Grupos Investigadores

Líneas de Investigación

  • Resiliencia urbana
  • Protección de infraestructuras críticas
  • Ciber-resiliencia
  • Cambio climático

Palabras Clave

  • Resiliencia
  • Ciber-resiliencia
  • Cambio climático

Publicaciones Científicas desde 2018

  • Autores: Elkady, S. (Autor de correspondencia); Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; Muñoz, M.; et al.
    ISSN 2212-4209 Vol.72 2022 págs. 102864
    Over the last 20 years, disaster events have been increasing with 3.25 billion people affected. The public are not only affected by these incidents but also, they are the first on the disaster scene. To fully utilize the public's potential and define their role in assisting in disaster management, we need to hear the voice of the main responsible for handling a disaster, the authorities, and emergency personnel. Therefore, this paper aims to identify and prioritize their needs through conducting a survey and interviews with members of authorities and emergency organizations in several European Union countries, namely; France, Israel, Italy, Norway, Romania, Spain, and Sweden. The highest-ranked needs identified are getting credible information as soon as possible from the disaster scene as well as following authorities' recommendations. Additionally, this study identifies some barriers associated with the engagement of society in disaster management. An example of such a barrier is that citizens could hurt themselves or others and hamper the intervention efforts through their interference. Despite the barriers, the emergency organizations are in favor of engaging the society in the response and recovery phases. The identified needs and barriers help to define procedures and policies that can improve the engagement of citizens and consequently, social resilience.
  • Autores: Carías Álvarez, Juan Francisco (Autor de correspondencia); Arrizabalaga Juaristi, Saioa; Labaka Zubieta, Leire; et al.
    Revista: IEEE ACCESS
    ISSN 2169-3536 Vol.9 2021 págs. 80741 - 80762
    On the current environment, companies face risks and threats to the systems they need to operate often known as cyber threats. Most of these companies are small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and they are exposed to these cyber threats. To mitigate the risks and be able to thrive with as little disruption as possible, SMEs require cyber resilience capabilities. However, due to their limited resources, SMEs usually have no dedicated personnel for cyber resilience operationalization and thus lack the experience this discipline requires to implement. To aid SMEs in their cyber resilience operationalization, the current literature offers several kinds of solutions, but these solutions are usually targeted for companies with more resources than SMEs and do not aid in the complete process of assessing their current cyber resilience, deciding actions to improve it and prioritizing these actions. To aid companies in this systematic process to operationalize or implement cyber resilience, this article develops and tests an operational web-based tool in which companies can follow the complete process described before. To achieve this, a cyber resilience framework with the essential policies for SMEs, descriptions of their natural progressions in a progression model and a prioritization of these policies have been developed. In this article, this framework, progression model and prioritization are later transformed into one cyber resilience self-assessment tool (CR-SAT) and are tes
  • Autores: Lindner, R.; Jaca García, María del Carmen; Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune
    ISSN 2071-1050 Vol.13 N° 16 2021
    A priority must be made on making cities more resilient against crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic to help plan for an uncertain future. However, due to the insufficient transfer of knowledge from, among others, research projects to cities, they are often unaware of the resilience tools available as well as possible standardization activities to foster the integration of relevant stakeholders. To address this issue, this paper analyzes the use of standards and the contribution to standardization in a multi-case study of nine European Framework Program projects and with the Smart Mature Resilience (SMR) project, a more in-depth case study. SMR integrated several European cities in its co-creative approach for developing city resilience tools and the related standards series CWA 17300 on 'City Resilience Development'. Furthermore, the paper defines five steps for integrating standardization in research projects with a focus on (city) resilience and shows the benefits of the standardization process for fostering the engagement of relevant stakeholders.
  • Autores: Iturriza, Marta (Autor de correspondencia); Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Ormazábal Goenaga, Marta; et al.
    Revista: URBAN CLIMATE
    ISSN 2212-0955 Vol.32 2020
    Existing resilience-building plans and strategies for addressing climate change in urban areas are not as effective as they were intended to be due to city stakeholders' fragmented efforts and adopted passive behaviour. Developing awareness about climate change have proven to be key in the climate change resilience-building process, as it encourages partnership and a transformation in behaviour. This paper presents a framework for developing city stakeholders' awareness in urban areas. The conducted triangulation approach composed by a systematic literature review, semi-structured interviews and a case study results with the framework that defines the ideal process for developing awareness in urban areas. The resulting framework encapsulates three main elements: awareness-development mechanisms (experience, attention and knowledge), awareness-development over time graphs and a learning ladder. The three mechanisms explain the behaviour of the awareness-development process, the awareness-development over time graphs illustrate the evolution of the mechanisms and their effect over time, and the learning ladder specifies the gradual process of developing awareness. After presenting the ideal path for developing awareness, we further discuss the contribution of the conducted triangulation approach to the framework.
  • Autores: Iturriza, Marta; Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; Abdelgawad, Ahmed; et al.
    ISSN 2071-1050 Vol.12 N° 6 2020 págs. 2168
    Cities are growing and becoming more complex, and as they continue to do so, their capacity to deal with foreseen and unforeseen challenges derived from climate change has to adapt accordingly. In the last decade, an effort has been made to build city resilience and improve cities¿ capacity to respond to, recover from and adapt to climate change. However, certain city stakeholders¿ lack of proactive behavior has resulted in less effective city resilience-building strategies. In this sense, the importance of developing stakeholders¿ awareness of climate change in order to ensure proactivity is documented in the literature. However, there is a lack of studies that define how, when and what should be done to develop stakeholders¿ climate change awareness at a city scale. This paper presents a framework to develop stakeholders climate change awareness as a result of a systematic literature review and a co-creation process with the participation of 47 experts through a focus group and a Delphi study. The framework defines a four-step process and includes nine policies that seek to develop stakeholders¿ climate change awareness. The framework concludes determining the responsibilities of each stakeholder by defining the policies they should implement, and the effect one policy might cause on other stakeholders and among policies.
  • Autores: Iturriza, Marta (Autor de correspondencia); Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; et al.
    Revista: CITIES
    ISSN 0264-2751 Vol.101 N° 102688 2020
    Climate change (CC) is one of the most urgent threats to modern societies, having direct and indirect consequences on the rapid growth of urban areas. Cities are attempting to both reduce their impact on the environment and build resilience to be able to face the irreversible effects of CC through plans and strategies. However, barriers, such as the fact that cities are complex systems and the uncertainty posed by CC have led to less engaged and committed city stakeholders, which have hampered the operationalisation of city resilience. In this context, developing city stakeholders awareness has been demonstrated to be an effective way to put an end to passive behaviour and help transform cities so they are more climate-resilient. Thus, we posit that developing city stakeholder awareness leads to more effective implementation of CC resilience-building plans. To that end, this paper presents a framework that defines the awareness-development process and combines it with an educational simulation tool that facilitates understanding of the theory presented in the framework. Finally, the paper presents a pilot test in the city of Kristiansand, Norway, to show the contribution of the simulation tool in improving city stakeholder awareness.
  • Autores: Carías Álvarez, Juan Francisco (Autor de correspondencia); Da Silva Borges, Marcos Robeto; Labaka Zubieta, Leire; et al.
    Revista: IEEE ACCESS
    ISSN 2169-3536 Vol.8 2020 págs. 174200 - 174221
    The constantly evolving cyber threat landscape is a latent problem for today's companies. This is especially true for the Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) because they have limited resources to face the threats but, as a group, represent an extensive payload for cybercriminals to exploit. Moreover, the traditional cybersecurity approach of protecting against known threats cannot withstand the rapidly evolving technologies and threats used by cybercriminals. This study claims that cyber resilience, a more holistic approach to cybersecurity, could help SMEs anticipate, detect, withstand, recover from and evolve after cyber incidents. However, to operationalize cyber resilience is not an easy task, and thus, the study presents a framework with a corresponding implementation order for SMEs that could help them implement cyber resilience practices. The framework is the result of using a variation of Design Science Research in which Grounded Theory was used to induce the most important actions required to implement cyber resilience and an iterative evaluation from experts to validate the actions and put them in a logical order. Therefore, this study proposes that the framework could benefit SME managers to understand cyber resilience, as well as help them start implementing it with concrete actions and an order dictated by the experience of experts. This could potentially ease cyber resilience implementation for SMEs by making them aware of what cyber resilience implies, which dimensions it includes and what actions can be implemented to increase their cyber resilience.
  • Autores: Carías Álvarez, Juan Francisco; Arrizabalaga Juaristi, Saioa; Labaka Zubieta, Leire; et al.
    ISSN 2076-3417 Vol.10 N° 21 2020 págs. 7393
    Due to the hazardous current cyber environment, cyber resilience is more necessary than ever. Companies are exposed to an often-ignored risk of suffering a cyber incident. This places cyber incidents as one of the main risks for companies in the past few years. On the other hand, the literature meant to aid on the operationalization of cyber resilience is mostly focused on listing the policies required to operationalize it, but is often lacking on how to prioritize these actions and how to strategize their implementation. Therefore, the usage of the current literature in this state is not optimal for companies. Thus, this study proposes a progression model to help companies strategize and prioritize cyber resilience policies by proposing the natural evolution of the policies over time. To develop the model, this study used semi-structured interviews and an analysis of the data obtained from the interviews. Through this methodology, this study found the starting points for each cyber resilience policy and their natural progression over time. These results can help companies in their cyber resilience building process by giving them insights on how to strategize the implementation of the cyber resilience policies.
  • Autores: Maraña, L.; Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Sarriegi Domínguez, José María
    ISSN 0040-1625 Vol.154 N° 119954 2020
    Nowadays, cities and citizens are under pressure to cope with a wide range of challenges like climate change, shifting social dynamics and dependence on critical infrastructure. Increasing cities' resilience level is considered a priority; however, efforts so far have been made in a fragmented way, which prevents available resources being used in the most effective manner. The contribution of all city stakeholders, including public entities, private companies and citizens, to the resilience building process increases the effectiveness of the process. Therefore, developing effective mechanisms for fostering collaboration among city stakeholders such as public private people partnership (4Ps) is a promising way for addressing this need. This paper presents a Delphi study that validated the final version of a 4P development framework. This framework is composed of 16 successful characteristics classified within three dimensions that need to be implemented to develop 4Ps, the three development stages that 4Ps should go through and an implementation methodology that defines the order for implementing the characteristics based on the three development stages. One of the main conclusions obtained is that first, the characteristics classified in the stakeholder relationship and information flow dimensions should be implemented and afterwards, the characteristics of the conflict resolution dimension.
  • Autores: Lomba Fernández, María de la Cinta (Autor de correspondencia); Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune
    ISSN 2239-5938 Vol.9 N° 3 2020 págs. 145 - 156
    Climate change affects cities worldwide conditioning their sustainable development. Cities will concentrate around 70% of the world population by 2050 accounting for 75% of the world's resources consumption. For that reason, cities must act against climate change adopting resilience strategies. Resilience strategies recognize the importance of the reliability and functioning of urban critical infrastructures as they provide essential services for the citizens and they are crucial for the resolution and recovery of the crises. However, the integration of critical infrastructures in the city climate resilience strategies is challenging because critical infrastructures are complex systems, strongly interconnected one to each other and generally, they belong or are operated by private companies. This research proposes a governance framework for better integration of the management of urban critical infrastructures into the city climate resilience strategy. The framework has been developed from academic literature and has been enriched with insights from workshops and interviews with experts and practitioners. As a result, the framework tackles four aspects of governance: (1) modes of governance; (2) stakeholders' roles; (3) processes and (4) instruments. These aspects will help to improve the vertical integration, cross-sectorial coordination, innovation and knowledge, and cooperation needed for improving city resilience.
  • Autores: Lomba Fernández, María de la Cinta (Autor de correspondencia); Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; Labaka Zubieta, Leire
    ISSN 2071-1050 Vol.11 N° 17 2019 págs. 4727
    Climate change (CC) is one of the most challenging issues ever faced, as it affects every system worldwide at any scale. Urban areas are not an exception. Extreme weather-related events have seriously affected urban areas in recent years, and they have a significant impact on the welfare of people. According to UN projections, by 2050 more than 68% of the world's population could be concentrated in urban areas. Additionally, daily life in urban areas is highly dependent on certain critical services and products provided by critical infrastructures (CIs). Therefore, it is especially relevant to understand how CC affects urban CIs in order to develop mechanisms to improve their capacity to handle crises derived from CC. In this context, resilience-based strategies provide a holistic approach, considering both predictable and unpredictable threats. This paper proposes a guide for assessing and enhancing the resilience level of cities against CC, considering urban CIs as key agents in improving the city's capacity to face and recover from CC-related crises. The guide was developed through a co-creation process in which two cities in the Basque Country (Spain) worked together with CI providers and other relevant stakeholders in the resilience-building process. The resulting guide is to be used by city stakeholders at a strategic level, providing them with: (1) a qualitative assessment of the city's current resilience level in the CC context; (2) better knowledge about urban CI sectors, their interdependency relationships and the chain of impacts due to cascading effects in the short, medium and in the long term and; (3) a set of policies that enhance city resilience.
  • Autores: Santos García, Javier (Autor de correspondencia); Muñoz Villamizar, Andrés Felipe; Sarriegi Domínguez, José María; et al.
    ISSN 1132-175X Vol.68 2019 págs. 66 - 72
  • Autores: Carías Álvarez, Juan Francisco (Autor de correspondencia); Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Sarriegi Domínguez, José María; et al.
    Revista: SENSORS
    ISSN 1424-8220 Vol.19 N° 1 2019 págs. 138
    The fourth industrial revolution has brought several risks to factories along with its plethora of benefits. The convergence of new technologies, legacy technologies, information technologies and operational technologies in the same network generates a wide attack surface. At the same time, factories need continuous production to meet their customers' demand, so any stopped production can have harsh effects on a factory's economy. This makes cyber resilience a key requirement in factories nowadays. However, it is difficult for managers to define effective cyber resilience strategies, especially considering the difficulty of estimating adequate investment in cyber resilience policies before the company has suffered cyber incidents. In this sense, the purpose of this article is to define and model an effective cyber resilience strategy. To achieve this, the system dynamics methodology was followed in order to get five experts' opinions on the best strategy to invest in cyber resilience. Interviews were conducted with these experts; their reasoning was put into behavior over time graphs and a system dynamics model was built from these findings. The main conclusion is that a cyber resilience investment strategy should be dynamic, investing in both technical security and personnel training, but at first with an emphasis on technical security and later shifting to have an emphasis on training.
  • Autores: Marana, P. ; Eden, C. ; Eriksson, H.; et al.
    ISSN 2210-6707 Vol.48 N° 101531 2019
    Unexpected crises and risks affect the urban population. Critical infrastructure dependency, climate change and social dynamics have captured the attention of city decision makers across different disciplines, sectors, and scales. Addressing these challenges mandates an increase in resilience. This article presents the development of the novel European Resilience Management Guideline (ERMG) developed by the European H2020 Smart Mature Resilience (SMR) project. It encompasses five supporting tools for city resilience. The purpose of this article is threefold. First, it describes the extensive co-creation methods used to establish, validate and test the five ERMG tools as collaborations among seven city stakeholders and researchers in Europe. Second, it explains concisely the features of each tool and its use and applicability in the city resilience building process. Third, it shows how EMRG supports strategic management in encouraging the visibility of risk dependencies, identifying vicious loops and potential cascading effects, and promoting collaboration between stakeholders to share resources. The article concludes with a discussion of SMR standardization activities to support the transfer of these research results to wider audiences. It covers guidance on local resilience planning and supporting efforts in building and operationalizing resilience at the city level.
  • Autores: Iturriza Mendia, Marta (Autor de correspondencia); Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; Labaka Zubieta, Leire
    ISSN 2071-1050 Vol.11 N° 11 2019 págs. 3054
    There is an urgent need to build city resilience in order to face upcoming foreseen and unforeseen disasters more holistically, economically and collaboratively. Population trends mean that people are moving to urban areas and the traditional approach to crisis management is becoming obsolete as it is no longer able to deal with the new challenges that are emerging such as social dynamics or climate change. In this context, there are numerous studies and strategies that define how to build city resilience and consequently sustainable cities. However, decision-makers have trouble putting the knowledge in the studies and strategies into practice, as they find this information to be too abstract or far from their daily activities. More practical tools are needed to facilitate the operationalization of city resilience and familiarize decision makers with the concept. To that end, this paper presents both a qualitative and quantitative toolkit that enables decision makers to study, understand and train themselves to operationalize city resilience properly. This toolkit is composed of two complementary tools, namely the Resilience Maturity Model (RMM) and a serious game called City Resilience Dynamics (CRD). The paper also discusses the key points that led to a useful, trustworthy and flexible toolkit that decision-makers can use in building city resilience.
  • Autores: Labaka Zubieta, Leire (Autor de correspondencia); Maraña, Patricia; Giménez Duque, Raquel; et al.
    ISSN 0040-1625 Vol.146 2019 págs. 281-296
    A growing majority of the world's population lives in cities, and the concentration of people and critical services in cities increases their exposure to acute shocks and long-term stresses. Therefore, building resilient cities that are able to resist and absorb threats and are capable of adapting to and recovering from shocks and stresses is vital for the wellbeing of society. Although the literature offers several studies on how city resilience can be improved, operationalizing resilience is still a challenge. This article describes the different phases of the co-creation process followed in the development of a maturity model that can guide cities in assessing and future improving their resilience level. This co-creation process was conducted using different methodologies involving an interdisciplinary group of international experts who contributed their knowledge and experience to the development process of the maturity model. The outcome of this process is the final version of a maturity model that operationalizes the steps that should be taken to build city resilience.
  • Autores: Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune (Autor de correspondencia); Marana, P. ; Giménez Duque, Raquel; et al.
    Revista: CITIES
    ISSN 0264-2751 Vol.84 2019 págs. 96 - 103
    A growing majority of the world's population lives in cities. This rapid urbanization increases the concentration of people and critical services in cities, which also upscale their exposure to acute shocks and long-term stresses such as floods, earthquakes, climate change or social dynamics. While all of these challenges are complex in themselves, in most cases, cities must face a combination of them. Resilience thinking demands cities plan holistically so that they are prepared for whatever shocks and stresses may arise. Although there is a set of frameworks aimed at building city resilience, frameworks specifically aimed at operationalizing the resilience-building process within cities remain undeveloped. This research begins to fill this gap by developing a Resilience Maturity Model (RMM) that provides cities with a roadmap for operationalizing the resilience-building process. For that purpose, the RMM defines a sequence of maturity stages and a set of policies that help cities to assess their current maturity stage and identify the policies that need to be implemented to improve their resilience level.
  • Autores: Giménez Duque, Raquel (Autor de correspondencia); Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune
    ISSN 0966-0879 Vol.26 N° 3 2018 págs. 385 - 393
    A resilience-focused approach requires the collaboration of a variety of stakeholders including the local government, emergency services, citizens, and companies in adapting to disasters. Currently however, governments fail to encourage stakeholders to take part in the resilience-building process. To address this challenge, this study presents a maturity model (MM) that provides local governments with a sequence of stages and policies to improve the collaboration with stakeholders. The MM was developed in close collaboration with six European cities and was put into practice through a case study in a UK city. The MM made it possible to assess the current stage of the city under study and to implement policies for engaging stakeholders in the resilience-building process. Finally, challenges associated with the involvement of stakeholders encountered in the city under study are discussed.
  • Autores: Gallardo, Gorka; Hernantes Apezetxea, Josune; Serrano Barcena, Nicolás
    ISSN 1089-7801 Vol.22 N° 4 2018 págs. 37 - 45
    Although the positive impact of cloud computing seems obvious for both big and small companies, the adoption rate of services associated with it has not reached the levels that were expected. In the case of software as a service (SaaS), the adoption rates of the different application types are not homogeneous. Some well-established application types, such as enterprise resource planning (ERP) software, have lower adoption rates as compared to other applications, such as customer relationship management (CRM) systems. Understanding the drivers of this phenomenon can help software companies design more successful SaaS applications. In this study, we present a framework that can help software companies evaluate the application-cloud fit, along with two strategies that enhance cloud application adoption.
  • Autores: Iturriza, M. (Autor de correspondencia); Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Sarriegi Domínguez, José María; et al.
    ISSN 1747-7778 Vol.12 N° 2 2018 págs. 128 - 143
    Critical Infrastructures (Cls) play a relevant role in both society and industry since they provide ba sic goods a nd services. Cls are interependent on each other and a failure in one Cl may spread rapidly to other dependent Cls. The resulting cascading effect leads to the amplification of the perturbation, giving rise to high-impact crises. Modelling and simulation methodologies have been suggested as suitable tools to properly analyse and assess the effect and consequences of crisis in Cls. This paper undertakes a systematic literature review to study which modelling methodologies are the most appropriate for analysing Cls, depending both on the Cl sector and the scope of the modelling.
  • Autores: Maraña Casado, Patricia (Autor de correspondencia); Labaka Zubieta, Leire; Sarriegi Domínguez, José María
    ISSN 0925-7535 Vol.110 N° Part C 2018 págs. 39 - 50
    Citizens living in cities where public entities are committed to the development of city resilience are increasingly aware that the entire responsibility for preventing, responding to and recovering from crises cannot fully fall on public entities and private companies. In fact, citizens are more and more required to prepare for, respond to and recover from crises. To that end, there is an emerging need to involve not only public entities and private companies but also citizens in the process of building a city's resilience in order to understand the different perspectives on the same reality. This research paper is based on a systematic literature review to develop a framework that defines and describes the successful characteristics of public-private-people partnerships (4Ps) in the city resilience-building process. The framework-revolves around two criteria for classification: the dimension of the characteristics (stakeholder relationship, information flow and conflict resolution), and the attributes of the partnership. A preliminary list of relationships among the characteristics found in the literature is also presented. The aim throughout is to define which characteristics need to be developed in order to better ensure successful cooperation among the three main stakeholders: public entities, private companies and citizens.

Proyectos desde 2018

  • Título: Segurtasun integrala industria adimentsurako
    Código de expediente: KK-2019/00072
    Investigador principal: JOSUNE HERNANTES APEZETXEA.
    Financiador: GOBIERNO VASCO
    Convocatoria: 2019 GV Elkartek 2019 - Fase I. Programa de apoyo a la investigación colaborativa en áreas estratégicas
    Fecha de inicio: 01-03-2019
    Fecha fin: 30-03-2021
    Importe concedido: 61.308,00 €
    Fondos FEDER: NO
  • Título: Engage society for risk awareness and resilience
    Código de expediente:
    Investigador principal: LEIRE LABAKA ZUBIETA
    Financiador: COMISIÓN EUROPEA
    Convocatoria: H2020-SU-TDS-02-2018
    Fecha de inicio: 01-07-2020
    Fecha fin: 30-06-2023
    Importe concedido: 378.080,00 €
    Fondos FEDER: NO
  • Título: Gestión integrada de la resiliencia de la ciudad
    Código de expediente: PID2019-105414RA-C32
    Convocatoria: 2019 AEI PROYECTOS I+D+i (incluye Generación del conocimiento y Retos investigación)
    Fecha de inicio: 01-06-2020
    Fecha fin: 31-05-2023
    Importe concedido: 36.905,00 €
    Fondos FEDER: NO
  • Título: Systemic implementation of the CC action in the Basque Country for increased urban resilience as full territory enabler
    Código de expediente: LIFE18IPC
    Investigador principal: JOSUNE HERNANTES APEZETXEA
    Financiador: COMISIÓN EUROPEA
    Convocatoria: LIFE + 2018
    Fecha de inicio: 01-09-2019
    Fecha fin: 31-12-2025
    Importe concedido: 262.806,00 €
    Fondos FEDER: NO