Grupos Investigadores

Miembros del Grupo

Dalmau Martínez

Líneas de Investigación

  • Diseño y operación de tecnologías de tratamiento de aguas
  • Modelado matemático y simulación de sistemas de gestión y tratamiento del agua
  • Soluciones basadas en procesos químicos y físico-químicos en el tratamiento de aguas y residuos sólidos

Palabras Clave

  • Modelado matemático y simulación
  • Tratamiento y gestión de agua y residuos

Publicaciones Científicas desde 2018

  • Autores: Devos, P.; Filali, A.; Grau Gumbau, Paloma; et al.
    ISSN: 0043-1354 Vol.232 2023 págs. 119620 - *
    This review compiles information on sidestream characteristics that result from anaerobic digestion dewatering (conventional and preceded by a thermal hydrolysis process), biological and primary sludge thickening. The objective is to define a range of concentrations for the different characteristics found in literature and to confront them with the optimal operating conditions of sidestream processes for nutrient treatment or recovery. Each characteristic of sidestream (TSS, VSS, COD, N, P, Al3+, Ca2+, Cl-, Fe2+/3+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, SO42-, heavy metals, micro-pollutants and pathogens) is discussed according to the water resource recovery facility configuration, wastewater characteristics and implications for the recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus based on current published knowledge on the processes implemented at full-scale. The thorough analysis of sidestream characteristics shows that anaerobic digestion sidestreams have the highest ammonium content compared to biological and primary sludge sidestreams. Phosphate content in anaerobic digestion sidestreams depends on the type of applied phosphorus treatment but is also highly dependent on precipitation reactions within the digester. Thermal Hydrolysis Process (THP) mainly impacts COD, N and alkalinity content in anaerobic digestion sidestreams. Surprisingly, the concentration of phosphate is not higher compared to conventional anaerobic digestion, thus offering more attractive recovery possibilities upstream of the digester rather than in sidestreams. All sidestream processes investigated in the present study (struvite, partial nitrification/anammox, ammonia stripping, membranes, bioelectrochemical system, electrodialysis, ion exchange system and algae production) suffer from residual TSS in sidestreams. Above a certain threshold, residual COD and ions can also deteriorate the performance of the process or the purity of the final nutrient-based product. This article also provides a list of characteristics to measure to help in the choice of a specific process.
  • Autores: Lizarralde Aguirrezabal, Izaro (Autor de correspondencia); Guida, S.; Canellas, J.; et al.
    ISSN: 0043-1354 Vol.206 2021 págs. 117779
    Ammonia ion removal and recovery via an ion-exchange process using zeolites is a promising alternative to traditional biological treatments. The analysis of its efficiency is not straightforward as it depends on various factors, such as the cation exchange capacity of the zeolite, amount of zeolite available, initial ammonia concentration, contact time, ammonia speciation depending on pH or the presence of competing ions. Mathematical modelling and simulation tools are very useful to analyse the effect of different operational conditions on the efficiency and optimal operation of the process. This paper experimentally analyses the effect that the presence of competing ions has on the efficiency of ammonia removal. This experimental work has shown a reduction of around 21% of ammonia removal efficiency in the presence of competing ions. The main contribution of this paper is the development new mathematical model able to describe the ion-exchange process in the presence of competing ions. The mathematical model developed is able to analyse the performance of the IEX process under different empty bed contact times, influent loads, pH and concentrations of competing ions. The capability of the model to reproduce real data has been proven comparing the experimental and simulation results. Finally, an exploration by simulation has been undertaken to show the potential of the mathematical model developed.
  • Autores: Elduayen Echave, Beñat (Autor de correspondencia); Lizarralde Aguirrezabal, Izaro; Schneider, P.; et al.
    ISSN: 0043-1354 Vol.200 2021 págs. 117242
    The effect of mixing in the modelling of processes based on mass transfer phenomena is commonly ignored in wastewater treatment industry. In this contribution, the effect of the average shear rate in the nucleation and growth rates of struvite is analyzed by combining experimental data with simulation results obtained with a previously presented mass-based discretized population balance model. According to the obtained results, the effect of the average shear rate is identifiable for the selected data and mechanisms. Therefore, it should be considered when a detailed modelling of the process is needed. Consequently, in this contribution, the average shear rate has been decoupled from the kinetic constants. In addition, kinetic rates where it is explicitly included as a power law function have been proposed. The exponents in these power law functions for the primary homogeneous nucleation and growth are 1.3 and 0.3, respectively. Considering shear rate effects allowed to see in the simulation outputs experimentally observed effects: a faster pH decay and smaller particle distribution for increasing mixing intensities. (c) 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Autores: Pulley, S.; Cardenas, L.; Grau Gumbau, Paloma; et al.
    ISSN: 1439-0108 Vol.21 N° 4 2021 págs. 1875 - 1889
    Purpose Intensive livestock grazing has been associated with an increased risk of soil erosion and concomitant negative impacts on the ecological status of watercourses. Whilst various mitigation options are promoted for reducing livestock impacts, there is a paucity of data on the relationship between stocking rates and quantified sediment losses. This evidence gap means there is uncertainty regarding the cost-benefit of policy preferred best management. Methods Sediment yields from 15 hydrologically isolated field scale catchments on a heavily instrumented ruminant livestock farm in the south west UK were investigated over similar to 26 months spread across 6 years. Sediment yields were compared to cattle and sheep stocking rates on long-term, winter (November-April), and monthly timescales. The impacts of livestock on soil vegetation cover and bulk density were also examined. Cattle were tracked using GPS collars to determine how grazing related to soil damage. Results No observable impact of livestock stocking rates of 0.15-1.00 UK livestock units (LU) ha(-1) for sheep, and 0-0.77 LU ha(-1) for cattle on sediment yields was observed at any of the three timescales. Cattle preferentially spent time close to specific fences where soils were visually damaged. However, there was no indication that livestock have a significant effect on soil bulk density on a field scale.
  • Autores: Elduayen Echave, Beñat (Autor de correspondencia); Azcona Calero, Mikel; Grau Gumbau, Paloma; et al.
    ISSN: 2214-7144 Vol.38 2020 págs. 101657
    Controlled struvite precipitation is a promising solution for phosphorus recovery in wastewater treatment plants. Particle size distribution of recovered struvite affects its efficacy as a fertilizer, so should be considered in the design and operation of struvite recovery reactors. This contribution analyzes the effect of varying the average shear rate (between 150 s(-1) and 876 s(-1)) and saturation index (between 0.76 and 2.96) in two different experimental set-ups. Solution pH and particle number and size measurements using an electric zone sensing method are used to monitor the process. In addition, photomicrographs are used to observe the shape of the precipitated particles. Interestingly, for identical thermochemical conditions, a higher mixing intensity, associated with the shear rate, leads to shorter induction times, faster precipitation and a greater particle density. On the other hand, for similar mixing conditions, a higher saturation index is also linked with shorter induction times, faster precipitation and a greater particle density. From the experimental data it is concluded that the effect of the fluid shear rate cannot be ignored and should be further studied in the precipitation process.

Proyectos desde 2018

  • Título: Modelado matemático y simulación de nuevos procesos y soluciones para la recuperación de fósforo de estaciones depuradoras de aguas residuales
    Código de expediente: PIBA_2022_1_0022
    Financiador: GOBIERNO VASCO
    Fecha de inicio: 11-08-2022
    Fecha fin: 30-06-2025
    Importe concedido: 50.000,00€
    Otros fondos: -
  • Título: Modelado matemático y simulación de nuevos procesos y soluciones para la recuperación de fósforo de estaciones depuradoras de aguas residuales
    Código de expediente: PID2019-108378RB-I00
    Investigador principal: PALOMA GRAU GUMBAU, PALOMA GRAU GUMBAU.
    Convocatoria: 2019 AEI PROYECTOS I+D+i (incluye Generación del conocimiento y Retos investigación)
    Fecha de inicio: 01-06-2020
    Fecha fin: 31-05-2023
    Importe concedido: 102.850,00€
    Otros fondos: -
  • Título: Contrato con PRODUMAR
    Investigador principal: PALOMA GRAU GUMBAU, PALOMA GRAU GUMBAU
    Fecha de inicio: 01-02-2023
    Fecha fin: 31-01-2024
    Importe: 0
    Otros fondos: -
  • Título: CONTRATO PRODUMAR - Estudio y Diseño de Estrategias de A
    Investigador principal: PALOMA GRAU GUMBAU, PALOMA GRAU GUMBAU
    Fecha de inicio: 01-02-2021
    Fecha fin: 31-07-2022
    Importe: 0
    Otros fondos: