 1099 - 1111
    Resumen
    Background Liver surgery after radioembolization (RE) entails highly demanding and challenging procedures due to the frequent combination of large tumors, severe RE-related adhesions, and the necessity of conducting major hepatectomies. Laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) and its associated advantages could provide benefits, as yet unreported, to these patients. The current study evaluated feasibility, morbidity, mortality, and survival outcomes for major laparoscopic liver resection after radioembolization. Material and methods In this retrospective, single-center study patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma or metastases from colorectal cancer undergoing major laparoscopic hepatectomy after RE were identified from institutional databases. They were matched (1:2) on several pre-operative characteristics to a group of patients that underwent major LLR for the same malignancies during the same period but without previous RE. Results From March 2011 to November 2020, 9 patients underwent a major LLR after RE. No differences were observed in intraoperative blood loss (50 vs. 150 ml; p = 0.621), operative time (478 vs. 407 min; p = 0.135) or pedicle clamping time (90.5 vs 74 min; p = 0.133) between the post-RE LLR and the matched group. Similarly, no differences were observed on hospital stay ( median 3 vs. 4 days; p = 0.300), Clavien-Dindo = III complications (2 vs. 1 cases; p = 0.250), specific liver morbidity (1 vs. 1 case p = 1.000), or 90 day mortality (0 vs. 0; p = 1.000). Conclusion The laparoscopic approach for post radioembolization patients may be a feasible and safe procedure with excellent surgical and oncological outcomes and meets the current standards for laparoscopic liver resections. Further studies with larger series are needed to confirm the results herein presented.
  • Autores: Arechederra Calderon, Maria; Rullán, M.; Amat, I.; et al.
    Revista: GUT
    ISSN 0017-5749 Vol.71 N° 6 2022 págs. 1141 - 1151
    Resumen
    Objective Despite significant progresses in imaging and pathological evaluation, early differentiation between benign and malignant biliary strictures remains challenging. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is used to investigate biliary strictures, enabling the collection of bile. We tested the diagnostic potential of next-generation sequencing (NGS) mutational analysis of bile cell-free DNA (cfDNA). Design A prospective cohort of patients with suspicious biliary strictures (n=68) was studied. The performance of initial pathological diagnosis was compared with that of the mutational analysis of bile cfDNA collected at the time of first ERCP using an NGS panel open to clinical laboratory implementation, the Oncomine Pan-Cancer Cell-Free assay. Results An initial pathological diagnosis classified these strictures as of benign (n=26), indeterminate (n=9) or malignant (n=33) origin. Sensitivity and specificity of this diagnosis were 60% and 100%, respectively, as on follow-up 14 of the 26 and eight of the nine initially benign or indeterminate strictures resulted malignant. Sensitivity and specificity for malignancy of our NGS assay, herein named Bilemut, were 96.4% and 69.2%, respectively. Importantly, one of the four Bilemut false positives developed pancreatic cancer after extended follow-up. Remarkably, the sensitivity for malignancy of Bilemut was 100% in patients with an initial diagnosis of benign or indeterminate strictures. Analysis of 30 paired bile and tissue samples also demonstrated the superior performance of Bilemut. Conclusion Implementation of Bilemut at the initial diagnostic stage for biliary strictures can significantly improve detection of malignancy, reduce delays in the clinical management of patients and assist in selecting patients for targeted therapies.
  • Autores: Lertxundi, U. (Autor de correspondencia); Aramburu Montenegro, Jorge; Antón Remírez, Raúl; et al.
    Revista: EKAIA
    ISSN 0214-9001 Vol.42 2022 págs. 339 - 348
    Resumen
    Erradioenbolizazioa (RE) gibeleko minbizia tratatzeko metodoetako bat da. Bertan, mikrokateter bidez gibeleko arterian mikroesfera erradioaktiboak injektatzen dira, hauek tumoreak enbolizazio eta erradiazio bidez erasotzeko. Mikroesferen ibilbidea ordenagailu bidezko fluido dinamika simulazioekin (CFD) aztertu daiteke. Kalkulu hauen iraupen luzea arazo bat da medikuntzaren egunerokotasunean simulazioak erabili ahal izateko. Kalkuluak azkartzeko asmoz, odolaren biskositatearen izaera ez¿newtondarra izaera newtondarrera sinplifikatu da. Emaitzek erakutsi dute mikroesferen banaketan eta odolaren hemodinamikan biskositate aldakorraren eragina mespretxagarria dela, odola fluido newtondar bezala aztertzearen sinplifikazioa ontzat emanez.
  • Autores: Marín, J. J. G. (Autor de correspondencia); Reviejo, M.; Soto, M.; et al.
    Revista: CANCERS
    ISSN 2072-6694 Vol.14 N° 1 2022 págs. 18
    Resumen
    Simple Summary Among the top ten deadly solid tumors are the two most frequent liver cancers, hepatocellular carcinoma, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, whose development and malignancy are favored by multifactorial conditions, which include aberrant maturation of pre-mRNA due to abnormalities in either the machinery involved in the splicing, i.e., the spliceosome and associated factors, or the nucleotide sequences of essential sites for the exon recognition process. As a consequence of cancer-associated aberrant splicing in hepatocytes- and cholangiocytes-derived cancer cells, abnormal proteins are synthesized. They contribute to the dysregulated proliferation and eventually transformation of these cells to phenotypes with enhanced invasiveness, migration, and multidrug resistance, which contributes to the poor prognosis that characterizes these liver cancers. The two most frequent primary cancers affecting the liver, whose incidence is growing worldwide, are hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA), which are among the five most lethal solid tumors with meager 5-year survival rates. The common difficulty in most cases to reach an early diagnosis, the aggressive invasiveness of both tumors, and the lack of favorable response to pharmacotherapy, either classical chemotherapy or modern targeted therapy, account for the poor outcome of these patients. Alternative splicing (AS) during pre-mRNA maturation results in changes that might affect proteins involved in different aspects of cancer biology, such as cell cycle dysregulation, cytoskeleton disorganization, migration, and adhesion, which favors carcinogenesis, tumor promotion, and progression, allowing cancer cells to escape from pharmacological treatments. Reasons accounting for cancer-associated aberrant splicing include mutations that create or disrupt splicing sites or splicing enhancers or silencers, abnormal expression of splicing factors, and impaired signaling pathways affecting the activity of the splicing machinery. Here we have reviewed the available information regarding the impact of AS on liver carcinogenesis and the development of malignant characteristics of HCC and iCCA, whose understanding is required to develop novel therapeutical approaches aimed at manipulating the phenotype of cancer cells.
  • Autores: Chen, C. B.; Wu, H. H.; Ye, H.; et al.
    Revista: CANCERS
    ISSN 2072-6694 Vol.14 N° 1 2022 págs. 78
    Resumen
    Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is a group of rare disorders that result from structural changes in the biliary tree development in the liver. In the present work, we studied alterations in molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways that might be responsible for these pathologies. We found that activation of the unfolded protein response, a process that occurs in response to an accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum, as well as the scarring of the liver tissue, contribute to the pathogenesis of PLD and the development of cancer. As a preclinical animal model we have used mutant mice of a specific signaling pathway, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (Jnk1/2). These mice resemble a perfect model for the study of PLD and early cancer development.
  • Autores: Op den Winkel, M. (Autor de correspondencia); Nagel, D.; de la Torre Aláez, Manuel Antonio; et al.
    Revista: DIGESTIVE DISEASES
    ISSN 0257-2753 Vol.40 N° 3 2022 págs. 322 - 334
    Resumen
    Introduction: Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) is a local treatment option for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Its exact role next to other HCC therapies has yet to be defined. In order to identify patients most suitable for SIRT, a SIRT-specific prognostic score should be developed. Methods: A cohort of 72 SIRT patients treated at the University Hospital of Munich was retrospectively analyzed. The prognostic performance of 12 HCC staging systems and prognostic scores was assessed. Cox-regression analysis was used to identify independent prognostic factors, which formed the basis of the Munich-SIRT score (M-SIRT). All scores were ranked by calculating the c-Index and Akaike information criterion (AIC). External validation was performed in a cohort of 128 SIRT patients treated at the University Hospital of Pamplona, Spain. Results: median overall survival was 13 months (95% confidence interval 9.9-21.9). AFP (p = 0.005; hazard ratio [HR] 2.38), albumin (p < 0.001; HR 5.87), and alkaline phosphatase (p < 0.001; HR 8.38) were identified as independent prognostic factors. M-SIRT comprises 3 prognostic groups with a median survival of 38.9, 14.6, and 7.7 months, respectively (I vs. II: p = 0.003, II vs. III: p < 0.001). AIC (318) and concordance index (0.711) ranked M-SIRT superior to the established HCC staging systems, and the score successfully passed external validation in an independent SIRT cohort (I vs. II: p = 0.03; II vs. III: p = 0.007). Conclusion: Therapy-specific prognostic scores can facilitate treatment decisions and prognostication for HCC patients. Considering its performance in 200 SIRT patients, M-SIRT is a promising prognostic tool for HCC patients evaluated for SIRT.
  • Autores: Vera Yunca, Diego; Córdoba Quiñones, Karol Marcela; Parra Guillén, Zinnia Patricia; et al.
    Revista: BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY
    ISSN 0007-1188 Vol.179 N° 14 2022 págs. 3815 - 3830
    Resumen
    Background and Purpose Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a rare disease caused by a genetic mutation in the hepatic activity of the porphobilinogen-deaminase. We aimed to develop a mechanistic model of the enzymatic restoration effects of a novel therapy based on the administration of different formulations of recombinant human-PBGD (rhPBGD) linked to the ApoAI lipoprotein. This fusion protein circulates in blood, incorporating into HDL and penetrating hepatocytes. Experimental Approach Single i.v. dose of different formulations of rhPBGD linked to ApoAI were administered to AIP mice in which a porphyric attack was triggered by i.p. phenobarbital. Data consist on 24 h urine excreted amounts of heme precursors, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), PBG and total porphyrins that were analysed using non-linear mixed-effects analysis. Key Results The mechanistic model successfully characterized over time the amounts excreted in urine of the three heme precursors for different formulations of rhPBGD and unravelled several mechanisms in the heme pathway, such as the regulation in ALA synthesis by heme. Treatment with rhPBGD formulations restored PBGD activity, increasing up to 51 times the value of the rate of tPOR formation estimated from baseline. Model-based simulations showed that several formulation prototypes provided efficient protective effects when administered up to 1 week prior to the occurrence of the AIP attack. Conclusion and Implications The model developed had excellent performance over a range of doses and formulation type. This mechanistic model warrants use beyond ApoAI-conjugates and represents a useful tool towards more efficient drug treatments of other enzymopenias as well as for acute intermittent porphyria.
  • Autores: Abou-Alfa, G. K.; Chan, S. L.; Kudo, M.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY
    ISSN 0732-183X Vol.40 N° 4 2022
  • Autores: Arechederra Calderon, Maria; Recalde, M.; Gárate Rascón, María; et al.
    Revista: CANCERS
    ISSN 2072-6694 Vol.13 N° 6 2021 págs. 1265
    Resumen
    Simple Summary Cellular identity and function depends on the correct and specific expression of genetic information. Different epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation, modifications of histones, and expression of non-coding RNAs control chromatin structure and DNA accessibility to the transcriptional machinery. Alterations of these mechanisms are associated with the development of multiple diseases. The incidence of chronic liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is increasing worldwide. However, the management of those patients is poor due to the late diagnosis of the disease and the absence of effective therapies. Here, we review the epigenetic alterations described in the process of hepatocarcinogenesis, and we discuss the applicability of epigenetic markers as therapeutic targets and liquid biopsy biomarkers for diagnosis. Research in the last decades has demonstrated the relevance of epigenetics in controlling gene expression to maintain cell homeostasis, and the important role played by epigenome alterations in disease development. Moreover, the reversibility of epigenetic marks can be harnessed as a therapeutic strategy, and epigenetic marks can be used as diagnosis biomarkers. Epigenetic alterations in DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications (PTMs), and non-coding RNA (ncRNA) expression have been associated with the process of hepatocarcinogenesis. Here, we summarize epigenetic alterations involved in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease (CLD), particularly focusing on DNA methylation. We also discuss their utility as epigenetic biomarkers in liquid biopsy for the diagnosis and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Finally, we discuss the potential of epigenetic therapeutic strategies for HCC treatment.
  • Autores: Solares, I.; Heredia-Mena, C.; Castelbón, F. J.; et al.
    Revista: DIAGNOSTICS
    ISSN 2075-4418 Vol.11 N° 11 2021 págs. 2148
    Resumen
    Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) constitute an important group of conditions characterized by an altered metabolic pathway. There are numerous guidelines for the diagnosis and management of IEMs in the pediatric population but not for adults. Given the increasing frequency of this group of conditions in adulthood, other clinicians in addition to pediatricians should be aware of them and learn to identify their characteristic manifestations. Early recognition and implementation of an appropriate therapeutic approach would improve the clinical outcome of many of these patients. This review presents when and how to investigate a metabolic disorder with the aim of encouraging physicians not to overlook a treatable disorder.
  • Autores: Sangro Gómez-Acebo, Bruno Carlos (Autor de correspondencia); Sarobe Ugarriza, Pablo; Hervas Stubbs, Sandra; et al.
    Revista: NATURE REVIEWS GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY
    ISSN 1759-5053 Vol.18 N° 8 2021 págs. 525 - 543
    Resumen
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a prevalent disease with a progression that is modulated by the immune system. Systemic therapy is used in the advanced stage and until 2017 consisted only of antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors has shown strong anti-tumour activity in a subset of patients and the combination of the anti-PDL1 antibody atezolizumab and the VEGF-neutralizing antibody bevacizumab has or will soon become the standard of care as a first-line therapy for HCC, whereas the anti-PD1 agents nivolumab and pembrolizumab are used after TKIs in several regions. Other immune strategies such as adoptive T-cell transfer, vaccination or virotherapy have not yet demonstrated consistent clinical activity. Major unmet challenges in HCC checkpoint immunotherapy are the discovery and validation of predictive biomarkers, advancing treatment to earlier stages of the disease, applying the treatment to patients with liver dysfunction and the discovery of more effective combinatorial or sequential approaches. Combinations with other systemic or local treatments are perceived as the most promising opportunities in HCC and some are already under evaluation in large-scale clinical trials. This Review provides up-to-date information on the best use of currently available immunotherapies in HCC and the therapeutic strategies under development.
  • Autores: Wu, H.; Chen, C.; Ziani, S.; et al.
    Revista: CELLS
    ISSN 2073-4409 Vol.10 N° 5 2021 págs. 1107
    Resumen
    Cholestatic liver diseases including primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are associated with active hepatic fibrogenesis, which can ultimately lead to the development of cirrhosis. However, the exact relationship between the development of liver fibrosis and the progression of cholestatic liver disease remains elusive. Periductular fibroblasts located around the bile ducts seem biologically different from hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The fibrotic events in these clinical conditions appear to be related to complex crosstalk between immune/inflammatory mechanisms, cytokine signalling, and perturbed homeostasis between cholangiocytes and mesenchymal cells. Several animal models including bile duct ligation (BDL) and the Mdr2-knockout mice have improved our understanding of mechanisms underlying chronic cholestasis. In the present review, we aim to elucidate the mechanisms of fibrosis in order to help to identify potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets.
  • Autores: Iraburu Elizalde, María; Garner, T.; Montiel-Duarte, C. (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
    ISSN 1422-0067 Vol.22 N° 13 2021 págs. 6978
    Resumen
    The endocytosis of ligand-bound receptors and their eventual recycling to the plasma membrane (PM) are processes that have an influence on signalling activity and therefore on many cell functions, including migration and proliferation. Like other tyrosine kinase receptors (TKR), the insulin receptor (INSR) has been shown to be endocytosed by clathrin-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Once at the early endosome (EE), the sorting of the receptor, either to the late endosome (LE) for degradation or back to the PM through slow or fast recycling pathways, will determine the intensity and duration of insulin effects. Both the endocytic and the endosomic pathways are regulated by many proteins, the Arf and Rab families of small GTPases being some of the most relevant. Here, we argue for a specific role for the slow recycling route, whilst we review the main molecular mechanisms involved in INSR endocytosis, sorting and recycling, as well as their possible role in cell functions.
  • Autores: Sogbe Diaz, Miguel Eduardo (Autor de correspondencia); López-Guerra, D.; Blanco-Fernández, G.; et al.
    Revista: TRANSPLANTATION
    ISSN 0041-1337 Vol.105 N° 12 2021 págs. e398 - e400
  • Autores: Fontanellas Roma, Antonio (Autor de correspondencia); Ávila Zaragoza, Matías Antonio; Arranz, E.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF INHERITED METABOLIC DISEASE
    ISSN 0141-8955 Vol.44 N° 4 2021 págs. 790 - 791
  • Autores: Marino, Z.; Darnell, A.; Lens, S.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.74 N° 2 2021 págs. 491
  • Autores: Burra, P. (Autor de correspondencia); Tacke, F.; Ratziu, V.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.74 N° 2 2021 págs. 265 - 268
  • Autores: Iñarrairaegui Bastarrica, Mercedes; Sangro Gómez-Acebo, Bruno Carlos (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: HEPATOLOGY
    ISSN 0270-9139 Vol.74 N° 5 2021 págs. 2333 - 2335
  • Autores: Berasain Lasarte, María del Carmen; Ávila Zaragoza, Matías Antonio (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: CMGH
    ISSN 2352-345X Vol.11 N° 1 2021 págs. 291 - 293
  • Autores: Burra, P. (Autor de correspondencia); Tacke, F.; Ratziu, V.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.75 N° 2 2021 págs. 257 - 260
  • Autores: Ciordia, S.; Alvarez Sola, G.; Rullan, M.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF PROTEOMICS
    ISSN 1874-3919 Vol.230 2021 págs. 103984
    Resumen
    The analysis of biological fluids to identify proteins that may indicate a disease setting, state and progression, is an increasingly explored field. Despite the expectatives created, there are several hurdles that must be solved to reach an extensive proteome coverage using mass spectrometry, mainly due to the complex composition of the matrices. In this regard, bile is specially challenging and yet, very attractive, as a proximal fluid that might provide valuable information for the management of liver and pancreas associated diseases. Proteins account for less than 5% of bile organic components and, although optimized protocols for protein extraction have been developed, only partial descriptions of bile proteome have been achieved. In this manuscript a new procedure is described that significantly improves protein recovery from rat bile, which reduces by a factor of six the sample amount required for a typical proteomics analysis. Moreover, the number of proteins reliably identified in a single nanoLC-MS/MS run from 1 mu g protein was increased by three-fold. This procedure provides a valuable resource to dig deeper into the molecular composition of bile and open new avenues to identify new hallmarks of disease such as cholangiocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic cancer for their better clinical management.
  • Autores: Duan, Y.; Chu, H.; Brandl, K.; et al.
    Revista: NATURE COMMUNICATIONS
    ISSN 2041-1723 Vol.12 N° 1 2021 págs. 7172
    Resumen
    CRIg is expressed on liver macrophages and binds Gram-positive bacteria to mediate phagocytosis, but it is not clear how its phagocytic functions contribute to liver homeostasis or disease. Here the authors report that ethanol impairs hepatic clearance of translocated pathobionts, via decreased hepatic CRIg, which facilitates progression of alcoholic liver disease. Complement receptor of immunoglobulin superfamily (CRIg) is expressed on liver macrophages and directly binds complement component C3b or Gram-positive bacteria to mediate phagocytosis. CRIg plays important roles in several immune-mediated diseases, but it is not clear how its pathogen recognition and phagocytic functions maintain homeostasis and prevent disease. We previously associated cytolysin-positive Enterococcus faecalis with severity of alcohol-related liver disease. Here, we demonstrate that CRIg is reduced in liver tissues from patients with alcohol-related liver disease. CRIg-deficient mice developed more severe ethanol-induced liver disease than wild-type mice; disease severity was reduced with loss of toll-like receptor 2. CRIg-deficient mice were less efficient than wild-type mice at clearing Gram-positive bacteria such as Enterococcus faecalis that had translocated from gut to liver. Administration of the soluble extracellular domain CRIg-Ig protein protected mice from ethanol-induced steatohepatitis. Our findings indicate that ethanol impairs hepatic clearance of translocated pathobionts, via decreased hepatic CRIg, which facilitates progression of liver disease.
  • Autores: Loffroy, R.; Ronot, M. ; Greget, M.; et al.
    Revista: CARDIOVASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY
    ISSN 0174-1551 Vol.44 N° 1 2021 págs. 36 - 49
    Resumen
    Purpose Radioembolization has emerged as a treatment modality for patients with primary and secondary liver tumours. This observational study CIRT-FR (CIRSE Registry for SIR-Spheres Therapy in France) aims to evaluate real-life clinical practice on all patients treated with transarterial radioembolization (TARE) using SIR-Spheres yttrium-90 resin microspheres in France. In this interim analysis, safety and quality of life data are presented. Final results of the study, including secondary effectiveness outcomes, will be published later. Overall, CIRT-FR is aiming to support French authorities in the decision making on reimbursement considerations for this treatment. Methods Data on patients enrolled in CIRT-FR from August 2017 to October 2019 were analysed. The interim analysis describes clinical practice, baseline characteristics, safety (adverse events according to CTCTAE 4.03) and quality of life (according to EORTC QLQ C30 and HCC module) aspects after TARE. Results This cohort included 200 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (114), metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC; 38) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (33) amongst others (15). TARE was predominantly assigned as a palliative treatment (79%). 12% of patients experienced at least one adverse event in the 30 days following treatment; 30-day mortality was 1%. Overall, global health score remained stable between baseline (66.7%), treatment (62.5%) and the first follow-up (66.7%). Conclusion This interim analysis demonstrates that data regarding safety and quality of life generated by randomised-controlled trials is reflected when assessing the real-world application of TARE.
  • Autores: Guldiken, N.; Argemí Ballbé, José María; Gurbuz, B.; et al.
    Revista: BMC MEDICINE
    ISSN 1741-7015 Vol.19 N° 1 2021 págs. 39
    Resumen
    Background Serum transferrin levels represent an independent predictor of mortality in patients with liver failure. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4 alpha) is a master regulator of hepatocyte functions. The aim of this study was to explore whether serum transferrin reflects HNF4 alpha activity. Methods Factors regulating transferrin expression in alcoholic hepatitis (AH) were assessed via transcriptomic/methylomic analysis as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to DNA sequencing. The findings were corroborated in primary hepatocytes. Serum and liver samples from 40 patients with advanced liver disease of multiple etiologies were also studied. Results In patients with advanced liver disease, serum transferrin levels correlated with hepatic transferrin expression (r = 0.51, p = 0.01). Immunohistochemical and biochemical tests confirmed reduced HNF4 alpha and transferrin protein levels in individuals with cirrhosis. In AH, hepatic gene-gene correlation analysis in liver transcriptome revealed an enrichment of HNF4 alpha signature in transferrin-correlated transcriptome while transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta 1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) negatively associated with transferrin signature. A key regulatory region in transferrin promoter was hypermethylated in patients with AH. In primary hepatocytes, treatment with TGF beta 1 or the HNF4 alpha inhibitor BI6015 suppressed transferrin production, while exposure to TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6 had no effect. The correlation between hepatic HNF4A and transferrin mRNA levels was also seen in advanced liver disease. Conclusions Serum transferrin levels constitute a prognostic and mechanistic biomarker. Consequently, they may serve as a surrogate of impaired hepatic HNF4 alpha signaling and liver failure.
  • Autores: Colyn, L.; Bárcena Varela, Marina; Álvarez-Sola, G.; et al.
    Revista: HEPATOLOGY
    ISSN 0270-9139 Vol.73 N° 6 2021 págs. 2380 - 2396
    Resumen
    Background and Aims Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a devastating disease often detected at advanced stages when surgery cannot be performed. Conventional and targeted systemic therapies perform poorly, and therefore effective drugs are urgently needed. Different epigenetic modifications occur in CCA and contribute to malignancy. Targeting epigenetic mechanisms may thus open therapeutic opportunities. However, modifications such as DNA and histone methylation often coexist and cooperate in carcinogenesis. We tested the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of action of a class of dual G9a histone-methyltransferase and DNA-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) inhibitors. Approach and Results Expression of G9a, DNMT1, and their molecular adaptor, ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domains-1 (UHRF1), was determined in human CCA. We evaluated the effect of individual and combined pharmacological inhibition of G9a and DNMT1 on CCA cell growth. Our lead G9a/DNMT1 inhibitor, CM272, was tested in human CCA cells, patient-derived tumoroids and xenograft, and a mouse model of cholangiocarcinogenesis with hepatocellular deletion of c-Jun-N-terminal-kinase (Jnk)-1/2 and diethyl-nitrosamine (DEN) plus CCl4 treatment (Jnk(Delta hepa) + DEN + CCl4 mice). We found an increased and correlative expression of G9a, DNMT1, and UHRF1 in CCAs. Cotreatment with independent pharmacological inhibitors G9a and DNMT1 synergistically inhibited CCA cell growth. CM272 markedly reduced CCA cell proliferation and synergized with Cisplatin and the ERBB-targeted inhibitor, Lapatinib. CM272 inhibited CCA tumoroids and xenograft growth and significantly antagonized CCA progression in Jnk(Delta hepa) + DEN + CCl4 mice without apparent toxicity. Mechanistically, CM272 reprogrammed the tumoral metabolic transcriptome and phenotype toward a differentiated and quiescent status. Conclusions Dual targeting of G9a and DNMT1 with epigenetic small molecule inhibitors such as CM272 is a potential strategy to treat CCA and/or enhance the efficacy of other systemic therapies.
  • Autores: Fernández Ros, Nerea; Lucena Ramírez, Juan Felipe; Iñarrairaegui Bastarrica, Mercedes; et al.
    Revista: BMC MEDICAL EDUCATION
    ISSN 1472-6920 Vol.21 N° 1 2021 págs. 249
    Resumen
    Background: Active learning strategies such as formative assessment through clinical cases may help to get a deeper learning. We have studied the effect of this kind of online formative assessment in pathophysiology teaching. Methods: Seven brief clinical cases were used to give formative assessment in the first semester of a pathophysiology course. To evaluate its effect on learning, we analyzed the proportion of students that passed the end of semester exam with a score above 60 over 100. We also analyzed the effect of the intervention according to the students' previous academic performance. Results: Ninety-six students participated in the study and sat the exam. Sixty-five of them passed it. Students that passed the exam had a higher previous academic performance and had done a higher number of exercises of formative assessment, both in univariate and multivariate analysis. The participants were divided in three groups, according to their previous academic performance. In the intermediate group, the number of cases done by the students who passed the exam was significantly higher than in those who did not pass it (median: 4 versus 0; P = 0.009). Conclusion: Formative assessment through web-based clinical cases was followed by an improvement of the academic results in pathophysiology, mainly in students with intermediate performance.
  • Autores: Helmberger, T.; Golfieri, R.; Pech, M.; et al.
    Revista: CARDIOVASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY
    ISSN 0174-1551 2021
    Resumen
    Purpose To address the lack of prospective data on the real-life clinical application of trans-arterial radioembolization (TARE) in Europe, the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) initiated the prospective observational studyCIRSE Registry for SIR-Spheres (R) Therapy (CIRT). Materials and Methods Patients were enrolled from 1 January 2015 till 31 December 2017. Eligible patients were adult patients treated with TARE with Y90 resin microspheres for primary or metastatic liver tumours. Patients were followed up for 24 months after treatment, whereas data on the clinical context of TARE, overall survival (OS) and safety were collected. Results Totally, 1027 patients were analysed. 68.2% of the intention of treatment was palliative. Up to half of the patients received systemic therapy and/or locoregional treatments prior to TARE (53.1%; 38.3%). Median overall survival (OS) was reported per cohort and was 16.5 months (95% confidence interval (CI) 14.2-19.3) for hepatocellular carcinoma, 14.6 months (95% CI 10.9-17.9) for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. For liver metastases, median OS for colorectal cancer was 9.8 months (95% CI 8.3-12.9), 5.6 months for pancreatic cancer (95% CI 4.1-6.6), 10.6 months (95% CI 7.3-14.4) for breast cancer, 14.6 months (95% CI 7.3-21.4) for melanoma and 33.1 months (95% CI 22.1-nr) for neuroendocrine tumours. Statistically significant prognostic factors in terms of OS include the presence of ascites, cirrhosis, extra-hepatic disease, patient performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group), number of chemotherapy lines prior to TARE and tumour burden. Thirty-day mortality rate was 1.0%. 2.5% experienced adverse events grade 3 or 4 within 30 days after TARE. Conclusion In the real-life clinical setting, TARE is largely considered to be a part of a palliative treatment strategy across indications and provides an excellent safety profile.
  • Autores: Bruix, J.; Chan, S. L.; Galle, P. R.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.75 N° 4 2021 págs. 960 - 974
    Resumen
    The last 5 years have witnessed relevant advances in the systemic treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. New data have emerged since the development of the EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines on the management of hepatocellular carcinoma in 2018. Drugs licensed in some countries now include 4 oral multityrosine kinase inhibitors (sorafenib, lenvatinib, regorafenib and cabozantinib), 1 anti-angiogenic antibody (ramucirumab) and 4 immune checkpoint inhibitors, alone or in combination (atezolizumab in combination with bevacizumab, ipilimumab in combination with nivolumab, nivolumab and pembrolizumab in monotherapy). Prolonged survival in excess of 2 years can be expected in most patients with sensitive tumours and well-preserved liver function that renders them fit for sequential therapies. With different choices available in any given setting, the robustness of the evidence of efficacy and a correct matching of the safety profile of a given agent with patient characteristics and preferences are key in making sound therapeutic decisions. The recommendations in this document amend the previous EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines and aim to help clinicians provide the best possible care for patients today. In view of several ongoing and promising trials, further advances in systemic therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma are foreseen in the near future and these recommendations will have to be updated regularly. (C) 2021 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Autores: Kudo, M. (Autor de correspondencia); Matilla, A.; Santoro, A.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.75 N° 3 2021 págs. 600 - 609
    Resumen
    Background & Aims: Patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (aHCC) and Child-Pugh B liver function are often excluded from clinical trials. In previous studies, overall survival for these patients treated with sorafenib was similar to 3-5 months; thus, new treatments are needed. Nivolumab, alone or in combination with ipilimumab, is conditionally approved in the United States to treat patients with aHCC who previously received sorafenib. We describe nivolumab monotherapy outcomes in patients with Child-Pugh B status. Methods: This phase I/II, open-label, non-comparative, multicentre trial (27 centres) included patients with Child-Pugh B (B7-B8) aHCC. Patients received intravenous nivolumab 240 mg every 2 weeks until unacceptable toxicity or disease progression. Primary endpoints were objective response rate (ORR) by investigator assessment (using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors v1.1) and duration of response. Safety was assessed using National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. Results: Twenty-five sorafenib-naive and 24 sorafenib-treated patients began treatment between November 2016 and October 2017 (median follow-up, 16.3 months). Investigator-assessed ORR was 12% (95% CI 5-25%) with 6 patients responding; disease control rate was 55% (95% CI 40-69%). Median time to response was 2.7 months (interquartile range, 1.4-4.2), and median duration of response was 9.9 months (95% CI 9.7-9.9). Treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) were reported in 25 patients (51%) and led to discontinuation in 2 patients (4%). The most frequent grade 3/4 TRAEs were hypertransaminasemia (n = 2), amylase increase (n = 2), and aspartate aminotransferase increase (n = 2). The safety of nivolumab was comparable to that in patients with Child-Pugh A aHCC. Conclusions: Nivolumab showed clinical activity and favourable safety with manageable toxicities, suggesting it could be suitable for patients with Child-Pugh B aHCC. Lay summary: In patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, almost all systemic therapies require very good liver function, i.e. Child-Pugh A status. The evidence from this study suggests that nivolumab shows clinical activity and an acceptable safety profile in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma with Child-Pugh B status who have mild to moderate impairment of liver function or liver decompensation that might rule out other therapies. Further studies are warranted to assess the safety and efficacy of nivolumab in this patient population. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Association for the Study of the Liver.
  • Autores: Serrano-Macia, M.; Simón, J.; González-Rellán, M. J.; et al.
    Revista: MOLECULAR METABOLISM
    ISSN 2212-8778 Vol.53 2021 págs. 101275
    Resumen
    Objective: Neddylation is a druggable and reversible ubiquitin-like post-translational modification upregulated in many diseases, including liver fibrosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and more recently, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Herein, we propose to address the effects of neddylation inhibition and the underlying mechanisms in pre-clinical models of NAFLD. Methods: Hepatic neddylation measured by immunohistochemical analysis and NEDD8 serum levels measured by ELISA assay were evaluated in NAFLD clinical and pre-clinical samples. The effects of neddylation inhibition by using a pharmacological small inhibitor, MLN4924, or molecular approaches were assessed in isolated mouse hepatocytes and pre-clinical mouse models of diet-induced NAFLD, male adult C57BL/6 mice, and the AlfpCre transgenic mice infected with AAV-DIO-shNedd8. Results: Neddylation inhibition reduced lipid accumulation in oleic acid-stimulated mouse primary hepatocytes and ameliorated liver steatosis, preventing lipid peroxidation and inflammation in the mouse models of diet-induced NAFLD. Under these conditions, increased Deptor levels and the concomitant repression of mTOR signaling were associated with augmented fatty acid oxidation and reduced lipid content. Moreover, Deptor silencing in isolated mouse hepatocytes abolished the anti-steatotic effects mediated by neddylation inhibition. Finally, serum NEDD8 levels correlated with hepatic neddylation during the disease progression in the clinical and pre-clinical models Conclusions: Overall, the upregulation of Deptor, driven by neddylation inhibition, is proposed as a novel effective target and therapeutic approach to tackle NAFLD.
  • Autores: Ocal, O.; Kupcinskas, J.; Morkunas, E.; et al.
    Revista: EJNMMI RESEARCH
    ISSN 2191-219X Vol.11 N° 1 2021 págs. 51
    Resumen
    Background To confirm the prognostic value of previously published baseline interleukin 6 (IL6) and IL8 cutoff values in survival and liver dysfunction in patients with advanced HCC undergoing Y-90 radioembolization. Methods A total of 83 patients (77 male) represented a subset of HCC patients undergoing Y-90 radioembolization combined with sorafenib as part of the prospective multicenter phase II trial SORAMIC. IL6 and IL8 levels were determined in serum samples collected at baseline. In this post hoc analysis, we sought to confirm the prognostic value of baseline cutoff values of 6.53 pg/mL and 60.8 pg/mL for IL6 and IL8, respectively, in overall survival (OS) or liver dysfunction (grade 2 bilirubin increase) after treatment. Results Median OS was 12.0 months. While low baseline albumin and high bilirubin values were associated with high IL6, liver cirrhosis, alcoholic liver disease, and portal vein infiltration were associated with high IL8. In univariate analysis, high baseline IL6 and IL8 were associated with significantly shorter overall survival (7.8 vs. 19.0 months for IL6 and 8.4 vs. 16.0 months for IL8). In addition to IL values, liver cirrhosis, Child-Pugh grade, baseline albumin (< 36 g/dL), and total bilirubin (>= 17 mu mol/L), and higher mALBI grade (2b &3) values were associated with OS. At multivariate analysis, high baseline IL6 was the only independent prognostic factor for OS (HR 2.35 [1.35-4.1], p = 0.002). Risk factors for liver dysfunction were high baseline IL6, albumin, and total bilirubin, and mALBI grade as found in univariate analysis. High baseline IL6 (HR 2.67 [1.21-5.94], p = 0.016) and total bilirubin >= 17 mu mol/L (HR 3.73 [1.72-8.06], p < 0.001) were independently associated with liver dysfunction. Conclusion In advanced HCC patients receiving Y-90 radioembolization combined with sorafenib, baseline IL6 values proved to be prognostic, confirming previous findings in patients undergoing (90)Yradioembolization. IL6 might be useful for patient selection or stratification in future trials.
  • Autores: Kelley, R. K.; Sangro Gómez-Acebo, Bruno Carlos (Autor de correspondencia); Harris, W.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY
    ISSN 0732-183X Vol.39 N° 27 2021 págs. 2991 - 3001
    Resumen
    PURPOSE This phase I/II study evaluated tremelimumab (anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 monoclonal antibody) and durvalumab (antiprogrammed death ligand-1 monoclonal antibody) as monotherapies and in combination for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), including a novel regimen featuring a single, priming dose of tremelimumab (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: ). PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with HCC who had progressed on, were intolerant to, or refused sorafenib were randomly assigned to receive T300 + D (tremelimumab 300 mg plus durvalumab 1,500 mg [one dose each during the first cycle] followed by durvalumab 1,500 mg once every 4 weeks), durvalumab monotherapy (1,500 mg once every 4 weeks), tremelimumab monotherapy (750 mg once every 4 weeks [seven doses] and then once every 12 weeks), or T75 + D (tremelimumab 75 mg once every 4 weeks plus durvalumab 1,500 mg once every 4 weeks [four doses] followed by durvalumab 1,500 mg once every 4 weeks). Safety was the primary end point. Secondary end points included objective response rate (ORR) by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors v1.1 and overall survival; exploratory end points included circulating lymphocyte profiles. RESULTS A total of 332 patients were enrolled (T300 + D, n = 75; durvalumab, n = 104; tremelimumab, n = 69; and T75 + D, n = 84). Tolerability was acceptable across arms, with grade >= 3 treatment-related adverse events occurring in 37.8%, 20.8%, 43.5%, and 24.4%, respectively. Confirmed ORRs (95% CI) were 24.0% (14.9 to 35.3), 10.6% (5.4 to 18.1), 7.2% (2.4 to 16.1), and 9.5% (4.2 to 17.9), respectively. An early expansion of CD8+ lymphocytes was associated with response across arms, with highest proliferating CD8+ lymphocyte levels occurring in the T300 + D arm. The median (95% CI) overall survival was 18.7 (10.8 to 27.3), 13.6 (8.7 to 17.6), 15.1 (11.3 to 20.5), and 11.3 (8.4 to 15.0) months in the T300 + D, durvalumab, tremelimumab, and T75 + D arms, respectively. CONCLUSION All regimens were found to be tolerable and clinically active; however, the T300 + D regimen demonstrated the most encouraging benefit-risk profile. The unique pharmacodynamic activity and association with ORR of the T300 + D regimen further support its continued evaluation in HCC.
  • Autores: Reig, M.; Forner, A.; Ávila Zaragoza, Matías Antonio; et al.
    Revista: MEDICINA CLINICA
    ISSN 0025-7753 Vol.156 N° 9 2021 págs. 463.e1 - 463.e30
    Resumen
    El carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC) es la neoplasia primaria de hígado más frecuente y una de las causas de muerte más común en los pacientes afectos de cirrosis hepática. Simultáneamente al reconocimiento de la relevancia clínica de esta neoplasia, en los últimos años han aparecido novedades importantes en el diagnóstico, evaluación pronóstica y, especialmente, en el tratamiento del CHC. Por tal motivo, desde la Asociación Española para el Estudio del Hígado (AEEH) se ha impulsado la necesidad de actualizar las guías de práctica clínica, invitando de nuevo a todas las sociedades involucradas en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de esta enfermedad a participar en la redacción y aprobación del documento: Sociedad Española de Trasplante Hepático (SETH), Sociedad Española de Radiología Médica (SERAM), Sociedad Española de Radiología Vascular e Intervencionista (SERVEI), Asociación Española de Cirujanos (AEC) y Sociedad Española de Oncología Médica (SEOM). Se han tomado como documentos de referencia las guías de práctica clínica publicadas en 2016, aceptadas como Guía de Práctica Clínica del Sistema Nacional de Salud, incorporando los avances más importantes que se han obtenido en los últimos años. La evidencia científica y la fuerza de la recomendación se basa en el sistema GRADE. © 2020 Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo la licencia CC
  • Autores: Rimola, J.; Fonseca, L. G. ; Sapena, V.; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY
    ISSN 0720-048X Vol.135 2021 págs. 109484
    Resumen
    Background and aims: Immune-checkpoint inhibitors are effective in many advanced tumors. However, there is scarce information regarding the radiological response to these agents in hepatocellular carcinoma outside clinical trials. We aimed to describe the radiological response in a retrospective cohort of hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with nivolumab and to analyze the radiological evolution according to tumor response at first post-treatment radiological assessment. Methods: We reviewed pre-treatment and post-treatment images (CT or MRI) obtained at different time-points in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated with nivolumab outside clinical trials at seven Spanish centers, assessing the response according to RECIST 1.1 and iRECIST and registering atypical responses. We also analyzed the imaging findings on subsequent assessments according to tumor status on the first posttreatment imaging assessment. Results: From the 118 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated with nivolumab, we finally analyzed data from 31 patients (71 % Child-Pugh A; 74 % BCLC-C). Median follow-up was 8.39 months [IQR 5.00-10.92]; median overall survival was 12.82 months (95 %CI 10.92-34.79). According to RECIST 1.1, the objective response rate was 16 % and according to iRECIST, the objective response rate was 22.6 %. Findings at the first post-treatment assessment varied, showing stable disease in 44.8 % of patients; findings during follow-up also varied widely, including 4 hyperprogressions and 3 pseudoprogressions. Conclusion: Imaging findings during nivolumab treatment are heterogeneous between and within patients. Progression of disease does not always signify treatment failure, and surrogate end-points may not reflect survival outcomes, making the management of hepatocellular carcinoma patients under immunotherapy challenging.
  • Autores: Massey, V.; Parrish, A.; Argemí Ballbé, José María; et al.
    Revista: GASTROENTEROLOGY
    ISSN 0016-5085 Vol.160 N° 5 2021 págs. 1725 - 1740
    Resumen
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: We recently showed that alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is characterized by dedifferentiation of hepatocytes and loss of mature functions. Glucose metabolism is tightly regulated in healthy hepatocytes. We hypothesize that AH may lead to metabolic reprogramming of the liver, including dysregulation of glucose metabolism. METHODS: We performed integrated metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses of liver tissue from patients with AH or alcoholic cirrhosis or normal liver tissue from hepatic resection. Focused analyses of chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to DNA sequencing was performed. Functional in vitro studies were performed in primary rat and human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. RESULTS: Patients with AH exhibited specific changes in the levels of intermediates of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and monosaccharide and disaccharide metabolism. Integrated analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome showed the used of alternate energetic pathways, metabolite sinks and bottlenecks, and dysregulated glucose storage in patients with AH. Among genes involved in glucose metabolism, hexokinase domain containing 1 (HKDC1) was identified as the most up-regulated kinase in patients with AH. Histone active promoter and enhancer markers were increased in the HKDC1 genomic region. High HKDC1 levels were associated with the development of acute kidney injury and decreased survival. Increased HKDC1 activity contributed to the accumulation of glucose-6-P and glycogen in primary rat hepatocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Altered metabolite levels and messenger RNA expression of metabolic enzymes suggest the existence of extensive reprogramming of glucose metabolism in AH. Increased HKDC1 expression may contribute to dysregulated glucose metabolism and represents a novel biomarker and therapeutic target for AH.
  • Autores: Yu, A. T.; Berasain Lasarte, María del Carmen; Bhatia, S.; et al.
    Revista: ELIFE
    ISSN 2050-084X Vol.10 2021 págs. e68263
    Resumen
    Hepatocellular carcinoma, the most common type of liver malignancy, is one of the most lethal forms of cancer. We identified a long non-coding RNA, Gm19705, that is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and mouse embryonic stem cells. We named this RNA Pluripotency and Hepatocyte Associated RNA Overexpressed in HCC, or PHAROH. Depletion of PHAROH impacts cell proliferation and migration, which can be rescued by ectopic expression of PHAROH. RNA-seq analysis of PHAROH knockouts revealed that a large number of genes with decreased expression contain a Myc motif in their promoter. MYC is decreased in knockout cells at the protein level, but not the mRNA level. RNA-antisense pulldown identified nucleolysin TIAR, a translational repressor, to bind to a 71-nt hairpin within PHAROH, sequestration of which increases MYC translation. In summary, our data suggest that PHAROH regulates MYC translation by sequestering TIAR and as such represents a potentially exciting diagnostic or therapeutic target in hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Autores: Blaya, D.; Rubio-Tomás, T.; Rodrigo-Torres, D.; et al.
    Revista: HEPATOLOGY INTERNATIONAL
    ISSN 1936-0533 Vol.15 N° 4 2021 págs. 106 - 1017
    Resumen
    Objectives Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a severe condition characterized by a marked inflammatory response and high short-term mortality. Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is an early event in vascular and inflammatory disorders. The aim of this study is to evaluate ED in AH patients. Methods Prognostic value of ED biomarkers was evaluated in patients with severe AH (n = 67), compensated alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 15), heavy drinkers without liver disease (n = 15) and controls (n = 9), and in a validation cohort of 50 patients with AH. Gene expression of ED markers was analyzed in liver tissue. Results Plasma levels of ED markers such as vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), E-selectin and von Willebrand factor (vWF) increased along alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) progression. Intergroup analysis showed a significant increase of these markers in AH patients. In addition, VCAM-1 showed a positive correlation with Maddrey, MELD and ABIC scores and inflammation parameters (i.e. C-reactive protein and LPS levels). Importantly, levels of VCAM-1 were higher in patients with increased mortality and were independently associated with short-term survival (90-day) when adjusted by ABIC score. These results were confirmed in an independent cohort of AH patients. In addition, severe AH patients showed altered hepatic expression of ED markers. Conclusions In this study we show that advanced ALD and particularly severe AH is associated with an increase of ED biomarkers, which correlate with patient outcomes. These results suggest that ED may be a pathogenic event in AH and highlight endothelial factors as potential biomarkers in AH.
  • Autores: Lewinska, M.; Santos-Laso, A.; Arretxe, E.; et al.
    Revista: EBIOMEDICINE
    ISSN 2352-3964 Vol.73 2021
    Resumen
    Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is affecting more people globally. Indeed, NAFLD is a spectrum of metabolic dysfunctions that can progress to hepatocellular carcinoma (NAFLD-HCC). This development can occur in a non-cirrhotic liver and thus, often lack clinical surveillance. The aim of this study was to develop non-invasive surveillance method for NAFLD-HCC. Methods: Using comprehensive ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry, we investigated 1,295 metabolites in serum from 249 patients. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated for all detected metabolites and used to establish their diagnostic potential. Logistic regression analysis was used to establish the diagnostic score. Findings: We show that NAFLD-HCC is characterised by a complete rearrangement of the serum lipidome, which distinguishes NAFLD-HCC from non-cancerous individuals and other HCC patients. We used machine learning to build a diagnostic model for NAFLD-HCC. We quantified predictive metabolites and developed the NAFLD-HCC Diagnostic Score (NHDS), presenting superior diagnostic potential compared to alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Patients' metabolic landscapes show a progressive depletion in unsaturated fatty acids and acylcarnitines during transformation. Upregulation of fatty acid transporters in NAFLD-HCC tumours contribute to fatty acid depletion in the serum. Interpretation: NAFLD-HCC patients can be efficiently distinguished by serum metabolic alterations from the healthy population and from HCC patients related to other aetiologies (alcohol and viral hepatitis). Our model can be used for non-invasive surveillance of individuals with metabolic syndrome(s), allowing for early detection of NAFLD-HCC. Therefore, serum metabolomics may provide valuable insight to monitor patients at risk, including morbidly obese, diabetics, and NAFLD patients. (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Autores: Benede Ubieto, R.; Estevez Vazquez, O.; Guo, F.; et al.
    Revista: HEPATOLOGY COMMUNICATIONS
    ISSN 2471-254X Vol.5 N° 6 2021 págs. 1051 - 1068
    Resumen
    Individuals exhibiting an intermediate alcohol drinking pattern in conjunction with signs of metabolic risk present clinical features of both alcohol-associated and metabolic-associated fatty liver diseases. However, such combination remains an unexplored area of great interest, given the increasing number of patients affected. In the present study, we aimed to develop a preclinical DUAL (alcohol-associated liver disease plus metabolic-associated fatty liver disease) model in mice. C57BL/6 mice received 10% vol/vol alcohol in sweetened drinking water in combination with a Western diet for 10, 23, and 52 weeks (DUAL model). Animals fed with DUAL diet elicited a significant increase in body mass index accompanied by a pronounced hypertrophy of adipocytes, hypercholesterolemia, and hyperglycemia. Significant liver damage was characterized by elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase levels, extensive hepatomegaly, hepatocyte enlargement, ballooning, steatosis, hepatic cell death, and compensatory proliferation. Notably, DUAL animals developed lobular inflammation and advanced hepatic fibrosis. Sequentially, bridging cirrhotic changes were frequently observed after 12 months. Bulk RNA-sequencing analysis indicated that dysregulated molecular pathways in DUAL mice were similar to those of patients with steatohepatitis. Conclusion: Our DUAL model is characterized by obesity, glucose intolerance, liver damage, prominent steatohepatitis and fibrosis, as well as inflammation and fibrosis in white adipose tissue. Altogether, the DUAL model mimics all histological, metabolic, and transcriptomic gene signatures of human advanced steatohepatitis, and therefore serves as a preclinical tool for the development of therapeutic targets.
  • Autores: Benede Ubieto, R.; Estevez Vazquez, O.; Flores Perojo, V.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE
    ISSN 2077-0383 Vol.10 N° 5 2021 págs. 1039
    Resumen
    The outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 epidemic has rapidly spread and still poses a serious threat to healthcare systems worldwide. In the present study, electronic medical records containing clinical indicators related to liver injury in 799 COVID-19-confirmed patients admitted to a hospital in Madrid (Spain) were extracted and analyzed. Correlation between liver injury and disease outcome was also evaluated. Serum levels of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and AST/ALT ratio were elevated above the Upper Limit of Normal (ULN) in 25.73%, 49.17%, 34.62%, 24.21%, 55.84% and 75% of patients, respectively. Interestingly, significant positive correlation between LDH levels and the AST/ALT ratio with disease outcome was found. Our data showed that SARS-CoV-2 virus infection leads to mild, but significant changes in serum markers of liver injury. The upregulated LDH levels as well as AST/ALT ratios upon admission may be used as additional diagnostic characteristic for COVID-19 patients.
  • Autores: Recalde, M.; Gárate Rascón, María; Elizalde Pérez, Arlette María; et al.
    Revista: NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH
    ISSN 0305-1048 Vol.49 N° 15 2021 págs. 8592 - 8609
    Resumen
    Gene expression is finely and dynamically controlled through the tightly coordinated and interconnected activity of epigenetic modulators, transcription and splicing factors and post-translational modifiers. We have recently identified the splicing factor SLU7 as essential for maintaining liver cell identity and genome integrity and for securing cell division both trough transcriptional and splicing mechanisms. Now we uncover a new function of SLU7 controlling gene expression at the epigenetic level. We show that SLU7 is required to secure DNMT1 protein stability and a correct DNA methylation. We demonstrate that SLU7 is part in the chromatome of the protein complex implicated in DNA methylation maintenance interacting with and controlling the integrity of DNMT1, its adaptor protein UHRF1 and the histone methyl-transferase G9a at the chromatin level. Mechanistically, we found that SLU7 assures DNMT1 stability preventing its acetylation and degradation by facilitating its interaction with HDAC1 and the desubiquitinase USP7. Importantly, we demonstrate that this DNMT1 dependency on SLU7 occurs in a large panel of proliferating cell lines of different origins and in in vivo models of liver proliferation. Overall, our results uncover a novel and non-redundant role of SLU7 in DNA methylation and present SLU7 as a holistic regulator of gene expression.
  • Autores: Pereira, P. L. ; Iezzi, R.; Manfredi, R.; et al.
    Revista: CARDIOVASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY
    ISSN 0174-1551 Vol.44 N° 1 2021 págs. 50 - 62
    Resumen
    Purpose Transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) using irinotecan-eluting beads is an additional treatment option for colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRLM) patients that are not eligible for curative treatment approaches. This interim analysis focuses on feasibility of the planned statistical analysis regarding data distribution and completeness, treatment intention, safety and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of the first 50 patients prospectively enrolled in the CIrse REgistry for LifePearl (TM) microspheres (CIREL), an observational multicentre study conducted across Europe. Methods In total, 50 patients >= 18 years diagnosed with CRLM and decided to be treated with irinotecan-eluting LifePearl (TM) microspheres TACE (LP-irinotecan TACE) by a multidisciplinary tumour board. There were no further inclusion or exclusion criteria. The primary endpoint is the categorisation of treatment intention, and secondary endpoints presented in this interim analysis are safety, treatment considerations and HRQOL. Results LP-irinotecan TACE was conducted in 42% of patients as salvage therapy, 20% as an intensification treatment, 16% as a first-line treatment, 14% a consolidation treatment and 8% combination treatment with ablation with curative intent. Grade 3 and 4 adverse events were reported by 4% of patients during procedure and by 10% within 30 days. While 38% reported a worse, 62% reported a stable or better global health score, and 54% of patients with worse global health score were treated as salvage therapy patients. Conclusion This interim analysis confirms in a prospective analysis the feasibility of the study, with an acceptable toxicity profile. More patients reported a stable or improved HRQOL than deterioration. Deterioration of HRQOL was seen especially in salvage therapy patients.
  • Autores: Herrero Santos, José Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Quinones, M.; Perez, X.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL TRANSPLANTATION
    ISSN 0902-0063 Vol.35 N° 1 2021 págs. e14154
    Resumen
    Background Liver transplant recipients have an increased incidence of malignancies, but it is unclear whether they have a higher risk of colorectal cancer. Aim To investigate whether liver transplant recipients have an increased risk of developing colorectal adenomas (a surrogate marker of colorectal cancer risk). Patients and methods One hundred thirty-nine liver transplant recipients (excluding primary sclerosing cholangitis) who underwent a colonoscopy and polypectomy before and after transplantation, and 367 nontransplanted patients who underwent a colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening and a second colonoscopy later were retrospectively studied. The risks of incident colorectal adenomas and high-risk adenomas (advanced or multiple adenomas or carcinomas) were compared between both cohorts. Results Incident colorectal adenomas were found in 40.3% of the transplanted patients and 30.0% of the nontransplanted patients (15.1% and 5.5%, respectively, had high-risk adenomas). After adjusting for age, sex, presence of adenomas in the baseline endoscopy, and interval between colonoscopies, transplant recipients showed a higher risk of developing colorectal adenomas (OR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.05-2.47; p = .03) and high-risk adenomas (OR: 2.87; 95% CI: 1.46-5.65; p = .002). Conclusions Our results suggest that liver transplant recipients have an increased risk of developing colorectal adenomas and lesions with high risk of colorectal cancer.
  • Autores: Jericó Asenjo, Daniel; Córdoba Quiñones, Karol Marcela; Jiang, L.; et al.
    Revista: MOLECULAR THERAPY - NUCLEIC ACIDS
    ISSN 2162-2531 Vol.25 2021 págs. 207 - 219
    Resumen
    Variegate porphyria (VP) results from haploinsufficiency of pro-toporphyrinogen oxidase (PPDX), the seventh enzyme in the heme synthesis pathway. There is no VP model that recapitulates the clinical manifestations of acute attacks. Combined administrations of 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide and rifampicin in rabbits halved hepatic PP OX activity, resulting in increased accumulation of a potentially neurotoxic heme precursor, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and hepatocyte cytoplasmic stress. Rabbits also showed hypertension, motor impairment, reduced activity of critical mitochondrial hemoprotein functions, and altered glucose homeostasis. Hemin treatment only resulted in a slight drop in heme precursor accumulation but further increased hepatic heme catabolism, inflammation, and cytoplasmic stress. Hemin replenishment did protect against hypertension, but it failed to restore action potentials in the sciatic nerve or glucose homeostasis. Systemic porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) mRNA administration increased hepatic PBGD activity, the third enzyme of the pathway, and rapidly normalized serum and urine porphyrin precursor levels. All features studied were improved, including those related to critical hemoprotein functions. In conclusion, the VP model recapitulates the biochemical characteristics and some clinical manifestations associated with severe acute attacks in humans.
  • Autores: Gárate Rascón, María; Recalde, M.; Jiménez Andrés, Maddalen; et al.
    Revista: HEPATOLOGY
    ISSN 0270-9139 Vol.74 N° 5 2021 págs. 2791 - 2807
    Resumen
    Background and Aims Hepatocellular dedifferentiation is emerging as an important determinant in liver disease progression. Preservation of mature hepatocyte identity relies on a set of key genes, predominantly the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4 alpha) but also splicing factors like SLU7. How these factors interact and become dysregulated and the impact of their impairment in driving liver disease are not fully understood. Approach and Results Expression of SLU7 and that of the adult and oncofetal isoforms of HNF4 alpha, driven by its promoter 1 (P1) and P2, respectively, was studied in diseased human and mouse livers. Hepatic function and damage response were analyzed in wild-type and Slu7-haploinsufficient/heterozygous (Slu7(+/-)) mice undergoing chronic (CCl4) and acute (acetaminophen) injury. SLU7 expression was restored in CCl4-injured mice using SLU7-expressing adeno-associated viruses (AAV-SLU7). The hepatocellular SLU7 interactome was characterized by mass spectrometry. Reduced SLU7 expression in human and mouse diseased livers correlated with a switch in HNF4 alpha P1 to P2 usage. This response was reproduced in Slu7(+/-) mice, which displayed increased sensitivity to chronic and acute liver injury, enhanced oxidative stress, and marked impairment of hepatic functions. AAV-SLU7 infection prevented liver injury and hepatocellular dedifferentiation. Mechanistically we demonstrate a unique role for SLU7 in the preservation of HNF4 alpha 1 protein stability through its capacity to protect the liver against oxidative stress. SLU7 is herein identified as a key component of the stress granule proteome, an essential part of the cell's antioxidant machinery. Conclusions Our results place SLU7 at the highest level of hepatocellular identity control, identifying SLU7 as a link between stress-protective mechanisms and liver differentiation. These findings emphasize the importance of the preservation of hepatic functions in the protection from liver injury.
  • Autores: Moron Ros, S.; Uriarte, I.; Berasain Lasarte, María del Carmen; et al.
    Revista: MOLECULAR METABOLISM
    ISSN 2212-8778 Vol.43 2021 págs. 101113
    Resumen
    Objective: To determine the role of enterokine FGF15/19 in adipose tissue thermogenic adaptations. Methods: Circulating FGF19 and gene expression (qRT-PCR) levels were assessed in subcutaneous adipose tissue from obese human patients. Effects of experimentally increased FGF15 and FGF19 levels in vivo were determined in mice using adenoviral and adeno-associated vectors. Adipose tissues were characterized in FGF15-null mice under distinct cold-related thermogenic challenges. The analyses spanned metabolic profiling, tissue characterization, histology, gene expression, and immunoblot assays. Results: In humans, FGF19 levels are directly associated with UCP1 gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Experimental increases in FGF15 or FGF19 induced white fat browning in mice as demonstrated by the appearance of multilocular beige cells and markers indicative of a beige phenotype, including increased UCP1 protein levels. Mice lacking FGF15 showed markedly impaired white adipose tissue browning and a mild reduction in parameters indicative of BAT activity in response to cold-induced environmental thermogenic challenges. This was concomitant with signs of altered systemic metabolism, such as reduced glucose tolerance and impaired cold-induced insulin sensitization. Conclusions: Enterokine FGF15/19 is a key factor required for adipose tissue plasticity in response to thermogenic adaptations. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
  • Autores: Mirra, S.; Gavalda Navarro, A.; Manso, Y.; et al.
    Revista: CANCERS
    ISSN 2072-6694 Vol.13 N° 5 2021 págs. 1110
    Resumen
    Simple Summary An excess fat in the liver enhances the susceptibility to hepatic cancer. We found that Armcx3, a protein only known to date to play a role in neural development, is strongly increased in mouse liver in response to lipid availability and proliferation-inducing insults. In patients, the levels of hepatic Armcx3 are also increased in conditions of high exposure of the liver to fat. We wanted to determine the role of Armcx3 in the hepatocarcinogenesis favored by a high-fat diet. We generated mice with genetically driven suppression of Armcx3, and we found that they were protected against experimentally induced hepatic cancer, especially in conditions of a high-fat diet. Armcx3 was also found to promote hepatic cell proliferation through the interaction with Sox9, a known proliferation factor in hepatocellular carcinoma. Armcx3 is identified as a novel factor in meditating propensity to liver cancer in conditions of high hepatic lipid insults. ARMCX3 is encoded by a member of the Armcx gene family and is known to be involved in nervous system development and function. We found that ARMCX3 is markedly upregulated in mouse liver in response to high lipid availability, and that hepatic ARMCX3 is upregulated in patients with NAFLD and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Mice were subjected to ARMCX3 invalidation (inducible ARMCX3 knockout) and then exposed to a high-fat diet and diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. The effects of experimental ARMCX3 knockdown or overexpression in HCC cell lines were also analyzed. ARMCX3 invalidation protected mice against high-fat-diet-induced NAFLD and chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis. ARMCX3 invalidation promoted apoptotic cell death and macrophage infiltration in livers of diethylnitrosamine-treated mice maintained on a high-fat diet. ARMCX3 downregulation reduced the viability, clonality and migration of HCC cell lines, whereas ARMCX3 overexpression caused the reciprocal effects. SOX9 was found to mediate the effects of ARMCX3 in hepatic cells, with the SOX9 interaction required for the effects of ARMCX3 on hepatic cell proliferation. In conclusion, ARMCX3 is identified as a novel molecular actor in liver physiopathology and carcinogenesis. ARMCX3 downregulation appears to protect against hepatocarcinogenesis, especially under conditions of high dietary lipid-mediated hepatic insult.
  • Autores: Carotti, S.; Zingariello, M.; Francesconi, M.; et al.
    Revista: ONCOGENE
    ISSN 0950-9232 Vol.40 N° 23 2021 págs. 4033 - 4049
    Resumen
    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is a rare malignancy of the intrahepatic biliary tract with a very poor prognosis. Although some clinicopathological parameters can be prognostic factors for iCCA, the molecular prognostic markers and potential mechanisms of iCCA have not been well investigated. Here, we report that the Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), a RNA binding protein functionally absent in patients with the Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and also involved in several types of cancers, is overexpressed in human iCCA and its expression is significantly increased in iCCA metastatic tissues. The silencing of FMRP in metastatic iCCA cell lines affects cell migration and invasion, suggesting a role of FMRP in iCCA progression. Moreover, we show evidence that FMRP is localized at the invasive front of human iCCA neoplastic nests and in pseudopodia and invadopodia protrusions of migrating and invading iCCA cancer cells. Here FMRP binds several mRNAs encoding key proteins involved in the formation and/or function of these protrusions. In particular, we find that FMRP binds to and regulates the expression of Cortactin, a critical regulator of invadopodia formation. Altogether, our findings suggest that FMRP could promote cell invasiveness modulating membrane plasticity and invadopodia formation at the leading edges of invading iCCA cells.
  • Autores: Maestro Galilea, Sheila; Córdoba Quiñones, Karol Marcela; Olague Micheltorena, María Cristina; et al.
    Revista: BIOMEDICINE AND PHARMACOTHERAPY
    ISSN 0753-3322 Vol.137 2021 págs. 111384
    Resumen
    Antiviral agents with different mechanisms of action could induce synergistic effects against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Some reports suggest the therapeutic potential of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) enzyme against virus infection. Given that hemin is a natural inducer of the HO-1 gene, the aim of this study was to develop an in vitro assay to analyze the antiviral potency of hemin against SARS-CoV-2 infection. A SARS-CoV-2 infectivity assay was conducted in Vero-E6 and Calu-3 epithelial cell lines. The antiviral effect of hemin, and chloroquine as a control, against SARS-CoV-2 virus infection was quantified by RT-qPCR using specific oligonucleotides for the N gene. Chloroquine induced a marked reduction of viral genome copies in kidney epithelial Vero-E6 cells but not in lung cancer Calu-3 cells. Hemin administration to the culture medium induced a high induction in the expression of the HO-1 gene that was stronger in Vero-E6 macaque-derived cells than in the human Calu-3 cell line. However, hemin treatment did not modify SARS-CoV-2 replication, as measured by viral genome quantification 48 h post-infection for Vero-E6 and 72 h post-infection for the Calu-3 lineages. In conclusion, although exposure to hemin induced strong HO-1 up-regulation, this effect was unable to inhibit or delay the progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection in two epithelial cell lines susceptible to infection. Antiviral agents with different mechanisms of action could induce synergistic effects against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Some reports suggest the therapeutic potential of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) enzyme against virus infection. Given that hemin is a natural inducer of the HO-1 gene, the aim of this study was to develop an in vitro assay to analyze the antiviral potency of hemin against SARS-CoV-2 infection. A SARS-CoV-2 infectivity assay was conducted in Vero-E6 and Calu-3 epithelial cell lines. The antiviral effect of hemin, and chloroquine as a control, against SARS-CoV-2 virus infection was quantified by RT-qPCR using specific oligonucleotides for the N gene. Chloroquine induced a marked reduction of viral genome copies in kidney epithelial Vero-E6 cells but not in lung cancer Calu-3 cells. Hemin administration to the culture medium induced a high induction in the expression of the HO-1 gene that was stronger in Vero-E6 macaque-derived cells than in the human Calu-3 cell line. However, hemin treatment did not modify SARS-CoV-2 replication, as measured by viral genome quantification 48 h post-infection for Vero-E6 and 72 h post-infection for the Calu-3 lineages. In conclusion, although exposure to hemin induced strong HO-1 up-regulation, this effect was unable to inhibit or delay the progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection in two epithelial cell lines susceptible to infection.
  • Autores: Bárcena Varela, Marina; Paish, H.; Álvarez Asiain, Laura; et al.
    Revista: GUT
    ISSN 0017-5749 Vol.70 N° 2 2021 págs. 388 - 400
    Resumen
    Objective Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) transdifferentiation into myofibroblasts is central to fibrogenesis. Epigenetic mechanisms, including histone and DNA methylation, play a key role in this process. Concerted action between histone and DNA-mehyltransferases like G9a and DNMT1 is a common theme in gene expression regulation. We aimed to study the efficacy of CM272, a first-in-class dual and reversible G9a/DNMT1 inhibitor, in halting fibrogenesis. Design G9a and DNMT1 were analysed in cirrhotic human livers, mouse models of liver fibrosis and cultured mouse HSC. G9a and DNMT1 expression was knocked down or inhibited with CM272 in human HSC (hHSC), and transcriptomic responses to transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF beta 1) were examined. Glycolytic metabolism and mitochondrial function were analysed with Seahorse-XF technology. Gene expression regulation was analysed by chromatin immunoprecipitation and methylation-specific PCR. Antifibrogenic activity and safety of CM272 were studied in mouse chronic CCl4 administration and bile duct ligation (BDL), and in human precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs) in a new bioreactor technology. Results G9a and DNMT1 were detected in stromal cells in areas of active fibrosis in human and mouse livers. G9a and DNMT1 expression was induced during mouse HSC activation, and TGF beta 1 triggered their chromatin recruitment in hHSC. G9a/DNMT1 knockdown and CM272 inhibited TGF beta 1 fibrogenic responses in hHSC. TGF beta 1-mediated profibrogenic metabolic reprogramming was abrogated by CM272, which restored gluconeogenic gene expression and mitochondrial function through on-target epigenetic effects. CM272 inhibited fibrogenesis in mice and PCLSs without toxicity. Conclusions Dual G9a/DNMT1 inhibition by compounds like CM272 may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating liver fibrosis.
  • Autores: Ricke, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Schinner, R.; Seidensticker, M.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.75 N° 6 2021 págs. 1387 - 1396
    Resumen
    Background & Aims: SORAMIC is a previously published randomised controlled trial assessing survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma who received sorafenib with or without selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT). Based on the per-protocol (PP) population, we assessed whether the outcome of patients receiving SIRT+sorafenib vs. sorafenib alone was affected by adverse effects of SIRT on liver function. Methods: The PP population consisted of 109 (SIRT+sorafenib) vs. 173 patients (sorafenib alone). Comparisons were made between subgroups who achieved a significant survival benefit or trend towards improved survival with SIRT and the inverse group without a survival benefit: <65 years-old vs. >= 65 years-old, Child Pugh 5 vs. 6, no transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) vs. prior TACE, no cirrhosis vs. cirrhosis, non-alcohol-vs. alcohol-related aetiology. The albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) score was used to monitor liver function over time during follow-up. Results: ALBI scores increased in all patient groups during follow-up. In the PP population, ALBI score increases were higher in the SIRT+sorafenib than the sorafenib arm (p = 0.0021 month 4, p <0.0001 from month 6). SIRT+sorafenib conferred a survival benefit compared to sorafenib alone in patients aged <65 years old, those without cirrhosis, those with Child-Pugh 5, and those who had not received TACE. A higher increase in ALBI score was observed in the inverse subgroups in whom survival was not improved by adding SIRT (age >= 65 years-old, p <0.05; cirrhosis, p = 0.07; Child-Pugh 6, p <0.05; prior TACE, p = 0.08). Conclusion: SIRT frequently has a negative, often subclinical, effect on liver function in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, which may impair prognosis after treatment. Careful patient selection for SIRT as well as prevention of clinical and subclinical liver damage by selective treatments, high tumour uptake ratio, and medical prophylaxis could translate into better efficacy. Clinical trial number: EudraCT 2009-012576-27, NCT01126645 Lay summary: This study of treatments in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma found that selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) has an adverse effect on liver function that may affect patient outcomes. Patients should be carefully selected before they undergo SIRT and the treatment technique should be optimised for maximum protection of non-target liver parenchyma.(C) 2021 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Autores: Onorato, A. M.; Fiore, E.; Bayo, J.; et al.
    Revista: LIVER INTERNATIONAL
    ISSN 1478-3223 Vol.41 N° 7 2021 págs. 1677 - 1693
    Resumen
    Background and aims Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) and its more serious form non-alcoholic steatohepatitis increase risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Lipid metabolic alterations and its role in HCC development remain unclear. SPARC (Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine) is involved in lipid metabolism, NAFLD and diabetes, but the effects on hepatic lipid metabolism and HCC development is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of SPARC in HCC development in the context of NAFLD. Methods Primary hepatocyte cultures from knockout (SPARC(-/-)) or wild-type (SPARC(+/+)) mice, and HepG2 cells were used to assess the effects of free fatty acids on lipid accumulation, expression of lipogenic genes and de novo triglyceride (TG) synthesis. A NAFLD-HCC model was stabilized on SPARC(-/-) or SPARC(+/+) mice. Correlations among SPARC, lipid metabolism-related gene expression patterns and clinical prognosis were studied using HCC gene expression dataset. Results SPARC(-/-) mice increases hepatic lipid deposits over time. Hepatocytes from SPARC(-/-) mice or inhibition of SPARC by an antisense adenovirus in HepG2 cells resulted in increased TG deposit, expression of lipid-related genes and nuclear translocation of SREBP1c. Human HCC database analysis revealed that SPARC negatively correlated with genes involved in lipid metabolism, and with poor survival. In NAFLD-HCC murine model, the absence of SPARC accelerates HCC development. RNA-seq study revealed that pathways related to lipid metabolism, cellular detoxification and proliferation were upregulated in SPARC(-/-) tumour-bearing mice. Conclusions The absence of SPARC is associated with an altered hepatic lipid metabolism, and an accelerated NAFLD-related HCC development.
  • Autores: Muñoz-Martínez, S.; Sapena, V.; Forner, A.; et al.
    Revista: JHEP REPORTS
    ISSN 2589-5559 Vol.3 N° 3 2021 págs. 100260
    Resumen
    Background & Aims: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed unprecedented challenges to healthcare systems and it may have heavily impacted patients with liver cancer (LC). Herein, we evaluated whether the schedule of LC screening or procedures has been interrupted or delayed because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: An international survey evaluated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on clinical practice and clinical trials from March 2020 to June 2020, as the first phase of a multicentre, international, and observational project. The focus was on patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, cared for around the world during the first COVID-19 pandemic wave. Results: Ninety-one centres expressed interest to participate and 76 were included in the analysis, from Europe, South America, North America, Asia, and Africa (73.7%,17.1%, 5.3%, 2.6%, and 1.3% per continent, respectively). Eighty-seven percent of the centres modified their clinical practice: 40.8% the diagnostic procedures, 80.9% the screening programme, 50% cancelled curative and/or palliative treatments for LC, and 41.7% modified the liver transplantation programme. Forty-five out of 69 (65.2%) centres in which clinical trials were running modified their treatments in that setting, but 58.1% were able to recruit new patients. The phone call service was modified in 51.4% of centres which had this service before the COVID-19 pandemic (n = 19/37). Conclusions: The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic had a tremendous impact on the routine care of patients with liver cancer. Modifications in screening, diagnostic, and treatment algorithms may have significantly impaired the outcome of patients. Ongoing data collection and future analyses will report the benefits and disadvantages of the strategies implemented, aiding future decision-making. Lay summary: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed unprecedented challenges to healthcare systems globally. Herein, we assessed the impact of the first wave pandemic on patients with liver cancer and found that routine care for these patients has been majorly disrupted, which could have a significant impact on outcomes. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL).
  • Autores: Helmberger, T.; Arnold, D.; Balli, T.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY
    ISSN 0732-183X Vol.39 N° 3 2021 págs. 308 - 308
  • Autores: Rodríguez Agudo, R.; Goikoetxea, N.; Serrano-Macia, M.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.75 N° Supl. 2 2021 págs. S320 - S321
  • Autores: Kolligs, F.; Arnold, D.; Helmberger, T.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.75 N° Supl. 2 2021 págs. S244 - S245
  • Autores: Kim, T. Y.; Santoro, A.; Kang, Y. K.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY
    ISSN 0732-183X Vol.39 N° 3 Supl. 2021 págs. 269 - 269
  • Autores: Loeffler, M.; Izzo, F.; Gori, S.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.75 N° Supl. 2 2021 págs. S246 - S246
  • Autores: Goikoetxea-Usandizaga, N.; Egia-Mendikute, L.; Serrano-Macia, M.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.75 N° Supl. 2 2021 págs. S243 - S243
  • Autores: González-Recio, I.; Espinosa, J. S.; Goikoetxea-Usandizaga, N.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.75 N° Supl. 2 2021 págs. S301 - S302
  • Autores: Goikoetxea-Usandizaga, N.; Egia-Mendikute, L.; Serrano-Macia, M.; et al.
    Revista: HEPATOLOGY
    ISSN 0270-9139 Vol.74 2021 págs. 701A - 702A
  • Autores: Rodríguez Fraile, María Macarena; Cabrera Villegas, Antonio; Rosales Castillo, Juan Jose; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND MOLECULAR IMAGING
    ISSN 1619-7070 Vol.48 N° Supl. 1 2021 págs. S287
  • Autores: Serrano-Macia, M.; Espinosa, J. S.; González-Rellan, M. J.; et al.
    Revista: HEPATOLOGY
    ISSN 0270-9139 Vol.74 N° Supl. 1 2021 págs. 1146A - 1147A
  • Autores: Bataller, R.; Fernández-Carrillo, C.; Alvarado-Tapias, E.; et al.
    Revista: HEPATOLOGY
    ISSN 0270-9139 Vol.74 N° Supl. 1 2021 págs. 211A - 212A
  • Autores: Sangro Gómez-Acebo, Bruno Carlos; Harding, J. J.; Johnson, M.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY
    ISSN 0732-183X Vol.39 N° 3 Supl. 2021 págs. TPS349 - TPS349
  • Autores: Schaefer, N.; Sangro Gómez-Acebo, Bruno Carlos; Kolligs, F.; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY
    ISSN 0923-7534 Vol.32 N° Supl. 3 2021 págs. S143
  • Autores: Serrano-Macia, M.; Espinosa, J. S.; González Rellán, M. J.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.75 N° Supl. 2 2021 págs. S624 - S624
  • Autores: Matilla, A.; Sangro Gómez-Acebo, Bruno Carlos; El-Khoureiry, A.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.75 N° Supl. 2 2021 págs. S243 - S244
  • Autores: Rodríguez Agudo, R.; Goikoetxea-Usandizaga, N.; Serrano-Macia, M.; et al.
    Revista: HEPATOLOGY
    ISSN 0270-9139 Vol.74 N° Supl. 1 2021 págs. 261A - 261A
  • Autores: Sangro Gómez-Acebo, Bruno Carlos; Numata, K.; Huang, Y.; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY
    ISSN 0923-7534 Vol.32 N° Supl. 3 2021 págs. S117
  • Autores: Solís-Muñoz, P.; De La Flor-Robledo, M.; Monsalve-Alonso, S.; et al.
    Revista: HEPATOLOGY
    ISSN 0270-9139 Vol.74 N° Suppl. 1 2021 págs. 233A - 234A
  • Autores: Navarro Corcuera, Amaia; Ansorena Artieda, Eduardo; Montiel Duarte, Cristina; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
    ISSN 1422-0067 Vol.21 N° 4 2020 págs. 1400
    Resumen
    AGAP2 (Arf GAP with GTP-binding protein-like domain, Ankyrin repeat and PH domain 2) isoform 2 is a protein that belongs to the Arf GAP (GTPase activating protein) protein family. These proteins act as GTPase switches for Arfs, which are Ras superfamily members, being therefore involved in signaling regulation. Arf GAP proteins have been shown to participate in several cellular functions including membrane trafficking and actin cytoskeleton remodeling. AGAP2 is a multi-tasking Arf GAP that also presents GTPase activity and is involved in several signaling pathways related with apoptosis, cell survival, migration, and receptor trafficking. The increase of AGAP2 levels is associated with pathologies as cancer and fibrosis. Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta 1) is the most potent pro-fibrotic cytokine identified to date, currently accepted as the principal mediator of the fibrotic response in liver, lung, and kidney. Recent literature has described that the expression of AGAP2 modulates some of the pro-fibrotic effects described for TGF-beta 1 in the liver. The present review is focused on the interrelated molecular effects between AGAP2 and TGF beta 1 expression, presenting AGAP2 as a new player in the signaling of this pro-fibrotic cytokine, thereby contributing to the progression of hepatic fibrosis.
  • Autores: Arechederra Calderon, Maria; Berasain Lasarte, María del Carmen (Autor de correspondencia); Ávila Zaragoza, Matías Antonio (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: SEMINARS IN CELL AND DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
    ISSN 1084-9521 Vol.97 2020 págs. 38 - 46
    Resumen
    Liver regeneration is the most important reaction of the liver to an injury. Indeed, the liver possesses an extraordinary regenerative capacity orchestrated by a highly coordinated response of all the different cell types in order to recover the tissue lost, while maintaining homeostasis and all the hepatic functions. To achieve this impressive physiological accomplishment, the liver experiences a transient but precisely controlled transcriptional reprogramming that allows the simultaneous activation and silencing of multiple genes at different stages of the regeneration process. Epigenetic events play a fundamental role in the organization of chromatin architecture and hence in the tight control of gene transcription. In this review, we will summarize the most relevant epigenetic modifications associated with the critical changes in gene expression and cellular behavior occurring during liver regeneration. We will discuss the relevance of DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin remodelers, and the interplay between these epigenetic events, during the regeneration process, mainly after partial hepatectomy or after chemical injury.
  • Autores: Sangro Gómez-Acebo, Bruno Carlos; Chan, S. L.; Meyer, T.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY
    ISSN 1600-0641 Vol.72 N° 2 2020 págs. 320 - 341
  • Autores: Marin, J. J. G. ; Prete, M. G.; Lamarca, A. ; et al.
    Revista: BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER
    ISSN 0007-0920 Vol.123 N° 7 2020 págs. 1047-1059
    Resumen
    Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) are a group of rare and aggressive malignancies that arise in the biliary tree within and outside the liver. Beyond surgical resection, which is beneficial for only a small proportion of patients, current strategies for treating patients with BTCs include chemotherapy, as a single agent or combination regimens, in the adjuvant and palliative setting. Increased characterisation of the molecular landscape of these tumours has facilitated the identification of molecular vulnerabilities, such asIDHmutations andFGFRfusions, that can be exploited for the treatment of BTC patients. Beyond targeted therapies, active research avenues explore the development of novel therapeutics that target the crosstalk between cancer and stroma, the cellular pathways involved in the regulation of cell death, the chemoresistance phenotype and the dysregulation of RNA. In this review, we discuss the therapeutic opportunities currently available in the management of BTC patients, and explore the strategies that can support the implementation of precision oncology in BTCs, including novel molecular targets, liquid biopsies and patient-derived predictive tools.
  • Autores: Clavería Cabello, Alex; Colyn, L.; Arechederra Calderon, Maria; et al.
    Revista: CELLS
    ISSN 2073-4409 Vol.9 N° 10 2020
    Resumen
    Chronic liver diseases (CLD) represent a worldwide health problem. While CLDs may have diverse etiologies, a common pathogenic denominator is the presence of liver fibrosis. Cirrhosis, the end-stage of CLD, is characterized by extensive fibrosis and is markedly associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The most important event in hepatic fibrogenesis is the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) following liver injury. Activated HSCs acquire a myofibroblast-like phenotype becoming proliferative, fibrogenic, and contractile cells. While transient activation of HSCs is part of the physiological mechanisms of tissue repair, protracted activation of a wound healing reaction leads to organ fibrosis. The phenotypic changes of activated HSCs involve epigenetic mechanisms mediated by non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) as well as by changes in DNA methylation and histone modifications. During CLD these epigenetic mechanisms become deregulated, with alterations in the expression and activity of epigenetic modulators. Here we provide an overview of the epigenetic alterations involved in fibrogenic HSCs transdifferentiation with particular focus on histones acetylation changes. We also discuss recent studies supporting the promising therapeutic potential of histone deacetylase inhibitors in liver fibrosis.
  • Autores: Canale, M. ; Casadei-Gardini, A. (Autor de correspondencia); Ulivi, P.; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
    ISSN 1422-0067 Vol.21 N° 15 2020
    Resumen
    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the deadliest malignancies worldwide. Complex disease heterogeneity, late diagnosis, and suboptimal therapies result in the poor prognosis of patients. Besides genetic alterations and environmental factors, it has been demonstrated that alterations of the epigenetic machinery guide cancer onset and progression, representing a hallmark of gastric malignancies. Moreover, epigenetic mechanisms undergo an intricate crosstalk, and distinct epigenomic profiles can be shaped under different microenvironmental contexts. In this scenario, targeting epigenetic mechanisms could be an interesting therapeutic strategy to overcome gastric cancer heterogeneity, and the efforts conducted to date are delivering promising results. In this review, we summarize the key epigenetic events involved in gastric cancer development. We conclude with a discussion of new promising epigenetic strategies for gastric cancer treatment.
  • Autores: Solares, I.; Tejedor, M.; Jericó Asenjo, Daniel; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE
    ISSN 2305-5839 Vol.8 N° 17 2020 págs. 1098
    Resumen
    Hyponatremia is a common feature during the neurovisceral acute attacks which characterize hepatic porphyrias, as well as a sign of its severity. Therapeutic options for first-line acute attacks are intravenous administration of glucose and/or exogenous heme. The former treatment can aggravate hyponatremia by dilution and cause seizures; thus, the correction of hyponatremia must be carried out with extreme caution. This review summarizes recommendations for the management of hyponatremia during acute episodes of porphyria. Hyponatremia should be corrected slowly and seizures treated with medications in order to not exacerbate motor and sensory axonal neuropathy. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is considered a frequent cause of hyponatremia in acute porphyrias and must be identified as a symptom of an acute porphyria attack. Tolvaptan produces aquaresis and is considered a safe drug in porphyria. However, its use has only been reported in isolated cases during a porphyria attack. The convenience and usefulness of this drug in acute porphyria are discussed.
  • Autores: Argemí Ballbé, José María (Autor de correspondencia); Ventura-Cots, M.; Rachakonda, V.; et al.
    Revista: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE ENFERMEDADES DIGESTIVAS
    ISSN 1130-0108 Vol.112 N° 11 2020 págs. 869 - 878
    Resumen
    Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is the most frequent cause of advanced chronic liver disease worldwide. Excessive and prolonged alcohol use leads to ALD, which ranges from early forms such as alcoholic fatty liver (AFL) and alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), through progressive fibrosis to cirrhosis and the development of hepatocellular cancer (HCC). In addition, patients with underlying ALD and continuous alcohol use can develop alcoholic hepatitis (AH), which presents a rapid progression of liver failure and has a high short-term mortality. Genetic, environmental and epigenetic factors influence the progression of ALD to more severe forms. The pathogenesis of ALD is complex and involves multiple pathways. Recent translational studies have demonstrated a key role of the gut-liver axis and innate immunity in hepatocellular damage and fibrosis. In severe forms of AH, hepatocellular de-differentiation and systemic inflammation contribute to liver failure and multiorgan failure. Alcohol abstinence is the cornerstone of therapy for ALD and the prevention of its complications, but the efficacy and accessibility of psycho-familial-social interventions is still poor and effective public health policies to limit problematic alcohol use need to be implemented. Prednisolone is the only current option for AH, with a transient beneficial effect over placebo. ...
  • Autores: Berenguer, M. (Autor de correspondencia); Burra, P.; Ghobrial, M.; et al.
    Revista: TRANSPLANTATION
    ISSN 0041-1337 Vol.104 N° 6 2020 págs. 1143 - 1149
    Resumen
    Although liver transplantation (LT) is the best treatment for patients with localized hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), recurrence occurs in 6%-18% of patients. Several factors, particularly morphological criteria combined with dynamic parameters, known before LT modify this risk and combined in prediction models may be used to stratify patients at need of variable surveillance strategies. Additional variables though likely explain differences in recurrence rates in patients with the same pre-LT HCC status. One of these variables is possibly immunosuppression (IS). Once recurrence takes place, management is highly heterogenous. Within the International Liver Transplantation Society Consensus Conference on Liver Transplant Oncology, working group 4 aim was to analyze the data regarding posttransplant management of recipients undergoing LT for HCC. Three areas of research were considered: (1) cancer prediction models and surveillance strategies; (2) tailored IS for cancer recipients; and (3) new adjuvant therapies for HCC recurrence. Following formulation of several questions, a literature search was undertaken with abstract review followed by article retrieval and full-data extraction. The grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system was used for evidence rating incorporating strength of recommendation and quality of evidence.
  • Autores: Ricke, J.; Sangro Gómez-Acebo, Bruno Carlos; Malfertheiner, P.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.73 N° 3 2020 págs. 735 - 736
  • Autores: Martinez-Chantar, M. L. (Autor de correspondencia); Ávila Zaragoza, Matías Antonio (Autor de correspondencia); Lu, S. C. (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: CANCERS
    ISSN 2072-6694 Vol.12 N° 10 2020
  • Autores: Herrero Santos, José Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Ampuero, J.; Fernández, C.
    Revista: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE ENFERMEDADES DIGESTIVAS
    ISSN 1130-0108 Vol.112 N° 7 2020 págs. 513 - 514
    Resumen
    Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as the primary indication for liver transplant in Europe. The highly effective direct-acting antivirals currently available make it possible to achieve the hepatitis C elimination targets set by the World Health Organization. For this, population screening and reflect testing are fundamental strategies.
  • Autores: de la Torre Aláez, Manuel Antonio; Sangro Gómez-Acebo, Bruno Carlos (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: CARDIOVASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY
    ISSN 0174-1551 Vol.43 N° 8 2020 págs. 1182 - 1183
  • Autores: Goñi Esarte, S. (Autor de correspondencia); Juanbeltz, R.; Zozaya, J. M.; et al.
    Revista: GASTROENTEROLOGIA Y HEPATOLOGIA
    ISSN 0210-5705 Vol.43 N° 5 2020 págs. 248 - 255
    Resumen
    Introduction: There is little information on whether direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment can improve liver fibrosis or change glucose and lipid profile in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). We aimed to evaluate the impact of sustained virologic response (SVR) on liver stiffness, glucose and lipid levels. Methods: 445 monoinfected CHC patients started treatment with interferon-free DAA therapy from January 2015 to February 2017. Transient elastography (TE), fibrosis scores, glucose and lipid levels were analyzed at baseline and 48 weeks post-treatment (SVR48). Results: The SVR rate was 97.7%. Finally, we evaluated 369 patients who achieved SVR and had reliable TE measurements. Median liver stiffness significantly decreased from 9.3 (IQR 7.3-14.3)kPa at baseline to 6.4 (IQR 4.9-8.9) at SVR48 (p<0.0001). 54.7% of the cohort presented fibrosis regression. Median FIB4 score regressed from 2.0 (IQR 1.1-3.3) to 1.3 (IQR 0.9-2.0) (p<0.0001). Median APRI and Forns values significantly decreased from 0.9 (IQR 0.5-1.7) to 0.3 (IQR 0.2-0.4) and from 6.2 (5.0-7.5) to 4.9 (IQR 3.8-5.9) (p<0.001), respectively. Mean levels of total cholesterol and LDL-C increased from 172mg/dL and 101.5mg/dL to 191mg/dL and 117.5mg/dL (p<0.0001), respectively. In the sub-group of patients with pre-diabetes or diabetes, mean glucose levels decreased from 142.7mg/dL at baseline to 127.2mg/dL at SVR48 (p<0.001). Discussion: SVR reduces liver stiffness based on TE and fibrosis scores, in patients treated with DAA. Our results show elevated total cholesterol and LDL-C and decreased glucose levels at SVR48. Keywords: Antivirales de acción directa; Direct acting antiviral; Elastografía; Fibrosis scores; Glucosa; Glucose; Hepatitis C virus; Lipid profile; Marcadores serológicos; Perfil lipídico; Transient elastography; Virus de la hepatitis C.
  • Autores: Santos-Laso, A.; Izquierdo-Sanchez, L.; Rodrigues, P. M.; et al.
    Revista: LIVER INTERNATIONAL
    ISSN 1478-3223 Vol.40 N° 7 2020 págs. 1670 - 1685
    Resumen
    Background & Aims Polycystic liver diseases (PLDs) are genetic disorders characterized by progressive development of multiple biliary cysts. Recently, novel PLD-causative genes, encoding for endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident proteins involved in protein biogenesis and transport, were identified. We hypothesized that aberrant proteostasis contributes to PLD pathogenesis, representing a potential therapeutic target. Methods ER stress was analysed at transcriptional (qPCR), proteomic (mass spectrometry), morphological (transmission electron microscopy, TEM) and functional (proteasome activity) levels in different PLD models. The effect of ER stress inhibitors [4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA)] and/or activators [tunicamycin (TM)] was tested in polycystic (PCK) rats and cystic cholangiocytes in vitro. Results The expression levels of unfolded protein response (UPR) components were upregulated in liver tissue from PLD patients and PCK rats, as well as in primary cultures of human and rat cystic cholangiocytes, compared to normal controls. Cystic cholangiocytes showed altered proteomic profiles, mainly related to proteostasis (ie synthesis, folding, trafficking and degradation of proteins), marked enlargement of the ER lumen (by TEM) and hyperactivation of the proteasome. Notably, chronic treatment of PCK rats with 4-PBA decreased liver weight, as well as both liver and cystic volumes, of animals under baseline conditions or after TM administration compared to controls. In vitro, 4-PBA downregulated the expression (mRNA) of UPR effectors, normalized proteomic profiles related to protein synthesis, folding, trafficking and degradation and reduced the proteasome hyperactivity in cystic cholangiocytes, reducing their hyperproliferation and apoptosis. Conclusions Restoration of proteostasis in cystic cholangiocytes with 4-PBA halts hepatic cystogenesis, emerging as a novel therapeutic strategy.
  • Autores: Ávila Zaragoza, Matías Antonio (Autor de correspondencia); Dufour, J. F. ; Gerbes, A. L.; et al.
    Revista: GUT
    ISSN 0017-5749 Vol.69 N° 4 2020 págs. 764 - 780
    Resumen
    Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD), which includes a range of disorders of different severity and is one of the most prevalent types of liver disease worldwide, has recently regained increased attention. Among other reasons, the realisation that any alcohol intake, regardless of type of beverage represents a health risk, and the new therapeutic strategies tested in recently published or undergoing clinical trials spur scientific interest in this area. In April 2019, Gut convened a round table panel of experts during the European Association for the Study of the Liver International Liver Congress in Vienna to discuss critical and up-to-date issues and clinical trial data regarding ALD, its epidemiology, diagnosis, management, pathomechanisms, possible future treatments and prevention. This paper summarises the discussion and its conclusions.
  • Autores: Martínez-Urbistondo, D. (Autor de correspondencia); Argemí Ballbé, José María; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
    Revista: CLINICA E INVESTIGACION EN ARTERIOSCLEROSIS
    ISSN 0214-9168 Vol.32 N° 5 2020 págs. 206 - 208
  • Autores: Gholizadeh, M.; Szelag-Pieniek, S.; Post, M.; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
    ISSN 1422-0067 Vol.21 N° 19 2020 págs. 7368
    Resumen
    Liver diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs), target genes, and key pathways as innovative diagnostic biomarkers in liver patients with different pathology and functional state. We determined, using RT-qPCR, the expression of 472 miRNAs in 125 explanted livers from subjects with six different liver pathologies and from control livers. ANOVA was employed to obtain differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs), and miRDB (MicroRNA target prediction database) was used to predict target genes. A miRNA-gene differential regulatory (MGDR) network was constructed for each condition. Key miRNAs were detected using topological analysis. Enrichment analysis for DEMs was performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). We identified important DEMs common and specific to the different patient groups and disease progression stages. hsa-miR-1275 was universally downregulated regardless the disease etiology and stage, while hsa-let-7a*, hsa-miR-195, hsa-miR-374, and hsa-miR-378 were deregulated. The most significantly enriched pathways of target genes controlled by these miRNAs comprise p53 tumor suppressor protein (TP53)-regulated metabolic genes, and those involved in regulation of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) expression, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) messenger RNA (mRNA) translation and copper homeostasis. Our findings show a novel panel of deregulated miRNAs in the liver tissue from patients with different liver pathologies. These miRNAs hold potential as biomarkers for diagnosis and staging of liver diseases.
  • Autores: Jericó Asenjo, Daniel; Luis García, Elkin Oswaldo; Cusso, L.; et al.
    Revista: HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS
    ISSN 0964-6906 Vol.29 N° 19 2020 págs. 3211 - 3223
  • Autores: Kilanczyk, E. ; Banales, J. M. ; Wunsch, E.; et al.
    Revista: BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR BASIS OF DISEASE
    ISSN 0925-4439 Vol.1866 N° 11 2020
    Resumen
    S-adenosyl-L-methionine is an endogenous molecule with hepato-protective properties linked to redox regulation and methylation. Here, the potential therapeutic value of SAMe was tested in 17 patients with PBC, a cholestatic disease with autoimmune phenomena targeting small bile ducts. Nine patients responded to SAMe (SAMe responders) with increased serum protein S-glutathionylation. That posttranslational protein modification was associated with reduction of serum anti-mitochondrial autoantibodies (AMA-M2) titers and improvement of liver biochemistry. Clinically, SAMe responders were younger at diagnosis, had longer duration of the disease and lower level of serum S-glutathionylated proteins at entry. SAMe treatment was associated with negative correlation between protein S-glutathionylation and TNF alpha. Furthermore, AMA-M2 titers correlated positively with INF gamma and FGF-19 while negatively with TGF beta. Additionally, cirrhotic PBC livers showed reduced levels of glutathionylated proteins, glutaredoxine-1 (Grx-1) and GSH synthase (GS). The effect of SAMe was also analyzed in vitro. In human cholangiocytes overexpressing miR-506, which induces PBC-like features, SAMe increased total protein S-glutathionylation and the level of gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase (GCLC), whereas reduced Grx-1 level. Moreover, SAMe protected primary human cholangiocytes against mitochondrial oxidative stress induced by tBHQ (tert-Butylhydroquinone) via raising the level of Nrf2 and HO-1. Finally, SAMe reduced apoptosis (cleaved-caspase3) and PDC-E2 (antigen responsible of the AMA-M2) induced experimentally by glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC). These data suggest that SAMe may inhibit autoimmune events in patients with PBC via its antioxidant and S-glutathionylation properties. These findings provide new insights into the molecular events promoting progression of PBC and suggest potential therapeutic application of SAMe in PBC.
  • Autores: Urman, J. M. ; Herranz, J. M. ; Uriarte Díaz-Varela, Iker; et al.
    Revista: CANCERS
    ISSN 2072-6694 Vol.12 N° 6 2020 págs. 1644
    Resumen
    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) may lead to the development of extrahepatic obstructive cholestasis. However, biliary stenoses can also be caused by benign conditions, and the identification of their etiology still remains a clinical challenge. We performed metabolomic and proteomic analyses of bile from patients with benign (n= 36) and malignant conditions, CCA (n= 36) or PDAC (n= 57), undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with the aim of characterizing bile composition in biliopancreatic disease and identifying biomarkers for the differential diagnosis of biliary strictures. Comprehensive analyses of lipids, bile acids and small molecules were carried out using mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-1-NMR) in all patients. MS analysis of bile proteome was performed in five patients per group. We implemented artificial intelligence tools for the selection of biomarkers and algorithms with predictive capacity. Our machine-learning pipeline included the generation of synthetic data with properties of real data, the selection of potential biomarkers (metabolites or proteins) and their analysis with neural networks (NN). Selected biomarkers were then validated with real data. We identified panels of lipids (n= 10) and proteins (n= 5) that when analyzed with NN algorithms discriminated between patients with and without cancer with an unprecedented accuracy.
  • Autores: Diaz-Gonzalez, A.; Sanduzzi-Zamparelli, M.; Fonseca, L. G.; et al.
    Revista: LIVER INTERNATIONAL
    ISSN 1478-3231 Vol.40 N° 6 2020 págs. 1467 - 1476
    Resumen
    Background & Aims Information on safety and efficacy of systemic treatment in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) under dialysis are limited due to patient exclusion from clinical trials. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the rate, prevalence, tolerability, and outcome of sorafenib in this population. Methods We report a multicenter study comprising patients from Latin America and Europe. Patients treated with sorafenib were enrolled; demographics, dose modifications, adverse events (AEs), treatment duration, and outcome of patients undergoing dialysis were recorded. Results As of March 2018, 6156 HCC patients were treated in 44 centres and 22 patients were concomitantly under dialysis (0.36%). The median age was 65.5 years, 40.9% had hepatitis C, 75% had Child-Pugh A, and 85% were Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer-C. The median time to first dose modification, treatment duration and overall survival rate were 2.4 months (interquartile ranges [IQR], 0.8-3.8), 10.8 months (IQR, 4.5-16.9), and 17.5 months (95% CI, 7.2-24.5), respectively. Seventeen patients required at least 1 dose modification. The main causes of first dose modification were asthenia/worsening of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-Performance Status and diarrhoea. At the time of death or last follow-up, four patients were still on treatment and 18 had discontinued sorafenib: 14 were due to tumour progression, 2 were sorafenib-related, and 2 were non-sorafenib-related AE. Conclusions The outcomes observed in this cohort seem comparable to those in the non-dialysis population. Thus, to the best of our knowledge, this is the largest and most informative dataset regarding systemic treatment outcomes in HCC patients undergoing dialysis.
  • Autores: Sangro Gómez-Acebo, Bruno Carlos (Autor de correspondencia); Melero Bermejo, Ignacio; Wadhawan, S.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.73 N° 6 2020 págs. 1460 - 1469
    Resumen
    Background & Aims: Nivolumab, a programmed death (PD)-1 (PD-1) inhibitor, led to durable responses, manageable safety, and increased survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In our retrospective analysis, we studied the immunobiology and potential associations between biomarkers and outcomes with nivolumab in HCC. Methods: Fresh and archival tumour samples from dose-escalation and dose-expansion phases of the CheckMate 040 trial were analysed by immunohistochemistry and RNA sequencing to assess several inflammatory gene expression signatures, including CD274 (PD-ligand 1 [PD-L1]), CD8A, LAG3, and STAT1. Biomarkers were assessed for association with clinical outcomes (best overall response by blinded independent central review per RECIST v1.1 and overall survival [OS]). Results: Complete or partial tumour responses were observed in PD-L1-positive and PD-L1-negative patients treated with nivolumab monotherapy. Median OS was 28.1 (95% CI 18.2-n.a.) vs. 16.6 months (95% CI 14.2-20.2) for patients with tumour PD-L1 >= 1% vs. <1% (p = 0.03). Increased CD3 and CD8 showed a non-significant trend towards improved OS (both p = 0.08), and macrophage markers were not associated with OS. Tumour PD-1 and PD-L1 expression were associated with improved OS (p = 0.05 and p = 0.03, respectively). An inflammatory gene signature consisting of 4 genes was associated with improved objective response rate (p = 0.05) and OS (p = 0.01). Conclusions: PD-1 and PD-L1 expression, biomarkers of inflammation, and inflammatory gene signatures trended with improved survival and response. While further confirmation within a larger phase III trial is needed to evaluate predictive value of these biomarkers, these exploratory analyses suggest that anti-tumour immune response may play a role in the treatment benefit of nivolumab in HCC. Lay summary: Certain tests may be used to provide a picture of how a tumour is escaping the immune system, allowing it to continue to grow and create more tumours. Therapies such as nivolumab are designed to help the immune system fight the tumour. These tests may be used to determine how effective such therapies will be in the treatment of advanced liver cancer. (C) 2020 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Autores: Ancín, M.; Sanz-Barrio, R.; Santa María Monasterio, Eva; et al.
    Revista: PLANTS
    ISSN 2223-7747 Vol.9 N° 2 2020 págs. 183
    Resumen
    Human cardiotrophin 1 (CT1), a cytokine with excellent therapeutic potential, was previously expressed in tobacco chloroplasts. However, the growth conditions required to reach the highest expression levels resulted in an impairment of its bioactivity. In the present study, we have examined new strategies to modulate the expression of this recombinant protein in chloroplasts so as to enhance its production and bioactivity. In particular, we assessed the effect of both the fusion and co-expression of Trx m with CT1 on the production of a functional CT1 by using plastid transformation. Our data revealed that the Trx m fusion strategy was useful to increase the expression levels of CT1 inside the chloroplasts, although CT1 bioactivity was significantly impaired, and this was likely due to steric hindrance between both proteins. By contrast, the expression of functional CT1 was increased when co-expressed with Trx m, because we demonstrated that recombinant CT1 was functionally active during an in vitro signaling assay. While Trx m/CT1 co-expression did not increase the amount of CT1 in young leaves, our results revealed an increase in CT1 protein stability as the leaves aged in this genotype, which also improved the recombinant protein's overall production. This strategy might be useful to produce other functional biopharmaceuticals in chloroplasts.
  • Autores: Xiang, J. Y.; Zhang, N.; Sun, H. ; et al.
    Revista: GASTROENTEROLOGY
    ISSN 0016-5085 Vol.158 N° 3 2020 págs. 664 - 678.e24
    Resumen
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have some efficacy in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), expressed on some cancer cells, binds to the receptor programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, also called PD1) on T cells to prevent their proliferation and reduce the antigen-tumor immune response. Immune cells that infiltrate some types of HCCs secrete interferon gamma (IFNG). Some HCC cells express myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D), which has been associated with shorter survival times of patients. We studied whether HCC cell expression of MEF2D regulates expression of PD-L1 in response to IFNG. METHODS: We analyzed immune cells from 20 fresh HCC tissues by flow cytometry. We analyzed 225 fixed HCC tissues (from 2 cohorts) from patients in China by immunohistochemistry and obtained survival data. We created mice with liver-specific knockout of MEF2D (MEF2D(LPC-KO) mice). We knocked out or knocked down MEF2D, E1A binding protein p300 (p300), or sirtuin 7 (SIRT7) in SMMC-7721, Huh7, H22, and Hepa1-6 HCC cell lines, some incubated with IFNG. We analyzed liver tissues from mice and cell lines by RNA sequencing, immunoblot, dual luciferase reporter, and chromatin precipitation assays. MEF2D protein acetylation and proteins that interact with MEF2D were identified by coimmunoprecipitation and pull-down assays. H22 cells, with MEF2D knockout or without (controls), were transplanted into BALB/c mice, and some mice were given antibodies to deplete T cells. Mice bearing orthotopic tumors grown from HCC cells, with or without knockout of SIRT7, were given injections of an antibody against PD1. Growth of tumors was measured, and tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. RESULTS: In human HCC specimens, we found an inverse correlation between level of MEF2D and numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells; level of MEF2D correlated with percentages of PD1-positive or TIM3-positive CD8(+) T cells. Knockout of MEF2D from H22 cells reduced their growth as allograft tumors in immune-competent mice but not in immune-deficient mice or mice with depletion of CD8(+) T cells. When MEF2D-knockout cells were injected into immune- competent mice, they formed smaller tumors that had increased infiltration and activation of T cells compared with control HCC cells. In human and mouse HCC cells, MEF2D knockdown or knockout reduced expression of PD-L1. MEF2D bound the promoter region of the CD274 gene (encodes PD-L1) and activated its transcription. Overexpression of p300 in HCC cells, or knockout of SIRT7, promoted acetylation of MEF2D and increased its binding, along with acetylated histones, to the promoter region of CD274. Exposure of HCC cells to IFNG induced expression of p300 and its binding MEF2D, which reduced the interaction between MEF2D and SIRT7. MEF2D-induced expression of PD-L1 upon IFNG exposure was independent of interferon-regulatory factors 1 or 9. In HCC cells not exposed to IFNG, SIRT7 formed a complex with MEF2D that attenuated expression of PD-L1. Knockout of SIRT7 reduced proliferation of HCC cells and growth of tumors in immune-deficient mice. Compared with allograft tumors grown from control HCC cells, in immune-competent mice, tumors grown from SIRT7-knockout HCC cells expressed higher levels of PD-L1 and had reduced infiltration and activation of T cells. In immune-competent mice given antibodies to PD1, allograft tumors grew more slowly from SIRT7-knockout HCC cells than from control HCC cells. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of MEF2D by HCC cells increases their expression of PD-L1, which prevents CD8(+) T-cell-mediated antitumor immunity. When HCC cells are exposed to IFNG, p300 acetylates MEF2D, causing it to bind the CD274 gene promoter and up-regulate PD-L1 expression. In addition to promoting HCC cell proliferation, SIRT7 reduced acetylation of MEF2D and expression of PD-L1 in HCC cells not exposed to IFNG. Strategies to manipulate this pathway might increase the efficacy of immune therapies for HCC.
  • Autores: Clavería Cabello, Alex; Colyn, L. ; Uriarte Díaz-Varela, Iker; et al.
    Revista: CANCERS
    ISSN 2072-6694 Vol.12 N° 12 2020 págs. 3748
    Resumen
    Simple Summary Chronic liver injury and inflammation leads to excessive deposition of extracellular matrix, known as liver fibrosis, and the distortion of the hepatic parenchyma. Liver fibrosis may progress to cirrhosis, a condition in which hepatic function is impaired and most cases of liver tumors occur. Currently, there are no effective therapies to inhibit and reverse the progression of liver fibrosis, and therefore, chronic liver disease remains a global health problem. In this study we have tested the efficacy of a new class of molecules that simultaneously target two molecular pathways known to be involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. In a clinically relevant mouse model of liver injury and inflammation we show that the combined inhibition of histones deacetylases and the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) phosphodiesterase phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) results in potent anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. Our findings open new avenues for the treatment of liver fibrosis and therefore, the prevention of hepatic carcinogenesis. Liver fibrosis, a common hallmark of chronic liver disease (CLD), is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix secreted by activated hepatic fibroblasts and stellate cells (HSC). Fibrogenesis involves multiple cellular and molecular processes and is intimately linked to chronic hepatic inflammation. Importantly, it has been shown to promote the loss of liver function and liver carcinogenesis. No effective therapies for liver fibrosis are currently available. We examined the anti-fibrogenic potential of a new drug (CM414) that simultaneously inhibits histone deacetylases (HDACs), more precisely HDAC1, 2, and 3 (Class I) and HDAC6 (Class II) and stimulates the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-protein kinase G (PKG) pathway activity through phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibition, two mechanisms independently involved in liver fibrosis. To this end, we treated Mdr2-KO mice, a clinically relevant model of liver inflammation and fibrosis, with our dual HDAC/PDE5 inhibitor CM414. We observed a decrease in the expression of fibrogenic markers and collagen deposition, together with a marked reduction in inflammation. No signs of hepatic or systemic toxicity were recorded. Mechanistic studies in cultured human HSC and cholangiocytes (LX2 and H69 cell lines, respectively) demonstrated that CM414 inhibited pro-fibrogenic and inflammatory responses, including those triggered by transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta). Our study supports the notion that simultaneous targeting of pro-inflammatory and fibrogenic mechanisms controlled by HDACs and PDE5 with a single molecule, such as CM414, can be a new disease-modifying strategy.
  • Autores: Ezponda Casajús, Ana (Autor de correspondencia); Rodríguez Fraile, María Macarena; Morales Lozano, María Isabel; et al.
    Revista: CARDIOVASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY
    ISSN 0174-1551 Vol.43 N° 7 2020 págs. 987 - 995
    Resumen
    Purpose To assess the feasibility of performing same-day vascular flow redistribution and Yttrium-90 radioembolization (90Y-RE) for hepatic malignancies. Materials and Methods From November 2015 to February 2019, patients undergoing same-day hepatic flow redistribution during work-up angiography,(99m)Technetium-labeled macroaggregated albumin (Tc-99m-MAA) SPECT/CT and 90Y microsphere-RE, were recruited. Within 18 h following the delivery of 90Y resin microspheres, an 90Y-PET/CT study was performed. According to patients' vascular anatomy, flow redistribution was performed by microcoil embolization of extrahepatic branches (group A), intrahepatic non-tumoral vessels (group B) and intrahepatic tumoral arteries (group C). The accumulation of(99m)Tc-MAA particles and microspheres in the redistributed areas was qualitatively evaluated using a 5-point visual scale (grade 1 = < 25% accumulation; grade 5 = 100% accumulation). Differences in the distribution of microspheres among groups were assessed with Mann-WhitneyUtest. Results Twenty-two patients were treated for primary (n = 17) and secondary (n = 5) hepatic malignancies. The MAA-SPECT/CT showed uptake in all the redistributed areas. Regarding the accumulation of microspheres within the redistributed segments in all the groups, perfusion patterns were classified as 2 in 1 case, 4 in 6 cases and 5 in 15 cases. No statistically significant differences were observed between groups A and B-C (Uvalue = 34,p = 0.32) and between groups B and C (Uvalue = 26,p = 0.7). Mean predicted absorbed doses by the tumoral and normal hepatic tissues were 163.5 +/- 131.2 Gy and 60.4 +/- 69.3 Gy, respectively. Mean total procedure time (from work-up angiography to 90Y delivery) was 401 +/- 0.055 min. Conclusion Performing same-day redistribution of the arterial hepatic flow to the target and 90Y-microsphere delivery is feasible in the treatment of liver tumors. Clinical Trials RegistryNCT03380130.
  • Autores: Tolosa, E. J. ; García Fernández de Barrena, Maite; Iguchi, E. ; et al.
    Revista: BIOCHEMICAL JOURNAL
    ISSN 0264-6021 Vol.477 N° 17 2020 págs. 3131 - 3145
    Resumen
    The Hedgehog-regulated transcription factors GLI1 and GLI2 play overlapping roles in development and disease; however, the mechanisms underlying their interplay remain elusive. We report for the first time that GLI1 and GLI2 physically and functionally interact in cancer cells. GLI1 and GLI2 were shown to co-immunoprecipitate in PANC1 pancreatic cancer cells and RMS13 rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Mapping analysis demonstrated that the zinc finger domains of both proteins are required for their heteromerization. RNAi knockdown of either GLI1 or GLI2 inhibited expression of many well-characterized GLI target genes (BCL2, MYCN, PTCH2, IL7 and CCND1) in PANC1 cells, whereas PTCH1 expression was only inhibited by GLI1 depletion. qPCR screening of a large set of putative canonical and non-canonical Hedgehog/GLI targets identified further genes (e.g. E2F1, BMP1, CDK2) strongly down-regulated by GLI1 and/or GLI2 depletion in PANC1 cells, and demonstrated that ANO1, AQP1 and SOCS1 are up-regulated by knockdown of either GLI1 or GLI2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that GLI1 and GLI2 occupied the same regions at the BCL2, MYCN and CCND1 promoters. Furthermore, depletion of GLI1 inhibited GLI2 occupancy at these promoters, suggesting that GLI1/GLI2 interaction is required for the recruitment of GLI2 to these sites. Together, these findings indicate that GLI1 and GLI2 co-ordinately regulate the transcription of some genes, and provide mechanistic insight into the roles of GLI proteins in carcinogenesis.
  • Autores: Macias, R. I. R. (Autor de correspondencia); Munoz-Bellvis, L. ; Sanchez-Martin, A. ; et al.
    Revista: CANCERS
    ISSN 2072-6694 Vol.12 N° 6 2020
    Resumen
    The diagnosis of adenocarcinomas located in the pancreas head, i.e., distal cholangiocarcinoma (dCCA) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), constitutes a clinical challenge because they share many symptoms, are not easily distinguishable using imaging techniques and accurate biomarkers are not available. Searching for biomarkers with potential usefulness in the differential diagnosis of these tumors, we have determined serum metabolomic profiles in healthy controls and patients with dCCA, PDAC or benign pancreatic diseases (BPD). Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) analysis was performed in serum samples from dCCA (n= 34), PDAC (n= 38), BPD (n= 42) and control (n= 25) individuals, divided into discovery and validation cohorts. This approach permitted 484 metabolites to be determined, mainly lipids and amino acids. The analysis of the results led to the proposal of a logistic regression model able to discriminate patients with dCCA and PDAC (AUC value of 0.888) based on the combination of serum levels of nine metabolites (acylcarnitine AC(16:0), ceramide Cer(d18:1/24:0), phosphatidylcholines PC(20:0/0:0) and PC(O-16:0/20:3), lysophosphatidylcholines PC(20:0/0:0) and PC(0:0/20:0), lysophosphatidylethanolamine PE(P-18:2/0:0), and sphingomyelins SM(d18:2/22:0) and SM(d18:2/23:0)) and CA 19-9. In conclusion, we propose a novel specific panel of serum metabolites that can help in the differential diagnosis of dCCA and PDAC. Further validation of their clinical usefulness in prospective studies is required.
  • Autores: Pereira, P. L.; Arnold, D.; de Baere, T.; et al.
    Revista: DIGESTIVE AND LIVER DISEASE
    ISSN 1878-3562 Vol.52 N° 8 2020 págs. 857 - 861
    Resumen
    Background: About 70-80% of patients with colorectal liver metastases appear as ineligible for a curative treatment approach. Transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) using irinotecan-eluting beads has emerged as a promising treatment option in cases with irresectable liver metastases. Despite being in clinical practice for years, little is known about the treatment characteristics and outcomes when used as per routine hospital practice. Methods: Patients with hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer origin, admitted to contributing centres to receive TACE with drug-eluting LifePearl® Microspheres loaded with irinotecan, as part of their standard care, will be consecutively added to the registry. Data will be collected until the end of study, loss to follow-up or death. Primary endpoint is the characterisation of the treatment usage at the selected sites in Europe. Secondary endpoints include outcome parameters, safety and toxicity, as well as quality of life. Conclusion and aims: This multicentre, international, prospective observational study conducted in European centres plans to collect real-life data. This data will form an evidence-base from which conclusions can be drawn on how to improve patient selection and optimise treatment protocols when treating with TACE using irinotecan-eluting microspheres. Trial registration NCT03086096.
  • Autores: Helmberger, T. ; Arnold, D.; Bilbao Jaureguizar, José Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: JMIR RESEARCH PROTOCOLS
    ISSN 1929-0748 Vol.9 N° 4 2020 págs. e16296
    Resumen
    Background: Radioembolization, also known as transarterial radioembolization or selective internal radiation therapy with yttrium-90 (90Y) resin microspheres, is an established treatment modality for patients with primary and secondary liver tumors. However, large-scale prospective observational data on the application of this treatment in a real-life clinical setting is lacking. Objective: The main objective is to collect data on the clinical application of radioembolization with 90Y resin microspheres to improve the understanding of the impact of this treatment modality in its routine practice setting. Methods: Eligible patients are 18 years or older and receiving radioembolization for primary and secondary liver tumors as part of routine practice, as well as have signed informed consent. Data is collected at baseline, directly after treatment, and at every 3-month follow-up until 24 months or study exit. The primary objective of the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe Registry for SIR-Spheres Therapy (CIRT) is to observe the clinical application of radioembolization. Secondary objectives include safety, effectiveness in terms of overall survival, progression-free survival (PFS), liver-specific PFS, imaging response, and change in quality of life. Results: Between January 2015 and December 2017, 1047 patients were included in the study. The 24-month follow-up period ended in December 2019. The first results are expected in the third quarter of 2020. Conclusions: The CIRT is the largest observational study on radioembolization to date and will provide valuable insights to the clinical application of this treatment modality and its real-life outcomes.
  • Autores: de la Torre Aláez, Manuel Antonio (Autor de correspondencia); Jordán Iborra, Carlota; Casadei-Gardini, A.; et al.
    Revista: CARDIOVASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY
    ISSN 0174-1551 Vol.43 N° 8 2020 págs. 1165 - 1172
    Resumen
    Purpose In patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with sorafenib, post-progression survival (PPS) is marked by the pattern of progression. Our aim was to assess the influence of the pattern of progression to selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) in PPS among patients with HCC. Methods A retrospective analysis of patients treated with SIRT between 2003 and 2015 was conducted, excluding those with a single nodule < 5 cm or with metastases. Four patterns of progression to SIRT were defined: target tumour growth, non-target tumour growth, new intrahepatic disease, and new extrahepatic disease. PPS was calculated from the time of progression based on RECIST 1.1 criteria. Results Out of the 102 patients who met the selection criteria, 76 progressed after a median follow-up of 15 months. Median PPS was 6.5 months (95% CI 3.8-9.3 months). Patients who progressed at pre-existing lesions had a better PPS (median 12.5 months) than those who progressed with new lesions inside or outside the liver (median 4.2 months) (p = 0.02). In a Cox model adjusted by liver function and systemic inflammation, the pattern of progression had a hazard ratio of 1.64 (95% CI 0.92-2.93;p = 0.093). Conclusion In a cohort of HCC patients treated with SIRT, the pattern of progression associated with worst survival was the development of new intrahepatic lesions or extrahepatic metastases.
  • Autores: Cubero, F. J. (Autor de correspondencia); Mohamed, M. R. ; Woitok, M. M.; et al.
    Revista: HEPATOLOGY COMMUNICATIONS
    ISSN 2471-254X Vol.4 N° 6 2020 págs. 834 - 851
    Resumen
    Targeted inhibition of the c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) has shown therapeutic potential in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCA)-related tumorigenesis. However, the cell-type-specific role and mechanisms triggered by JNK in liver parenchymal cells during CCA remain largely unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate the relevance of JNK1 and JNK2 function in hepatocytes in two different models of experimental carcinogenesis, the dethylnitrosamine (DEN) model and in nuclear factor kappa B essential modulator (NEMO)(hepatocyte-specific knockout (Delta hepa)) mice, focusing on liver damage, cell death, compensatory proliferation, fibrogenesis, and tumor development. Moreover, regulation of essential genes was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunoblottings, and immunostainings. Additionally, specific Jnk2 inhibition in hepatocytes of NEMO Delta hepa/JNK1(Delta hepa) mice was performed using small interfering (si) RNA (siJnk2) nanodelivery. Finally, active signaling pathways were blocked using specific inhibitors. Compound deletion of Jnk1 and Jnk2 in hepatocytes diminished hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in both the DEN model and in NEMO Delta hepa mice but in contrast caused massive proliferation of the biliary ducts. Indeed, Jnk1/2 deficiency in hepatocytes of NEMO Delta hepa (NEMO Delta hepa/JNK(Delta hepa)) animals caused elevated fibrosis, increased apoptosis, increased compensatory proliferation, and elevated inflammatory cytokines expression but reduced HCC. Furthermore, siJnk2 treatment in NEMO Delta hepa/JNK1(Delta hepa) mice recapitulated the phenotype of NEMO Delta hepa/JNK(Delta hepa) mice. Next, we sought to investigate the impact of molecular pathways in response to compound JNK deficiency in NEMO Delta hepa mice. We found that NEMO Delta hepa/JNK(Delta hepa) livers exhibited overexpression of the interleukin-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway in addition to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma (Raf)-mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade. The functional relevance was tested by administering lapatinib, which is a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor of erythroblastic oncogene B-2 (ErbB2) and EGFR signaling, to NEMO Delta hepa/JNK(Delta hepa) mice. Lapatinib effectively inhibited cystogenesis, improved transaminases, and effectively blocked EGFR-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling. Conclusion: We define a novel function of JNK1/2 in cholangiocyte hyperproliferation. This opens new therapeutic avenues devised to inhibit pathways of cholangiocarcinogenesis.
  • Autores: Melderis, S. ; Hagenstein, J. ; Warkotsch, M. T.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY
    ISSN 1046-6673 Vol.31 N° 9 2020 págs. 1996 - 2012
    Resumen
    Background Recent studies have identified the EGF receptor (EGFR) ligand amphiregulin (AREG) as an important mediator of inflammatory diseases. Both pro- and anti-inflammatory functions have been described, but the role of AREG in GN remains unknown. Methods The nephrotoxic nephritis model of GN was studied in AREG(-/-) mice after bone marrow transplantation, and in mice with myeloid cell-specific EGFR deficiency. Therapeutic utility of AREG neutralization was assessed. Furthermore, AREG's effects on renal cells and monocytes/macrophages (M/M) were analyzed. Finally, we evaluated AREG expression in human renal biopsies. Results Renal AREG mRNA was strongly upregulated in murine GN. Renal resident cells were the most functionally relevant source of AREG. Importantly, the observation that knockout mice showed significant amelioration of disease indicates that AREG is pathogenic in GN. AREG enhanced myeloid cell responses via inducing chemokine and colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2) expression in kidney resident cells. Furthermore, AREG directly skewed M/M to a proinflammatory M1 phenotype and protected them from apoptosis. Consequently, anti-AREG antibody treatment dose-dependently ameliorated GN. Notably, selective abrogation of EGFR signaling in myeloid cells was sufficient to protect against nephritis. Finally, strong upregulation of AREG expression was also detected in kidneys of patients with two forms of crescentic GN. Conclusions AREG is a proinflammatory mediator of GN via (1) enhancing renal pathogenic myeloid cell infiltration and (2) direct effects on M/M polarization, proliferation, and cytokine secretion. The AREG/EGFR axis is a potential therapeutic target for acute GN.
  • Autores: Han, G. H.; Berhane, S.; Toyoda, H.; et al.
    Revista: HEPATOLOGY
    ISSN 0270-9139 Vol.72 N° 1 2020 págs. 198 - 212
    Resumen
    Background and Aims The heterogeneity of intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the widespread use of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) outside recommended guidelines have encouraged the development of scoring systems that predict patient survival. The aim of this study was to build and validate statistical models that offer individualized patient survival prediction using response to TACE as a variable. Approach and Results Clinically relevant baseline parameters were collected for 4,621 patients with HCC treated with TACE at 19 centers in 11 countries. In some of the centers, radiological responses (as assessed by modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [mRECIST]) were also accrued. The data set was divided into a training set, an internal validation set, and two external validation sets. A pre-TACE model ("Pre-TACE-Predict") and a post-TACE model ("Post-TACE-Predict") that included response were built. The performance of the models in predicting overall survival (OS) was compared with existing ones. The median OS was 19.9 months. The factors influencing survival were tumor number and size, alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, bilirubin, vascular invasion, cause, and response as assessed by mRECIST. The proposed models showed superior predictive accuracy compared with existing models (the hepatoma arterial embolization prognostic score and its various modifications) and allowed for patient stratification into four distinct risk categories whose median OS ranged from 7 months to more than 4 years. Conclusions A TACE-specific and extensively validated model based on routinely available clinical features and response after first TACE permitted patient-level prognostication.
  • Autores: Herrero Santos, José Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Quiroga Vila, Jorge
    Revista: ADVANCES IN PHYSIOLOGY EDUCATION
    ISSN 1043-4046 Vol.44 N° 3 2020 págs. 370 - 375
    Resumen
    The flipped classroom has become increasingly popular in health professions education. The aim of this study was to analyze its effect on learning in a pathophysiology course. Flipped classroom was introduced to teach respiratory pathophysiology in 2018. We compared the exam results in respiratory pathophysiology in 2017 and 2018 and the exam results in blood pathophysiology from both years (taught by the same teacher, in a traditional way). Groups were compared with Student's t test. Students answered a survey after finishing the term. Two hundred and one students were examined in 2018 (and 229 in 2017). Gender distribution and the qualifications obtained in general pathology (in the previous year) were comparable in both years. Results in respiratory pathophysiology were significantly better in 2018 than in 2017 (mean: 48 vs. 42 out of 100; P = 0.004), but the results in blood pathophysiology remained similar. The improvement was significant only in students who scored below the median (mean: 40 vs. 33; P = 0.009) and was more evident in male than in female students (mean: 52 vs. 44; P = 0.01) and in those who did not have an academic delay (mean 51 vs. 44; P = 0.002). Most students considered that flipped classroom was more attractive and helped them to learn more and with less effort. Flipped classroom increased medical students' knowledge acquisitions in pathophysiology. It was more beneficial to male students and those with lower qualifications with no academic delay.
  • Autores: Yau, T. (Autor de correspondencia); Kang, Y. K.; Kim, T. Y.; et al.
    Revista: JAMA ONCOLOGY
    ISSN 2374-2437 Vol.6 N° 11 2020 págs. e204564
    Resumen
    IMPORTANCE Most patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are diagnosed with advanced disease not eligible for potentially curative therapies; therefore, new treatment options are needed. Combining nivolumab with ipilimumab may improve clinical outcomes compared with nivolumab monotherapy. OBJECTIVE To assess efficacy and safety of nivolumab plus ipilimumab in patients with advanced HCC who were previously treated with sorafenib. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS CheckMate 040 is a multicenter, open-label, multicohort, phase 1/2 study. In the nivolumab plus ipilimumab cohort, patients were randomized between January 4 and September 26, 2016. Treatment group information was blinded after randomization. Median follow-up was 30.7 months. Data cutoff for this analysis was January 2019. Patients were recruited at 31 centers in 10 countries/territories in Asia, Europe, and North America. Eligible patients had advanced HCC (with/without hepatitis B or C) previously treated with sorafenib. A total of 148 patients were randomized (50 to arm A and 49 each to arms B and C). INTERVENTIONS Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to either nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg, administered every 3 weeks (4 doses), followed by nivolumab 240 mg every 2 weeks (arm A); nivolumab 3 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg, administered every 3 weeks (4 doses), followed by nivolumab 240 mg every 2 weeks (arm B); or nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg every 6 weeks (arm C). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Coprimary end points were safety, tolerability, and objective response rate. Duration of response was also measured (investigator assessed with the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors v1.1). RESULTS Of 148 total participants, 120 were male (81%). Median (IQR) age was 60 (52.5-66.5). At data cutoff (January 2019), the median follow-up was 30.7 months (IQR, 29.9-34.7). Investigator-assessed objective response rate was 32% (95% CI, 20%-47%) in arm A, 27% (95% CI, 15%-41%) in arm B, and 29% (95% CI, 17%-43%) in arm C. Median (range) duration of response was not reached (8.3-33.7+) in arm A and was 15.2 months (4.2-29.9+) in arm B and 21.7 months (2.8-32.7+) in arm C. Any-grade treatment-related adverse events were reported in 46 of 49 patients (94%) in arm A, 35 of 49 patients (71%) in arm B, and 38 of 48 patients (79%) in arm C; there was 1 treatment-related death (arm A; grade 5 pneumonitis). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this randomized clinical trial, nivolumab plus ipilimumab had manageable safety, promising objective response rate, and durable responses. The arm A regimen (4 doses nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg every 3 weeks then nivolumab 240 mg every 2 weeks) received accelerated approval in the US based on the results of this study.
  • Autores: Sangro Gómez-Acebo, Bruno Carlos; Kudo, M. ; Qin, S.; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY
    ISSN 0923-7534 Vol.31 N° Supl. 3 2020 págs. S202 - S203
  • Autores: Edeline, J.; Yau, T. ; Park, J. W.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY
    ISSN 0732-183X Vol.38 N° 4 2020
  • Autores: He, A. R. ; Yau, T.; Hsu, C. ; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY
    ISSN 0732-183X Vol.38 N° 4 2020
  • Autores: Buonaguro, L. ; Mayer, A. ; Loeffler, M. ; et al.
    Revista: CANCER RESEARCH
    ISSN 0008-5472 Vol.80 N° 16 2020
  • Autores: Kelley, R.K.; Sangro Gómez-Acebo, Bruno Carlos; Harris, W.P.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY
    ISSN 0732-183X Vol.38 N° 15 2020
  • Autores: Levillain, H.; Bagni, O. ; Deroose, C. M. ; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND MOLECULAR IMAGING
    ISSN 1619-7070 Vol.47 N° Supl. 1 2020 págs. S107 - S108
  • Autores: Sangro Gómez-Acebo, Bruno Carlos; Park, J.; Finn, R.; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY
    ISSN 0923-7534 Vol.31 N° Supl. 3 2020 págs. S241 - S242
  • Autores: Kelley, R. ; Kudo, M. ; Harris, W.; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY
    ISSN 0923-7534 Vol.31 N° Supl. 3 2020 págs. S233 - S234
  • Autores: Yau, T.; Zagonel, V. ; Santoro, A. ; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY
    ISSN 0732-183X Vol.38 N° 4 2020
  • Autores: Tolosa, E. J. ; García Fernández de Barrena, Maite; Iguchi, E. ; et al.
    Revista: PANCREAS
    ISSN 0885-3177 Vol.49 N° 10 2020 págs. 1433 - 1433
  • Autores: Chen, C. B.; Nelson, L. J.; Ávila Zaragoza, Matías Antonio; et al.
    Revista: CELLS
    ISSN 2073-4409 Vol.8 N° 10 2019
    Resumen
    In recent years, the incidence of both liver and biliary tract cancer has increased. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) are the two most common types of hepatic malignancies. Whereas HCC is the fifth most common malignant tumor in Western countries, the prevalence of CCA has taken an alarming increase from 0.3 to 2.1 cases per 100,000 people. The lack of specific biomarkers makes diagnosis very difficult in the early stages of this fatal cancer. Thus, the prognosis of CCA is dismal and surgery is the only effective treatment, whilst recurrence after resection is common. Even though chemotherapy and radiotherapy may prolong survival in patients with CCA, the 5-year survival rate is still very low-a significant global problem in clinical diagnosis and therapy. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway plays an important role in signal transduction by converting extracellular stimuli into a wide range of cellular responses including inflammatory response, stress response, differentiation, survival, and tumorigenesis. Dysregulation of the MAPK cascade involves key signaling components and phosphorylation events that play an important role in tumorigenesis. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiological role of MAPK, current therapeutic options, and the current situation of MAPK-targeted therapies in CCA.
  • Autores: Adeva, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Sangro Gómez-Acebo, Bruno Carlos; Salati, M.; et al.
    Revista: LIVER INTERNATIONAL
    ISSN 1478-3223 Vol.39 N° Supl. 1 2019 págs. 123 - 142
    Resumen
    Most of the patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) present with advanced (inoperable or metastatic) disease, and relapse rates are high in those undergoing potentially curative resection. Previous treatment nihilism of patients with advanced disease has been replaced by active clinical research with the advent of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and a much greater effort at understanding molecular mechanisms underpinning CCA. Three RCTs have recently been reported evaluating adjuvant chemotherapy following curative resection; only one of these has the potential to change practice. The BILCAP study failed to meet its primary endpoint by intention-to-treat analysis; however, a survival benefit was seen in a preplanned sensitivity analysis (predominantly adjusting for lymph nodes status). This, along with the numerical difference in median overall survival has led to the uptake of adjuvant capecitabine by many clinicians. In patients with advanced disease, the only level 1 data available supports the use of cisplatin and gemcitabine for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced disease; there is no established second-line chemotherapy. Previous forays into targeted therapy have proven unfruitful (namely targeting the epithelial growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor pathways). An increasing number of genomic subtypes are being defined; for some of these on-target therapeutic options are under active investigation. The most developed are studies targeting IDH-1 (isocitrate dehydrogenase) mutations and FGFR-2 (fibroblast growth factor receptor) fusions, with promising early results. Several other pathways are under evaluation, along with early studies targeting the immune environment; these are too premature to change practice to date. These emerging treatments are discussed.
  • Autores: D'Avola, Delia; Bilbao Jaureguizar, José Ignacio; Sangro Gómez-Acebo, Bruno Carlos (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: CARDIOVASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY
    ISSN 0174-1551 Vol.42 N° 9 2019 págs. 1262 - 1270
  • Autores: Fontanellas Roma, Antonio (Autor de correspondencia); Ávila Zaragoza, Matías Antonio; Anderson, K. E.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.71 N° 2 2019 págs. 422 - 433
    Resumen
    Porphyrias are rare inherited disorders caused by specific enzyme dysfunctions in the haem synthesis pathway, which result in abnormal accumulation of specific pathway intermediates. The symptoms depend upon the chemical characteristics of these substances. Porphyrins are photoreactive and cause photocutaneous lesions on sunlight-exposed areas, whereas accumulation of porphyrin precursors is related to acute neurovisceral attacks. Current therapies are suboptimal and mostly address symptoms rather than underlying disease mechanisms. Advances in the understanding of the molecular bases and pathogenesis of porphyrias have paved the way for the development of new therapeutic strategies. In this Clinical Trial Watch we summarise the basic principles of these emerging approaches and what is currently known about their application to porphyrias of hepatic origin or with hepatic involvement. (C) 2019 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Autores: Herrero Santos, José Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Lucena Ramírez, Juan Felipe; Quiroga Vila, Jorge
    Revista: BMC MEDICAL EDUCATION
    ISSN 1472-6920 Vol.19 2019 págs. 72
  • Autores: Ávila Zaragoza, Matías Antonio (Autor de correspondencia); Berasain Lasarte, María del Carmen (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: CMGH
    ISSN 2352-345X Vol.7 N° 2 2019 págs. 293 - 294
  • Autores: Baroja-Mazo, A. (Autor de correspondencia); Revilla-Nuin, B. ; de Bejar, A.; et al.
    Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION
    ISSN 1600-6135 Vol.19 N° 1 2019 págs. 48 - 61
    Resumen
    The artificial induction of tolerance in transplantation is gaining strength. In mice, a differential role of extracellular adenosine (eADO) for regulatory and effector T cells (Tregs and Teffs, respectively) has been proposed: inhibiting Teffs and inducing Tregs. The aim of this study was to analyze the action of extracellular nucleotides in human T cells and, moreover, to examine the influence of CD39 and CD73 ectonucleotidases and subsequent adenosine signaling through adenosine 2 receptor (A(2)R) in the induction of clinical tolerance after liver transplant. The action of extracellular nucleotides in human T cells was analyzed by in vitro experiments with isolated T cells. Additionally, 17 liver transplant patients were enrolled in an immunosuppression withdrawal trial, and the differences in the CD39-CD73-A(2)R axis were compared between tolerant and nontolerant patients. In contrast to the mice, the activation of human Tregs was inhibited similarly to Teffs in the presence of eADO. Moreover, the expression of the enzyme responsible for the degradation of ADO, adenosine deaminase, was higher in tolerant patients with respect to the nontolerant group along the immunosuppression withdrawal. Our data support the idea that eADO signaling and its degradation may play a role in the complex system of regulation of liver transplant tolerance.
  • Autores: Vera Yunca, Diego; Serrano-Mendioroz, I.; Sampedro Pascual, Ana; et al.
    Revista: MOLECULAR GENETICS AND METABOLISM
    ISSN 1096-7192 Vol.128 N° 3 2019 págs. 367 - 375
    Resumen
    Introduction. Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is characterized by hepatic over-production of the heme precursors when aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-synthase 1 is induced by endogenous or environmental factors. The aim of this study was to develop a semi-mechanistic computational model to characterize urine accumulation of heme precursors during acute attacks based on experimental pharmacodynamics data and support the development of new therapeutic strategies. Methods: Male AIP mice received recurrent phenobarbital challenge starting on days 1, 9, 16 and 30. 24-h urine excretion of ALA, porphobilinogen (PBG) and porphyrins from challenges Dl, D9 and D30 constituted the training data set to build the mechanistic model using the population approach. In a second study, porphyrin and porphyrin precursor excretion from challenge D16 were used as a validation data set. Results: The computational model presented the following features: (i) urinary excretion of ALA, PBG and porphyrins was governed by unmeasured circulating heme precursor amounts, (ii) the circulating amounts of ALA and PBG were the precursors of circulating amounts of PBG and porphyrins, respectively, and (iii) the phenobarbital effect linearly increased the synthesis of circulating ALA and PBG levels. The model displayed good parameter precision (coefficient of variation below 32% in all parameters), and adequately described the experimental data. Finally, a theoretical hemin effect was implemented to illustrate the applicability of the model to dosage optimization in drug therapies. Conclusions: A semi-mechanistic disease model was successfully developed to describe the temporal evolution of urinary heme precursor excretion during recurrent biochemical-induced acute attacks in AIP mice. This model represents the first computational approach to explore and optimize current and new therapies.
  • Autores: Yuste Ara, José Ramón (Autor de correspondencia); Serrano Alonso, María; Carmona de la Torre, Francisco de Asís; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY
    ISSN 0305-7453 Vol.74 N° 9 2019 págs. 2817 - 2819
  • Autores: Fan, Y.; Bazai, S. K; Daian, F.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY
    ISSN 1600-0641 Vol.70 N° 3 2019 págs. 470 - 482
    Resumen
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The variety of alterations found in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) makes the identification of functionally relevant genes and their combinatorial actions in tumorigenesis challenging. Deregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is frequent in HCC, yet little is known about the molecular events that cooperate with RTKs and whether these cooperative events play an active role at the root of liver tumorigenesis. METHODS: A forward genetic screen was performed using Sleeping Beauty transposon insertional mutagenesis to accelerate liver tumour formation in a genetic context in which subtly increased MET RTK levels predispose mice to tumorigenesis. Systematic sequencing of tumours identified common transposon insertion sites, thus uncovering putative RTK cooperators for liver cancer. Bioinformatic analyses were applied to transposon outcomes and human HCC datasets. In vitro and in vivo (through xenografts) functional screens were performed to assess the relevance of distinct cooperative modes to the tumorigenic properties conferred by RTKs. RESULTS: We identified 275 genes, most of which are altered in patients with HCC. Unexpectedly, these genes are not restricted to a small set of pathway/cellular processes, but cover a large spectrum of cellular functions, including signalling, metabolism, chromatin remodelling, mRNA degradation, proteasome, ubiquitination, cell cycle regulation, and chromatid segregation. We validated 15 tumour suppressor candidates, as shRNA-mediated targeting confers tumorigenicity to RTK-sensitized cells, but not to cells with basal RTK levels. This demonstrates that the context of enhanced RTK levels is essential for their action in tumour initiation. CONCLUSION: Our study identifies unanticipated genetic interactions underlying gene cooperativity with RTKs in HCC. Moreover, these results show how subtly increased levels of wild-type RTKs provide a tumour permissive cellular environment allowing a large spectrum of deregulated mechanisms to initiate liver cancer. LAY SUMMARY: Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are among signals frequently deregulated in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and their deregulation confers essential biological properties to cancer cells. We have applied a genetic method to randomly mutate large numbers of genes in the context of a mouse model with increased RTK levels, predisposed to develop liver cancer. We identified mechanisms that accelerate tumour formation in cooperation with enhanced RTK levels. The wide array of cellular functions among these cooperators illustrates an extraordinary capability of RTKs to render the liver more vulnerable to additional alterations, by priming cells for tumour initiation.
  • Autores: Ricke, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Klumpen, H. J.; Amthauer, H.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.71 N° 6 2019 págs. 1164 - 1174
    Resumen
    Background & Aims: Sorafenib is the recommended treatment for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of a combination of sorafenib and selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) - with yttrium-90 ( Y-90) resin microspheres - to sorafenib alone in patients with advanced HCC. Methods: SORAMIC is a randomised controlled trial comprising diagnostic, local ablation and palliative cohorts. Based on diagnostic study results, patients were assigned to local ablation or palliative cohorts. In the palliative cohort, patients not eligible for TACE were randomised 11:10 to SIRT plus sorafenib (SIRT + sorafenib) or sorafenib alone. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS; Kaplan-Meier analysis) in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. Results: In the ITT cohort, 216 patients were randomised to SIRT + sorafenib and 208 to sorafenib alone. Median OS was 12.1 months in the SIRT + sorafenib arm, and 11.4 months in the sorafenib arm (hazard ratio [HR] 1.01; 95% CI 0.81-1.25; p = 0.9529). Median OS in the per protocol population was 14.0 months in the SIRT + sorafenib arm (n = 114), and 11.1 months in the sorafenib arm (n = 174; HR 0.86; p = 0.2515). Subgroup analyses of the per protocol population indicated a survival benefit of SIRT + sorafenib for patients without cirrhosis (HR 0.46; 0.25-0.86; p = 0.02); cirrhosis of non-alcoholic aetiology (HR 0.63; p = 0.012); or patients 65 years old (HR 0.65; p = 0.05). Adverse events (AEs) of Common Terminology Criteria for AE Grades 3-4 were reported in 103/159 (64.8%) patients who received SIRT + sorafenib, 106/197 (53.8%) patients who received sorafenib alone (p = 0.04), and 8/24 (33.3%) patients who only received SIRT. Conclusion: Addition of SIRT to sorafenib did not result in a significant improvement in OS compared with sorafenib alone. Subgroup analyses led to hypothesis-generating results that will support the design of future studies. Lay summary: Sorafenib given orally is the recommended treatment for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT), also known as radioembolisation, microscopic, radioactive resin or glass spheres are introduced into the blood vessels that feed the tumours in the liver. This study found that the addition of SIRT with m yttrium-loaded resin microspheres to sorafenib treatment in people with advanced HCC did not significantly improve overall survival compared with sorafenib treatment alone. However, the results give an indication of how future studies using this combination therapy in people with advanced HCC could be designed. (C) 2019 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Autores: Herrero Santos, José Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Lucena Ramírez, Juan Felipe; Quiroga Vila, Jorge
    Revista: BMC MEDICAL EDUCATION
    ISSN 1472-6920 Vol.19 N° 1 2019 págs. 42
    Resumen
    Background: Writing multiple choice questions may be a valuable tool for medical education. We asked medical students to generate multiple choice questions and studied its effect on their exams. We hypothesized that students generating questions would improve their learning. Methods: We randomized students in their second and third years at the School of Medicine to write four multiple choice questions on two different sections of General Pathology (Immunopathology and Electrolyte and acid-base status; second year) and Pathophysiology (Blood and Respiratory system; third year). We analyzed whether students writing questions on a section had better results in the exam test in that section than the rest of the students. Results: Seventy-five (38.2%) students wrote questions for General Pathology and 109 (47.6%) for Pathophysiology. Students that wrote questions obtained significantly better results in the exam than those who did not. In General Pathology, students who wrote questions about Immunopathology obtained better results in that section than those who wrote questions about the other section (5.13 versus 3.86 over 10; P¿=¿0.03). In Pathophysiology, the differences between both groups were not significant, but students who wrote good questions about Respiratory system obtained better results in that section than those who wrote good questions about Blood (6.07 versus 4.28 over 10; P¿=¿0.015). Male students wrote good questions in Pathophysiology more frequently than female students (28.1% versus 10.4%; P¿=¿0.02). Conclusions: The writing of multiple choice questions by medical students may improve their learning. A gender effect may also influence this intervention. Future investigations should refine its potential role in teaching.
  • Autores: Furuya, S.; Cichocki, J. A.; Konganti, K.; et al.
    Revista: TOXICOLOGICAL SCIENCES : AN OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF TOXICOLOGY
    ISSN 1096-0929 Vol.170 N° 2 2019 págs. 427 - 437
    Resumen
    Human alcoholic hepatitis (AH) carries a high mortality rate. AH is an acute-on-chronic form of liver injury characterized by hepatic steatosis, ballooned hepatocytes, neutrophil infiltration, and pericellular fibrosis. We aimed to study the pathogenesis of AH in an animal model which combines chronic hepatic fibrosis with intragastric alcohol administration. Adult male C57BL6/J mice were treated with CCl4 (0.2 ml/kg, 2×weekly by intraperitoneal injections for 6 weeks) to induce chronic liver fibrosis. Then, ethyl alcohol (up to 25 g/kg/day for 3 weeks) was administered continuously to mice via a gastric feeding tube, with or without one-half dose of CCl4. Liver and serum markers and liver transcriptome were evaluated to characterize acute-on-chronic-alcoholic liver disease in our model. CCl4 or alcohol treatment alone induced liver fibrosis or steatohepatitis, respectively, findings that were consistent with expected pathology. Combined treatment resulted in a marked exacerbation of liver injury, as evident by the development of inflammation, steatosis, and pericellular fibrosis, pathological features of human AH. E. coli and Candida were also detected in livers of mice cotreated with CCl4 and alcohol, indicating pathogen translocation from gut to liver, similar to human AH. Importantly, liver transcriptomic changes specific to combined treatment group demonstrated close concordance with pathways perturbed in patients with severe AH. ...
  • Autores: Santa María Monasterio, Eva; Rodríguez Ortigosa, Carlos Manuel; Uriarte Díaz-Varela, Iker; et al.
    Revista: HEPATOLOGY
    ISSN 0270-9139 Vol.69 N° 4 2019 págs. 1632 - 1647
    Resumen
    Intrahepatic accumulation of bile acids (BAs) causes hepatocellular injury. Upon liver damage, a potent protective response is mounted to restore the organ's function. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is essential for regeneration after most types of liver damage, including cholestatic injury. However, EGFR can be activated by a family of growth factors induced during liver injury and regeneration. We evaluated the role of the EGFR ligand, amphiregulin (AREG), during cholestatic liver injury and regulation of AREG expression by BAs. First, we demonstrated increased AREG levels in livers from patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). In two murine models of cholestatic liver injury, bile duct ligation (BDL) and alpha-naphthyl-isothiocyanate (ANIT) gavage, hepatic AREG expression was markedly up-regulated. Importantly, Areg(-/-) mice showed aggravated liver injury after BDL and ANIT administration compared to Areg(+/+) mice. Recombinant AREG protected from ANIT and BDL-induced liver injury and reduced BA-triggered apoptosis in liver cells. Oral BA administration induced ileal and hepatic Areg expression, and, interestingly, cholestyramine feeding reduced postprandial Areg up-regulation in both tissues. Most interestingly, Areg(-/-) mice displayed high hepatic cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression, reduced serum cholesterol, and high BA levels. Postprandial repression of Cyp7a1 was impaired in Areg(-/-) mice, and recombinant AREG down-regulated Cyp7a1 mRNA in hepatocytes. On the other hand, BAs promoted AREG gene expression and protein shedding in hepatocytes. This effect was mediated through the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), as demonstrated in Fxr(-/-) mice, and involved EGFR transactivation. Finally, we show that hepatic EGFR expression is indirectly induced by BA-FXR through activation of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOC3). Conclusion: AREG-EGFR signaling protects from cholestatic injury and participates in the physiological regulation of BA synthesis.
  • Autores: Jiménez Andrés, Maddalen; Urtasun, R.; Elizalde, M.; et al.
    Revista: NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH
    ISSN 0305-1048 Vol.47 N° 7 2019 págs. 3450 - 3466
    Resumen
    Genome instability is related to disease development and carcinogenesis. DNA lesions are caused by genotoxic compounds but also by the dysregulation of fundamental processes like transcription, DNA replication and mitosis. Recent evidence indicates that impaired expression of RNA-binding proteins results in mitotic aberrations and the formation of transcription-associated RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops), events strongly associated with DNA injury. We identify the splicing regulator SLU7 as a key mediator of genome stability. SLU7 knockdown results in R-loops formation, DNA damage, cell-cycle arrest and severe mitotic derangements with loss of sister chromatid cohesion (SCC). We define a molecular pathway through which SLU7 keeps in check the generation of truncated forms of the splicing factor SRSF3 (SRp20) (SRSF3-TR). Behaving as dominant negative, or by gain-of-function, SRSF3-TR impair the correct splicing and expression of the splicing regulator SRSF1 (ASF/SF2) and the crucial SCC protein sororin. This unique function of SLU7 was found in cancer cells of different tissue origin and also in the normal mouse liver, demonstrating a conserved and fundamental role of SLU7 in the preservation of genome integrity. Therefore, the dowregulation of SLU7 and the alterations of this pathway that we observe in the cirrhotic liver could be involved in the process of hepatocarcinogenesis.
  • Autores: Navarro Corcuera, Amaia; López Zabalza, María Jesús; Martínez Irujo, Juan José; et al.
    Revista: BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR CELL RESEARCH
    ISSN 0167-4889 Vol.1866 N° 4 2019 págs. 673 - 685
    Resumen
    Liver damage induces hepatic stellate cells (HSC) activation, characterised by a fibrogenic, proliferative and migratory phenotype. Activated HSC are mainly regulated by transforming growth factor ß 1 (TGFß1), which increases the production of extracellular matrix proteins (e.g. collagen-I) promoting the progression of hepatic fibrosis. AGAP2 (ArfGAP with GTPase domain, ankyrin repeat and PH domain 2) is a GTPase/GTP-activating protein involved in the actin remodelling system and receptor recycling. In the present work the role of AGAP2 in human HSC in response to TGFß1 was investigated. LX-2 HSC were transfected with AGAP2 siRNA and treated with TGFß1. AGAP2 knockdown prevented to some extent the proliferative and migratory TGFß1-induced capacities of LX-2 cells. An array focused on human fibrosis revealed that AGAP2 knockdown partially prevented TGFß1-mediated gene expression of the fibrogenic genes ACTA2, COL1A2, EDN1, INHBE, LOX, PDGFB, TGF¿12, while favored the expression of CXCR4, IL1A, MMP1, MMP3 and MMP9 genes. Furthermore, TGFß1 induced AGAP2 promoter activation and its protein expression in LX-2. Moreover, AGAP2 protein levels were significantly increased in liver samples from rats with thioacetamide-induced fibrosis. In addition, AGAP2 silencing affected TGFß1-receptor 2 (TGFR2) trafficking in U2OS cells, blocking its effective recycling to the membrane. AGAP2 silencing in LX-2 cells prevented the TGFß1-induced increase of collagen-I protein levels, while its overexpression enhanced collagen-I protein expression in the presence or absence of the cytokine. AGAP2 overexpression also increased focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylated levels in LX-2 cells. FAK and MEK1 inhibitors prevented the increase of collagen-I expression caused by TGFß1 in LX-2 overexpressing AGAP2. In summary, the present work shows for the first time, that AGAP2 is a potential new target involved in TGFß1 signalling, contributing to the progression of hepatic fibrosis.
  • Autores: Loffler, M. W. (Autor de correspondencia); Mohr, C.; Bichmann, L. ; et al.
    Revista: GENOME MEDICINE
    ISSN 1756-994X Vol.11 2019
    Resumen
    Background: Although mutated HLA ligands are considered ideal cancer-specific immunotherapy targets, evidence for their presentation is lacking in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Employing a unique multi-omics approach comprising a neoepitope identification pipeline, we assessed exome-derived mutations naturally presented as HLA class I ligands in HCCs. Methods: In-depth multi-omics analyses included whole exome and transcriptome sequencing to define individual patient-specific search spaces of neoepitope candidates. Evidence for the natural presentation of mutated HLA ligands was investigated through an in silico pipeline integrating proteome and HLA ligandome profiling data. Results: The approach was successfully validated in a state-of-the-art dataset from malignant melanoma, and despite multi-omics evidence for somaticmutations, mutated naturally presented HLA ligands remained elusive in HCCs. An analysis of extensive cancer datasets confirmed fundamental differences of tumor mutational burden in HCC and malignantmelanoma, challenging the notion that exome-derived mutations contribute relevantly to the expectable neoepitope pool in malignancies with only few mutations. Conclusions: This study suggests that exome-derived mutated HLA ligands appear to be rarely presented in HCCs, inter alia resulting from a low mutational burden as compared to other malignancies such as malignantmelanoma. Our results therefore demand widening the target scope for personalized immunotherapy beyond this limited range of mutated neoepitopes, particularly for malignancies with similar or lower mutational burden.
  • Autores: Shah, N. D.; Ventura-Cots, M. ; Abraldes, J. G.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY
    ISSN 1542-3565 Vol.17 N° 11 2019 págs. 2320 - 2329
    Resumen
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Despite recent advances in treatment of viral hepatitis, liver-related mortality is high, possibly owing to the large burden of advanced alcohol-related liver disease (ALD). We investigated whether patients with ALD are initially seen at later stages of disease development than patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or other etiologies. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 3453 consecutive patients with either early or advanced liver disease (1699 patients with early and 1754 with advanced liver disease) seen at 17 tertiary care liver or gastrointestinal units worldwide, from August 2015 through March 2017. We collected anthropometric, etiology, and clinical information, as well as and model for end-stage liver disease scores. We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios for evaluation at late stages of the disease progression. RESULTS: Of the patients analyzed, 81% had 1 etiology of liver disease and 17% had 2 etiologies of liver disease. Of patients seen at early stages for a single etiology, 31% had HCV infection, 21% had hepatitis B virus infection, and 17% had nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, whereas only 3.8% had ALD. In contrast, 29% of patients seen for advanced disease had ALD. Patients with ALD were more likely to be seen at specialized centers, with advanced-stage disease, compared with patients with HCV-associated liver disease (odds ratio, 14.1; 95% CI, 10.5-18.9; P < .001). Of patients with 2 etiologies of liver disease, excess alcohol use was associated with 50% of cases. These patients had significantly more visits to health care providers, with more advanced disease, compared with patients without excess alcohol use. The mean model for end-stage liver disease score for patients with advanced ALD (score, 16) was higher than for patients with advanced liver disease not associated with excess alcohol use (score, 13) (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: In a cross-sectional analysis of patients with liver disease worldwide, we found that patients with ALD are seen with more advanced-stage disease than patients with HCV-associated liver disease. Of patients with 2 etiologies of liver disease, excess alcohol use was associated with 50% of cases. Early detection and referral programs are needed for patients with ALD worldwide.
  • Autores: Argemie, J.; Latasa Sada, María Ujué; Atkinson, S. R.; et al.
    Revista: NATURE COMMUNICATIONS
    ISSN 2041-1723 Vol.10 N° 3126 2019
    Resumen
    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a life-threatening condition characterized by profound hepatocellular dysfunction for which targeted treatments are urgently needed. Identification of molecular drivers is hampered by the lack of suitable animal models. By performing RNA sequencing in livers from patients with different phenotypes of alcohol-related liver disease (ALD), we show that development of AH is characterized by defective activity of liver-enriched transcription factors (LETFs). TGF beta 1 is a key upstream transcriptome regulator in AH and induces the use of HNF4 alpha P2 promoter in hepatocytes, which results in defective metabolic and synthetic functions. Gene polymorphisms in LETFs including HNF4 alpha are not associated with the development of AH. In contrast, epigenetic studies show that AH livers have profound changes in DNA methylation state and chromatin remodeling, affecting HNF4 alpha-dependent gene expression. We conclude that targeting TGF beta 1 and epigenetic drivers that modulate HNF4 alpha-dependent gene expression could be beneficial to improve hepatocellular function in patients with AH.
  • Autores: Banales, J. M.; Iñarrairaegui Bastarrica, Mercedes; Arbelaiz, A.; et al.
    Revista: HEPATOLOGY
    ISSN 0270-9139 Vol.70 N° 2 2019 págs. 547 - 562
    Resumen
    Early and differential diagnosis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by noninvasive methods represents a current clinical challenge. The analysis of low-molecular-weight metabolites by new high-throughput techniques is a strategy for identifying biomarkers. Here, we have investigated whether serum metabolome can provide useful biomarkers in the diagnosis of iCCA and HCC and could discriminate iCCA from HCC. Because primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a risk factor for CCA, serum metabolic profiles of PSC and CCA have also been compared. The analysis of the levels of lipids and amino acids in the serum of patients with iCCA, HCC, and PSC and healthy individuals (n = 20/group) showed differential profiles. Several metabolites presented high diagnostic value for iCCA versus control, HCC versus control, and PSC versus control, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) greater than those found in serum for the nonspecific tumor markers carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), commonly used to help in the diagnosis of iCCA and HCC, respectively. The development of an algorithm combining glycine, aspartic acid, SM(42:3), and SM(43:2) permitted to accurately differentiate in the diagnosis of both types of tumors (biopsy-proven). The proposed model yielded 0.890 AUC, 75% sensitivity, and 90% specificity. Another algorithm by combination of PC(34:3) and histidine accurately permitted to differentiate PSC from iCCA, with an AUC of 0.990, 100% sensitivity, and 70% specificity. These results were validated in independent cohorts of 14-15 patients per group and compared with profiles found in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Conclusion: Specific changes in serum concentrations of certain metabolites are useful to differentiate iCCA from HCC or PSC, and could help in the early diagnosis of these diseases.
  • Autores: Zubiete-Franco, I. ; Garcia-Rodriguez, J. L.; Lopitz-Otsoa, F.; et al.
    Revista: EBIOMEDICINE
    ISSN 2352-3964 Vol.40 2019 págs. 406 - 421
    Resumen
    Background: Even though liver kinase B1 (LKB1) is usually described as a tumor suppressor in a wide variety of tissues, it has been shown that LKB1 aberrant expression is associated with bad prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Herein we have overexpressed LKB1 in human hepatoma cells and by using histidine pull-down assay we have investigated the role of the hypoxia-related post-translational modification of Small Ubiquitin-related Modifier (SUMO)ylation in the regulation of LKB1 oncogenic role. Molecular modelling between LKB1 and its interactors, involved in regulation of LKB1 nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and LKB1 activity, was performed. Finally, high affinity SUMO binding entities-based technology were used to validate our findings in a pre-clinical mouse model and in clinical HCC. Findings: We found that in human hepatoma cells under hypoxic stress, LKB1 overexpression increases cell viability and aggressiveness in association with changes in LKB1 cellular localization. Moreover, by using site-directed mutagenesis, we have shown that LKB1 is SUMOylated by SUMO-2 at Lys178 hampering LKB1 nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and fueling hepatoma cell growth. Molecular modelling of SUMO modified LKB1 further confirmed steric impedance between SUMOylated LKB1 and the STe20-Related ADaptor cofactor (STRAD alpha), involved in LKB1 export from the nucleus. Finally, we provide evidence that endogenous LKB1 is modified by SUMO in pre-clinical mouse models of HCC and clinical HCC, where LKB1 SUMOylation is higher in fast growing tumors. Interpretation: Overall, SUMO-2 modification of LKB1 at Lys178 mediates LKB1 cellular localization and its oncogenic role in liver cancer. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Autores: Grueso, E.; Sánchez-Martínez, C.; Calvo-López, T.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY
    ISSN 0022-538X Vol.93 N° 19 2019 págs. e00798 - e00819
    Resumen
    As many tumor cells synthetize vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) that promote neo-vascularization and metastasis, frontline cancer therapies often administer anti-VEGF (alpha-VEGF) antibodies. To target the oncolytic parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM) to the tumor vasculature, we studied the functional tolerance, evasion of neutralization, and induction of alpha-VEGF antibodies of chimeric viruses in which the footprint of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody within the 3-fold capsid spike was replaced by VEGF-blocking peptides: P6L (PQPRPL) and A7R (ATWLPPR). Both peptides allowed viral genome replication and nuclear translocation of chimeric capsid subunits. MVM-P6L efficiently propagated in culture, exposing the heterologous peptide on the capsid surface, and evaded neutralization by the anti-spike monoclonal antibody. In contrast, MVM-A7R yielded low infectious titers and was poorly recognized by an alpha-A7R monoclonal antibody. MVM-A7R showed a deficient assembly pattern, suggesting that A7R impaired a transitional configuration that the subunits must undergo in the 3-fold axis to close up the capsid shell. The MVM-A7R chimeric virus consistently evolved in culture into a mutant carrying the P6Q amino acid substitution within the A7R sequence, which restored normal capsid assembly and infectivity. Consistent with this finding, anti-native VEGF antibodies were induced in mice by a single injection of MVM-A7R empty capsids, but not by MVM-A7R virions. This fundamental study provides insights to endow an infectious parvovirus with immune antineovascularization and evasion capacities by replacing an antibody footprint in the capsid 3-fold axis with VEGF-blocking peptides, and it also illustrates the evolutionary capacity of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses to overcome engineered capsid structural restrictions. IMPORTANCE Targeting the VEGF signaling required for neovascularization by vaccination with chimeric capsids of oncolytic viruses may boost therapy for solid tumors. VEGF-blocking peptides (VEbp) engineered in the capsid 3-fold axis endowed the infectious parvovirus MVM with the ability to induce alpha-VEGF antibodies without adjuvant and to evade neutralization by MVM-specific antibodies. However, these properties may be compromised by structural restraints that the capsid imposes on the peptide configuration and by misassembly caused by the heterologous peptides. Significantly, chimeric MVM-VEbp resolved the structural restrictions by selecting mutations within the engineered peptides that restored efficient capsid assembly. These data show the promise of antineovascularization vaccines using chimeric VEbp-icosahedral capsids of oncolytic viruses but also raise safety concerns regarding the genetic stability of manipulated infectious parvoviruses in cancer and gene therapies.
  • Autores: Lozano, E.; Macias, R. I. R.; Monte, M. J.; et al.
    Revista: HEPATOLOGY
    ISSN 0270-9139 Vol.70 N° 4 2019 págs. 1246 - 1261
    Resumen
    Although the multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib is useful in the treatment of several cancers, cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is refractory to this drug. Among other mechanisms of chemoresistance, impaired uptake through human organic cation transporter type 1 (hOCT1) (gene SLC22A1) has been suggested. Here we have investigated the events accounting for this phenotypic characteristic and have evaluated the interest of selective gene therapy strategies to overcome this limitation. Gene expression and DNA methylation of SLC22A1 were analyzed using intrahepatic (iCCA) and extrahepatic (eCCA) biopsies (Copenhagen and Salamanca cohorts; n = 132) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-CHOL (n = 36). Decreased hOCT1 mRNA correlated with hypermethylation status of the SLC22A1 promoter. Treatment of CCA cells with decitabine (demethylating agent) or butyrate (histone deacetylase inhibitor) restored hOCT1 expression and increased sorafenib uptake. MicroRNAs able to induce hOCT1 mRNA decay were analyzed in paired samples of TCGA-CHOL (n = 9) and Copenhagen (n = 57) cohorts. Consistent up-regulation in tumor tissue was found for miR-141 and miR-330. High proportion of aberrant hOCT1 mRNA splicing in CCA was also seen. Lentiviral-mediated transduction of eCCA (EGI-1 and TFK-1) and iCCA (HuCCT1) cells with hOCT1 enhanced sorafenib uptake and cytotoxic effects. In chemically induced CCA in rats, reduced rOct1 expression was accompanied by impaired sorafenib uptake. In xenograft models of eCCA cells implanted in mouse liver, poor response to sorafenib was observed. However, tumor growth was markedly reduced by cotreatment with sorafenib and adenoviral vectors encoding hOCT1 under the control of the BIRC5 promoter, a gene highly up-regulated in CCA. Conclusion: The reason for impaired hOCT1-mediated sorafenib uptake by CCA is multifactorial. Gene therapy capable of selectively inducing hOCT1 in tumor cells can be considered a potentially useful chemosensitization strategy to improve the response of CCA to sorafenib.
  • Autores: Al-Abdulla, R.; Lozano, E.; Macías, R. I. R.; et al.
    Revista: BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY
    ISSN 0007-1188 Vol.176 N° 6 2019 págs. 787 - 800
    Resumen
    Background and Purpose The expression of the human organic cation transporter-1 (hOCT1, gene SLC22A1) is reduced in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The molecular bases of this reduction and its relationship with the poor response of HCC to sorafenib were investigated. Experimental Approach HCC transcriptomes from 366 samples available at TCGA were analysed. Alternative splicing was determined by RT-PCR. The role of miRNAs in SLC22A1 downregulation was investigated. Expression of Oct1 was measured in rodent HCC models (spontaneously generated in Fxr(-/-) mice and chemically-induced in rats). hOCT1 was overexpressed in human hepatoma cells (HuH7 and HepG2). Sorafenib and regorafenib uptake was determined by HPLC-MS/MS. Key Results hOCT1 overexpression enhanced sorafenib, but not regorafenib, quinine-inhibitable uptake by hepatoma cells. In rodent HCC, Oct1 was downregulated, which was accompanied by impaired sorafenib uptake. In mice with s.c.-implanted HCC, sorafenib inhibited the growth of hOCT1 overexpressing tumours. In human HCC, hOCT1 expression was inversely correlated with SLC22A1 promoter methylation, whereas demethylation with decitabine enhanced hOCT1 expression in hepatoma cells. Increased proportion of aberrant hOCT1 mRNA variants was found in HCC samples. In silico analysis identified six miRNAs as candidates to target hOCT1 mRNA. When overexpressed in HepG2 cells a significant hOCT1 mRNA decay was induced by hsa-miR-330 and hsa-miR-1468. Analysis of 39 paired tumour/adjacent samples from TCGA revealed that hsa-mir-330 was consistently upregulated inHCC. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Impaired hOCT1 expression/ function in HCC, in part due to epigenetic modifications, plays an important role in the poor pharmacological response of this cancer to sorafenib.
  • Autores: Marin-Alejandre, B. A. ; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Cantero González, Irene; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.11 N° 10 2019 págs. 2543
    Resumen
    The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide. NAFLD management is mainly focused on weight loss, but the optimal characteristics of the diet demand further investigation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two personalized energy-restricted diets on the liver status in overweight or obese subjects with NAFLD after a 6 months follow-up. Ninety-eight individuals from the Fatty Liver in Obesity (FLiO) study were randomized into two groups and followed different energy-restricted diets. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months. Diet, anthropometry, body composition, and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Liver assessment included ultrasonography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, elastography, and determination of transaminases. Both dietary groups significantly improved their metabolic and hepatic markers after the intervention, with no significant differences between them. Multivariate regression models evidenced a relationship between weight loss, adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet), and a decrease in liver fat content, predicting up to 40.9% of its variability after 6 months. Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of the diet was inversely associated with liver fat content. Participants in the group with a higher adherence to the MedDiet showed a greater reduction in body weight, total fat mass, and hepatic fat. These results support the benefit of energy-restricted diets, high adherence to the MedDiet, and high antioxidant capacity of the diet for the management of NAFLD in individuals with overweight or obesity.
  • Autores: Cappelli, A.; Sangro del Alcazar, Paloma; Mosconi, C.; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND MOLECULAR IMAGING
    ISSN 1619-7070 Vol.46 N° 3 2019 págs. 661 - 668
    Resumen
    PURPOSE: Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of intermediate stage (BCLC-B according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer classification) are a heterogeneous group with different degrees of liver function impairment and tumour burden. The recommended treatment is transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). However, patients in this group may be judged as poor candidates for TACE because the risk-benefit ratio is low. Such patients may receive transarterial radioembolization (TARE) only by entering a clinical trial. Experts have proposed that the stage could be further divided into four substages based on available evidence of treatment benefit. We report here, for the first time, the outcome in patients with BCLC-B2 substage HCC treated with TARE. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the survival of 126 patients with BCLC-B2 substage HCC treated with TARE in three European hospitals was performed. RESULTS: Overall median survival in patients with BCLC-B2 substage was not significantly different in relation to tumour characteristics; 19.35 months (95% CI 8.27-30.42 months) in patients with a single large (>7 cm) HCC, and 18.43 months (95% CI 15.08-21.77 months) in patients with multinodular HCC (p¿=¿0.27). However, there was a higher proportion of long-term survivors at 36 months among those with a single large tumour (29%) than among those with multiple tumours (16.8%). CONCLUSION: Given the poor efficacy of TACE in treating patients with BCLC-B2 substage HCC, TARE
  • Autores: Marino, Z. ; Darne, A.; Lens, S.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.70 N° 5 2019 págs. 874 - 884
    Resumen
    Background & aims: Despite direct-acting antivirals being highly effective at eradicating hepatitis C virus infection, their impact on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains controversial. We analyzed the clinical and radiological outcome of cirrhotic patients treated with interferon-free regimens to estimate the risk of developing HCC. Methods: This was a retrospective multicenter study focusing on cirrhotic patients treated with direct-acting antivirals until December 2016. Clinical and radiologic characteristics were collected before the start of antiviral therapy, at follow-up and at HCC development. Diagnosis of HCC was centrally validated and its incidence was expressed as HCC/100 person-years. Results: A total of 1,123 patients were included (60.6% males, 83.8% Child-Pugh A) and 95.2% achieved a sustained virologic response. Median time of follow-up was 19.6 months. Seventy-two patients developed HCC within a median of 10.3 months after starting antiviral treatment. HCC incidence was 3.73 HCC/100 person-years (95% CI 2.96-4.70). Baseline liver function, alcohol intake and hepatic decompensation were associated with a higher risk of HCC. The relative risk was significantly increased in patients with non-characterized nodules at baseline 2.83 (95% CI 1.55-5.16) vs. absence of non-characterized nodules. When excluding these patients, the risk remained increased. Conclusion: These data expose a clear-cut time association between interferon-free treatm
  • Autores: Perez-Sanz, F.; Revilla-Nuin, B.; Martinez-Alarcon, L.; et al.
    Revista: TRANSPLANTATION
    ISSN 0041-1337 Vol.103 N° 9 2019 págs. 1887 - 1892
    Resumen
    Background. Numerous studies have emphasized the genetic and phenotypic profiles of tolerant transplant patients. Moreover, different groups have defined several biomarkers, trying to distinguish patients who are going to be tolerant from those who are going to reject. However, most of these biomarkers have not been validated by other groups or even established for clinical practice. Methods. We reanalyzed and stratified the predictive capacity of 20 previously described biomarkers for liver transplantation tolerance in a cohort of 17 liver transplant patients subjected to an independent, nonrandomized, prospective study of immunosuppression drug withdrawal. Results. Only 4 of the 20 studied biomarkers (expression of SENP6, FEM1C, miR31, and miR95) showed a strong predictive capacity in the present study. miR31 and FEM1C presented an area under the ROC curve of 96.7%, followed by SENP1 with 93.3%. Finally, miR95 had an area under the ROC curve value Conclusions. Even though this independent analysis seems to confirm the predictive strength of SENP6 and FEM1C in liver transplantation tolerance, there are also risks in establishing biomarkers for clinical phenotypes without an understanding of how they are biologically relevant. Future collaborations between groups should be promoted so that the most promising biomarkers can be validated and implemented in daily clinical practice.
  • Autores: Berraondo López, Pedro; Martini, P. G. V.; Ávila Zaragoza, Matías Antonio (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: GUT
    ISSN 0017-5749 Vol.68 N° 7 2019 págs. 1323 - 1330
    Resumen
    Decades of intense research in molecular biology and biochemistry are fructifying in the emergence of therapeutic messenger RNAs (mRNA) as a new class of drugs. Synthetic mRNAs can be sequence optimised to improve translatability into proteins, as well as chemically modified to reduce immunogenicity and increase chemical stability using naturally occurring uridine modifications. These structural improvements, together with the development of safe and efficient vehicles that preserve mRNA integrity in circulation and allow targeted intracellular delivery, have paved the way for mRNA-based therapeutics. Indeed, mRNAs formulated into biodegradable lipid nanoparticles are currently being tested in preclinical and clinical studies for multiple diseases including cancer immunotherapy and vaccination for infectious diseases. An emerging application of mRNAs is the supplementation of proteins that are not expressed or are not functional in a regulated and tissue-specific manner. This so-called ' protein replacement therapy' could represent a solution for genetic metabolic diseases currently lacking effective treatments. Here we summarise this new class of drugs and discuss the preclinical evidence supporting the potential of liver-mediated mRNA therapy for three rare genetic conditions: methylmalonic acidaemia, acute intermittent porphyria and ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.
  • Autores: Mercade, T. M.; Moreno, V.; John, B.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY
    ISSN 0732-183X Vol.37 N° 15 2019
  • Autores: Yau, T.; Park, J. W.; Finn, R. S.; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY
    ISSN 0923-7534 Vol.30 N° Supl. 5 2019 págs. v874 - v875
  • Autores: Sangro Gómez-Acebo, Bruno Carlos; Hsu, C. ; Kang, Y. K. ; et al.
    Revista: HEPATOLOGY
    ISSN 0270-9139 Vol.70 2019 págs. 131A - 132A
  • Autores: Jiménez Andrés, Maddalen; Urtasun, R.; Elizalde, M.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.70 N° 1 2019 págs. E365 - E366
  • Autores: Di Maira, G. ; Piombanti, B.; Lombardo, A. ; et al.
    Revista: DIGESTIVE AND LIVER DISEASE
    ISSN 1590-8658 Vol.51 N° Supl. 1 2019 págs. E43 - E43
  • Autores: da Fonseca, L. G. ; Minguez, B.; Perello, C. ; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.70 N° Supl. 1 2019 págs. E88
  • Autores: Otsoa, F. L. ; Zubiete-FRanco, I. ; Rodriguez, J. L. G. ; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.70 N° 1 2019 págs. E371 - E371
  • Autores: Cabrera, R. ; Singal, A. ; Parikh, N. D.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.70 N° 1 2019 págs. E832
  • Autores: Yau, T.; Kang, Y. K. ; Kim, T. Y.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY
    ISSN 0732-183X Vol.37 N° 15 Supl. 2019
  • Autores: Goyal, L. ; Frigault, M. ; Meyer, T. ; et al.
    Revista: CANCER RESEARCH
    ISSN 0008-5472 Vol.79 N° Supl. 13 2019
  • Autores: Banales, J. M.; Iñarrairaegui Bastarrica, Mercedes; Arbelaiz, A.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.70 N° 1 2019 págs. E821 - E822
  • Autores: Melero Bermejo, Ignacio; Neely, J.; Sangro Gómez-Acebo, Bruno Carlos; et al.
    Revista: CANCER RESEARCH
    ISSN 0008-5472 Vol.79 N° 13 2019
  • Autores: Chen, C. B. ; Nelson, L. J.; Ávila Zaragoza, Matías Antonio; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.70 N° 1 2019 págs. E581 - E581
  • Autores: Sangro Gómez-Acebo, Bruno Carlos
    Revista: LIVER INTERNATIONAL
    ISSN 1478-3223 Vol.39 N° 12 2019 págs. 2460 - 2461
  • Autores: Diaz-Gonzalez, A.; Sanduzzi-Zamparelli, M.; da Fonseca, L.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.70 N° Supl. 1 2019 págs. E599 - E600
  • Autores: Sangro Gómez-Acebo, Bruno Carlos; Matilla, A. M.; Santoro, A.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.70 N° 1 2019 págs. E619
  • Autores: Shan, Z. ; Alvarez-Sola, G.; Uriarte Díaz-Varela, Iker; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE
    ISSN 2305-5839 Vol.6 N° 12 2018 págs. 257
    Resumen
    Currently there are very few pharmacological options available to treat acute liver injury. Because its natural exposure to noxious stimuli the liver has developed a strong endogenous hepatoprotective capacity. Indeed, experimental evidence exposed a variety of endogenous hepatic and systemic responses naturally activated to protect the hepatic parenchyma and to foster liver regeneration, therefore preserving individual's survival. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family encompasses a range of polypeptides with important effects on cellular differentiation, growth survival and metabolic regulation in adult organisms. Among these FGFs, FGF19 and FGF21 are endocrine hormones that profoundly influence systemic metabolism but also exert important hepatoprotective activities. In this review, we revisit the biology of these factors and highlight their potential application for the clinical management of acute liver injury.
  • Autores: Alvarez-Sole, G.; Uriarte Díaz-Varela, Iker; Latasa Sada, María Ujué; et al.
    Revista: BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR BASIS OF DISEASE
    ISSN 0925-4439 Vol.1864 N° 4 2018 págs. 1326 - 1334
    Resumen
    The liver has an extraordinary regenerative capacity rapidly triggered upon injury or resection. This response is intrinsically adjusted in its initiation and termination, a property termed the "hepatostat". Several molecules have been involved in liver regeneration, and among them bile acids may play a central role. Intrahepatic levels of bile acids rapidly increase after resection. Through the activation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), bile acids regulate their hepatic metabolism and also promote hepatocellular proliferation. FXR is also expressed in em terocytes, where bile acids stimulate the expression of fibroblast growth factor 15/19 (FGF15/19), which is released to the portal blood. Through the activation of FGFR4 on hepatocytes FGF15/19 regulates bile acids synthesis and finely tunes liver regeneration as part of the "hepatostat". Here we review the experimental evidences supporting the relevance of the FXR-FGF15/19-FGFR4 axis in liver regeneration and discuss potential therapeutic applications of PGF15/19 in the prevention of liver failure. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cholangiocytes in Health and Disease edited by Jesus Banales, Marco Marzioni, Nicholas LaRusso and Peter Jansen.
  • Autores: Jiménez Andrés, Maddalen; Arechederra Calderon, Maria; Ávila Zaragoza, Matías Antonio; et al.
    Revista: TRANSLATIONAL GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY
    ISSN 2415-1289 Vol.3 N° 84 2018
    Resumen
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer-related death worldwide. HCCs are molecularly heterogeneous tumors, and this complexity is to a great extent responsible for their poor response to conventional and targeted therapies. In this review we summarize recent evidence indicating that imbalanced expression of mRNA splicing factors can be a relevant source for this heterogeneity. We also discuss how these alterations may play a driver role in hepatocarcinogenesis by impinging on the general hallmarks of cancer. Considering the natural history of HCC, we focused on two pathogenic features that are characteristic of liver tumors: chromosomal instability and phenotypic de-differentiation. We highlight mechanisms connecting splicing derangement with these two processes and the enabling capacities acquired by liver cells along their neoplastic transformation. A thorough understanding of the alterations in the splicing machinery may also help to identify new HCC biomarkers and to design novel therapeutic strategies.
  • Autores: Greten, T. F.; Sangro Gómez-Acebo, Bruno Carlos (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.68 N° 1 2018 págs. 157 - 166
    Resumen
    Drug development in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been characterised by many failures in the past. Despite good rationales and promising phase II data, many phase III trials failed. Immunotherapy represents an alternative treatment approach that has been successful in many different cancer types. As an inflammation induced cancer, HCC represents a very interesting target for immune based approaches. Indeed, early results from clinical trials testing immune checkpoint inhibitors are not only promising, but have already led to evaluation in a phase III setting. Herein, we summarise our current knowledge on the rationale, mechanism of action and clinical data for immune checkpoint blockade in HCC. In addition, we provide an overview of other novel immune based approaches currently under development for the treatment of HCC, such as adoptive cell based and antibody-based approaches. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Association for the Study of the Liver.
  • Autores: Bilbao Jaureguizar, José Ignacio; Sancho Rodriguez, Lidia; Páramo Alfaro, María; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF VASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY
    ISSN 1051-0443 Vol.29 N° 9 2018 págs. 1305 - 1306
  • Autores: Desdouets, C. (Autor de correspondencia); Ávila Zaragoza, Matías Antonio
    Revista: GASTROENTEROLOGY
    ISSN 0016-5085 Vol.154 N° 5 2018 págs. 1229 - 1231
  • Autores: Berasain Lasarte, María del Carmen (Autor de correspondencia); Ávila Zaragoza, Matías Antonio
    Revista: TRENDS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM
    ISSN 1043-2760 Vol.29 N° 10 2018 págs. 668 - 670
    Resumen
    The pleiotropic liver kinase B1 (LKB1) controls metabolism, cell polarity, and proliferation in an apparently cell-and context-specific manner. A recent study in Cell Reports has demonstrated that LKB1 is essential to maintain the characteristic quiescence of the liver and to secure genomic integrity during liver regeneration independently of AMPK.
  • Autores: Kurniawan, Dhadhang Wahyu; Jajoriya, Arun Kumar; Dhawan, Garima; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CONTROLLED RELEASE : OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE CONTROLLED RELEASE SOCIETY
    ISSN 1873-4995 Vol.288 2018 págs. 227 - 238
    Resumen
    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the leading cause of cirrhosis worldwide and the most rapidly growing indication for liver transplantation. Macrophages are the important cellular component in the inflammatory milieu in NASH. Inflammatory and pro-fibrotic mediators produced by macrophages causes significant tissue injury in many inflammatory diseases. Therefore, inhibition of the inflammatory macrophages would be a promising approach to attenuate NASH. In this study, we studied the implication of SYK pathway in NASH, and investigated PLGA nanoparticles-based delivery of SYK pathway inhibitor as an effective and promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of NASH. We found positive correlation between SYK expression with the pathogenesis of NASH and alcoholic hepatitis in patients. Importantly, SYK expression was significantly induced in M1-differentiated inflammatory macrophages. To inhibit SYK pathway specifically, we used a small-molecule inhibitor R406 that blocks Fc-receptor signaling pathway and reduces immune complex-mediated inflammation. R406 dose-dependently inhibited nitric-oxide release and M1-specific markers in M1-differentiated macrophages. Thereafter, we synthesized PLGA nanoparticles to deliver R406 to increase the drug pharmacokinetics for the efficient treatment of NASH. We investigated the therapeutic efficacy of R406-PLGA in-vitro in differentiated macrophages, and in-vivo in Methionine-Choline-deficient (MCD)-diet induced NASH mouse model. ...
  • Autores: Sequera, C.; Vázquez-Carballo, A.; Arechederra Calderon, Maria; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY
    ISSN 1097-4652 Vol.233 N° 2 2018 págs. 968 - 978
    Resumen
    TWEAK regulates multiple physio-pathological processes in fibroblasts such as fibrosis. It also induces migration and invasion in tumors and it can activate p38 MAPK in various cell types. Moreover, p38¿ MAPK promotes migration and invasion in several cancer cells types and in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). However, it remains unknown if TWEAK could promote migration in fibroblasts and whether p38¿ MAPK might play a role. Our results reveal that TWEAK activates ERKs, Akt, and p38¿/ß MAPKs and reduces secreted Fibulin 3 in MEFs. TWEAK also increases migration and invasion in wt and p38¿ deficient MEFs, which indicates that p38¿ MAPK is not required to mediate these effects. In contrast, ERKs inhibition significantly decreases TWEAK-induced migration and Fibulin 3 knock-down mimics TWEAK effect. These results indicate that both ERKs activation and Fibulin 3 down-regulation would contribute to mediate TWEAK pro-migratory effect. In fact, the additional regulation of ERKs and/or p38ß as a consequence of Fibulin 3 decrease might be also involved in the pro-migratory effect of TWEAK in MEFs. In conclusion, our studies uncover novel mechanisms by which TWEAK would favor tissue repair by promoting fibroblasts migration.
  • Autores: Zubiri Oteiza, Leyre (Autor de correspondencia); Bilbao Jaureguizar, José Ignacio; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Javier; et al.
    Revista: HEPATIC ONCOLOGY
    ISSN 2045-0923 Vol.5 N° 2 2018 págs. HEP09
    Resumen
    The hormone secretion in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET) causes an important interference in patients' quality of life. We present two cases of pNET metastatic to the liver (a pancreatic endocrine carcinoma with a severe hormonal syndrome and an insulinoma with severe crisis of hypoglycemia and coma) refractory to conventional treatments, which were finally solved with selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT), a nonstandard level 1 therapy. We show two examples of an excellent control of symptoms together with a long survival after treatment with SIRT. The evidence supporting the use of this therapy is level 2. Our case reports strongly support the use of SIRT for the severe clinical syndrome in pNET metastatic to the liver and refractory to somatostatin analogs.
  • Autores: Serrano-Mendioroz, I. ; Sampedro Pascual, Ana; Serna, N. ; et al.
    Revista: HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS
    ISSN 0964-6906 Vol.27 N° 21 2018 págs. 3688 - 3696
    Resumen
    A first-in-human gene therapy trial using a recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vector for acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) reveals that higher doses would be required to reach therapeutic levels of the porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) transgene. We developed a hyperfunctional PBGD protein to improve the therapeutic index without increasing vector dose. A consensus protein sequence from 12 mammal species was compared to the human PBGD sequence, and eight amino acids were selected. I291M and N340S variants showed the highest increase in enzymatic activity when expressed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. In silico analysis indicates that isoleucine 291 to methionine and asparagine 340 to serine variants did not affect the active site of the enzyme. In vitro analysis indicated a synergistic interaction between these two substitutions that improve kinetic stability. Finally, full protection against a phenobarbital-induced attack was achieved in AIP mice after the administration of 1 x 10(11) gc/kg of rAAV2/8-PBGD-I291M/N340S vector. // three times lower than the dose required to achieve full protection with the control rAAV2/8-hPBGD vector. In conclusion, we have developed and 3 characterized a hyperfunctional PBGD protein. The inclusion of this variant sequence in a rAAV2/8 vector allows the effective dose to be lowered in AIP mice.
  • Autores: Fernandez-Ramos, D. ; Fernandez-Tussy, P.; Lopitz-Otsoa, F.; et al.
    Revista: CELL DEATH AND DISEASE
    ISSN 2041-4889 Vol.9 N° 958 2018
    Resumen
    Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) is the most abundant methyltransferase in the liver and a master regulator of the transmethylation flux. GNMT downregulation leads to loss of liver function progressing to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, GNMT deficiency aggravates cholestasis-induced fibrogenesis. To date, little is known about the mechanisms underlying downregulation of GNMT levels in hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. On this basis, microRNAs are epigenetic regulatory elements that play important roles in liver pathology. In this work, we aim to study the regulation of GNMT by microRNAs during liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Luciferase assay on the 3'UTR-Gnmt was used to confirm in silico analysis showing that GNMT is potentially targeted by the microRNA miR-873-5p. Correlation between GNMT and miR-873-5p in human cholestasis and cirrhosis together with miR-873-5p inhibition in vivo in different mouse models of liver cholestasis and fibrosis [bile duct ligation and Mdr2 (Abcb4)(-/-) mouse] were then assessed. The analysis of liver tissue from cirrhotic and cholestatic patients, as well as from the animal models, showed that miR-873-5p inversely correlated with the expression of GNMT. Importantly, high circulating miR-873-5p was also detected in cholestastic and cirrhotic patients. Preclinical studies with anti-miR-873-5p treatment in bile duct ligation and Mdr2(-/-) mice recovered GNMT levels in association with ameliorated inflammation and fibrosis mainly by counteracting hepatocyte apoptosis and cholangiocyte proliferation. In conclusion, miR-873-5p emerges as a novel marker for liver fibrosis, cholestasis, and cirrhosis and therapeutic approaches based on anti-miR-873-5p may be effective treatments for liver fibrosis and cholestatic liver disease.
  • Autores: Deodati, A. ; Argemí Ballbé, José María; Germani, D. ; et al.
    Revista: PLOS ONE
    ISSN 1932-6203 Vol.13 N° 6 2018 págs. e0198490
    Resumen
    Early life events are associated with the susceptibility to chronic diseases in adult life. Perturbations of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis activate the unfolded protein response (UPR), which contributes to the development of metabolic alterations. Our aim was to evaluate liver UPR in an animal model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). A significantly increased expression of X-box binding protein-1 spliced (XBP1s) mRNA (p<0.01), Endoplasmic Reticulum-localized DnaJ homologue (Erdj4) mRNA (p<0.05) and Bip/GRP78-glucose-regulated protein 78 (Bip) mRNA (p<0.05) was observed in the liver of IUGR rats at birth. Furthermore, the expression of gluconeogenesis genes and lipogenesis genes were significantly upregulated (p<0.05) in IUGR pups. At 105 d, IUGR male rats showed significantly reduced glucose tolerance (p<0.01). A significant decreased expression of XBP1s mRNA (p<0.01) and increased expression of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK) and Asparagine synthetase (ASNS) (p<0.05) was observed in the liver of IUGR male adult rats. Liver focal steatosis and periportal fibrosis were observed in IUGR rats. These findings show for the first time that fetal exposure to uteroplacental insufficiency is associated with the activation of hepatic UPR and suggest that UPR signaling may play a role in the metabolic risk.
  • Autores: Serrano Alonso, María; Guillén Grima, Francisco; Martín Moreno, Paloma Leticia; et al.
    Revista: TRANSPLANT INFECTIOUS DISEASE
    ISSN 1398-2273 Vol.20 N° 3 2018 págs. e12873
    Resumen
    Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most important viral pathogen in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. The role of secondary CMV prophylaxis in this population remains unclear. Methods: Retrospective cohort study in a single center. SOT recipients treated for CMV infection from 2007 to 2014 were studied to determine the efficacy and safety of secondary prophylaxis and its impact on graft loss and mortality. The outcome variable was CMV replication in the first 3 months after the end of therapy. Secondary variables were crude mortality and graft lost censored at 5 years after transplantation. Propensity score for the use of secondary prophylaxis was used to control selection bias. Results: Of the 126 treated patients, 103 (83.1%) received CMV secondary prophylaxis. CMV relapse occurred in 44 (35.5%) patients. The use of secondary prophylaxis was not associated with fewer relapses (34.0% in patients with prophylaxis vs. 42.9% in those without prophylaxis, p= 0.29).After a mean follow-up of 32.1 months, graft loss was not different between both groups but patient mortality was significantly lower in patients who received secondary prophylaxis (5.8% vs. 28.6%, p= 0.003). Conclusion: Secondary prophylaxis did not prevent CMV infection relapse but it was associated with improved patient survival.
  • Autores: Andueza Lizarraga, Aitor; Garde, N.; García Garzón, María Antonia; et al.
    Revista: FREE RADICAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
    ISSN 0891-5849 Vol.126 2018 págs. 15 - 26
    Resumen
    NADPH oxidase (Nox) variants Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4 are implicated in the progression of liver fibrosis. However, the role of Nox5 is not yet known, mainly due to the lack of this enzyme in rat and mouse genomes. Here we describe the expression and functional relevance of Nox5 in the human cell line of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) LX-2. Under basal conditions, three long (Nox5-L: Nox5 alpha, -beta, and -delta) and a short (Nox5-S or Nox5 epsilon) splice variants were detected, which were silenced with specific siRNAs for Nox5. The most abundant isoform was Nox5-S, accounting for more than 90% of Nox5 protein. Overexpression of Nox5 beta generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of calcium, as judged by the production of hydrogen peroxide, L-012 luminescence and cytochrome c reduction. Nox5 epsilon did not generated ROS under these conditions, and a reduced ROS production was observed when co-expressed with Nox5 beta. In contrast, dihydroethidium oxidation was increased by Nox5 beta or Nox5 epsilon, suggesting that Nox5 epsilon induced intracellular oxidative stress by an unknown mechanism. Functional studies showed that both Nox5 beta and Nox5 epsilon stimulated the proliferation of LX-2 cells and the collagen type I levels, while Nox5 siRNAs inhibited these effects. Interestingly, TGF-beta and angiotensin II upregulated Nox5 expression, which was reduced in cells pre-incubated with catalase. Further studies silencing Nox5 in TGF-beta-treated cells resulted in a reduction of collagen levels via p38 MAPK. Collectively, these results show for the first time that Nox5 can play a relevant role in the proliferation and fibrosis on human HSC.
  • Autores: Manzardo, C.; Londono, M. C.; Castells, L.; et al.
    Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION
    ISSN 1600-6135 Vol.18 N° 10 2018 págs. 2513 - 2522
    Resumen
    Direct-acting antivirals have proved to be highly efficacious and safe in monoinfected liver transplant (LT) recipients who experience recurrence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, there is a lack of data on effectiveness and tolerability of these regimens in HCV/HIV-coinfected patients who experience recurrence of HCV infection after LT. In this prospective, multicenter cohort study, the outcomes of 47 HCV/HIV-coinfected LT patients who received DAA therapy (with or without ribavirin [RBV]) were compared with those of a matched cohort of 148 HCV-monoinfected LT recipients who received similar treatment. Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. HCV/HIV-coinfected patients had a median (IQR) CD4 T-cell count of 366 (256-467) cells/mu L. HIV-RNA was <50 copies/mL in 96% of patients. The DAA regimens administered were SOF+LDVRBV (34%), SOF+SMV +/- RBV (31%), SOF+DCV +/- RBV (27%), SMV+DCV +/- RBV (5%), and 3D (3%), with no differences between the groups. Treatment was well tolerated in both groups. Rates of SVR (negative serum HCV-RNA at 12weeks after the end of treatment) were high and similar for coinfected and monoinfected patients (95% and 94%, respectively; P=.239). Albeit not significant, a trend toward lower SVR rates among patients with advanced fibrosis (P=.093) and genotype 4 (P=.088) was observed. In conclusion, interferon-free regimens with DAAs for post-LT recurrence of HCV infection in HIV-infected individuals were highly effective and well tolerated, with results comparable to those of HCV-monoinfected patients. Direct-acting antivirals against HCV offer a very high and similar efficacy and safety in HIV-positive and HIV-negative liver transplant recipients.
  • Autores: Vogel, A. (Autor de correspondencia); Cervantes, A. ; Chau, I. ; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY
    ISSN 0923-7534 Vol.29 N° Supl. 4 2018 págs. 238 - 255
  • Autores: Arechederra Calderon, Maria; Daian, F.; Yim, A. ; et al.
    Revista: NATURE COMMUNICATIONS
    ISSN 2041-1723 Vol.9 N° 1 2018 págs. 3164
    Resumen
    Epigenetic modifications such as aberrant DNA methylation reshape the gene expression repertoire in cancer. Here, we used a clinically relevant hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mouse model (Alb-R26Met) to explore the impact of DNA methylation on transcriptional switches associated with tumorigenesis. We identified a striking enrichment in genes simultaneously hypermethylated in CpG islands (CGIs) and overexpressed. These hypermethylated CGIs are located either in the 5'-UTR or in the gene body region. Remarkably, such CGI hypermethylation accompanied by gene upregulation also occurs in 56% of HCC patients, which belong to the "HCC proliferative-progenitor" subclass. Most of the genes upregulated and with hypermethylated CGIs in the Alb-R26Met HCC model undergo the same change. Among reprogrammed genes, several are well-known oncogenes. For others not previously linked to cancer, we demonstrate here their action together as an "oncogene module". Thus, hypermethylation of gene body CGIs is predictive of elevated oncogene levels in cancer, offering a novel stratification strategy and perspectives to normalise cancer gene dosages.
  • Autores: Serrano Mendioroz, Irantzu; Sampedro Pascual, Ana; Alegre Esteban, Manuel; et al.
    Revista: HUMAN GENE THERAPY
    ISSN 1043-0342 2018
    Resumen
    Porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) gene therapy represents a promising therapeutic option for acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) patients suffering recurrent acute attacks. A first-in-human Phase I clinical trial confirmed the safety and tolerability of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-AAT-PBGD gene therapy, but higher doses and/or more efficient vectors are needed to achieve therapeutic expression of the transgene. This study assayed the insertion into the promoter of a short enhancer element able to induce transgene expression during exposure to endogenous and exogenous stimuli related to the pathology of the disease. The inclusion in tandem of two elements of the minimal functional sequence of human -aminolevulinic acid synthase drug-responsive enhancing sequence (ADRES) positioned upstream of the promoter strongly induced transgene expression in the presence of estrogens, starvation, and certain drugs known to trigger attacks in porphyria patients. The inclusion of two ADRES motives in an AAV vector improved therapeutic efficacy, reducing 10-fold the effective dose in AIP mice. In conclusion, the inclusion of specific enhancer elements in the promoter of gene therapy vectors for AIP was able to overexpress the therapeutic transgene when it is most needed, at the time when porphyrinogenic factors increase the demand for hepatic heme and precipitate acute porphyria attacks.
  • Autores: Rimola, J.; Diaz-Gonzalez, A.; Darnell, A.; et al.
    Revista: HEPATOLOGY
    ISSN 0270-9139 Vol.67 N° 2 2018 págs. 612 - 622
    Resumen
    The clinical benefit of sorafenib in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been undervalued due to the absence of complete responses, even though patients who develop early dermatologic reactions have shown to have a positive outcome. In addition, sorafenib is described as an antiangiogenic drug, but it also acts on immunological cells. Thus, the goal of this study was to assess the complete response rate in a retrospective cohort of HCC patients treated with sorafenib and to describe the profile of the patients who achieve complete response for identifying factors related to this event and their connection with the immunological profile of sorafenib. Ten Spanish centers submitted cases of complete response under sorafenib. The baseline characteristics, development of early dermatologic reactions, and cause of treatment discontinuation were annotated. Radiological images taken before starting sorafenib, at first control, after starting sorafenib, at the time of complete response, and at least 1 month after treatment were centrally reviewed. Of the 1119 patients studied, 20 had been classified as complete responders by the centers, but eight of these patients were excluded after central review. Ten patients had complete disappearance of all tumor sites, and two had just a small residual fibrotic scar. Thus, 12 patients were classified as complete responders (58% HCV, median age 59.7 years, 83.4% Child-Pugh class A, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 91.7%, and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage C 83.3%). The median overall survival and treatment duration were 85.8 and 40.1 months, respectively. All but one patient developed early dermatologic reactions, and seven patients discontinued sorafenib after achieving complete response due to adverse events, patient decision, or liver decompensation. Conclusion: Complete response affects 1% of patients with HCC who are treated with sorafenib. The association of complete response with early dermatologic reactions supports the role of a specific immune/inflammatory patient profile in the improved response to sorafenib. (Hepatology 2018;67:612-622).
  • Autores: Mora Moriana, Lorena (Autor de correspondencia); Alegre Garrido, Félix; Rifón Roca, José Juan; et al.
    Revista: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE ENFERMEDADES DIGESTIVAS
    ISSN 1130-0108 Vol.110 N° 11 2018 págs. 734 - 736
    Resumen
    We present the case of a liver transplant (LT) recipient donor who developed graft versus host disease (GVHD).The main features were cutaneous rash, diarrhea and pancytopenia. Mesenchymal cells were administered as part of the treatment. This is the first case of a patient with GVHD after LT reported to date. Despite the treatment, there was no improvement in aplasia or gastrointestinal symptoms and the patient died due to a disseminated infection.
  • Autores: Gerbes, A. (Autor de correspondencia); Zoulim, F.; Tilg, H.; et al.
    Revista: GUT
    ISSN 0017-5749 Vol.67 N° 2 2018 págs. 380 - 388
    Resumen
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks number three among the most frequent causes of death from solid tumors worldwide. With obesity and fatty liver diseases as risk factors on the rise, HCC represents an ever increasing challenge. While there is still no curative treatment for most patients numerous novel drugs have been proposed, but most ultimately failed in phase III trials. This manuscript targets therapeutic advances and most burning issues. Expert key point summaries and urgent research agenda are provided regarding risk factors, including microbiota, need for prognostic and predictive biomarkers and the equivocal role of liver biopsy. Therapeutic topics highlighted are locoregional techniques, combination therapies and the potential of immunotherapy. Finally the manuscript provides a critical evaluation of novel targets and strategies for personalized treatment of HCC.
  • Autores: Erice, O.; Munoz-Garrido, P.; Vaquero, J.; et al.
    Revista: HEPATOLOGY
    ISSN 0270-9139 Vol.67 N° 4 2018 págs. 1420 - 1440
    Resumen
    Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease associated with autoimmune phenomena targeting intrahepatic bile duct cells (cholangiocytes). Although its etiopathogenesis remains obscure, development of antimitochondrial autoantibodies against pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E2 is a common feature. MicroRNA (miR) dysregulation occurs in liver and immune cells of PBC patients, but its functional relevance is largely unknown. We previously reported that miR-506 is overexpressed in PBC cholangiocytes and directly targets both Cl-/ HCO3-anion exchanger 2 and type III inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, leading to cholestasis. Here, the regulation of miR-506 gene expression and its role in cholangiocyte pathophysiology and immune activation was studied. Several proinflammatory cytokines overexpressed in PBC livers (such as interleukin-8 [IL8], IL12, IL17, IL18, and tumor necrosis factor alpha) stimulated miR-506 promoter activity in human cholangiocytes, as revealed by luciferase reporter assays. Experimental overexpression of miR-506 in cholangiocytes dysregulated the cell proteomic profile (by mass spectrometry), affecting proteins involved in different biological processes including mitochondrial metabolism. In cholangiocytes, miR-506 (1) induced dedifferentiation with down-regulation of biliary and epithelial markers together with up-regulation of mesenchymal, proinflammatory, and profibrotic markers; (2) impaired cell proliferation and adhesion; (3) increased oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress; (4) caused DNA damage; and (5) sensitized to caspase-3-dependent apoptosis induced by cytotoxic bile acids. These events were also associated with impaired energy metabolism in mitochondria (proton leak and less adenosine triphosphate production) and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E2 overexpression. Coculture of miR-506 overexpressing cholangiocytes with PBC immunocytes induced activation and proliferation of PBC immunocytes. Conclusion: Different proinflammatory cytokines enhance the expression of miR-506 in biliary epithelial cells; miR-506 induces PBC-like features in cholangiocytes and promotes immune activation, representing a potential therapeutic target for PBC patients. (Hepatology 2018;67:1420-1440)
  • Autores: Macias, R. I. R. (Autor de correspondencia); Banales, J. M.; Sangro Gómez-Acebo, Bruno Carlos; et al.
    Revista: BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR BASIS OF DISEASE
    ISSN 0925-4439 Vol.1864 N° 4 2018 págs. 1468 - 1477
    Resumen
    The poor prognosis of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is in part due to late diagnosis, which is currently achieved by a combination of clinical, radiological and histological approaches. Available biomarkers determined in serum and biopsy samples to assist in CCA diagnosis are not sufficiently sensitive and specific. Therefore, the identification of new biomarkers, preferably those obtained by minimally invasive methods, such as liquid biopsy, is important. The development of innovative technologies has permitted to identify a significant number of genetic, epigenetic, proteomic and metabolomic CCA features with potential clinical usefulness in early diagnosis, prognosis or prediction of treatment response. Potential new candidates must be rigorously evaluated prior to entering routine clinical application. Unfortunately, to date, no such biomarker has achieved validation for these purposes. This review is an up-to-date of currently used biomarkers and the candidates with promising characteristics that could be included in the clinical practice in the next future. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cholangiocytes in Health and Disease edited by Jesus Banales, Marco Marzioni, Nicholas LaRusso and Peter Jansen.
  • Autores: Al-Aqil, F. A.; Monte, M. J. ; Peleteiro-Vigil, A.; et al.
    Revista: BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR BASIS OF DISEASE
    ISSN 0925-4439 Vol.1864 N° 9 2018 págs. 2927 - 2937
    Resumen
    At high doses, glucocorticoids (GC) have been associated with enhanced serum bile acids and liver injury. We have evaluated the effect of GC, in the absence of hepatotoxicity, on FXR/FGF91(Fgf15)/FGF21-mediated ileum-liver crosstalk. Rats and mice (wild type and Fxr(-/-), Fgf1.5(-/-) and int-Gr(-/-) strains; the latter with GC receptor (Gr) knockout selective for intestinal epithelial cells), were treated (i.p.) with dexamethasone, prednisolone or budesonide. In both species, high doses of GC caused hepatotoxicity. At a non-hepatotoxic dose, GC induced ileal Fgf15 down-regulation and liver Fgf21 up-regulation, without affecting Fxr expression. Fgf21 mRNA levels correlated with those of several genes involved in glucose and bile acid metabolism. Surprisingly, liver Cyp7a1 was not up-regulated. The expression of factors involved in transcriptional modulation by Fxr and Gr (p300, Drip205, CBP and Smrt) was not affected. Pxr target genes Cyp3a11 and Mrp2 were not up-regulated in liver or intestine. In contrast, the expression of some Ppar alpha target genes in liver (Fgf21, Cyp4a14 and Vanin-1) and intestine (Vanin-1 and Cyp3a11) was altered. In mice with experimental colitis, liver Fgf21 was up-regulated (4.4-fold). HepG2 cells transfection with FGF21 inhibited CYP7A1 promoter (prCYP7A1-Luc2). This was mimicked by pure human FGF21 protein or culture in medium previously conditioned by cells over-expressing FGF21. This response was not abolished by deletion of a putative response element for phosphorylated FGF21 effectors present in prCYP7A1. In conclusion, GC interfere with FXR/FGF19-mediated intestinal control of CYP7A1 expression by the liver and stimulate hepatic secretion of FGF21, which inhibits CYP7A1 promoter through an autocrine mechanism.
  • Autores: Herrero Santos, José Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Cuervas-Mons, V.; Gomez-Bravo, M. A.; et al.
    Revista: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE ENFERMEDADES DIGESTIVAS
    ISSN 1130-0108 Vol.110 N° 9 2018 págs. 538 - 543
    Resumen
    Introduction: chronic kidney disease is a frequent complication after liver transplantation. The use of calcineurin inhibitors is one of the causes of this complication. Current immunsuppression regimens that reduce the use of calcineurin inhibitors may be associated with an improved preservation of renal function. Objective: the study aimed to assess the evolution of renal function after liver transplantation in the current routine clinical practice. Methods: an observational, prospective, multicenter study in adult liver transplant recipients was performed. Two hundred and thirty patients with a good renal function before transplantation were assessed six months post-transplantation (baseline) and every six months until month 30. Results: at baseline, 32% of the patients had a reduction in the glomerular filtration rate below 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2). The mean glomerular filtration rate increased from 72.3 to 75.6 ml/min/1.73 m(2) at baseline and month 30 respectively (p < 0.01). The mean serum creatinine levels (mg/dl) decreased from 1.13 to 1.09 (p < 0.01). The percentage of patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease decreased from 31.7% to 26.4%, whereas the percentage of patients with stage 4 remained unchanged (0.4% at baseline and 0.5% at month 30). No patients progressed to end-stage kidney disease that required dialysis or renal transplantation. Conclusion: in the routine clinical practice, a moderate deterioration of renal function is frequent after liver transplantation. However, advanced chronic kidney disease is infrequent in patients with a good pre-transplant renal function.
  • Autores: Gardini, A. C.; Tamburini, E. ; Iñarrairaegui Bastarrica, Mercedes; et al.
    Revista: ONCOTARGETS AND THERAPY
    ISSN 1178-6930 Vol.11 2018 págs. 7315 - 7321
    Resumen
    Purpose: This study aimed to compare clinically relevant outcomes following transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and transarterial radioembolization (TARE) in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using only prospective randomized clinical trials as a source of information. Materials and methods: A meta-analysis was performed to compare the efficacy of TARE and TACE in treating patients with unresectable HCC. Only prospective randomized trials were included in the quantitative analysis. Overall and progression-free survival, disease control rate, and transplantation rate were the variables under analysis. Results: Overall survival at 1 year was similar between the two treatment groups (OR =1.31, 95% CI: 0.56-3.04, P=0.53). Progression-free survival at 1 year was also not statistically different between the two treatments (OR =0.23, 95% CI: 0.02-2.45, P=0.22). Although a higher proportion of patients underwent transplantation in the TARE group (30% vs 20.8%), this difference was not statistically significant (OR =0.68, 95% CI: 0.23-2.01; P=0.49). Conclusion: TARE and TACE provide similar outcomes in unresectable HCC. The role of TARE should be explored in selected patient subpopulations in future clinical trials.
  • Autores: Jiang, L.; Berraondo López, Pedro; Guey, L.; et al.
    Revista: MOLECULAR GENETICS AND METABOLISM
    ISSN 1096-7192 Vol.123 N° 2 2018 págs. S70 - S71
  • Autores: Kudo, M.; Matilla, A. M.; Santoro, A.; et al.
    Revista: HEPATOLOGY
    ISSN 0270-9139 Vol.68 N° 6 2018 págs. 1445A - 1446A
  • Autores: Meyer, T.; Melero Bermejo, Ignacio; Yau, T.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.68 N° Supl. 1 2018 págs. S16 - S16
  • Autores: Di Maira, G.; Piombanti, B.; Lombardo, A.; et al.
    Revista: HEPATOLOGY
    ISSN 0270-9139 Vol.68 N° Supl. 1 2018 págs. 1062A
  • Autores: Pejenaute Martínez de Lizarrondo, Álvaro; Cortés Jiménez, Adriana; Ansorena Artieda, Eduardo; et al.
    Revista: FREE RADICAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
    ISSN 0891-5849 Vol.120 N° Supl. 1 2018 págs. S101 - S101
  • Autores: Banales, J. ; Iñarrairaegui Bastarrica, Mercedes; Arbelaiz, A.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN 0168-8278 Vol.68 2018 págs. S72 - S73
  • Autores: Andueza Lizarraga, Aitor; Garde, N. ; García Garzón, María Antonia; et al.
    Revista: FREE RADICAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
    ISSN 0891-5849 Vol.120 2018 págs. S86 - S86
    Resumen
    NADPH oxidase (Nox) variants Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4 have been implicated in the progression of liver fibrosis. However, the role of Nox5 is unknown, mainly due to the lack of this enzyme in rat and mouse genomes. Here we describe the expression and functional relevance of Nox5 in the human cell line of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), LX-2. Under basal conditions, these cells expressed a long (Nox5L) and a short (Nox5S) variant which were silenced with specific siRNAs for Nox5. Overexpression of Nox5L generated ROS in the presence of calcium, as judged by the production of extracellular hydrogen peroxide, L-012 luminescence and cytochrome c reduction, while Nox5S did not generated ROS under these conditions. In contrast, dihydroethidium oxidation was increased when either Nox5L or Nox5S were overexpressed. Functional studies revealed that both Nox5L and Nox5S stimulated the proliferation of LX-2 cells and the synthesis of type I collagen, while Nox5 siRNAs inhibited these effects. Interestingly, TGF-beta and angiotensin II induced Nox5, and silencing Nox5 reduced collagen production stimulated by TGF-beta. Collectively, these results suggest for the first time that Nox5 can play a relevant role in HSC proliferation and fibrogenesis.
  • Autores: Unfried, J. P.; Serrano, G. ; Suarez, B.; et al.
    Revista: CANCER RESEARCH
    ISSN 0008-5472 Vol.78 N° 13 2018
  • Autores: Reig, M.; Marino, Z. ; Darnell, A.; et al.