Grupos Investigadores

Líneas de Investigación

  • Selección de plantas comestibles a partir de estudios Etnobotánicos y análisis de sus compuestos bioactivos.
  • Propiedades saludables de los alimentos y sus principales compuestos bioactivos.
  • Evaluación del impacto del procesado de los alimentos, principalmente tratamientos térmicos, sobre la estabilidad y/o formación de compuestos bioactivos.
  • Diseño y desarrollo de sistemas de vehiculización de compuestos bioactivos para su aplicación en alimentos funcionales.
  • Compuestos lipídicos y su oxidación.
  • Bioaccesibilidad de compuestos bioactivos tras procesos de digestión gastrointestinal in vitro.

Palabras Clave

  • Plantas comestibles
  • Fracción lipídica de alimentos
  • Etnobotánica
  • Compuestos fenólicos
  • Compuestos bioactivos
  • Antioxidantes naturales

Publicaciones Científicas desde 2018

  • Autores: Yuste, S.; Ludwig Sanz Orrio, Iziar Amaia (Autor de correspondencia); Romero, M. P.; et al.
    Revista: FOOD & FUNCTION
    ISSN 2042-6496 Vol.13 N° 9 2022 págs. 4861 - 4874
    Resumen
    Red-fleshed apple cultivars with an enhanced content of anthocyanins have recently attracted the interest of apple producers and consumers due to their attractive color and promising added health benefits. In this paper, we provide the first comprehensive overview of new hybrid red-fleshed apples, mainly focusing on their (poly)phenolic composition, the effect of processing, the (poly)phenolic bioavailability and the biological effects. Evidence so far from in vitro and in vivo studies supports their added beneficial effects compared to common apples on health outcomes such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, inflammation and immune function, which are mainly related to their specific (poly)phenol composition.
  • Autores: Gutierrez Luna, Katherine; Astiasarán Anchía, María Icíar; Ansorena Artieda, Diana María (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: CRITICAL REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION
    ISSN 1040-8398 Vol.62 N° 14 2022 págs. 3768 - 3781
    Resumen
    Several strategies have been studied to replace or decrease fat content in bakery products aiming improving their nutritional profile. This paper reviewed the effect of different vehiculization systems (hydrogels, emulgels and oleogels) as fat replacers in different types of bakery goods, focusing on technological and nutritional properties of the reformulated products. The most commonly used fat source for replacement purposes were vegetable oils with high monounsaturated fatty acid content, such as olive oil and canola oil (44% of the revised papers used them), whereas high polyunsaturated fatty acid content oils were used in 34% of papers. Oleogelation was the most frequent used method of oil structuring, using waxes and fibers as stabilizers. Reductions of total fat between 19% and 46% and saturated fatty acid between 33% and 87% were achieved, enough to reach the minimum legal limit to state nutrition claims, under the EU legislation, on several products. Sensory evaluation results showed that partially replaced products (<75% replacement) were more appreciated by panelists than fully replaced ones. This review highlights the wide range of alternatives within gel-like fat replacers, that have potential to be applied in different bakery products and the challenge to produce nutritionally enhanced foods and technologically and sensory acceptable.
  • Autores: Macià, A.; Romero, M. P.; Yuste, S.; et al.
    Revista: FOOD CHEMISTRY
    ISSN 0308-8146 Vol.384 2022 págs. 132612
    Resumen
    The present study aimed to evaluate the metabolism and bioavailability of anthocyanins (ACN) and other phenolics from red-fleshed apple (RFA) and to define the intake biomarkers compared to common white-fleshed apple (WFA). Acute and sustained (6-week) interventions were combined in a randomized, controlled and parallel study with 121 hypercholesterolemic subjects. Another arm consuming ACN-rich infusion from aronia fruit (ARO) provided matched content and profile of ACN. Plasma, urine and faeces samples were analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS. Results showed higher bioavailability of ACN after ARO compared to RFA, showing a clear apple matrix effect. The dihydrochalcone phloretin-2'-O-glucuronide was the most discriminant intake biomarker of both apples. The urinary peonidin-3-O-galactoside was a good biomarker after both ARO and RFA intakes, whereas peonidin-O-arabinoside was reported to be specific from ARO. The elucidation of the phenolic metabolism and the selection of intake biomarkers is a promising approach to relate phenolic compounds and human health.
  • Autores: Tura, M.; Ansorena Artieda, Diana María (Autor de correspondencia); Astiasarán Anchía, María Icíar; et al.
    Revista: ANTIOXIDANTS
    ISSN 2076-3921 Vol.11 N° 3 2022 págs. 490
    Resumen
    The interest in hemp seed oil has recently increased, due to the latest regulations which allow its use as food. Hemp seed oil is characterized by a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are highly prone to oxidation. Accelerated thermal oxidation (60 degrees C, 18 days) has been applied to nine types of cold-pressed hemp seed oils to monitor the evolution of the samples during oxidative deterioration. The results showed that the only determinations of primary (peroxide value) and secondary (TBARs) oxidation products did not allow a sufficient or correct evaluation of the oxidative changes of hemp seed oils during storage. In fact, samples at the end of the test were primarily characterized by a high presence of oxidation volatile compounds and a significant decrease of antioxidants. Several volatiles identified before the accelerated storage, such as the predominant alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, gradually decreased during the accelerated storage period. On the other hand, aldehydes (hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, heptanal, (E,E)-2,4-hexadienal, (E)-2-heptenal, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal, (E,Z)-2,4-heptadienal, 2-octenal, nonanal, nonenal, 2,4-nonadienal, (E,E)- 2,4-decadienal and 2,4-decadienal), ketones (1-octen-3-one, 3-octen-2-one, (E,E)-3,5-octadien-2- one and 3,5-octadien-2-one), acids (propionic acid, pentanoic acid, hexanoic acid and heptanoic acid) and 2-pentyl-furan increased during the accelerated storage, as principal markers of oxidation.
  • Autores: Gutierrez Luna, Katherine; Ansorena Artieda, Diana María (Autor de correspondencia); Astiasarán Anchía, María Icíar
    Revista: JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE
    ISSN 0022-1147 Vol.87 N° 4 2022 págs. 1489 - 1499
    Resumen
    New sources of bioactive compounds are constantly explored for reformulating healthier foods. This work aimed to explore and characterize the fatty acid profile and sterol content of three non-conventional oils used in functional food products (hempseed oil, moringa oil, and echium oil) and to compare them with two conventional ones (extra virgin olive oil [EVOO] and linseed oil). Oxidative stability was assessed by determining their acidity value and peroxide content. All oils showed adequate values for acidity and oxidation status. Echium and hempseed oils showed a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (>70%), especially omega-3 fatty acids, while moringa oil was rich in oleic acid. Echium oil, hempseed oil, and moringa oil presented higher sterol content than EVOO, but lower than that of linseed oil. Sitosterol was the most abundant sterol in all samples (97.88¿275.36 mg/100 g oil), except in echium oil, where campesterol (170.62 mg/100 g oil) was the major sterol. Squalene was only found in significant amounts in EVOO. In conclusion, non-conventional oils seem to be interesting sources of bioactive compounds and have great potential for the food industry. Practical Application: Non-conventional vegetable oils can be used as alternative sources of lipids in a variety of food products. Additionally, these oils have great potential to be included in the formulation of functional ingredients for the delivery of omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, fiber, among others.
  • Autores: Deghima, A. (Autor de correspondencia); Righi, N.; Daoud, I.; et al.
    Revista: SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY
    ISSN 0254-6299 Vol.148 2022 págs. 315 - 325
    Resumen
    Ranunculus macrophyllus Desf. is a multipurpose edible medicinal plant, whose roots are used to treat feminine infertility and to increase weight. The aim of this work was to study for the first time the acute toxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of their n-hexane extract. Gas chromatography was used to study the chemical composition of the extract, while xylene induced ear edema was used to assess its anti-inflammatory activity. In silico methods were used to determine the possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of action and pharmacokinetic behavior of the major compounds. Gas chromatographic analysis led to identification of 19 fatty acids, including linoleic, ¿-linolenic and palmitic acids as major compounds. The n-hexane extract did not induce any visible signs of toxicity or mortality to mice at 2000 mg/kg body weight, and successfully inhibited the xylene induced ear inflammation (67% at 200 mg/kg). This activity may be attributed to linoleic and ¿-linolenic acids that were found to be potent inhibitors of cyclooxygenase 2 and phospholipase A2 in the in silico study. The n-hexane extract exhibited strong anti-inflammatory activity with no acute toxicity, which opens the doors for the use of R. macrophyllus roots and their n-hexane extract in food, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries.
  • Autores: Domínguez Fernández, María Teresa; Young Thie Yang, P. ; Ludwig Sanz Orrio, Iziar Amaia; et al.
    Revista: FOOD CHEMISTRY
    ISSN 0308-8146 Vol.367 2022 págs. 130620
    Resumen
    Artichokes are a rich source of (poly)phenols, mainly caffeoylquinic acids, but little is known about their bioavailability from this source. This study investigated the absorption, metabolism and excretion of (poly)phenols after sous-vide artichoke consumption (5776 µmol of (poly)phenols) by healthy volunteers. Seventy-six (poly)phenol metabolites were identified by UHPLC-MS/MS using authentic standards, including acyl-quinic acids plus C6¿C3, C6¿C1, C6¿C2, C6¿C1¿N, C6¿C0 metabolites, and their phase-II conjugates. The major metabolites were 3¿-methoxy-4¿-hydroxycinnamic acid, 3¿-methoxycinnamic acid-4¿-sulfate, and 4¿-hydroxycinnamic acid-3¿-sulfate, which appeared early in plasma (Tmax < 4 h); plus 3-(3¿-methoxy-4¿-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid, 3-(4¿-methoxyphenyl)propanoic acid-3¿-glucuronide, 3-(3¿-hydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid and hippuric acids, which appeared later (Tmax > 6 h). The 24 h urinary recovery averaged 8.9% (molar basis) of the (poly)phenols consumed. Hepatic beta-oxidation of 3¿,4¿-dihydroxycinnamic acid and methylated conjugates occurred, but was limited (<0.04%). 3¿-Methylation exceeded 4¿-methylation and interindividual variability was high, especially for gut microbial metabolites (up to 168-fold).
  • Autores: Peña-Vázquez, G. I.; Domínguez Fernández, María Teresa; Camacho-Zamora, B. D.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS
    ISSN 1756-4646 Vol.88 2022 págs. 104891
    Resumen
    Sweet orange (SO) (Citrus sinensis) is a rich source of polyphenols. However, the bioactivity depends directly on the bioaccessibility affected by biological factors during the digestion process. Therefore, this study was performed in lyophilized SO samples before and after an in vitro digestion to obtain total phenolic content (TPC) by Folin-Ciocalteu assay and characterize its phenolic profile by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS with methanolic extracts. Simulating the passive diffusion of biocompounds, samples were dialyzed after intestinal digestion to obtain bioaccessible phenolic compounds (BPC). Ethanolic extracts were used in 3T3-L1 cell culture. The in vitro digestion process decreased 25% the bioaccessibility of SO polyphenols in the intestinal phase. The most abundant subgroup of polyphenols before and after in vitro digestion were the flavanones, representing more than 86% of TPC. Finally, lipid accumulation in cells induced to undergo adipogenesis and treated with BPC decreased although without significant differences at different concentrations.
  • Autores: de Torre, M. P.; Cavero Remón, Rita Yolanda; Calvo Martínez, María Isabel (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: MOLECULES
    ISSN 1420-3049 Vol.27 N° 20 2022 págs. 7100
    Resumen
    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive impairment due to a severe loss of cholinergic neurons in specific brain areas. It is the most common type of dementia in the aging population. Although many anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) drugs are already available on the market, their performance sometimes yields unexpected results. For this reason, research works are ongoing to find potential anti-AChE agents both from natural and synthetic sources. In this study, 90 extracts from 30 native and naturalized medicinal plants are tested by TLC and Ellman's colorimetric assay at 250, 125 and 62.5 mu g/mL in order to determine the inhibitory effect on AChE. In total, 21 out of 90 extracts show high anti-AChE activity (75-100% inhibition) in a dose-dependent manner. Among them, ethanolic extract from aerial parts of O. vulgare ssp. vulgare shows an IC50 value 7.7 times lower than galantamine. This research also establishes the chemical profile of oregano extract by TLC, HPLC-DAD and LC-MS, and twenty-three compounds are identified and quantified. Dihydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids are the most abundant ones (56.90 and 25.94%, respectively). Finally, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties are quantified by colorimetric methods. The total phenolic content is 207.64 +/- 0.69 mu g/mg of extract. The antioxidant activity is measured against two radicals, DPPH and ABTS. In both assays, the oregano extract shows high activity. The Pearson correlation matrix shows the relationship between syringic acids, a type of dihydroxybenzoic acid, and anti-AChE (r(2) = -0.9864) and antioxidant activity (r(2) = 0.9409 and 0.9976). In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate promising potential new uses of these medicinal herbs for the treatment of Alzheimer's. Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare and syringic acids, which have anti-AChE activity and beneficial antioxidant capacity, can be highlighted as potential candidates for the development of drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other diseases characterized by a cholinergic deficit.
  • Autores: Gutierrez Luna, Katherine; Ansorena Artieda, Diana María (Autor de correspondencia); Astiasarán Anchía, María Icíar
    Revista: LWT-FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
    ISSN 0023-6438 Vol.153 2022 págs. 112538
    Resumen
    Alternative plant-derived fat replacers have experimented a rising interest in the food industry for their versatility and functionality. The aim of this work was to optimize the formulation of a gelled oil-in-water emulsion using echium oil (EO) or extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and different hydrocolloids (alginate, cellulose with collagen and k-carrageenan) as a butter substitute, and assess their technological properties and oxidative stability. Out of 36 initial formulations, 6 were ultimately selected using a two steps process: firstly, on basis on hardness value (considering hardness of butter at room temperature as reference), and secondly searching for minimum syneresis. Oxidative stability of selected formulations was assessed after Schaal oven test. Oxidation parameters were influenced by the unsaturation degree of the oils (with statistically lower values for TBARs for gelled emulsions elaborated with EVOO as compared to those elaborated with EO), as well as by the required heating for the preparation of each gel type (with carrageenan showing statistically higher values in EO gels). Volatile profile of samples was characterized by the presence of aldehydes (35-45% of total area identified), followed by alcohols (11-21%) and esters (21-27%), with a statistically significant increase in aldehydes after 24 h in EO gels.
  • Autores: Huarte Cilveti, Estíbaliz; Trius-Soler, M.; Domínguez Fernández, María Teresa; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCES AND NUTRITION
    ISSN 0963-7486 Vol.73 N° 2 2022 págs. 184 - 194
    Resumen
    This study aims to evaluate whether sous-vide cooking better preserves the (poly)phenol content and profile of red and white cardoon stalks versus traditional boiling, both before and after simulated oral-gastro-intestinal digestion. Thirty one (poly)phenols were quantified in red and white cardoon by HPLC-MS/MS, phenolic acids being >95%, and 5-caffeoylquinic and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acids the major ones. Although both varieties showed a similar profile, raw red cardoon had 1.7-fold higher (poly)phenol content than raw white cardoon. Culinary treatments decreased (poly)phenol content, but sous-vide cooked cardoon had a greater content than the boiled one, suggesting a protective effect. After gastrointestinal digestion, (poly)phenol bioaccessibility of boiled and sous-vide cooked cardoon (52.6-90.5%) was higher than that of raw samples (0.2-0.7%), although sous-vide system no longer played a protective effect compared to boiling. In summary, red cardoon was a richer source of bioaccessible (poly)phenols than white cardoon, even sous-vide cooked or boiled.
  • Autores: Giura, L.; Urtasun, L.; Belarra, A.; et al.
    Revista: FOODS
    ISSN 2304-8158 Vol.10 N° 6 2021 págs. 1334
    Resumen
    Dysphagia is a medical condition that affects normal swallowing. To prevent the risk of aspiration or choking, thickened fluids and texture-modified foods have been used for dysphagia management with the goal of slowing down the flow of liquids and protecting the airway. This article summarizes the available information about the rheological and textural parameters, the characterization of the most-used thickeners and the application of alternative texture modification technologies that are crucial to developing safe dishes for people who suffer from swallowing difficulties. Regarding rheological and textural measurements, fundamental and empirical methods are described.
  • Autores: Delgado, J.; Ansorena Artieda, Diana María; Van Hecke, T.; et al.
    Revista: MEAT SCIENCE
    ISSN 0309-1740 Vol.171 2021 págs. 108278
    Resumen
    The assessment of the actual contribution of red or processed meat to increasing the risk of suffering cardiovascular diseases (CVD) requires identification of specific harmful components and their underlying pathological mechanisms. In regards to CVD, meat lipids and their oxidation products have been recurrently studied due to their implications on lipid metabolism, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, and risk of suffering vascular events such as stroke. The impact of excess NaCl intake on increasing blood pressure is well-established and processed meat products have been recognized as a major contributor to dietary sodium in developed countries. Recent evidence has also suggested carnitine from red meat, as a precursor for trimethylamine-N-oxide, which has been shown to cause atherosclerosis, may increase the risk of suffering CVD in experimental animals. The present review aims to provide an updated overview, including evidence, controversies and unresolved questions on both the epidemiology and mechanisms relating red and processed meat consumption to CVD.
  • Autores: McBride, J. R. (Autor de correspondencia); Cavero Remón, Rita Yolanda; Cheshire, A. L.; et al.
    Revista: PULMONARY MEDICINE
    ISSN 2090-1836 Vol.5 N° 2 2021 págs. 1000114
    Resumen
    Although many modern medicines have been derived from the knowledge of the use of plants by indigenous people, we believe there are more cures known to indigenous people that are yet to be communicated to the modern world. The main barriers to communication about these plants are a sense of the part of many members of the developed world that indigenous people are primitive, and their knowledge of medicine is rudimentary and fear on the part of indigenous people that their intellectual property will be taken without proper compensation.
  • Autores: Ansorena Artieda, Diana María (Autor de correspondencia); Astiasarán Anchía, María Icíar
    Revista: FOODS
    ISSN 2304-8158 Vol.10 N° 6 2021 págs. 1248
  • Autores: Ariz Arnedo, Idoia; Rivero, M.; Cornejo, A.; et al.
    Revista: HORTICULTURA
    ISSN 2340-2903 Vol.1 N° 352 2021 págs. 40 - 43
  • Autores: Calvo Martínez, María Isabel (Autor de correspondencia); Cavero Remón, Rita Yolanda
    Revista: REVISTA DE FITOTERAPIA
    ISSN 1576-0952 Vol.19 N° 1 2021 págs. 31 - 42
    Resumen
    La diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) es un importante problema de salud pública. La resistencia a la insulina y el deterioro de la secreción de insulina pancreática son los factores principales de la patogenia de la DM2. El tratamiento de la DM2 y sus complicaciones suele ser complejo y costoso. Los preparados a base de plantas medicinales pueden ser de interés en el tratamiento de esta patología. Varios estudios han demostrado los efectos hipoglucemiantes de la hoja Moringa oleifera. Este artículo aporta una revisión de los 14 ensayos clínicos realizados con preparados de Moringa oleifera para el tratamiento de esta patología. Se puede concluir que dichos preparados provocan una reducción significativa en los niveles glucémicos, tanto en pacientes diabéticos como en individuos sanos.
  • Autores: Huarte Cilveti, Estíbaliz; Cid Canda, María Concepción; Azqueta Oscoz, Amaya (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 1436-6207 Vol.60 N° 2 2021 págs. 677 - 689
    Resumen
    Purpose To determine whether (poly)phenols from gastrointestinal-digested green pepper possess genoprotective properties in human colon cells and whether the application of a culinary treatment (griddling) on the vegetable influences the potential genoprotective activity. Methods (Poly)phenols of raw and griddled green pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) submitted to in vitro-simulated gastrointestinal digestion were characterized by LC-MS/MS. Cytotoxicity (MTT, trypan blue and cell proliferation assays), DNA damage and DNA protection (standard alkaline and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg)-modified comet assay) of different concentrations of (poly)phenolic extracts were assessed in colon HT-29 cells. Results A total of 32 (poly)phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in digested raw and griddled green pepper. Twenty of them were flavonoids and 12 were phenolic acids. Griddled pepper doubled the (poly)phenol concentration compared to raw; luteolin 7-O-(2-apiosyl)-glucoside and quercitrin constituted the major (poly)phenols in both extracts. Raw and griddled pepper (poly)phenolic extracts impaired cell proliferation and induced low levels of Fpg-sensitive sites, in a dose-dependent manner, even at a non-cytotoxic concentration. None of the concentrations tested induced DNA strand breaks or alkaline labile sites. Nor did they show significant genoprotection against the DNA damage induced by H2O2 or KBrO3. Conclusions Green pepper (poly)phenols did not show genoprotection against oxidatively generated damage in HT-29 cells at simulated physiological concentrations, regardless of the application, or not, of a culinary treatment (griddling). Furthermore, high concentrations of (poly)phenolic extracts induced a slight pro-oxidant effect, even at a non-cytotoxic concentration.
  • Autores: Domínguez Fernández, María Teresa; Irigoyen Barrio, Ángel; Vargas-Alvarez, M. A. ; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GASTRONOMY AND FOOD SCIENCE
    ISSN 1878-450X Vol.25 2021 págs. 100389
    Resumen
    Artichokes are an important source of (poly)phenolic compounds, mainly caffeoylquinic acids, which consumption has been associated with health benefits. However, heat treatments have shown to affect the amounts of these bioactive food compounds. In the present study the influence of culinary techniques (boiling, griddling, and frying) on the total (poly)phenolic content of artichokes (Cynara Scolymus cv. Blanca de Tudela) was evaluated by LC-MS/MS. Additionally, the antioxidant capacity of cooked artichokes was evaluated by spectrophotometric methods. A total of 31 (poly)phenols were identified and quantified, being caffeoylquinic acids the most abundant compounds in raw artichokes accounting for more than 95% of total (poly)phenolic compounds. With the different culinary techniques, these compounds suffered degradation but also redistribution, probably due to isomerization and hydrolysis reactions. Frying and griddling showed the lowest content of (poly)phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity suggesting thermal degradation. Boiling also provoked losses, which were mainly due to leaching of phenolic compounds into the water. However, it was the heat treatment that best preserved (poly)phenolic compounds in artichokes.
  • Autores: Huarte Cilveti, Estíbaliz; Juániz Zurbano, Isabel; Cid Canda, María Concepción; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GASTRONOMY AND FOOD SCIENCE
    ISSN 1878-450X Vol.26 2021 págs. 100415
    Resumen
    This study assessed the influence of blanching and frying heating rate/time on the antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenols of cardoon stalks (Cynara cardunculus L. var. altilis DC). Blanching (98 degrees C, 30 s) increased the total native chlorogenic acids content (1.2-fold vs raw cardoon), with no significant changes in DPPH antioxidant capacity, but with a decrease in ABTS antioxidant capacity (0.6-fold). Specifically, total di-caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) increase (1.6-fold) counterbalanced the losses of 5-CQA (0.8-fold). All frying conditions (t85 degrees C = 5, 12 or 10 min, ttotal = 15, 15 or 30 min, respectively) decreased the antioxidant capacity (0.5-0.7-fold in DPPH, 0.5-0.9-fold in ABTS) of cardoon, but increased total flavonoid amount (3.6-3.7-fold) that remained at low levels. The Short (15 min) and Intense-heat Frying (t85 degrees C = 5 min) favoured the release of chlorogenic acids, particularly 5-CQA, from the food matrix. However, a longer frying process (30 min) induced an almost complete degradation of di-CQAs. Thus, it is desirable to limit the frying duration. When blanching and frying were combined, a higher thermal degradation of (poly)phenols was observed, but the Short and Intense-heat Frying remained the most suitable. This study highlights the importance of selecting optimal culinary conditions for vegetables that favour a high content on bioactive compounds and, therefore, their potential healthy properties.
  • Autores: Huarte Cilveti, Estíbaliz; Serra, G. ; Monteagudo-Mera, A. ; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY
    ISSN 0021-8561 Vol.69 N° 32 2021 págs. 9270 - 9286
    Resumen
    The in vitro anti-inflammatory and prebiotic activity and the content and profile of bioaccessible (poly)phenols and catabolites of raw and sous-vide-cooked red cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L. var. altilis DC) were investigated during gastrointestinal (GI) digestion. Raw cardoon after in vitro GI digestion had 0.7% bioaccessible (poly)phenols, which protected against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by counteracting IL-8, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-10 secretions in differentiated Caco-2 cells. Contrarily, GI-digested sous vide cardoon showed higher (poly)phenol bioaccessibility (59.8%) and exerted proinflammatory effects in Caco-2 cells. (Poly)phenols were highly metabolized during the first 8 h of in vitro fermentation, and nine catabolites were produced during 48 h of fermentation. Colonic-fermented raw and sous-vide-cooked cardoon did not show anti-inflammatory activity in HT-29 cells but presented potential prebiotic activity, comparable to the commercial prebiotic FOS, by stimulating health-promoting bacteria such as Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus/Enterococcus spp. and by increasing the production of total SCFAs, especially acetate.
  • Autores: Domínguez Fernández, María Teresa; Ludwig Sanz Orrio, Iziar Amaia (Autor de correspondencia); de Peña Fariza, María Paz; et al.
    Revista: FOOD & FUNCTION
    ISSN 2042-6496 Vol.12 N° 5 2021 págs. 1996 - 2011
    Resumen
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioaccessibility of (poly)phenolic compounds in Tudela artichokes (Cynara scolymus cv. Blanca de Tudela) after an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and the effect of the human colonic microbiota. A total of 28 (poly)phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by LC-MS/MS in raw, boiled, sous vide and microwaved Tudela artichokes. Out of these, sixteen were phenolic acids, specifically caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) and other minor hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, ten flavonoids belonging to the family of flavones (apigenin and luteolin derivatives) and two lignans (pinoresinol derivatives). Sous vide and microwaving caused mainly transesterification reactions of CQAs but maintained or even augmented the total (poly)phenolic contents of artichokes, while boiling decreased (poly)phenolic compounds by 25% due to leaching into the boiling water. Heat treatment exerted a positive effect on the bioaccessibility of (poly)phenols after gastrointestinal digestion. In raw artichokes, only 1.6% of the total (poly)phenolic compounds remained bioaccessible after gastrointestinal digestion, while in artichoke samples cooked by sous vide, boiled and microwaved, the percentage of bioaccessibility was 60.38%, 59.93% and 39,03% respectively. After fecal fermentation, 20 native (poly)phenolic compounds and 11 newly formed catabolites were quantified. 48 h of fecal fermentation showed that native (poly)phenols are readily degraded by colonic microbiota during the first 2 h of incubation. The colonic degradation of artichoke (poly)phenols follows a major pathway that involves the formation of caffeic acid, dihydrocaffeic acid, 3-(3 '-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, 3-phenylpropionic acid and phenylacetic acid, with 3-phenylpropionic acid being the most abundant end product. The catabolic pathways for colonic microbial degradation of artichoke CQAs are proposed.
  • Autores: de Santiago Castanedo, Elsy Gabriela; Juániz Zurbano, Isabel; Cid Canda, María Concepción; et al.
    Revista: FOOD ANALYTICAL METHODS
    ISSN 1936-9751 Vol.14 2021 págs. 1167 - 1175
    Resumen
    Research in cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) cladodes as a functional food increases because of their (poly)phenolic compounds and health-promoting ability. Extraction conditions are the basis to obtain the highest amount of bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. Therefore, several individual and combination of extraction solvents and conditions were carried out. Even a great amount of (poly)phenols was extracted using 80% ethanol; the combination of solvents with different polarities (methanol, acetone and water) favored the extraction of flavonoids and antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ABTS radicals). The extract with the highest flavonoid content was that obtained by successive extractions. Additionally, in order to quantify (poly)phenols by HPLC-DAD, aglycones were released from glycosides by acid hydrolysis (0.6, 1.2, 1.5, and 1.7 M HCl) through reflux at 90 °C at different times (2 h and 3 h). Flavonoid aglycones (isorhamnetin, quercetin, and kaempferol) and phenolic acids (ferulic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids) were identified and quantified. Acid hydrolysis with 1.5 M HCl during 2 h was the best for the release of flavonoid aglycones, without phenolic acid degradation. Likewise, less acidity (0.6 M HCl) does not completely release the aglycones whereas a higher acidity (1.7 M) and a longer time of reflux (3 h) resulted in the degradation of flavonoid aglycones.
  • Autores: Domínguez Fernández, María Teresa; Xu, Y. ; Young Tie Yang, P. ; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY
    ISSN 0021-8561 Vol.69 N° 1 2021 págs. 537 - 554
    Resumen
    Many studies have associated the consumption of (poly)phenol-rich diets with health benefits. However, accurate high-throughput quantitative methods for estimating exposure covering a broad spectrum of (poly)phenols are lacking. We have developed and validated a high-throughput method for the simultaneous quantification of 119 (poly)phenol metabolites in plasma and urine using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, with a very fast sample treatment and a single run time of 16 min. This method is highly sensitive, precise, accurate, and shows good linearity for all compounds (R2 > 0.992). This novel method will allow a quantitative assessment of habitual (poly)phenol intake in large epidemiological studies as well as clinical studies investigating the health benefits of dietary (poly)phenols.
  • Autores: Deghima, A. (Autor de correspondencia); Ansorena Artieda, Diana María; Calvo Martínez, María Isabel; et al.
    Revista: FOOD BIOSCIENCE
    ISSN 2212-4292 Vol.40 2021 págs. 100904
    Resumen
    Ranunculus macrophyllus Desf. is a lesser-known yet regularly used vegetable in Mediterranean folk diets for its nutritional and medicinal properties. There is a lack of scientific data on its nutritional value and functionality. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional and the phytochemical composition and the effect of in vitro digestion on the antioxidant activity and on individual polyphenols from an ethyl acetate extract. The proximate composition analysis showed good amounts of carbohydrates (72.4% dry weight, dw) and crude proteins (15% dw), while mineral analysis showed considerable amounts of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc among other elements. The lipidic fraction showed potential anti-thrombotic and anti-atherogenic potential with beta-linolenic acid (40.8%) and linoleic acid (16.9%) as major compounds. The ethyl acetate fraction showed good amounts of total polyphenols (235 mg GAE/100 g dw), flavonoids (43.5 mg QE/100 g dw) and flavonols (108 mg RE/100 g dw). The fraction showed good radical scavenging ability against 2,2-dipheny l-1-picrylhydrazyl (432 mg Trolox E/100 g dw), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (1240 mM Trolox E/100 g dw) and peroxyl radicals (14200 mM Trolox E/100 g dw) even after in vitro digestion. Caffeic and coumaric acids showed good bioaccessibility between 97 and 102% while catechin and luteolin had lower bioaccessibility ranging from 34.2 to 38.7%. R. macrophyllus Desf. was found to be a good source of nutritional and non nutritional bioactive compounds with good bioaccessibility, which make its application in food and pharmaceutical industries potentially beneficial.
  • Autores: Yuste, S. ; Ludwig Sanz Orrio, Iziar Amaia; Romero, M.P.; et al.
    Revista: MOLECULAR NUTRITION AND FOOD RESEARCH
    ISSN 1613-4125 Vol.65 N° 10 2021 págs. e2001225
    Resumen
    The present study aims to investigate the metabolic fate and the cardiometabolic effects of phenolic compounds provided by a red-fleshed apple variety biofortified in anthocyanins (ACN). Wistar rats are fed with high-fat diet (HFD) to induce hypercholesterolemia and supplemented with red-fleshed apple (HFD+R), white-fleshed apple (HFD+W), or an ACN-rich infusion from aronia fruit (HFD+A) providing matched content and profile of ACN. Plasma biochemical parameters, histological analysis, and phenol biological metabolites are determined. Plasma, urine, and feces show a significant increase of ACN metabolites after HFD+R and HFD+A, while flavan-3-ols are significantly increased after HFD+W and dihydrochalcones derivatives increased after both apples supplementation. A cardioprotective effect is observed after both apples and aronia infusion supplementation in the reduction of aortic thickness. The kidney function is improved after all supplementations and a decrease in insulin plasma concentration after both apples supplementation (HFD+R and HFD+W) is also observed. The findings support that ACN without apple matrix can induce cardioprotective effects. ACN or flavan-3-ols, together with dihydrochalcones, compose a phenolic phytocomplex in red- and white-fleshed apples, respectively, which can act synergistically in the attenuation of cardiovascular outcomes in hypercholesterolemic rats.
  • Autores: Sandoval-Ramírez, B. A.; Catalán, U.; Calderón-Pérez, L. ; et al.
    Revista: CRITICAL REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION
    ISSN 1040-8398 Vol.60 N° 22 2020 págs. 3862 - 3875
    Resumen
    Apples are among the world's most consumed fruits. However, while the impact of whole-apple intake on cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unknown. This narrative review summarizes a novel integrated view of whole-apple intake, CVD risk association (through observational studies; OSs), and the effects on CVD risk factors (randomized trials; RTs). In 8 OSs, whole-apple intake was associated with a reduced risk of CVD mortality, ischemic heart disease mortality, stroke mortality, all-cause mortality, and severe abdominal aortic calcification, as well as with lower C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. In 8 RTs, whole-apple consumption reduced total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and plasma inflammatory cytokines, and noticeably reduced CRP, whereas it increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) and improved endothelial function. Thus, consuming between 100 and 150 g/day of whole apples is associated with a lower CVD risk and decreases in blood pressure, pulse pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and inflammation status as well as with increases in HDLc and endothelial function. These results, support the regular consumption of whole apples as an aid in the prevention of CVD.
  • Autores: McBride, J.R. (Autor de correspondencia); Cavero Remón, Rita Yolanda; Cheshire, A.L.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF ETHNOBIOLOGY AND ETHNOMEDICINE
    ISSN 1746-4269 Vol.16 N° 1 2020 págs. 35
    Resumen
    Background Missions were established in California in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to convert Native Americans to Christianity and enculturate them into a class of laborers for Californios (Spanish/Mexican settler). The concentration of large numbers of Native Americans at the Missions, along with the introduction of European diseases, led to serious disease problems. Medicinal supplies brought to California by the missionaries were limited in quantity. This situation resulted in an opportunity for the sharing of knowledge of medicinal plants between the Native Americans and the Mission priests. The purpose of this study is to examine the degree to which such sharing of knowledge took place and to understand factors that may have influenced the sharing of medicinal knowledge. The study also examines the sharing of medicinal knowledge between the Native Americans and the Californios following the demise of the California Missions. Methods Two methods were employed in the study: (1) a comparison of lists of medicinal plants used by various groups (e.g., Native American, Mission priests, Californios) prior to, during, and after the Mission period and (2) a close reading of diaries, reports, and books written by first-hand observers and modern authorities to find accounts of and identify factors influencing the exchange of medicinal information.
  • Autores: Pereira-Caro, G. (Autor de correspondencia); Clifford, M. N.; Polyviou, T.; et al.
    Revista: FREE RADICAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
    ISSN 0891-5849 Vol.160 2020 págs. 784 - 795
    Resumen
    The health benefits of orange juice (OJ) consumption are attributed in part to the circulating flavanone phase II metabolites and their microbial-derived ring fission phenolic catabolites. The present study investigated these compounds in the bloodstream after acute intake of 500 mL of OJ. Plasma samples obtained at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 24 h after OJ intake were analysed by HPLC-HR-MS. Eleven flavanone metabolites and 36 phenolic catabolites were identified and quantified in plasma. The main metabolites were hesperetin-3'-sulfate with a peak plasma concentration (C-max) of 80 nmol/L, followed by hesperetin-7-glucuronide (C-max 24 nmol/L), hesperetin-3'-glucuronide (C-max 18 nmol/L) and naringenin-7-glucuronide (C-max 21 nmol/L). Among the main phenolic catabolites to increase in plasma after OJ consumption were 3'-methoxycinnamic acid-4'-sulfate (C-max 19 nmol/L), 3-hydroxy-3-(3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyphenyl)propanoic acid (C-max 20 nmol/L), 3-(3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyphenyl)propanoic acid (C-max 19 nmol/L), 3-(4'- hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid (C-max 25 nmol/L), and 3(phenyl)propanoic acid (C-max 19 nmol/L), as well as substantial amounts of phenylacetic and hippuric acids. The comprehensive plasma pharmacokinetic profiles that were obtained are of value to the design of future ex vivo cell studies, aimed at elucidating the mechanisms underlying the potential health benefits of OJ consumption.
  • Autores: De Torre, M.P.; Vizmanos Pérez, José Luis; Cavero Remón, Rita Yolanda; et al.
    Revista: BIOMEDICINE AND PHARMACOTHERAPY
    ISSN 0753-3322 Vol.129 2020 págs. 110424
    Resumen
    Aging-related diseases can be triggered by multiple factors such as oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants, so today, compounds capable of reducing or neutralizing free radicals are being studied for a therapeutic use. Origanum vulgare L. is a traditional medicinal plant used for a wide number of health problems due to its antimicrobial, carminative and antioxidant activities. However, when administered orally, gastrointestinal digestion can modify some of therapeutical properties. To avoid this, two different solid oral formulations have been designed for an O. vulgare extract evaluating their antioxidant behaviours in vitro and in vivo after a simulation of gastrointestinal digestion. The results showed that the divided powder has a lower antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo than the encapsulated extract. The quantitative difference of polyphenols found on HPLC-DAD (especially luteolin, apigenin and caffeic acid) may explain the differences in pharmacological activity. Thus, we propose that the best form to administrate O. vulgare extracts to maintain the antioxidant properties is the encapsulated form, that is, two capsules of 250mg of a hydroalcoholic extract of O. vulgare with a minimum of 33 % of rosmarinic acid as a daily dose.
  • Autores: Calderón-Pérez, L. ; Gosalbes, M. J.; Yuste, S. ; et al.
    Revista: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
    ISSN 2045-2322 Vol.10 N° 1 2020 págs. 6436
    Resumen
    Hypertension is an independent and preventable risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases, however, little is known about the impact of gut microbiota composition in its development. We carried out comprehensive gut microbiota analysis and targeted metabolomics in a cross-sectional study of 29 non-treated hypertensive (HT) and 32 normotensive (NT) subjects. We determined fecal microbiota composition by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and bacterial functions by metagenomic analysis. The microbial metabolites analysed were short chain fatty acids (SCFA) both in plasma and feces, and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in plasma. The overall bacterial composition and diversity of bacterial community in the two groups were not significantly different. However, Ruminococcaceae NK4A214, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-010, Christensenellaceae_R-7, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia hominis were found to be significantly enriched in NT group, whereas, Bacteroides coprocola, Bacteroides plebeius and genera of Lachnospiraceae were increased in HT patients. We found a positive correlation between the HT-associated species and systolic and diastolic blood pressure after adjusted for measured confounders. SCFA showed antagonistic results in plasma and feces, detecting in HT subjects significant higher levels in feces and lower levels in plasma, which could indicate a less efficient SCFA absorption. Overall, our results present a disease classifier based on microbiota and bacterial metabolites to discriminate HT individuals from NT controls in a first disease grade prior to drug treatment.
  • Autores: Gutierrez Luna, Katherine; Ansorena Artieda, Diana María (Autor de correspondencia); Astiasarán Anchía, María Icíar
    Revista: JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE
    ISSN 0022-1147 Vol.85 N° 10 2020 págs. 3072-3080
    Resumen
    The addition of different amounts of a functional ingredient composed of water, inulin, chia seeds, and hemp or flaxseed oil was examined as butter replacer to improve the nutritional value of muffins. Nutritional, technological, and sensory characteristics of the reformulated products were assessed, as well as the stability under storage at room temperature. One control and six modified formulations with three levels of butter replacement (50%, 75%, and 100%) were analyzed. Modified muffins improved their nutritional profile, reducing up to 78% of fat and increasing fiber (up to 62.5%) and omega¿3 fatty acids content (from 0.12 g/100 g of product to 0.62 g and 1.55 g in hemp and flaxseed oil samples, respectively). Sensory analysis revealed that flaxseed oil samples were indistinguishable from the control in all evaluated attributes, even in the highest level of replacement. During storage, texture of modified samples behaved similar to the control and no oxidation problems were observed in any of the formulations. Therefore, the functional ingredient proved to be a feasible alternative for replacing butter in muffins, preserving the quality attributes and making them healthier foods.
  • Autores: Rubió, L. ; Yuste, S.; Ludwig Sanz Orrio, Iziar Amaia; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY B-ANALYTICAL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE BIOMEDICAL AND LIFE SCIENCES
    ISSN 1570-0232 Vol.1152 2020 págs. 122247
    Resumen
    The analysis of the fat-soluble vitamins A and E and lipid micronutrients in blood, such as carotenoids, is an important parameter to monitor the micronutrient status in humans. Although the potential of dried blood spot (DBS) cards, the use of this technique for blood sampling and subsequent analysis of these fat-soluble micronutrients has been poorly or not studied. An analytical method based on DBS cards (FTA® DMPK-A) combined with liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the determination of carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, ß-cryptoxanthin and ß-carotene), tocopherols (¿-tocopherol, ¿-tocopherol and ¿-tocopherol) and all-trans-retinol in human blood. Under optimum DBS card extraction conditions, the extraction recoveries of the studied compounds were higher than 72%, the sample matrix effect lower than 17%, and the detection limits at hundred nM concentration levels. The developed method was applied to the analysis of human blood, and the concentration ranges obtained fell within the expected ranges previously reported in healthy adults. Moreover, the influence of hematocrit effect was investigated in a range of 25-55% in order to compare the obtained results to those reported in the literature for the analysis of plasma samples. This method represents an improvement over current techniques reported in the literature due to the use of a non-invasive blood collection method, and moreover, this methodology was for the first time 1) validated for the analysis of all-trans-retinol, tocopherols and carotenoids, and 2) applied for the determination of tocopherols in human blood samples.
  • Autores: Yuste, S. ; Macia, A. ; Motilva, M. J.; et al.
    Revista: FOOD & FUNCTION
    ISSN 2042-6496 Vol.11 N° 12 2020 págs. 10436 - 10447
    Resumen
    The present study evaluated the impact of different thermal (infrared-drying, hot air-drying and puree pasteurization) and non-thermal (freeze-drying) processing technologies on red-fleshed apple (poly)phenolic compounds. We further investigated the processing effect on the (poly)phenol bioavailability in a crossover postprandial study where three subjects consumed three apple products (freeze-dried snack, hot air-dried snack and pasteurized puree). (Poly)phenolic compounds present in the apple products and their biological metabolites in urine were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). When comparing different processes, infrared-drying caused important losses in most of the apple (poly)phenolics, while hot air-drying and puree pasteurization maintained approximately 83% and 65% of total (poly)phenols compared with the freeze-dried snack, respectively. Anthocyanins in particular were degraded to a higher extent, and hot air-dried apple and pasteurized puree maintained respectively 26% and 9% compared with freeze-dried apple snack. The acute intake showed that pasteurized puree exhibited the highest (poly)phenol bioavailability, followed by hot air-drying and freeze-dried snack, highlighting the impact of processing on (poly)phenols absorption. In conclusion, for obtaining affordable new red-fleshed apple products with enhanced (poly)phenol bioavailability, puree pasteurization and hot air-drying represent viable techniques. However, to obtain a red-fleshed apple snack with high anthocyanin content, freeze-drying is the technique that best preserves them.
  • Autores: Pena-Vazquez, G. I.; Camacho-Zamora, B. D. ; Hernandez-Salazar, M.; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
    ISSN 0250-6807 Vol.76 N° SUPPL 4 2020 págs. 79 - 79
  • Autores: Pascual, Lluís; Rizkallar, Elena; Machetti, María; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HOSPITAL PHARMACY - SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
    ISSN 2047-9956 Vol.27 N° Supl. 1 2020 págs. A38
  • Autores: Mena, P. (Autor de correspondencia); Brescani, L.; Brindani, N.; et al.
    Revista: NATURAL PRODUCT REPORTS
    ISSN 0265-0568 Vol.36 N° 5 2019 págs. 714 - 752
    Resumen
    Phenyl-gamma-valerolactones (PVLs) and their related phenylvaleric acids (PVAs) are the main metabolites of flavan-3-ols, the major class of flavonoids in the human diet. Despite their presumed importance, these gut microbiota-derived compounds have, to date, in terms of biological activity, been considered subordinate to their parent dietary compounds, the flavan-3-ol monomers and proanthocyanidins. In this review, the role and prospects of PVLs and PVAs as key metabolites in the understanding of the health features of flavan-3-ols have been critically assessed. Among the topics covered, are proposals for a standardised nomenclature for PVLs and PVAs. The formation, bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of PVLs and PVAs from different types of flavan-3-ols are discussed, taking into account in vitro and animal studies, as well as inter-individual differences and the existence of putative flavan-3-ol metabotypes. Synthetic strategies used for the preparation of PVLs are considered and the methodologies for their identification and quantification assessed. Metabolomic approaches unravelling the role of PVLs and PVAs as biomarkers of intake are also described. Finally, the biological activity of these microbial catabolites in different experimental models is summarised. Knowledge gaps and future research are considered in this key area of dietary (poly) phenol research.
  • Autores: De Torre, M.P.; Cavero Remón, Rita Yolanda; Calvo Martínez, María Isabel (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: ANTIOXIDANTS
    ISSN 2076-3921 Vol.8 N° 5 2019 págs. 142
    Resumen
    The characterization of compounds with antioxidant activity is of great interest due to their ability to reduce reactive oxygen species production and, therefore, prevent some age-related diseases. Its antioxidant capacity can be analyzed by different methods both in vitro and in vivo. Caenorhabditis elegans is an in vivo model widely used in ageing research. Until now, available tests analyze functional effects in the worms, so the antioxidant activity of the compound is indirectly monitored. We have developed a simple and a reliable method to quantify internal antioxidant activity in vivo. To validate this method, we analyzed an aqueous green tea extract and two other compounds with a well-known antioxidant activity and without this activity. The results obtained (EC50 green tea = 21.76 ± 1.28 µg/mL; EC50 positive control = 8.50 ± 0.33 µg/mL; negative control EC50 > 500 µg/mL) can help in the design of further in vivo experiments. Thus, our method can be used as a previous screening capable of reducing the gap between in vitro and in vivo assays.
  • Autores: Russolillo, G.; Baladia, E. ; Monino, M. (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE NUTRICION HUMANA Y DIETETICA
    ISSN 2173-1292 Vol.23 N° 4 2019 págs. 205 - 221
    Resumen
    Introduction: Food servings are standard amounts of food stuffs or drinks to help dietetic advice to promote and preserve health. The aim is to establish the serving size of fruits and vegetables (FH) to be used in food based dietary guidelines (FBDG). Material and Methods: Methodology of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) was adapted to establish serving sizes for FBDG, along of the followed by the food exchange system. Data was collected from the FH portion sizes reported in nutritional surveys and common sizes available in the Spanish market, and they were adjusted to an easily recognisable quantities of food with equivalence on key nutrients: the compliance with public health goals for FH consumption was evaluated. Results: Portion sizes typically reported in Spanish nutrition surveys are scarce and not homogeneous, and no data published in scientific journals on portion sizes were available. The Spanish FBDG, in spite of showing a range of serving size for FH, do not assure that they are interchangeable nor specify the method to obtein them.The serving of vegetables was 139,44g (DS:+/- 21.98, CV:0.16), 137,68g (DS:+/- 49,61, CV:0,36) for fruits and 28.00g (DS:+/- 7,53, CV:0.27) for dried fruits. Conclusions: With the established servings, the recommendation of consuming "at least 5 servings of FH a day" would allow reaching the Public Health goals for FH established in 600g (net weight)/person/day. It is recommended that the Spanish Agency for Consumers, Food Safety and Nutrition (AECOSAN) uses this methodology to establish serving sizes for the rest of food groups that make up the FBDG for the Spanish population.
  • Autores: Ansorena Artieda, Diana María (Autor de correspondencia); Cama, S.; Alejandre Amela, Marta; et al.
    Revista: FOOD & NUTRITION RESEARCH
    ISSN 1654-6628 Vol.63 2019 págs. 1 - 7
    Resumen
    Background: Food labeling is an important communication tool for the exposure of nutrition information in foods. Objective: The presence of labeling messages related to nutrients, health properties, allergens, and additives in meat products marketed in Spain was analyzed in this work. The data collection was done through the web pages of six Spanish meat industries, and 642 products were gathered. The following labeling information was collected: the presence of nutrition claims, the presence of health claims, messages indicating the absence of additives, and those reporting the absence or presence of allergenic substances. Results: A total of 1,254 messages were found with the following distribution: 72% were related to the presence/absence of allergens, 19% were nutrition claims, 8% were messages related to the absence of additives, and only 0.4% were health claims. Fat was the nutrient most frequently referred in the nutrition claims, accounting for a 63.5% of this type of claims, with the expression 'low-fat', as the most used (42% of total nutrition claims). Prevalence of processed meat products that showed nutrition claims was 29%, whereas the percentage of products that showed information about allergenic compounds was 83%. Conclusion: This work provides information about the presence of health-related messages in a high number of meat products, which could be useful as a tool for marketing purposes or for consumer trends evaluation studies.
  • Autores: Alejandre Amela, Marta; Astiasarán Anchía, María Icíar; Ansorena Artieda, Diana María (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: FOOD RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL
    ISSN 0963-9969 Vol.122 2019 págs. 129 - 136
    Resumen
    Conventional canola oil and structured canola oil systems, consisting of oil in water hydrogelled emulsions (with 1.5% or 3% kappa carrageenan) and ethylcellulose organogels (12%, with 0%, 1.5% or 3% glycerol monostearate), were used to replace beef fat in emulsion type meat batters. Replacement with regular canola oil increased hardness and lightness (P < .05) of the reformulated products as compared to those with beef fat. Structuring the oil resulted in similar color and texture (P > .05), and lower oxidation values (P < .05) of meat batters. Reformulated products also gave rise to a healthier fatty acid profile, evidenced by a decrease in saturated fatty acids (SFA) from 11.8% to approximate to 2% and an increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from 0.3% to approximate to 5%. Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio also decreased (16.2 to approximate to 2) when incorporating canola oil into meat batters. Batters formulated with organogels showed improved matrix stability compared to those with hydrogelled emulsions, which showed some coalescence of fat globules and fat losses during cooking, resulting in a reduction of fat content (P < .05).
  • Autores: Mena, P. (Autor de correspondencia); Ludwig Sanz Orrio, Iziar Amaia; Tomatis, V. B.; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 1436-6207 Vol.58 N° 4 2019 págs. 1529 - 1543
    Resumen
    PurposeThere is much information on the bioavailability of (poly)phenolic compounds following acute intake of various foods. However, there are only limited data on the effects of repeated and combined exposure to specific (poly)phenol food sources and the inter-individual variability in their bioavailability. This study evaluated the combined urinary excretion of (poly)phenols from green tea and coffee following daily consumption by healthy subjects in free-living conditions. The inter-individual variability in the production of phenolic metabolites was also investigated.MethodsEleven participants consumed both tablets of green tea and green coffee bean extracts daily for 8 weeks and 24-h urine was collected on five different occasions. The urinary profile of phenolic metabolites and a set of multivariate statistical tests were used to investigate the putative existence of characteristic metabotypes in the production of flavan-3-ol microbial metabolites.Results(Poly)phenolic compounds in the green tea and green coffee bean extracts were absorbed and excreted after simultaneous consumption, with green tea resulting in more inter-individual variability in urinary excretion of phenolic metabolites. Three metabotypes in the production of flavan-3-ol microbial metabolites were tentatively defined, characterized by the excretion of different amounts of trihydroxyphenyl--valerolactones, dihydroxyphenyl--valerolactones, and hydroxyphenylpropionic acids.ConclusionsThe selective ...
  • Autores: Gutierrez Luna, Katherine; Astiasarán Anchía, María Icíar; Ansorena Artieda, Diana María (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: LWT-FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
    ISSN 0023-6438 Vol.109 2019 págs. 436 - 442
    Resumen
    Bakery products have been traditionally considered an important source of trans (TFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA), which are strongly related to cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. This study aimed assessing the quantity and quality of the lipid fraction in artisan and industrial biscuits. Seven artisan and five industrial brands of biscuits were analyzed. Total fat was statistically higher for the artisan biscuits (29.46%) than for the industrial ones (26.85%). Lipid profile revealed significant differences in TFA and SFA between both types of products, with lower values in industrial biscuits (0.75 g and 44.15 g/100 g of total fat, respectively) compared to artisan biscuits (1.81 g and 51.24 g/100 g of total fat). Artisan biscuits showed TFA values between 0.99 and 3.50 g/100 g fat, including 2 brands showing mean values higher than 2%. All industrial biscuits showed TFA values lower than 1% and a healthier lipid fraction as compared to artisan ones.
  • Autores: Granado-Serrano, A. B.; Martín-Garí, M.; Sánchez, V.; et al.
    Revista: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
    ISSN 2045-2322 Vol.9 N° 1 2019 págs. 1772
    Resumen
    Gut microbiota has been suggested to affect lipid metabolism. The objective of this study was to characterize the faecal microbiota signature and both short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and bile acids (BA) profile of hypercholesterolemic subjects. Microbiota composition, SCFAs, BA and blood lipid profile from male volunteers with hypercholesterolemia (HC) and normocholesterolemia (NC) were determined by 16S rDNA sequencing, HPLC, GC and NMR, respectively. HC subjects were characterized by having lower relative abundance of Anaeroplasma (0.002% vs 0.219%, p-value = 0.026) and Haemophilus (0.041% vs 0.078%, p-value = 0.049), and higher of Odoribacter (0.51% vs 0.16%; p-value = 0.044). Correlation analysis revealed that Anaeroplasma and Haemophilus were associated to an unfavourable lipid profile: they correlated negatively to cholesterol and triglycerides related biomarkers and the ratio total to high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and positively to HDL size. Odoribacter displayed an opposite behaviour. Faecal SCFAs profile revealed higher abundance of isobutyric (2.76% vs 0.82%, p-value = 0.049) and isovaleric acid (1.32% vs 0.06%, p-value = 0.016) in HC. Isobutyric acid correlated positively with Odoribacter and lipid parameters indicative of an unfavourable profile. BA profile did not show differences between groups. It was concluded that HC subjects showed a particular faecal bacterial signature and SCFAs profile associated with their lipid profile.
  • Autores: Alejandre Amela, Marta; Ansorena Artieda, Diana María (Autor de correspondencia); Calvo Martínez, María Isabel; et al.
    Revista: MEAT SCIENCE
    ISSN 0309-1740 Vol.148 2019 págs. 219 - 222
    Resumen
    The addition of a blackthorn branch extract (Prunus spinosa L.) to a gel emulsion system containing microalgal oil was examined in order to obtain a functional ingredient (APG), for use as fat replacer in beef patties. Chromatographic analysis indicated that catechins were the major polyphenols present in the Prunus spinosa L. extract. The antioxidant capacity increased as a result of the extract addition, as shown by the comparison of the gel emulsions, with and without it (APG and AG, respectively). Beef patties containing APG as fat replacer (modified patties) had a lower fat content (5.3% versus 10.75%), doubled the antioxidant activity and the DHA content, and improved the stability against oxidation by reducing the peroxide content more than two fold when compared to control patties. In addition, instrumental color measured by the CIE L*a*b* system showed no significant difference between control and modified raw patties. Moreover, the sensory acceptability of the new formulation was confirmed by a like/dislike hedonic test.
  • Autores: Alejandre Amela, Marta; Astiasarán Anchía, María Icíar; Ansorena Artieda, Diana María (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: FOOD & FUNCTION
    ISSN 2042-650X Vol.10 N° 12 2019 págs. 7883 - 7891
    Resumen
    The incorporation of oil in water gel emulsion with significant levels of omega-3 fatty acids and plant sterols was studied to improve the lipid fraction of beef patties. The nutritional improvement achieved led to products able to include certain nutrition and health claims in the labelling. Sensory characterization by 62 consumers and the effect of nutritional information of the samples were also evaluated by using hedonic tests for liking, Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) questions and purchase intention. After having received the nutritional information about the new products, consumers reported a significant increase in the purchase intention and overall acceptability of the reformulated beef patties (P < 0.05) compared to these products under the blind conditions. In particular, 54 out of 62 consumers showed a higher acceptability for reformulated beef patties after receiving the nutritional information. This work highlighted the influence of nutritional information on sensory acceptability of reformulated healthier beef patties.
  • Autores: Yuste, S.; Ludwig Sanz Orrio, Iziar Amaia; Rubiò, L.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS
    ISSN 1756-4646 Vol.55 2019 págs. 146 - 155
    Resumen
    The aim of this study was to investigate comprehensively the metabolic pathways and human bioavailability of anthocyanins and other (poly)phenols in an apple matrix, and to elucidate potential intake biomarkers. After the acute intake of a red-fleshed apple freeze-dried snack, plasma and urine were collected and analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. A total of 37 phase-II and microbial phenolic metabolites were detected in plasma and urine. Among these, phloretin glucuronide, cyanidin-3-O-galactoside (plasma and urine) and peonidin-3-O-galactoside (urine) were the only metabolites detected in all the volunteers and not detected at basal conditions. The maximum urine excretion was detected at 2-4 h, and the main increase in plasma of phloretin glucuronide and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside was observed at 2 h post-intake (61.0 +/- 6.82 and 10.3 +/- 1.50 nM, respectively). These metabolites could be selected as the best intake biomarkers of red-fleshed apple and might be useful in human intervention studies when studying its health effects.
  • Autores: Lütjohann , Dieter (Autor de correspondencia); Björkhem , I; Friedrichs , S; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF STEROID BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
    ISSN 0960-0760 Vol.190 2019 págs. 115 - 125
  • Autores: Gayoso Morandeira, Lucía; Ansorena Artieda, Diana María (Autor de correspondencia); Astiasarán Anchía, María Icíar
    Revista: JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE
    ISSN 0022-5142 Vol.99 N° 5 2019 págs. 2251 - 2258
    Resumen
    BACKGROUND The bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds for functional food deserves evaluation. An in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model was applied to provide information about the extent of lipid hydrolysis, oxidative stability and bioaccessibility of algae oil (42% of docosahexaenoic acid; DHA), comparing three lipid delivery systems: bulk oil, soy protein stabilized O/W emulsion and carrageenan gelled emulsion. RESULTS Lipid digestion kinetics was slightly influenced by the delivery systems. Nevertheless, at the end of intestinal digestion, lipolysis in the three samples ranged between 49% and 52%, showing a partial oil digestion. Lipid oxidation, measured by malondialdehyde, was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in both emulsified oils after intestinal digestion compared to the bulk oil. Bioaccessibility of DHA was 58%, 71% and 84% for bulk oil, O/W emulsion and gelled emulsion, respectively. CONCLUSION These results suggest that both emulsified delivery systems used in the present study enhanced the solubilization of free fatty acids, in particular omega-3 fatty acids, and therefore their potential intestinal absorption. (c) 2018 Society of Chemical Industry
  • Autores: de Santiago Castanedo, Elsy Gabriela; Gill, C. I. R.; Carafa, I.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY
    ISSN 0021-8561 Vol.67 N° 9 2019 págs. 2490 - 2499
    Resumen
    he bioactivity of (poly)phenols from a food is an interplay between the cooking methods applied and the interaction of the food with the gastrointestinal tract. The (poly)phenolic profile and biological activity of raw and cooked cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.) cladodes following in vitro digestion and colonic fermentation were evaluated. Twenty-seven (poly)phenols were identified and quantified by HPLC-ESI-MS, with piscidic acid being the most abundant. Throughout the colonic fermentation, flavonoids showed more degradation than phenolic acids, and eucomic acid remained the most relevant after 24 h. The catabolite 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid was generated after 24 h of fermentation. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and cell cycle analyses were performed in HT29 cells. Cactus colonic fermentates showed higher cell viability (>= 80%) in comparison to the control fermentation with no cactus and significantly (p < 0.05) reduced H2O2-induced DNA damage in HT29 cells. Results suggest that, although phenolic compounds were degraded during the colonic fermentation, the biological activity is retained in colon cells.
  • Autores: Pereira-Caro, G. (Autor de correspondencia); Ordóñez, J. L.; Ludwig Sanz Orrio, Iziar Amaia; et al.
    Revista: FOOD CHEMISTRY
    ISSN 0308-8146 Vol.252 2018 págs. 49 - 60
    Resumen
    This study developed, optimized and validated an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method to identify and quantify metabolites and microbial-derived catabolites in urine, plasma and feces of rats following ingestion of 50 mg of a red wine proanthocyanidin-rich extract. The method was validated for specificity, linearity, limit of detection (LD) and quantification (LQ), intra-day and inter-day precision, recovery and matrix effects, which were determined for 34 compounds in the three biological matrices. After method validation, three parent flavan-3-ols, four 5-carbon side chain ring fission metabolites, and 27 phenolic acid and aromatic catabolites were quantified in plasma, urine and feces after red wine proanthocyanidin intake. These results establish the value of the UHPLC-HRMS protocol in obtaining a detailed picture of proanthocyanidin metabolites and their microbial-derived catabolites, along with their phase II metabolites, in biological fluids of rat, and potentially in human clinical studies designed to evaluate the bioavailability of dietary flavan-3-ols.
  • Autores: de Santiago Castanedo, Elsy Gabriela; Domínguez-Fernández, M.; Cid Canda, María Concepción; et al.
    Revista: FOOD CHEMISTRY
    ISSN 0308-8146 Vol.240 2018 págs. 1055 - 1062
    Resumen
    The impact of cooking methods (boiling, microwaving, griddling and frying in olive and soybean oils) on nutritional composition (protein, minerals, fat, carbohydrates, fibre, fatty acid profile and energy), antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of cactus cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica) was evaluated. Culinary processes, except boiling, increased soluble and insoluble fibre up to 5.0 g/100 g becoming a good fibre source. Cactus cladodes fried in olive oil showed a healthier fatty acid profile and lower ¿-6/¿-3 ratio than in soybean oil. Flavonoids accounted for 80% of total (poly)phenolic compounds, being isorhamnetin the most abundant. Heat treatment, particularly griddling and microwaving, increased every flavonoid and phenolic acid up to 3.2-fold higher than in raw samples, and consequently their antioxidant capacity. Even boiling induced losses in total (poly)phenols and antioxidant capacity by leaching into water, the main compounds were maintained. Principal Component Analysis distributed heat treated cactus cladodes according to their distinctive polyphenols and antioxidant capacity.
  • Autores: Yuste, S.; Macià, A.; Ludwig Sanz Orrio, Iziar Amaia; et al.
    Revista: MOLECULAR NUTRITION AND FOOD RESEARCH
    ISSN 1613-4125 Vol.62 N° 23 2018 págs. 1800623
    Resumen
    Scope: The application of dried blood spot (DBS) cards for the study in human blood of dietary polyphenol bioavailability has been poorly studied. Methods and results: An analytical method based on blood sampling with DBS cards combined with LC-MS/MS has been developed and validated. To test the method validation, the phenolic metabolites are determined in human blood and plasma obtained after an acute intake of a red-fleshed apple snack in ten volunteers. Capillary blood by finger prick is compared to venous blood by venipuncture and whole blood is also compared to their corresponding venous plasma samples. Moreover, the venous plasma results using DBS cards are compared to those obtained by microElution solid phase extraction (mu SPE). The main phenolic metabolites detected in blood and plasma samples are phloretin glucuronide, dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid sulphate, (methyl) catechol sulphate, catechol glucuronide, and hydroxyphenyl-gamma-valerolactone glucuronide. No significant differences are observed between capillary blood, venous blood, and plasma samples using DBS, and neither between plasma samples analyzed by DBS or mu SPE. Conclusions: Finger-prick blood sampling based on DBS appears to be a suitable alternative to the classic invasive venipuncture for the determination of circulating phenolic metabolites in nutritional postprandial studies.
  • Autores: de Santiago Castanedo, Elsy Gabriela; Pereira-Caro, G. ; Moreno-Rojas, J. M.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY
    ISSN 0021-8561 Vol.66 N° 23 2018 págs. 5832 - 5844
    Resumen
    This study aims to investigate whether heat treatment applied to cactus cladodes influences the bioaccessibility of their (poly)phenolic compounds after simulated gastric and intestinal digestion. A total of 45 (poly)phenols were identified and quantified in raw and cooked cactus cladodes by ultra high performance liquid chromatography photodiode array detector high resolution mass spectrometry. Both flavonoids (60-68% total), mainly isorhamnetin derivatives, and phenolic acids (32-40%) with eucomic acids as the predominant ones significantly (p < 0.05) increased with microwaving and griddling processes. After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, 5S-64% of the total (poly)phenols of cooked cactus cladodes remained bioaccessible versus 44% in raw samples. Furthermore, digestive conditions and enzymes degraded or retained more flavonoids (37-63% bioaccessibility) than phenolic acids (56-87% bioaccessibility). Microwaved cactus cladodes contributed the highest amount of (poy)phenols (143.54 mg/g dm) after gastrointestinal process, followed by griddled samples (133.98 mg/g dm), showing the highest antioxidant capacity. Additionally, gastrointestinal digestion induced isomerizations among the three stereoisomeric forms of piscidic and eucomic acids.
  • Autores: Gayoso Morandeira, Lucía; Roxo, M.; Cavero Remón, Rita Yolanda; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS
    ISSN 1756-4646 Vol.44 2018 págs. 146 - 154
    Resumen
    Melissa officinalis, Lavandula latifolia and Origanum vulgare are widely used medicinal plants and spices. Their extracts were evaluated as potential antioxidants for functional food formulations. After being submitted to an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, all the extracts showed antioxidant activity (measured by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, TPC). Furthermore, their main polyphenols maintained high stability. Biological activity was measured using Caenorhabditis elegans, which is a widely used model in this context. Treatments of 50 and 100 mu g/mL of M. officinalis significantly attenuated juglone-induced stress in the survival assay performed; moreover, all tested concentrations decreased intracellular ROS. Lavandula latifolia and O. vulgare had no significant effect against acute stress in the survival assay, but significantly decreased ROS basal levels. GST-4 expression under juglone-induced oxidative stress was significantly down-regulated by treatment with the three plant extracts (up to 63%). Besides, similar biological activity of all digested extracts was demonstrated in all in vivo assays.
  • Autores: Ordóñez, J. L.; Pereira-Caro, G. (Autor de correspondencia); Ludwig Sanz Orrio, Iziar Amaia; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY A
    ISSN 0021-9673 Vol.1575 2018 págs. 100 - 112
    Resumen
    The present study compared and validated two analytical methods, HPLC-HRMS, and GC-MS using MSTFA as derivatization agent, for the analysis of microbiota-derived phenolic acids and aromatic compounds accumulating in urine, collected over a 24 h period after the consumption of 500 mL of orange juice. In addition, purification procedures using SDB-L and HLB solid phase cartridges were compared when HPLC- HRMS technique was used. Both HPLC-HRMS and GC-MS methodologies were successfully validated in terms of specificity, sensitivity, limit of detection and quantification, recovery and matrix effects. HPLC- HRMS, unlike GC-MS, does not require sample derivatization prior to analysis. GC-MS was not suitable for the analysis of phenolic sulfate and glucuronide metabolites because of their lack of volatility. These phase II metabolites could, however, be analysed by HPLC-HRMS which, as a consequence, provided more detailed and complete information on the phenolic compounds derived from microbiota-mediated degradation of orange juice (poly)phenols. Furthermore, the use of SDB-L and HLB cartridges for sample purification prior to HPLC-HRMS analysis is suitable for free phenolics and glucuronide metabolites but not sulfate derivatives. These findings highlight that the use of an inappropriate analytical protocol can adversely affect studies on the bioavailability of dietary (poly)phenols in which microbiota-derived phenolic catabolites play an important role.
  • Autores: Ansorena Artieda, Diana María; Poyato Aledo, María Candelaria; Alejandre Amela, Marta; et al.
    Revista: EUROCARNE
    ISSN 1132-2675 Vol.265 2018 págs. 144 - 150
  • Autores: Lutjohann, D. (Autor de correspondencia); Bjorkhem, I.; Friedrichs, S.; et al.
    Revista: BIOCHIMIE
    ISSN 0300-9084 Vol.153 2018 págs. 26 - 32
    Resumen
    Increasing numbers of laboratories develop new methods based on gas-liquid and high-performance liquid chromatography to determine serum concentrations of oxygenated cholesterol metabolites such as 7 alpha-, 24(S)-, and 27-hydroxycholesterol. We initiated a first international descriptive oxycholesterol (OCS) survey in 2013 and a second interventional survey 2014 in order to compare levels of OCS reported by different laboratories and to define possible sources of analytical errors. In 2013 a set of two lyophilized serum pools (A and B) was sent to nine laboratories in different countries for OCS measurement utilizing their own standard stock solutions. In 2014 eleven laboratories were requested to determine OCS concentrations in lyophilized pooled sera (C and D) utilizing the same provided standard stock solutions of OCS. The participating laboratories submitted results obtained after capillary gas-liquid chromatography-mass selective detection with either epicoprostanol or deuterium labelled sterols as internal standards and high-performance liquid chromatography with mass selective detection and deuterated OCS as internal standard. Each participant received a clear overview of the results in form of Youden-Plots and basic statistical evaluation in its used unit. The coefficients of variation of the concentrations obtained by all laboratories using their individual methods were 58.5-73.3% (survey 1), 56.8-60.3% (survey 2); 36.2-35.8% (survey 1), 56.6-59.8, (survey 2); 61.1-197.7% (survey 1), 47.2-74.2% (survey 2) for 24(S)-, 27-, and 7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol, respectively. We are surprised by the very great differences between the laboratories, even under conditions when the same standards were used. The values of OCS's must be evaluated in relation to the analytical technique used, the efficiency of the ample separation and the nature of the internal standard used. Quantification of the calibration solution and inappropriate internal standards could be identified as major causes for the high variance in the reported results from the different laboratories. A harmonisation of analytical standard methods is highly needed. (C) 2018 Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Autores: Escoté Miró, Xavier; Félix Soriano, Elisa; Gayoso Morandeira, Lucía; et al.
    Revista: FOOD & FUNCTION
    ISSN 2042-6496 Vol.9 N° 5 2018 págs. 3028 - 3036
    Resumen
    FGF21 has emerged as a key metabolism and energy homeostasis regulator. Dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or -lipoic acid (LIP) has shown beneficial effects on obesity. In this study, we evaluated EPA and/or LIP effects on plasma FGF21 and the fatty acid (FA) profile in overweight/obese women following hypocaloric diets. At the baseline, FGF21 levels were negatively related to the AST/ALT ratio and HMW adiponectin. The weight loss did not cause any significant changes in FGF21 levels, but after the intervention FGF21 increased in EPA-supplemented groups compared to non-EPA-supplemented groups. EPA supplementation decreased the plasma n-6-PUFA content and increased n-3-PUFAs, mainly EPA and DPA, but not DHA. In the LIP-alone supplemented group a decrease in the total SFA and n-6-PUFA content was observed after the supplementation. Furthermore, EPA affected the desaturase activity, lowering 4D and raising 5/6D. These effects were not observed in the LIP-supplemented groups. Besides, the changes in FGF21 levels were associated with the changes in EPA, n-3-PUFAs, 5/6D, and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Altogether, our study suggests that n-3-PUFAs influence FGF21 levels in obesity, although the specific mechanisms implicated remain to be elucidated.
  • Autores: Mosele, J. I.; Motilva, M. J.; Ludwig Sanz Orrio, Iziar Amaia (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY
    ISSN 0021-8561 Vol.66 N° 34 2018 págs. 8966 - 8975
    Resumen
    Among cereals, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is notable for its high content of bioactives such as beta-glucan and phenolic compounds, but it is not used as widely in human nutrition as wheat. To compare the impact of food formulation and processing on barley bioactives, crackers, cookies, and fresh pasta were prepared combining wheat and barley flour. After quantification of beta-glucan and PCs in the barley flour and barley-based products, their behavior during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation was studied. The beta-glucan and PCs were not drastically affected by processing. The amount of bioaccessible compounds after gastrointestinal digestion was lower than the amount retained in the undigested fraction. After in vitro colonic fermentation, beta-glucan was mainly metabolized to acetic and propionic acids and PCs to phenylpropionic and phenylacetic acids. Based on the results of the study, the daily ingestion of barley-based foods may contribute to the intake of beneficial bioactive compounds.
  • Autores: Pereira-Caro, G. (Autor de correspondencia); Fernandez-Quirós, B.; Ludwig Sanz Orrio, Iziar Amaia; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 1436-6207 Vol.57 N° 1 2018 págs. 231 - 242
    Resumen
    Purpose Orange juice (OJ) flavanones undergo limited absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract and reach the colon where they are transformed by the microbiota prior to absorption. This study investigated the ability of two probiotic bacteria, Bifidobacterium longum R0175 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus subsp. Rhamnosus NCTC 10302 to catabolise OJ flavanones. Methods The bacteria were incubated with hesperetin-7-Orutinoside, naringenin-7-O-rutinoside, hesperetin and naringenin, and the culture medium and intracellular cell extracts were collected at intervals over a 48 h of incubation period. The flavanones and their phenolic acid catabolites were identified and quantified by HPLC-HR-MS. Results Both probiotics were able to subject hesperetin to ring fission yielding 3-(3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid which was subsequently demethylated producing 3-(3', 4'-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid and then via successive dehydroxylations converted to 3-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid and 3-(phenyl)propionic acid. Incubation of both bacteria with naringenin resulted in its conversion to 3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid which underwent dehydroxylation yielding 3-(phenyl)propionic acid. In addition, only L. rhamnosus exhibited rhamnosidase and glucosidase activity and unlike B. longum, which was able to convert hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside and naringenin-7-O-rutinoside to their respective aglycones. The aglycones were then subjected to ring fission and further catabolised...
  • Autores: Martínez, M.; Motilva, M. J.; Lopez de las Hazas, M. C.; et al.
    Revista: FOOD CHEMISTRY
    ISSN 0308-8146 Vol.245 2018 págs. 61 - 70
    Resumen
    In the present study, 27 barley genotypes (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown in two geographic origins (Czech Republic and Spain) were analysed for their contents of beta-glucan, tocols and phenolic compounds (free and bound). The samples included hulled, hull-less and coloured genotypes. The results showed that concentrations of beta-glucan range from 2.40 to 7.42 g/100 g. Total tocol content of the barley samples ranged between 39.9 and 81.6 mu g/g. A total of 64 compounds were identified in the barley samples. These included 19 phenolic acids and aldehydes, 9 flavan 3-ols, 9 flavone glycosides, and 27 anthocyanins. The results showed a wide range of phenolic concentrations in the barley samples, highlighting the presence of considerable amounts of anthocyanins in purple barley genotypes. In synthesis, barley should be considered a good source of bioactive components, especially because of the broad spectrum of phytochemicals with potential health benefits besides the soluble fibre (beta-glucan).
  • Autores: Calvo Martínez, María Isabel; Cavero Remón, Rita Yolanda
    Libro: Manual de Fitoterapia
    ISSN 978-84-9113-686-6 2021 págs. 211 - 228
    Resumen
    La tercera edición del Manual de Fitoterapia constituye un compendio para la utilización de remedios naturales, principalmente plantas medicinales, de forma racional y basada en el conocimiento. Presenta la fitoterapia y su relación con las diferentes partes del cuerpo y sus dolencias, el protocolo de actuación, así como los nombres científicos y vulgares de cada una de las plantas. Este exhaustivo tratado de fitoterapia describe las características botánicas de las plantas, así como la actividad farmacológica, indicaciones, dosis, y seguridad de las mismas, haciendo hincapié en las contraindicaciones y los efectos adversos.
  • Autores: de Peña Fariza, María Paz; Ludwig Sanz Orrio, Iziar Amaia; Cid Canda, María Concepción
    Libro: Coffee: production, quality and chemistry
    ISSN 978-1-78262-004-4 2019 págs. 272 - 291
  • Autores: Cavero Remón, Rita Yolanda
    Libro: Inventario Español de los Conocimientos Tradicionales Relativos a la Biodiversidad. Segunda Fase (Tomo 2)
    ISSN 978-84-491-1472-4 Vol.2 2018 págs. 228 - 231
  • Autores: Cavero Remón, Rita Yolanda
    Libro: Inventario español de los conocimientos tradicionales relativos a la Biodiversidad. Segunda fase (Tomo 2)
    ISSN 978-84-491-1472-4 Vol.2 2018 págs. 186 - 188
  • Autores: Cavero Remón, Rita Yolanda
    Libro: Inventario español de los conocimientos tradicionales relativos a la Biodiversidad. Segunda fase (Tomo 3)
    ISSN 978-84-491-1472-4 Vol.3 2018 págs. 26 - 32

Proyectos desde 2018

  • Título: Ayudas para la atracción y contratación de talento investigador por centros de investigación y universidades: Talento senior 2021 ANDIA (2. Cadena alimentaria)
    Código de expediente: 0011-3947-2021-000034
    Investigador principal: IZIAR AMAIA LUDWIG SANZ ORRIO.
    Financiador: GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA
    Convocatoria: 2021 GN Andia - Atracción de talento
    Fecha de inicio: 23-03-2022
    Fecha fin: 22-03-2027
    Importe concedido: 500.000,00 €
    Fondos FEDER: NO
  • Título: Modificaciones del ensayo del cometa para su aplicación en seguridad alimentaria; genotoxicidad de carnes cocinadas y digeridas in vitro
    Código de expediente: PID2020-115348RB-I00
    Investigador principal: AMAYA AZQUETA OSCOZ, DIANA MARIA ANSORENA ARTIEDA.
    Financiador: AGENCIA ESTATAL DE INVESTIGACION
    Convocatoria: 2020 AEI PROYECTOS I+D+i (incluye Generación del conocimiento y Retos investigación)
    Fecha de inicio: 01-09-2021
    Fecha fin: 31-08-2024
    Importe concedido: 173.030,00 €
    Fondos FEDER: NO
  • Título: Desarrollo de gama de pastelería con perfil nutricional mejorado y excelente calidad organoléptica mediante la vehiculización de aceites vegetales en emulsiones gelificadas
    Código de expediente: 0011-1365-2021-000197
    Investigador principal: DIANA MARIA ANSORENA ARTIEDA.
    Financiador: GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA
    Convocatoria: 2021 GN I+D Transferencia del conocimiento (empresas)
    Fecha de inicio: 01-07-2021
    Fecha fin: 31-03-2023
    Importe concedido: 107.190,66 €
    Fondos FEDER: SI
  • Título: Identificación y desarrollo de candidato inhibidor de HDAC6 como tratamiento frente al cáncer de colon (COLON-HDAC6)
    Código de expediente: 0011-1411-2021-000097
    Investigador principal: ANA GLORIA GIL ROYO.
    Financiador: GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA
    Convocatoria: 2021 GN PROYECTOS ESTRATEGICOS DE I+D 2021-2024
    Fecha de inicio: 01-07-2021
    Fecha fin: 31-12-2023
    Importe concedido: 412.467,21 €
    Fondos FEDER: NO
  • Título: Identificación, producción y aplicación biotecnológica de nuevas oxigenasas de origen fúngico
    Código de expediente: 0011-1383-2020-000010 PC158
    Investigador principal: MARIA ISABEL CALVO MARTINEZ.
    Financiador: GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA
    Convocatoria: 2020 GN Proyectos Colaborativos
    Fecha de inicio: 01-10-2020
    Fecha fin: 30-11-2022
    Importe concedido: 163.008,60 €
    Fondos FEDER: NO
  • Título: Avanzando en la nutrición de personas con necesidades especiales (NUTRI+)
    Código de expediente: 0011-1411-2020-000064
    Investigador principal: DIANA MARIA ANSORENA ARTIEDA.
    Financiador: GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA
    Convocatoria: 2020 GN PROYECTOS ESTRATEGICOS DE I+D 2020-2022
    Fecha de inicio: 01-09-2020
    Fecha fin: 30-11-2022
    Importe concedido: 154.550,73 €
    Fondos FEDER: NO
  • Título: Alternativas de fertilización nitrogenada en hortalizas para minimizar su contenido en nitratos y mejorar su calidad alimentaria
    Código de expediente: 0011-1383-2019-000005 PC068-069 Nitrohealthy 2
    Investigador principal: IDOIA ARIZ ARNEDO.
    Financiador: GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA
    Convocatoria: 2019 GN Centros
    Fecha de inicio: 01-12-2018
    Fecha fin: 30-11-2019
    Importe concedido: 80.948,51 €
    Fondos FEDER: NO
  • Título: MODULACIÓN PERSONALIZADA DE LA MICROBIOTA MEDIANTE EL DISEÑO INTELIGENTE DE ALIMENTOS E INGREDIENTES A PARTIR DEL DIAGNÓSTICO BASADO EN ENTEROTIPOS (NUTRIBIOTA)
    Código de expediente: 0011-1411-2018-000040
    Investigador principal: FERMIN IGNACIO MILAGRO YOLDI.
    Financiador: GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA
    Convocatoria: 2018 GN PROYECTOS ESTRATEGICOS DE I+D 2018-2020
    Fecha de inicio: 01-05-2018
    Fecha fin: 30-11-2020
    Importe concedido: 477.778,14 €
    Fondos FEDER: NO
  • Título: Alternativas de fertilización nitrogenada en hortalizas para minimizar su contenido en nitratos y mejorar su calidad alimentaria
    Código de expediente: 0011-1383-2018-000005 PC061-062 NITROHEALTHY
    Investigador principal: IDOIA ARIZ ARNEDO.
    Financiador: GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA
    Convocatoria: 2018 GN Centros
    Fecha de inicio: 01-02-2018
    Fecha fin: 30-11-2018
    Importe concedido: 82.657,44 €
    Fondos FEDER: NO
  • Título: Nueva gama de embutidos curados saludables con sabor tradicional (TRADICIÓN).
    Código de expediente: 0011-1365-2017-000237
    Investigador principal: DIANA MARIA ANSORENA ARTIEDA.
    Financiador: GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA
    Convocatoria: 2017 GN I+D
    Fecha de inicio: 01-09-2017
    Fecha fin: 10-06-2019
    Importe concedido: 129.044,16 €
    Fondos FEDER: NO
  • Título: Matrices alimentarias de origen vegetal con potencial actividad antioxidante sometidas a diferentes tecnologías: evaluación química y biológica
    Código de expediente: AGL2014-52636-P
    Investigador principal: MARIA PAZ DE PEÑA FARIZA.
    Financiador: MINISTERIO DE CIENCIA E INNOVACIÓN
    Convocatoria: 2014 MINECO Proyectos de Excelencia
    Fecha de inicio: 01-01-2015
    Fecha fin: 31-12-2018
    Importe concedido: 175.450,00 €
    Fondos FEDER: NO
  • Título: Bioaccesibilidad y bioactividad de ingredientes y alimentos funcionales de origen vegetal: compuestos implicados, efecto de digestión gastrointestinal y microbiota, y aplicación de sistema modelo in vivo de C. elegans.
    Investigador principal: MARIA PAZ DE PEÑA FARIZA, DIANA MARIA ANSORENA ARTIEDA
    Financiador: UNIVERSIDAD DE NAVARRA
    Convocatoria: 2020 Convocatoria PIUNA, 2019 Convocatoria PIUNA, 2018 Convocatoria PIUNA
    Fecha de inicio: 01-09-2018
    Fecha fin: 31-08-2021
    Importe concedido: 72.400,00 €