Grupos Investigadores

Líneas de Investigación

  • Biología de la vid
  • Efectos del cambio climático sobre las plantas
  • Gestión de residuos orgánicos. Aplicación agrícola de lodos de depuradora
  • Micorrizas arbusculares en ecosistemas naturales y agrícolas
  • Respuesta de las plantas a factores de estrés abióticos y bióticos

Palabras Clave

  • Cambio climático
  • Estrés biótico y abiótico
  • Fisiología vegetal
  • Micorrizas
  • Nutrición vegetal
  • Producción y Calidad Nutricional
  • Residuos orgánicos
  • Simbiosis

Publicaciones Científicas desde 2018

  • Autores: Goicoechea Preboste, María Nieves (Autor de correspondencia); Torres, N.; Garmendia, I.; et al.
    ISSN: 0304-4238 Vol.315 2023 págs. 111993
    An adequate clonal selection could help the adaptation of Vitis vinifera cv. Tempranillo to warming. Moreover, the resilience of Tempranillo to elevated air temperatures increases when associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Our objective was to assess if mycorrhizal association can counteract the deleterious effect of elevated temperatures on plant performance and fruit quality in clones (CL) highly sensitive to warming. Fruit bearing cuttings of Tempranillo CL-843 were cultivated under greenhouse conditions. Assay included plants inoculated (+M) or not (-M) with AMF and grown at either 24/14°C or 28/18°C day/night air temperatures. Elevated temperatures shortened the period between fruit set and veraison in both ¿M and +M plants and also the period between veraison and maturity in +M plants. Photosynthetic rates were higher under warm temperatures irrespective of mycorrhizal inoculation, but sugars and proteins in leaves decreased in -M plants under these environmental conditions. Warming induced the accumulation of Ca, P, Cu and Mn in leaves of all plants and those of Mg and Zn in a greater extent in +M plants. Only in +M plants mature berries maintained the balance of sugars to organic acids and increased the Arg-to Pro-ratio under elevated temperatures. The association of Tempranillo with AMF may result in a more adequate source of N for yeasts during the must fermentation process and could mitigate the increased pH and ethanol levels found in the wines elaborated with grapes developed under low-moderate warming. However, extrapolating these findings to fields in the Mediterranean region or areas subjected to intense warming and frequent heatwaves deserves further study.
  • Autores: Kizildeniz, Tefide; Pascual Elizalde, Inmaculada; Hilbert, G.; et al.
    Revista: PLANTS
    ISSN: 2223-7747 Vol.11 N° 13 2022 págs. 1662
    Tempranillo Blanco is a somatic variant of Tempranillo Tinto that appeared as a natural, spontaneous mutation in 1988 in a single shoot of a single plant in an old vineyard. It was vegetatively propagated, and currently wines from Tempranillo Blanco are commercially available. The mutation that originated Tempranillo Blanco comprised single-nucleotide variations, chromosomal deletions, and reorganizations, losing hundreds of genes and putatively affecting the functioning and regulation of many others. The most evident, visual change in Tempranillo Blanco is the anthocyanin lost, producing this grapevine variety bunches of colorless grapes. This review aims to summarize from the available literature differences found between Tempranillo Blanco and Tinto in addition to the color of the grapes, in a climate change context and using fruit-bearing cuttings grown in temperature-gradient greenhouses as research-oriented greenhouses. The differences found include changes in growth, water use, bunch mass, grape quality (both technological and phenolic maturity), and some aspects of their photosynthetic response when grown in an atmosphere of elevated CO2 concentration and temperature, and low water availability. Under field conditions, Tempranillo Blanco yields less than Tempranillo Tinto, the lower weight of their bunches being related to a lower pollen viability and berry and seed setting.
  • Autores: Morales, F. (Autor de correspondencia); Irigoyen Iparrea, Juan José; Antolín Bellver, María del Carmen; et al.
    ISSN: 0168-1699 Vol.196 2022 págs. 106890
    Grape berry transpiration is considered an important process during maturation, but scientific evidence is scarce. In the literature, there is only one report showing reduced maturation when bunch transpiration is artificially slowed down. Traditionally, grape berry transpiration has been measured by weighing grape berries on scale for a given time, correctly assuming that the weight reduction is due to water lost. Commercially available instruments adequate to measure gas exchange in small fruits are not suitable for whole grape berry bunch. Here, we present an open differential chamber system that can be used with isolated grape berries or alternatively with a whole grape berry bunch for measuring grape berry/bunch transpiration based on the use of relative humidity sensors from Vaisala. When used with isolated grape berries, open differential chamber system validation was made by using Tempranillo grape berries collected at different phenological stages. For the whole bunch transpiration prototype, two different validations were made. Firstly, measurements were made inserting inside the chamber an increasing number of Eppendorf tubes filled with water. Secondly, transpiration was measured in whole Tempranillo bunches sampled at different phenological stages. An important output of this work is that the fact of detaching the bunch from the plant did not change the bunch gas exchange rates at least for several hours. For validations, transpiration values obtained with our prototype were compared with water losses inferred from grape berry weighing on scale for a given time, obtaining highly significant correlations. We tested the system applying to the bunch an anti-transpirant, confirming that the anti-transpirant application reduced bunch transpiration and delayed maturity.
  • Autores: Antolín Bellver, María del Carmen (Autor de correspondencia); Salinas, E.; Fernández , A.; et al.
    Revista: PLANTS
    ISSN: 2223-7747 Vol.11 N° 21 2022 págs. 2929
    Background: Climate change results in warmer air temperatures and an uncertain amount and distribution of annual precipitations, which will directly impact rainfed crops, such as the grapevine. Traditionally, ancient autochthones grapevine varieties have been substituted by modern ones with higher productivity. However, this homogenization of genotypes reduces the genetic diversity of vineyards which could make their ability to adapt to challenges imposed by future climate conditions difficult. Therefore, this work aimed to assess the response of four ancient grapevine varieties to high temperatures under different water availabilities, focusing on plant water relations, grape technological and phenolic maturity, and the antioxidant capacity of the must. Methods: The study was conducted on fruit-bearing cuttings grown in pots in temperature-gradient greenhouses. A two-factorial design was established where two temperature regimes, ambient and elevated (ambient + 4 °C), were combined with two water regimes, full irrigation and post-veraison deficit irrigation, during fruit ripening. Results: There were significant differences among the ancient varieties regarding plant water relations and fruit quality. Conclusion: This research underlines the importance of evaluating the behavior of ancient grapevine varieties that could offer good options for the adaptation of viticulture to future climate conditions
  • Autores: Garmendia, I.; Rashidi, S.; Quezada-Salirrosas, M.; et al.
    ISSN: 0022-5142 Vol.102 N° 10 2022 págs. 3964 - 3971
    BACKGROUND Elevated CO2 usually reduces levels of proteins and essential micronutrients in crops. The adoption of early maturing varieties may minimize the deleterious effect of climate change on farming activities. Legumes stand out for their high nutritional quality, so the objective was to study whether the atmospheric CO2 concentration affected the growth, yield, and food quality of early maturing cultivars of peas, snap beans, and faba beans. Plants grew in greenhouses either at ambient (ACO(2), 392 mu mol mol(-1)) or under elevated (ECO2, 700 mu mol mol(-1)) CO2 levels. Minerals, proteins, sugars, and phenolic compounds were measured in grains of peas and faba beans, and in pods of snap beans. RESULTS The effect of ECO2 depended on legume species, being more evident for food quality than for vegetative growth and yield. The ECO2 increased Fe and P in faba bean grains, and Ca in snap bean pods. Under ECO2, grains of pea and faba bean increased levels of proteins and phenolics, respectively, and the sugars-to-protein ratio decreased in pods of snap beans. CONCLUSION Early maturing varieties of legumes appear to be an interesting tool to cope with the negative effects that a long exposure to rising CO2 can exert on food quality.
  • Autores: Fiasconaro, M. L. (Autor de correspondencia); Abrile, M. G.; Hintermeister, L.; et al.
    ISSN: 2195-3228 Vol.11 N° 4 2022 págs. 411 - 426
    Purpose The decreasing number of peatlands has driven the search for new cultivation substrates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of different composts as growing media in the production of vegetable seedlings (pepper and tomato). Method Composts were produced from: discarded carrots (ZC), fats (FC), and biosolids (BC) from the dairy industry. They were used as peat substitutes in different doses depending on the germinating species: control (CS-commercial substrate) and three growing media prepared with perlite: 25, 35, and 45% of ZC, FC, and BC for pepper seedlings and 40, 55 and 70% of ZC, FC, and BC for tomato seedlings. When the plants were ready for transplantation they were harvested and the data were collected to assess the development of the seedlings in the different growth media. Results The obtained results suggest the possibility of total substitution of the CS by ZC, FC, and BC to produce pepper and tomato plants in commercial nurseries. The plants cultivated with composts presented higher concentrations of total dry matter compared to the controls. Photosynthetic pigments were affected by the presence of FC and BC, whereas TSP concentration was favored by BC. Conclusion Ours results suggest that it is feasible to perform a total substitution of commercial substrates with composts of different origins and compositions for the production of pepper and tomato plants in commercial nurseries.
  • Autores: Rashidi, S.; Yousefi, A. R. (Autor de correspondencia); Pouryousef, M.; et al.
    ISSN: 2196-5641 Vol.9 N° 1 2022 págs. 23
    Background: The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can induce the synthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites in the tissues of host plants, thus impacting their allelopathic potential. Materials and methods: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of three AMF species (Rhizoglomus intraradices, Funneliformis mosseae, Rhizoglomus fasciculatum) on photosynthetic pigments and secondary metabolites content in roots and reproductive organs of Ipomoea purpurea L., Digitaria sanguinalis L., and Solanum nigrum L. as a problematic weed species. Results: Among compared weeds, the roots of D. sanguinalis associated with AMF accumulated the highest level of phenols. Higher content of flavonoids was obtained in roots of S. nigrum (7.46 mg g(-1) FW) following colonization with R. intraradices. Berries of S. nigrum inoculated with R. intraradices had a higher concentration of terpenoids (21.45 mg 100 mL(-1) of extract) than reproductive organs of D. sanguinalis and I. purpurea. Colonization with R. intraradices improved total phenolics in seeds of D. sanguinalis compared to the reproductive organs of other weeds. These compounds released from seeds help defend against pathogen infection, consequently increasing seed production. In addition, phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme activity in leaves of D. sanguinalis colonized by R. fasciculatum and F. mosseae was 55% and 67%, respectively, higher than I. purpurea plants, grown in the same condition.
  • Autores: Pascual Elizalde, Inmaculada (Autor de correspondencia); Antolín Bellver, María del Carmen; Goicoechea Preboste, María Nieves; et al.
    ISSN: 0031-9317 Vol.174 N° 4 2022 págs. e13741
    The implications of grape berry transpiration for the ripening process and final grape composition were studied. An experiment was conducted, under controlled conditions, with fruit-bearing cuttings of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo. Three doses of the anti-transpirant di-1-p-menthene were applied directly to the bunch at the onset of veraison: 1%, 5% and 10% (v/v) (D1, D5 and D10, respectively). A treatment with bunches sprayed with water (D0) was also included as a control. Grape and bunch transpiration, and total soluble solids (TSS) accumulation rate decreased as the dose of anti-transpirant increased, thus resulting in the lengthening of the ripening period. Bunch transpiration rates were linearly correlated with the elapsed time between veraison and maturity, and with the TSS accumulation rate. The evolution of pH, malic acid and total skin anthocyanins during ripening did not show remarkable changes as a consequence of the artificially reduced bunch transpiration. However, a decoupling between TSS and anthocyanins was observed. At maturity, the bunches treated with D10 had significantly lower must acidity and higher pH and extractable anthocyanin levels, these differences being likely associated with the lengthening of the ripening period.
  • Autores: Antolín Bellver, María del Carmen; Toledo, M.; Pascual Elizalde, Inmaculada; et al.
    Revista: PLANTS
    ISSN: 2223-7747 Vol.10 N° 1 2021 págs. 71
    Background: The associated increase in global mean surface temperature together with raised atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is exerting a profound influence on grapevine development (phenology) and grape quality. The exploitation of the local genetic diversity based on the recovery of ancient varieties has been proposed as an interesting option to cope with climate change and maintaining grape quality. Therefore, this research aimed to characterize the potential fruit quality of genotypes from seven local old grapevine varieties grown under climate change conditions. (2) Methods: The study was carried out on fruit-bearing cuttings (one cluster per plant) that were grown in pots in temperature gradient greenhouses (TGG). Two treatments were applied from fruit set to maturity: (1) ambient CO2 (400 ppm) and temperature (T) (ACAT) and (2) elevated CO2 (700 ppm) and temperature (T + 4 °C) (ECET). (3) Results: Results showed that some of the old genotypes tested remained quite stable during the climate change conditions in terms of fruit quality (mainly, total soluble solids and phenolic content) and of must antioxidant properties. (4) Conclusion: This research underlines the usefulness of exploiting local grapevine diversity to cope with climate change successfully, although further studies under field conditions and with whole plants are needed before extrapolating the results to the vineyard.
  • Autores: Goicoechea Preboste, María Nieves (Autor de correspondencia); Jiménez, L.; Prieto, E.; et al.
    Revista: PLANTS
    ISSN: 2223-7747 Vol.10 N° 6 2021 págs. 1198
    The market demand together with the need for alternatives to withstand climate change led to the recovery of autochthonous grapevine varieties. Under climate change, the summer pruning of vineyards may lead to an increase of vegetative residuals of nutritional and medicinal interest. The objectives of our study were (1) to evaluate the nutritional properties of the leaves of three local Spanish grapevines (Tinto Velasco, TV, Pasera, PAS, and Ambrosina, AMB) when grown under climate change conditions, and (2) to test the potentiality of these grapevines as suitable candidates to be cultivated under climate change scenarios based on the quality of their must. Experimental assays were performed with fruit¿bearing cuttings grown in temperature gradient greenhouses that simulate rising CO2 (700 ¿moL moL¿1) and warming (ambient temperature +4 °C), either acting alone or in combination. TV and AMB were the most and the least affected by air temperature and CO2 concentration, respectively. The interaction of elevated CO2 with high temperature induced the accumulation of proteins and phenolic compounds in leaves of TV, thus enhancing their nutritional properties. In PAS, the negative effect of high temperature on protein contents was compensated for by elevated CO2. Warming was the most threatening scenario for maintaining the must quality in the three varieties, but elevated CO2 exerted a beneficial effect when acting alone and compensated for the negative effects of high ...
  • Autores: Kizildeniz, Tefide; Pascual Elizalde, Inmaculada; Irigoyen Iparrea, Juan José; et al.
    ISSN: 0031-9317 Vol.172 N° 3 2021 págs. 1779 - 1794
    Due to the CO2 greenhouse effect, elevated atmospheric concentration leads to higher temperatures, accompanied by episodes of less water availability in semiarid and arid areas or drought periods. Studies investigating these three factors (CO2, temperature and water availability) simultaneously in grapevine are scarce. The present work aims to analyze the combined effects of high CO2 (700 ppm), high temperature (ambient +4 degrees C) and drought on the photosynthetic activity, biomass allocation, leaf non-structural carbon composition, and carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio in grapevine. Two grapevine cultivars, red berry Tempranillo and white berry Tempranillo, were used, the latter being a natural, spontaneous mutant of the red cultivar. The experiment was performed on fruit-bearing cuttings during a 3-month period, from June (fruit set) to August (maturity). The plants were grown in research-oriented facilities, temperature-gradient greenhouses, where temperature, CO2, and water supply can be modified in a combined way. Drought had the strongest effect on biomass accumulation compared to the other environmental variables, and root biomass allocation was increased under water deficit. CO2 and temperature effects were smaller and depended on cultivar, and on interactions with the other factors. Acclimation effects were observed on both cultivars as photosynthetic rates under high atmospheric CO2 were reduced by long-term exposition to elevated CO2.
  • Autores: Arrizabalaga Arriazu, Marta; Morales, F.; Irigoyen Iparrea, Juan José; et al.
    ISSN: 1322-7130 Vol.27 N° 3 2021 págs. 295 - 307
    Background and Aims The interactive effects of simulated 2100 environmental conditions (air temperature and CO2 level) and water deficit (WD) on four clones of Vitis vinifera cv. Tempranillo were investigated. Methods and Results Fruit-bearing cuttings were subjected to: (i) two temperature/CO2/relative humidity (RH) regimes: climate change (28 degrees C/18 degrees C, 700 mu mol/mol CO2 and 33%/53% RH, day/night) versus current climatic conditions (24 degrees C/14 degrees C, 400 mu mol/mol CO2 and 45%/65% RH), combined with (ii) two water availabilities: well-watered (WW) versus WD. Climate change increased net photosynthesis (A(n)), transiently ameliorating the low carbon fixation rates under drought, but not the reduction in vegetative and reproductive growth. Climate change increased intrinsic water use efficiency (A(n)/g(s)), especially when combined with WD, but not the instantaneous water use efficiency (A(n)/T). The clones exhibited differences in the ripening time, plant vigour and reproductive growth. Variability in the response of A(n), phenology and growth to the simulated conditions was observed among clones. Conclusions Differences in the length of the reproductive cycle conditioned, in part, the physiological response of the clones to the environmental factors. Significance of the Study The study improves our understanding of the interactive effects of climate change factors and provides insights into the response of different clones, as the basis for the adaptation of cultivars in their traditional growing regions.
  • Autores: Rashidi, S.; Yousefi, A. R.; Pouryousef, M.; et al.
    Revista: MYCORRHIZA
    ISSN: 0940-6360 Vol.31 N° 5 2021 págs. 599 - 612
    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are known to improve plant growth and nutrition and therefore are likely to affect the competitive relationships between crops and weeds. In this study, we evaluated whether AMF (Funneliformis mosseae, Rhizoglomus fasciculatum, Rhizoglomus intraradices) change plant competition between Phaseolus vulgaris and the weeds Solanum nigrum L., Digitaria sanguinalis L., and Ipomoea purpurea L. Mycorrhizal colonization, aggressivity index, photosynthetic rates, and yield parameters were measured. While the presence of AMF reduced the total biomass of D. sanguinalis and S. nigrum when grown in competition with P. vulgaris, it increased the total biomass of I. purpurea when grown with P. vulgaris. Significantly, elevated mycorrhizal growth responses (38-44%) improved the competitive ability of I. purpurea. In contrast, the competitive ability of S. nigrum was increased only when plants colonized by R. intraradices. The total protein content of P. vulgaris pods when in competition was negatively affected by AMF, thus leading to low nutritional quality. The results suggest that AMF have the potential to affect the outcome of weed-P. vulgaris competition. We demonstrate that not only colonization with AMF but also AMF species can affect the competitive relationships between crops and weeds, and thus, AMF represent key soil organisms to be taken into account in sustainable weed management strategies.
  • Autores: Arrizabalaga Arriazu, Marta; Gomès, E.; Morales Iribas, Fermín; et al.
    ISSN: 0021-8561 Vol.69 N° 22 2021 págs. 6172 - 6185
    The exploration of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) intra-varietal diversity can be an interesting approach for the adaptation of viticulture to climate change. We evaluated the response of four Tempranillo clones to simulated year-2100-expected air temperature, CO2, and relative humidity (RH) conditions: climate change (CC; 28 degrees C/18 degrees C, 700 mu mol mol(-1) CO, and 35%/53% RH) vs current situation conditions (CS; 24 degrees C/14 degrees C, 400 mu mol mol(-1) CO2, and 45%/63% RH), under two irrigation regimes, "well-watered" (WW) vs "water deficit" (WD). The treatments were applied to fruit-bearing cuttings grown under researchoriented greenhouse controlled conditions. CC increased sugar accumulation and hastened grape phenology, an effect that was mitigated by water deficit. Both CC and water deficit modified amino acid concentrations and accumulation profiles with different intensities, depending on the clone. Combined CC and water deficit decreased anthocyanins and the anthocyanin to total soluble solids (TSS) ratio. The results suggest differences in the response of the clones to the 2100-projected conditions, which are not always solely explained by differences observed in the ripening dynamics. Among the clones studied, RJ43 and CL306 were the most affected by CC/WD conditions; meanwhile, 1084 was globally less affected than the other clones.
  • Autores: Rashidi, S.; Yousefi, A.R.; Goicoechea Preboste, María Nieves; et al.
    ISSN: 2076-3417 Vol.11 N° 8 2021 págs. 3539
    Allelopathy is described as the interference to plant growth resulting from chemical interactions among plants and other organisms mediated through the release of bioactive secondary metabolites. Since only a few studies have been reported about the role of seed allelopathy, an experiment was designed to evaluate the interactions among seeds of Portulaca oleracea L. and the crop species common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), onion (Allium cepa L.), sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), broad bean (Vicia faba L.), and pea (Pisum sativum L.) on seed and seedling growth parameters. The results indicated that P. oleracea seeds had a negative effect on the germination of P. vulgaris and A. cepa. Conversely, germination of P. oleracea in the presence of P. vulgaris, A. cepa, and B. vulgaris seeds was strongly reduced with a higher inhibitory effect found for the seeds of A. cepa. The highest negative effect on root and shoot length was observed in P. vulgaris. Seedling vigor of all crop species decreased in the presence of P. oleracea. Our results suggest that seeds of P. vulgaris, A. cepa, and B. vulgaris exhibited high allelopathic effects against seeds of P. oleracea and can be used as potential bio-herbicides in future screening programs.
  • Autores: Fakhet, D. ; Morales, F.; Jauregui, I.; et al.
    Revista: PLANTS
    ISSN: 2223-7747 Vol.10 N° 1 2021 págs. 120
    Low atmospheric relative humidity (RH) accompanied by elevated air temperature and decreased precipitation are environmental challenges that wheat production will face in future decades. These changes to the atmosphere are causing increases in air vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and low soil water availability during certain periods of the wheat-growing season. The main objective of this study was to analyze the physiological, metabolic, and transcriptional response of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism of wheat (Triticum durum cv. Sula) to increases in VPD and soil water stress conditions, either alone or in combination. Plants were first grown in well-watered conditions and near-ambient temperature and RH in temperature-gradient greenhouses until anthesis, and they were then subjected to two different water regimes well-watered (WW) and water-stressed (WS), i.e., watered at 50% of the control for one week, followed by two VPD levels (low, 1.01/0.36 KPa and high, 2.27/0.62 KPa; day/night) for five additional days. Both VPD and soil water content had an important impact on water status and the plant physiological apparatus. While high VPD and water stress-induced stomatal closure affected photosynthetic rates, in the case of plants watered at 50%, high VPD also caused a direct impairment of the RuBisCO large subunit, RuBisCO activase and the electron transport rate. Regarding N metabolism, the gene expression, nitrite reductase (NIR) and transport levels detected in young...
  • Autores: Abrile, M. G. (Autor de correspondencia); Fiasconaro, M. L.; Gervasio, S.; et al.
    ISSN: 2195-2116 Vol.10 N° 1 2021 págs. 63 - 75
    Purpose Reuse of landfill leachate is an effective alternative for their nutrients to mitigate decrease in freshwater. On the other hand, the growth of vegetation in the final disposal areas provides many benefits such as improving the visual impact, controlling of hydric erosion, etc. The purpose of this work was to evaluate landfill leachate as irrigation water and source of nutrients for growth of Tagetes erecta L., an ornamental plant with phytoremediation capacities. Method Vegetal growth, physiological responses and mineral elements uptake of the ornamental plant Tagetes erecta L. were studied with different levels of landfill leachate irrigation. The landfill leachate was provided by the municipal waste treatment. Experimental period covered 34 days of daily watering between the beginning and end of the flowering stage. Three different irrigation treatments were used: T1: 10% leachate; T2: 25% leachate; T3: 50% leachate. Hoagland¿s solution served as the control treatment. Results The irrigation treatment with a dose of 50% leachate causes a clear deterioration in the plant and its flowers. In lower doses, the plant responds favorably to both the production of flowers and the main features of them. Also, the water-use efficiency (WUE) is diminished in those plants irrigated with the major dose of leachate. Conclusion Maintaining controlled doses, landfill leachates can be used as an alternative source of water and nutrients. Irrigation with leachates of these ...
  • Autores: Gámez, A.L.; Vicente, R.; Sánchez-Bragado, R.; et al.
    ISSN: 1664-462X Vol.11 2020 págs. 587958
    Elevated concentrations of CO2 (CO2) in plants with C-3 photosynthesis metabolism, such as wheat, stimulate photosynthetic rates. However, photosynthesis tends to decrease as a function of exposure to high (CO2) due to down-regulation of the photosynthetic machinery, and this phenomenon is defined as photosynthetic acclimation. Considerable efforts are currently done to determine the effect of photosynthetic tissues, such us spike, in grain filling. There is good evidence that the contribution of ears to grain filling may be important not only under good agronomic conditions but also under high (CO2). The main objective of this study was to compare photoassimilate production and energy metabolism between flag leaves and glumes as part of ears of wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum cv. Amilcar) plants exposed to ambient [a(CO2)] and elevated [e(CO2)] (CO2) (400 and 700 mu mol mol(-1), respectively). Elevated CO2 had a differential effect on the responses of flag leaves and ears. The ears showed higher gross photosynthesis and respiration rates compared to the flag leaves. The higher ear carbohydrate content and respiration rates contribute to increase the grain dry mass. Our results support the concept that acclimation of photosynthesis to e(CO2) is driven by sugar accumulation, reduction in N concentrations and repression of genes related to photosynthesis, glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and that these were more marked in glumes than leaves. Further, important differences are described on responsiveness of flag leaves and ears to e(CO2) on genes linked with carbon and nitrogen metabolism. These findings provide information about the impact of e(CO2) on ear development during the grain filling stage and are significant for understanding the effects of increasing (CO2) on crop yield.
  • Autores: Goicoechea Preboste, María Nieves (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: PLANTS
    ISSN: 2223-7747 Vol.9 N° 11 2020 págs. 1468
    The association that many crops can establish with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) present in soils can enhance the resistance of the host plants against several pathogens, including Verticillium spp. The increased resistance of mycorrhizal plants is mainly due to the improved nutritional and water status of crops and to enhanced antioxidant metabolism and/or increased production of secondary metabolites in the plant tissues. However, the effectiveness of AMF in protecting their host plants against Verticillium spp. may vary depending on the environmental factors. Some environmental factors, such as the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, the availability of soil water and the air and soil temperatures, are predicted to change drastically by the end of the century. The present paper discusses to what extent the climate change may influence the role of AMF in protecting crops against Verticillium-induced wilt, taking into account the current knowledge about the direct and indirect effects that the changing environment can exert on AMF communities in soils and on the symbiosis between crops and AMF, as well as on the development, incidence and impact of diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens.
  • Autores: Arrizabalaga Arriazu, Marta; Morales, F.; Irigoyen Iparrea, Juan José; et al.
    ISSN: 0176-1617 Vol.252 2020 págs. 153226
    Atmospheric CO2 levels and global temperatures are expected to rise in the next decades, and viticulture must face these changes. Within this context, exploiting the intra-varietal diversity of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) can be a useful tool for the adaptation of this crop to climate change. The aim of the present work was to study the effect of elevated temperature and elevated levels of atmospheric CO2, both individually and combined, on the growth, phenology and carbon partitioning of five clones of the cultivar Tempranillo (RJ43, CL306, T3, VN31 and 1084). The hypothesis that clones within the same variety that differ in their phenological development may respond in a different manner to the above mentioned environmental factors from a physiological point of view was tested. Grapevine fruit-bearing cuttings were grown from fruit set to maturity under two temperature regimes: ambient (T) vs elevated (ambient + 4 degrees C, T + 4), combined with two CO2 levels: ambient (ca. 400 ppm, ACO(2)) vs elevated (700 ppm, ECO2), in temperature-gradient greenhouses (TGGs). Considering all the clones, elevated temperature hastened grape development and increased vegetative growth, but reduced grape production, the later most likely associated with the heat waves recorded during the experiment. Plants in the elevated CO2 treatments showed a higher photosynthetic activity at veraison and an increased vegetative growth, but they showed signs of photosynthetic acclimation to ECO2 at maturity according to the C:N ratio, especially when combined with high temperature. The combination of ECO2 and T + 4, mimicking climate change environmental conditions, showed additive effects in some of the parameters analyzed. The clones showed differences in their phenological development, which conditioned some responses to elevated CO2 and temperature in terms of vegetative production and C partitioning into different organs. The work adds new knowledge on the use of different grapevine clones, that can be useful to improve the viticultural efficiency in future climate change scenarios.
  • Autores: Garmendia, I.; Bettoni, M. M.; Goicoechea Preboste, María Nieves
    ISSN: 0370-4661 Vol.52 N° 1 2020 págs. 87 - 94
    Previous studies have demonstrated that moderate water restrictions and enhanced CO2 concentration can maintain or improve yield and accumulation of secondary compounds in lettuce under greenhouse conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the combination of reduced soil moisture and carbon fertilization in shoot fresh weight (FW) and antioxidant capacity of two Batavia lettuce cultivars (Batabia Rubia Munguia; BRM and Maravilla de Verano; MV). Moderate water restriction treatment was equivalent to 2/3 of the field capacity and elevated CO2 concentration (ECO2) was fixed at similar to 700 mu mol mol(-1). While CO2 enrichment exerted a positive effect on shoot FW of MV, especially in combination with water restrictions, the yield of the cultivar BRM was not affected by CO2 concentration, nor by irrigation regime. However, antioxidant capacity of BRM plants was increased under ECO2 conditions. These results demonstrate that carbon fertilization and/or moderate water limitations can be strategically used to enhance nutritional value and growth of greenhouse lettuce.
  • Autores: Antolín Bellver, María del Carmen; Izurdiaga, D.; Urmeneta, L.; et al.
    Revista: AGRONOMY
    ISSN: 2073-4395 Vol.10 N° 4 2020 págs. 473
    The exploitation of genetic diversity within agricultural plants, including grapevine, is suggested as a valuable tool to cope with the negative impacts of climate change on yield and crop quality. In some winegrowing regions of Europe, there is a renewed interest in knowing the grapevine genetic resources available, focusing on the prospection, recovery, and study of ancient cultivars typical of every zone. Grapevines are naturally associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which provide some benefits to the host plant, although such effects depending on many factors, including variety. Therefore, the aim of this research was to characterize the potential fruit quality of eight old grapevine varieties recovered in Navarre (northeastern of the Iberian Peninsula), associated or not with AMF. The study was carried out on fruit-bearing cuttings grown under controlled conditions (greenhouse). Overall, AMF inoculation reduced bunch and berry mass, as well as phenolic content in fruits. In some varieties, AMF association improved some berry traits by increasing the concentrations of soluble solids and anthocyanins; in others, berry colour, total phenolic and anthocyanin content were diminished in AMF-inoculated plants. The results, therefore, suggest that intraspecific diversity of old grapevines could include different abilities to respond to arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.
  • Autores: Jimenez, S.; Fattahi, M.; Bedis, K.; et al.
    ISSN: 1664-462X Vol.11 2020 págs. 43
    Environmental stress factors caused by climate change affect plant growth and crop production, and pose a growing threat to sustainable agriculture, especially for tree crops. In this context, we sought to investigate the responses to climate change of two Prunus rootstocks (GF677 and Adesoto) budded with Catherina peach cultivar. Plants were grown in 15 L pots in temperature gradient greenhouses for an 18 days acclimation period after which six treatments were applied: [CO2 levels (400 versus 700 mol mol-1), temperature (ambient versus ambient + 4°C), and water availability (well irrigated versus drought)]. After 23 days, the effects of stress were evaluated as changes in physiological and biochemical traits, including expression of relevant genes. Stem water potential decreased under drought stress in plants grafted on GF677 and Adesoto rootstocks; however, elevated CO2 and temperature affected plant water content differently in both combinations. The photosynthetic rate of plants grafted on GF677 increased under high CO2, but decreased under high temperature and drought conditions. The photosynthetic rates of plants grafted onto Adesoto were only affected by drought treatment. Furthermore, in GF677-Catherina plants, elevated CO2 alleviated the effect of drought, whereas in those grafted onto Adesoto, the same condition produced acclimation in the rate.
  • Autores: Rashidi, S.; Yousefi, A. R. (Autor de correspondencia); Pouryousef, M.; et al.
    ISSN: 1444-6162 Vol.20 N° 3 2020 págs. 95 - 108
    Over the last decades, tillage, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides have reduced the beneficial fungal population size in arable soils. Though soil inoculation can be a practical way to restore arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) population size, weeds may also be benefited, as well. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of three AMF species (Funneliformis mosseae, Rhizoglomus fasciculatum, andRhizoglomus intraradices) on photosynthetic rate, secondary metabolites content, reproductive organs percentage and nutrient uptake inSolanum nigrumL. andDigitaria sanguinalisL. weed species.Our results showed species variation in response to AMF inoculation, so that, while inoculation withR. intraradicesfungal species decreased total biomass inS. nigrumplants significantly, it increased total biomass ofD. sanguinalisplants by 26-49%. In addition, inoculation withF. mosseaespecies increased phenol, anthocyanin, and total terpenoid content inS. nigrumplants much more thanD. sanguinalis. Increased photosynthetic rate, secondary metabolites content, and flowering percentage in AMF-inoculatedS. nigrumplants show the enhanced competitive ability and allelopathic potential of this weed when associated with AMF, which makes it a good competitor against other plant species in the environment.
  • Autores: Arrizabalaga Arriazu, Marta; Gomes, E.; Morales, F.; et al.
    ISSN: 1664-462X Vol.11 2020
    Tempranillo is a grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) variety extensively used for world wine production which is expected to be affected by environmental parameters modified by ongoing global climate changes, i.e., increases in average air temperature and rise of atmospheric CO2 levels. Apart from determining their effects on grape development and biochemical characteristics, this paper considers the intravarietal diversity of the cultivar Tempranillo as a tool to develop future adaptive strategies to face the impact of climate change on grapevine. Fruit-bearing cuttings of five clones (RJ43, CL306, T3, VN31, and 1084) were grown in temperature gradient greenhouses (TGGs), from fruit set to maturity, under two temperature regimes (ambient temperature vs. ambient temperature plus 4 degrees C) and two CO2 levels (ambient, ca. 400 ppm, vs. elevated, 700 ppm). Treatments were applied separately or in combination. The analyses carried out included berry phenological development, the evolution in the concentration of must compounds (organic acids, sugars, and amino acids), and total skin anthocyanins. Elevated temperature hastened berry ripening, sugar accumulation, and malic acid breakdown, especially when combined with high CO2. Climate change conditions reduced the amino acid content 2 weeks after mid-veraison and seemed to delay amino acidic maturity. Elevated CO2 reduced the decoupling effect of temperature on the anthocyanin to sugar ratio. The impact of these factors, taken individually or combined, was dependent on the clone analyzed, thus indicating certain intravarietal variability in the response of Tempranillo to these climate change-related factors.
  • Autores: García-Gómez, P.; Almagro, G.; Sánchez-López, A. M.; et al.
    ISSN: 0140-7791 Vol.42 N° 5 2019 págs. 1729 - 1746
    A "box-in-box" cocultivation system was used to investigate plant responses to microbial volatile compounds (VCs) and to evaluate the contributions of organic and inorganic VCs (VOCs and VICs, respectively) to these responses. Arabidopsis plants were exposed to VCs emitted by adjacent Alternaria alternata and Penicillium aurantiogriseum cultures, with and without charcoal filtration. No VOCs were detected in the headspace of growth chambers containing fungal cultures with charcoal filters. However, these growth chambers exhibited elevated CO2 and bioactive CO and NO headspace concentrations. Independently of charcoal filtration, VCs from both fungal phytopathogens promoted growth and distinct developmental changes. Plants cultured at CO2 levels observed in growth boxes containing fungal cultures were identical to those cultured at ambient CO2. Plants exposed to charcoal-filtered fungal VCs, nonfiltered VCs, or superelevated CO2 levels exhibited transcriptional changes resembling those induced by increased irradiance. Thus, in the "box-in-box" system, (a) fungal VICs other than CO2 and/or VOCs not detected by our analytical systems strongly influence the plants' responses to fungal VCs, (b) different microorganisms release VCs with distinct action potentials, (c) transcriptional changes in VC-exposed plants are mainly due to enhanced photosynthesis signaling, and (d) regulation of some plant responses to fungal VCs is primarily posttranscriptional.
  • Autores: Erice, G.; Sanz-Saez, A.; Gonzalez-Torralba, J.; et al.
    ISSN: 0733-5210 Vol.87 2019 págs. 194 - 201
    Wheat grain represents an important source of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and minerals. Durum wheat is used mainly for the preparation of pasta, and in some Mediterranean areas is used for bread making. The atmospheric CO2 concentration influences wheat growth, yield and quality. The present work focuses on kernel quality under conditions of elevated [CO2] and subjected, or not, to water stress. The experiments were conducted with the durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) varieties cvv. Blanqueta, which is a historical Spanish landrace, and cvv. Sula, which is a modern variety. Sula demonstrated greater kernel weight (KW), insoluble protein (IP) content and amylose content, and also featured better potential test weight (TW) under projected future elevated [CO2] and drought conditions. Blanqueta exposed to drought conditions showed the highest C-13 isotopic composition (delta C-13) values indicating that, as a consequence of their higher biomass, they were subjected to a more severe stress. Under control conditions of ambient [CO2], the protein concentrations of both varieties were similar. This work provides data about the genetic diversity between a currently cultivated wheat cultivar derived from traditional breeding and another cultivated some decades ago.
  • Autores: Torres, Nazareth; Plano Amatriain, Daniel; Antolín Bellver, María del Carmen; et al.
    ISSN: 0365-0340 Vol.65 N° 10 2019 págs. 1341-1353
    Grapevine leaves are widely discarded in open fields despite their known antioxidant properties. We tested the cytotoxicity of leaf extracts from three clones (CL-260, CL-1048, CL-8) of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo against four human cancer cell lines: colon, HT-29; breast, MCF-7; lung HTB-54; and lymphoblastic leukemia, CCRF-CEM. Grapevines were cultivated at either ambient (24/14 degrees C) or elevated (28/18 degrees C) day/night temperatures, and inoculated (+M) or not (-M) with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Cytotoxicity was analysed by MTT assays. Elevated air temperatures enhanced the cytotoxicity of leaf extracts from CL-260 against HT-29, CCRF-CEM and HTB-54 and that from CL-8 against MCF-7. Mycorrhization improved the cytotoxicity of leaf extracts from CL-1048 against HT-29, CCRF-CEM, HTB-54 and MCF-7. The cytotoxic activities of CL-260 against HTB-54 and CL-1048 against HT-29 were correlated, respectively, with total phenols and total antioxidant capacity. We conclude that the predicted increase in air temperature for the future climate and the mycorrhizal association of grapevines may enhance the cytotoxicity of leaves, which strengthens the potential application of these agricultural residuals for biomedicine. However, the clonal diversity in the response to AMF and air temperature highlights the importance of choosing the most adequate clone for a concrete environmental scenario.
  • Autores: Fiasconaro, Maria Laura (Autor de correspondencia); Lovato, M. E.; Antolín Bellver, María del Carmen; et al.
    ISSN: 0304-4238 Vol.249 2019 págs. 280 - 288
    Water availability is the most critical factor to growth and development of plants, which limits the productive potential of plants. Plants adapt to water deficits by physiological alterations, biochemical changes and osmotic adjustments. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soil amendment of a K-rich carrot compost on pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Paco) physiology and fruit quality under drought. Furthermore, an attempted to determine the influence of these combined factors on yield and quality pepper fruits. Carrot compost (ZC) was obtained by aerobic composting from carrot wastes from packing plants and not presented phytotoxic substances that prevented germination and grown of pepper seedlings. When the vegetative stage corresponding to start of flowering was reached, half of the plants were subjected to drought conditions (moderate water stress). Results showed that the concentration of minerals, free proline, total phenols and main carotenoids (ß-carotene and lycopene) in pepper fruits were significantly modified by water level and/or substrate type. Under drought, plants grown in a mixture of 35% ZC and 65% soil (ZC35) increased concentrations of minerals (mainly K) and phenols but decreased ß-carotene and lycopene levels. Moreover, significant relationships between K content, phenolic compounds and free proline were highlighted.
  • Autores: Torres, N.; Hilbert, G.; Antolín Bellver, María del Carmen; et al.
    Revista: PLANTS
    ISSN: 2223-7747 Vol.8 N° 10 2019 págs. 400
    (1) Background: Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo is cultivated over the world for its wine of high quality. The association of Tempranillo with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) induced the accumulation of phenolics and carotenoids in leaves, affected the metabolism of abscisic acid (ABA) during berry ripening, and modulated some characteristics and quality aspects of grapes. The objective of this study was to elucidate if AMF influenced the profiles and the content of primary and secondary metabolites determinants for berry quality in Tempranillo. (2) Methods: Fruit-bearing cuttings inoculated with AMF or uninoculated were cultivated under controlled conditions. (3) Results: Mycorrhizal symbiosis modified the profile of metabolites in Tempranillo berries, especially those of the primary compounds. The levels of glucose and amino acids clearly increased in berries of mycorrhized Tempranillo grapevines, including those of the aromatic precursor amino acids. However, mycorrhizal inoculation barely influenced the total amount and the profiles of anthocyanins and flavonols in berries. (4) Conclusions: Mycorrhizal inoculation of Tempranillo grapevines may be an alternative to the exogenous application of nitrogen compounds in order to enhance the contents of amino acids in grapes, which may affect the aromatic characteristics of wines.
  • Autores: Soba, D.; Ben-Mariem, S.; Fuertes-Mendizabal, T.; et al.
    ISSN: 0021-8561 Vol.67 N° 31 2019 págs. 8441 - 8451
    The increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration is predicted to influence wheat production and grain quality and nutritional properties. In the present study, durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Sula) was grown under two different CO2 (400 versus 700 mu mol mol(-1)) concentrations to examine effects on the crop yield and grain quality at different phenological stages (from grain filling to maturity). Exposure to elevated CO2 significantly increased aboveground biomass and grain yield components. Growth at elevated CO2 diminished the elemental N content as well as protein and free amino acids, with a typical decrease in glutamine, which is the most represented amino acid in grain proteins. Such a general decrease in nitrogenous compounds was associated with altered kinetics of protein accumulation, N remobilization, and N partitioning. Our results highlight important modifications of grain metabolism that have implications for its nutritional quality.
  • Autores: Torres, N.; Antolín Bellver, María del Carmen; Goicoechea Preboste, María Nieves (Autor de correspondencia)
    ISSN: 1664-462X Vol.9 N° 897 2018
    Climate change and their resulting impacts are becoming a concern for winegrowers due to the high socioeconomic relevance of the winemaking sector worldwide. In fact, the projected climate change is expected to have detrimental impacts on the yield of grapevines, as well as on the quality and properties of grapes and wine. It is well known that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can improve the nutritional quality of edible parts of crops and play essential roles in the maintenance of host plant fitness under stressed environments, including grapevines. The future scenarios of climate change may also modify the diversity and the growth of AMF in soils as well as the functionality of the mycorrhizal symbiosis. In this review, we summarize recent research progress on the effects of climate change on grapevine metabolism, paying special attention to the secondary compounds involved in the organoleptic properties of grapes and wines and to the levels of the phytohormones implied in the control of berry development and fruit ripening. In this context, the potential role of AMF for maintaining fruit quality in future climate change scenarios is discussed.
  • Autores: Salazar Parra, Carolina Antonia; Aranjuelo, I.; Pascual Elizalde, Inmaculada; et al.
    ISSN: 0166-8595 Vol.138 N° 1 2018 págs. 115 - 128
    Foreseen climate change is expected to impact on grape composition, both sugar and pigment content. We tested the hypothesis that interactions between main factors associated with climate change (elevated CO2, elevated temperature, and water deficit) decouple sugars and anthocyanins, and explored the possible involvement of vegetative area, photosynthesis, and grape C uploading on the decoupling. Tempranillo grapevine fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to CO2 (700 vs. 400ppm), temperature (ambient vs. +4 degrees C), and irrigation levels (partial vs. full) in temperature-gradient greenhouses. In a search for mechanistic insights into the underlying processes, experiments 1 and 2 were designed to maximize photosynthesis and enlarge leaf area range among treatments, whereas plant growth was manipulated in order to deliberately down-regulate photosynthesis and control vegetative area in experiments 3 and 4. Towards this aim, treatments were applied either from fruit set to maturity with free vegetation and fully irrigated or at 5-8% of pot capacity (experiments 1 and 2), or from veraison to maturity with controlled vegetation and fully irrigated or at 40% of pot capacity (experiments 3 and 4). Modification of air C-13 isotopic composition under elevated CO2 enabled the further characterization of whole C fixation period and C partitioning to grapes. Increases of the grape sugars-to-anthocyanins ratio were highly and positively correlated with photosynthesis and grape C-13 labeling, but not with vegetative area. Evidence is presented for photosynthesis, from fruit set to veraison, and grape C uploading, from veraison to maturity, as key processes involved in the establishment and development, respectively, of the grape sugars to anthocyanins decoupling.
  • Autores: Arrizabalaga Arriazu, Marta; Morales, F.; Oyarzun, M.; et al.
    Revista: PLANT SCIENCE
    ISSN: 0168-9452 Vol.267 2018 págs. 74 - 83
    The intra-varietal genetic diversity of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) may be exploited to maintain grape quality under future warm conditions, which may alter grape berry development and composition. The present study assesses the effects of elevated temperature on the development of berry, grape composition and anthocyanins:sugars ratio of thirteen clones of V. vinifera. cv. Tempranillo that differed in length of the ripening period (time from veraison to berry total soluble solids, mainly sugars, of ca. 22 °Brix). Two temperature regimes (24 °C/14 °C or 28 °C/18 °C, day/night) were imposed to grapevine fruit-bearing cuttings from fruit set to maturity under greenhouse-controlled conditions. Elevated temperature hastened berry development, with a greater influence before the onset of ripening, and reduced anthocyanin concentration, colour intensity and titratable acidity. The clones significantly differed in the number of days that elapsed between fruit set and maturity. At the same concentration of total soluble solids, the anthocyanin concentration was lower at 28 °C/18 °C than 24 °C/14 °C, indicating a decoupling effect of elevated temperature during berry ripening. Thermal decoupling was explained by changes in the relative rate of response of anthocyanin and sugar build-up, rather than delayed onset of anthocyanin accumulation. Clones differed in the degree of thermal decoupling, but it was directly associated with differences neither in the length of their ripening ...
  • Autores: Kizildeniz, Tefide; Pascual Elizalde, Inmaculada; Irigoyen Iparrea, Juan José; et al.
    ISSN: 0378-3774 Vol.202 2018 págs. 299 - 310
    In the Mediterranean area, changes in crop production and quality are expected in the future, due to one or more stress factors associated with climate change. Among them, plant responses to atmospheric CO2 concentration increases, enhanced temperatures and scarce water availability are a matter that deserves further investigation. In this study, the effects of the three above-mentioned factors, acting individually and/or in interaction, on grapevine reproductive growth and berry quality were investigated in three consecutive growing seasons (2013, 2014, and 2015) in the cultivars red and white Tempranillo. Eight different treatments were applied from fruit set to maturity (2 CO2 levels (400 versus 700 mu mol mol(-1)) x 2 temperature treatments (ambient versus ambient +4 degrees C) x 2 water availability regimes (well irrigated versus cyclic drought)) in four temperature gradient greenhouses located at the University of Navarra (Pamplona, Spain). Yield was significantly reduced by drought and was year-dependent. Eventual heat shocks (above 35 degrees C) in the first week of July in 2015 induced berry burn, browning and loss of 50% of the berries. Regarding quality, simulated climate change scenarios affected to greater extent technological (primary metabolism) than phenolic (secondary metabolism) maturity. Indeed, high temperature and drought significantly and consistently increased must pH, due to decreases in malic acid. On the contrary, elevated CO2 decreased pH associated with significant increases in tartaric acid. Differences in the response of red and white Tempranillo were found. Acidity was lower (and pH higher) in white than in red Tempranillo, due to lower malic and tartaric acid concentrations. Also, total polyphenol index was lower in the white variety, in part due to the absence of anthocyanins. Fresh bunch weight and berry water content were higher in the white than in the red variety. Interactions found among variety, year, water availability, temperature and CO2 have been highlighted and discussed. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Autores: Torres, N.; Antolín Bellver, María del Carmen; Garmendia, I.; et al.
    ISSN: 0981-9428 Vol.130 2018 págs. 542 - 554
    Tempranillo grapevine is widely cultivated in Spain and other countries over the world (Portugal, USA, France, Australia, and Argentina, among others) for its wine, but leaves are scarcely used for human or animal nutrition. Since high temperatures affect quality of fruits and leaves in grapevine and the association of Tempranillo with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) enhances the antioxidant properties of berries and leaves, we assessed the effect of elevated air temperature and mycorrhization, separately or combined, on the nutritional properties of Tempranillo leaves at the time of fruit harvest. Experimental assay included three clones (CL-260, CL-1048, and CL-1089) and two temperature regimes (24/14¿°C or 28/18¿°C day/night) during fruit ripening. Within each clone and temperature regime there were plants not inoculated or inoculated with AMF. The nutritional value of leaves increased under warming climate: elevated temperatures induced the accumulation of minerals, especially in CL-1089; antioxidant capacity and soluble sugars also increased in CL-1089; CL-260 showed enhanced amounts of pigments, and chlorophylls and soluble proteins increased in CL-1048. Results suggested the possibility of collecting leaves together with fruit harvest with different applications of every clone: those from CL-1089 would be adequate for an energetic diet and leaves from CL-260 and CL-1048 would be suitable for culinary processes.
  • Autores: Torres, N.; Goicoechea Preboste, María Nieves; Antolín Bellver, María del Carmen (Autor de correspondencia)
    ISSN: 0378-3774 Vol.202 2018 págs. 285 - 298
    The projected climate scenario for South Mediterranean Europe predicts lower precipitation and higher temperatures that will negatively affect viticulture in the region. The application of moderate deficit irrigation at crucial moments of berry ripening has been found to improve berry quality. Furthermore, grapevine association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may improve grapevine¿s ability to cope with abiotic stresses. Therefore, the aims of this research were: (1) to characterize the response of three clones of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo to the combination of different water deficit programs and AMF inoculation under elevated temperatures, and (2) to determine whether AMF inoculation can improve berry antioxidant properties under these conditions. The study was carried out on three fruit-bearing cuttings clones of cv. Tempranillo (CL-260, CL-1089 and CL-843) inoculated (+M) or not (¿M) with AMF and subjected to two temperature regimes (24/14 °C and 28/18 °C (day/night)) combined with three irrigation regimes during berry ripening. Irrigation treatments were: (i) water deficit from fruit set to veraison (early deficit, ED); (ii) water deficit from veraison to maturity (late deficit, LD); and (iii) full irrigation (FI). Although each Tempranillo clone seemed to have different abilities to respond to elevated temperatures and water supply, in general, at 24/14 °C the LD treatment performed better than ED. Differences among clones were attenuated at 28/18 °C...
  • Autores: Kizildeniz, Tefide; Irigoyen Iparrea, Juan José; Pascual Elizalde, Inmaculada; et al.
    ISSN: 0378-3774 Vol.202 2018 págs. 220 - 230
    In recent decades, agricultural production is being affected by a sharp increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Due to the greenhouse effect gases, crops are impacted by enhanced temperatures and concomitantly by increased scarce water availability. All arid and semiarid areas, including Mediterranean viticulture, must face these three climate change-related factors: atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature increases, and scarce water for irrigation. Scarce water is a problem even in irrigated viticulture, as irrigation is becoming more and more restricted. Within this context, the aim of this work was to investigate grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. red and white Tempranillo) vegetative and reproductive growth. Fruit-bearing cuttings were grown under elevated CO2 (around 700 micromol mol-1 or ppm, versus 400), high temperature (ambient temperature +4°C, versus ambient) and water deficit (cyclic drought, versus full irrigated) in temperature gradient greenhouses for three consecutive growing seasons (years 2013, 2014 and 2015). Climate change impacted markedly vegetative growth. Within the abovementioned factors, vegetative growth (total vegetative mass) was significantly reduced by drought (consistent the three years) and was associated to a low substrate water status and low leaf stomatal conductance. Elevated CO2 stimulated total vegetative mass, whereas leaf area was not affected. When plants were grown under elevated CO2, the largest increases were observed ...

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  • Título: 0011-4001-2022-000062 Convocatoria Investigo
    Código de expediente: 0011-4001-2022-000062
    Investigador principal: MARIA NIEVES GOICOECHEA PREBOSTE.
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    Código de expediente: 0011-3947-2021-000036
    Financiador: GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA
    Convocatoria: 2021 GN Andia - Atracción de talento
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    Código de expediente: PID2020-118337RB-I00
    Convocatoria: 2020 AEI PROYECTOS I+D+i (incluye Generación del conocimiento y Retos investigación)
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    Código de expediente: 0011-1383-2020-000010 PC145 UNAV MULTI-SENSOR
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    Convocatoria: 2020 GN Proyectos Colaborativos
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    Código de expediente: 0011-1383-2019-000005 PT005-006 SENSOR 2
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    Convocatoria: 2019 GN Centros
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    Código de expediente: 0011-1383-2018-000005 PT035-036 SENSOR
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  • Título: Influencia de la longitud del ciclo,CO2, temperatura y disponibilidad hídrica en el desequilibrio entre azúcares y antocianinas inducido por el cambio climático en Tempranillo
    Código de expediente: AGL2014-56075-C2-1-R
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    Convocatoria: 2020 Convocatoria PIUNA, 2019 Convocatoria PIUNA, 2018 Convocatoria PIUNA
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