Grupos Investigadores

Miembros del Grupo

Colaboradores
Gabriele
Castelnuovo
Verónica
Ciaurriz Fernández
María del Carmen
Cristobo Pérez
Amanda
Cuevas Sierra
Begoña
De Cuevillas García
Cristina
Galarregui Miquelarena
Paola
Gámez Macías
María
Hernández Ruiz de Eguilaz
Ana
Lorente Nieva
Nuria
Pérez Díaz Del Campo
Salomé
Pérez Díez
María Asunción
Redín Pérez
Laura
Sáez Alonso
Ana Luz
Tobaruela Resola
María de los Ángeles
Vargas Álvarez
Jinchunzi
Yang
Deyan
Yavoron Dayliev
María
Zabala Navó
Miren Josune
Zubieta Satrustegui

Líneas de Investigación

  • Regulación del tejido adiposo blanco, pardo, beige, y su implicación en la susceptibilidad a desarrollar obesidad y síndrome metabólico.
  • Regulación de transportadores de nutrientes en estados fisiológicos y patofisiológicos.
  • Optimización del tratamiento de la obesidad y sus comorbilidades mediante la implementación de la nutrición de precisión.
  • Mecanismos implicados en obesidad y envejecimiento: inflamación, resistencia a la insulina, hígado graso.
  • Investigación sobre saciedad, tamaño de ración y comportamiento alimentario.
  • Identificación de biomarcadores bioquímicos, genéticos, epigenéticos, transcriptómicos, proteómicos, metabolómicos y metagenómicos relacionados con el riego a desarrollar comorbilidades asociadas al síndrome metabólico.
  • Estudio de compuestos bioactivos para prevención y tratamiento de obesidad/síndrome metabólico
  • Desarrollo de nuevos abordajes nutricionales frente a la obesidad y el síndrome metabólico basados en la dieta mediterránea o algunos de sus componentes individuales, en la distribución de macronutrientes, la actividad física y la crononutrición.
  • Desarrollo de kits e índices (scores) de clasificación nutricional, diagnóstico/pronóstico de patologías asociadas a la obesidad, y de respuesta y/o adherencia a una dieta.

Palabras Clave

  • Ínflamación
  • miRNA
  • Transportadores de nutrientes
  • Tejido adiposo
  • Tamaño de porción
  • Síndrome metabólico
  • Scores nutricionales
  • Saciedad
  • Resistencia a la insulina
  • Prebióticos, probióticos y postbióticos
  • Obesidad
  • Nutrigenética/Nutrigenómica
  • Nutrición personalizada
  • Nutrición de precisión
  • Microbiota
  • Metabolómica
  • Mediadores lipídicos proresolutivos
  • Hígado graso
  • Hipoxia
  • Epigenética
  • Envejecimiento
  • Diabetes
  • Compuestos bioactivos
  • Ciclinas/cdks
  • Caenorhabditis elegans
  • Biomarcador
  • Ambientoma

Publicaciones Científicas desde 2018

  • Autores: De Cuevillas García, Begoña; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Tur, J. A.; et al.
    Revista: OBESITY REVIEWS
    ISSN 1467-7881 Vol.23 N° Supl. 1 2022 págs. e13394
    Resumen
    Childhood obesity is a costly burden in most regions with relevant and adverse long-term health consequences in adult life. Several studies have associated excessive body weight with a specific profile of gut microbiota. Different factors related to fecal microorganism abundance seem to contribute to childhood obesity, such as gestational weight gain, perinatal diet, antibiotic administration to the mother and/or child, birth delivery, and feeding patterns, among others. This review reports and discusses diverse factors that affect the infant intestinal microbiota with putative or possible implications on the increase of the obesity childhood rates as well as microbiota shifts associated with excessive body weight in children.
  • Autores: Andueza Pacheco, Naroa; Navas Carretero, Santiago (Autor de correspondencia); Cuervo Zapatel, Marta
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.14 N° 2 2022 págs. 372
    Resumen
    Dietary habits, that are formed during childhood and consolidated in adulthood, are known to influence the development of future chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of nutritional interventions carried out in recent years focused on improving the quality of the diet of the child population. A systematic search of the PubMed and Scopus databases was performed from January 2011 until September 2021. A total of 910 articles were identified and screened based on their title, abstract and full text. Finally, 12 articles were included in the current systematic review. Of those, in six studies the intervention was based on the provision of healthy meals and in the other six studies the intervention focused on modifying the school environment. Six of the studies selected included other components in their intervention such as nutritional education sessions, physical activity and/or families. A wide variety of methods were used for diet assessments, from direct method to questionnaires. The results suggest that interventions that modify the school environment or provide different meals or snacks may be effective in improving children's dietary patterns, both in the short and long term. Further research is necessary to evaluate the real effectiveness of strategies with multidisciplinary approach (nutritional sessions, physical activity and family's involvement).
  • Autores: Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Demaison, L.; Carpene, C. (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
    ISSN 1138-7548 Vol.78 N° 2 2022 págs. 461 - 463
  • Autores: Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Guruceaga Martínez, Elisabet; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0261-5614 Vol.41 N° 8 2022 págs. 1712 - 1723
    Resumen
    Background & aims: The response to weight loss depends on the interindividual variability of determinants such as gut microbiota and genetics. The aim of this investigation was to develop an integrative model using microbiota and genetic information to prescribe the most suitable diet for a successful weight loss in individuals with excess of body weight. Methods: A total of 190 Spanish overweight and obese participants were randomly assigned to two hypocaloric diets for 4 months: 61 women and 29 men followed a moderately high protein (MHP) diet, and 72 women and 28 men followed a low fat (LF) diet. Baseline fecal DNA was sequenced and used for the construction of four microbiota subscores associated with the percentage of BMI loss for each diet (MHP and LF) and for each sex. Bootstrapping techniques and multiple linear regression models were used for the selection of families, genera and species included in the subscores. Finally, two total microbiota scores were generated for each sex. Two genetic subscores previously reported to weight loss were used to generate a total genetic score. In an attempt to personalize the weight loss prescription, several linear mixed models that included interaction with diet between microbiota scores and genetic scores for both, men and women, were studied. Results: The microbiota subscore for the women who followed the MHP-diet included Coprococcus, Dorea, Flavonifractor, Ruminococcus albus and Clostridium bolteaea. For LF-diet women, Cytophagaceae, Catabacteriaceae, Flammeovirgaceae, Rhodobacteriaceae, Clostridium-x1vb, Bacteriodes nordiiay, Alistipes senegalensis, Blautia wexlerae and Psedoflavonifractor phocaeensis. For MHP-diet men, Cytophagaceae, Acidaminococcaceae, Marinilabiliaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Fusicatenibacter, Odoribacter and Ruminococcus faecis; and for LF-men, Porphyromanadaceae, Intestinimonas, Bacteroides finegoldii and Clostridium bartlettii. The mixed models with microbiota scores facilitated the selection of diet in 72% of women and in 84% of men. The model including genetic information allows to select the type of diet in 84% and 73%, respectively.
  • Autores: Marzo, F.; Jauregui, P.; Barreneche Huici, Jayone; et al.
    Revista: PROBIOTICS AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEINS
    ISSN 1867-1306 Vol.14 N° 3 2022 págs. 407 - 414
    Resumen
    Previous studies have reported that dietary sphingomyelin could inhibit early stages of colon cancer. Lactic acid-producing bacteria have also been associated with an amelioration of cancer symptoms. However, little is known about the potential beneficial effects of the combined administration of both sphingomyelin and lactic acid-producing bacteria. This article analyzes the effect of a diet supplemented with a combination of the probiotics Lacticaseibacillus casei and Bifidobacterium bifidum (10(8) CFU/ml) and sphingomyelin (0.05%) on mice with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon cancer. Thirty-six BALB/c mice were divided into 3 groups: one healthy group (group C) and two groups with DMH-induced cancer, one fed a standard diet (group D) and the other fed a diet supplemented with sphingomyelin and probiotics (DS). The number of aberrant crypt foci, marker of colon cancer development, was lower in the DS. The dietary supplementation with the synbiotic reversed the cancer-induced impairment of galactose uptake in enterocyte brush-border-membrane vesicles. These results confirm the beneficial effects of the synbiotic on the intestinal physiology of colon cancer mice and contribute to the understanding of the possible mechanisms involved.
  • Autores: Montemayor, S.; Bouzas, C.; Mascaro, C. M.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.14 N° 11 2022 págs. 2223
    Resumen
    Background: Adults with fatty liver present unusual glycaemia and lipid metabolism; as a result, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now considered as part of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Objective: To assess the 6- and 12-month effects of customized hypocaloric dietary and enhanced physical activity intervention on intrahepatic fat contents and progression of NAFLD, in patients with MetS. Design: Cross-sectional study in 155 participants (40-60 years old) from Balearic Islands and Navarra (Spain) with a diagnosis of NAFLD and MetS, and BMI (body mass index) between 27 and 40 kg/m(2); patients were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to either Conventional Diet, Mediterranean diet (MD)-high meal frequency, and MD-physical activity groups. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to Mediterranean diet, anthropometrics, physical activity, and biochemical parameters (fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase-ALT-, gamma-glutamyl transferase, uric acid, urea, creatinine, albumin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol-HDL-cholesterol-, and triglycerides) were also assessed. Results: Subjects with NAFLD and MetS had reduced intrahepatic fat contents, and liver stiffness, despite the intervention the participants went through. All participants ameliorated BMI, insulin, Hb1Ac, diastolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, and ALT, and improved consumption of total energy, fish, and legumes. Participants in the MD-HMF group improved waist circumference. Conclusions: Customized hypocaloric dietary and enhanced physical activity interventions may be useful to ameliorate NAFLD.
  • Autores: Diez Sainz, Ester; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
    ISSN 1138-7548 Vol.78 N° 2 2022 págs. 485 - 499
    Resumen
    Obesity and diabetes incidence rates are increasing dramatically, reaching pandemic proportions. Therefore, there is an urgent need to unravel the mechanisms underlying their pathophysiology. Of particular interest is the close interconnection between gut microbiota dysbiosis and obesity and diabetes progression. Hence, microbiota manipulation through diet has been postulated as a promising therapeutic target. In this regard, secretion of gut microbiota-derived extracellular vesicles is gaining special attention, standing out as key factors that could mediate gut microbiota-host communication. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from gut microbiota and probiotic bacteria allow to encapsulate a wide range of bioactive molecules (such as/or including proteins and nucleic acids) that could travel short and long distances to modulate important biological functions with the overall impact on the host health. EV-derived from specific bacteria induce differential physiological responses. For example, a high-fat diet-induced increase of the proteobacterium Pseudomonas panacis-derived EV is closely associated with the progression of metabolic dysfunction in mice. In contrast, Akkermansia muciniphila EV are linked with the alleviation of high-fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes in mice. Here, we review the newest pieces of evidence concerning the potential role of gut microbiota and probiotic-derived EV on obesity and diabetes onset, progression, and management, through the modulation of inflammation, metabolism, and gut permeability. In addition, we discuss the role of certain dietary patterns on gut microbiota-derived EV profile and the clinical implication that dietary habits could have on metabolic diseases progression through the shaping of gut microbiota-derived EV.
  • Autores: Jimeno-Martinez, A; Maneschy, I.; Moreno, L.A.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY
    ISSN 1664-1078 Vol.13 2022 págs. 705912
    Resumen
    Introduction: Eating behavior is often established during the first years of life. Therefore, it is important to make a research on it to understand the relationships that children have with food and how this can contribute to prevent the development of childhood obesity. An appropriate assessment of eating behavior can be achieved using the "Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire" (CEBQ). This questionnaire has been validated in several populations and languages, but it has never been translated, adapted, and validated for Spanish children. Aim: To evaluate the reliability and internal consistency of the CEBQ questionnaire, culturally adapted and translated into Spanish (Spain), in Spanish families with children aged 3 to 6 years, as well as its association with children's body mass index (BMI) to test its construct validity. Materials and methods: Children between 3 and 6 years old were recruited from the ongoing MELI-POP randomized controlled clinical trial, as well as from public schools located in middle class neighborhoods of Zaragoza, Spain, to complete the sample. Sociodemographic characteristics and anthropometric measures were obtained according to standardized methods. The 35-item CEBQ questionnaire was completed twice with a time difference of 3 weeks between each response. Statistical analyses included the evaluation of internal consistency and reliability of the questionnaire, a confirmatory factor analysis, and the association between the different CEBQ scales and the children's BMI. Results: A total of 197 children completed variables; 97 of them were boys (49.2%) and 100 girls (50.8%). Mean age of the total sample was 4.7 ± 0.9 years. There was a high test-re-test reliability of the questionnaire with values close to 1, with an average of 0.66 and a good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha with values above 0.7), so that a high reliability is established between the items in each scale. A gradual positive association was found between the score of different "pro-intake" scales of the CEBQ: "Food Responsiveness," "Emotional Overeating," and "Enjoyment of food" and the children's BMI; at the opposite, negative associations were observed between BMI and the score of anti-intake scales "Satiety Responsiveness," "Slowness in Eating," and "Emotional Undereating." Conclusion: The Spanish version of the CEBQ is a useful tool to assess the eating behavior of Spanish children because the high reliability and internal validity. There is a significant association between eating behavior and BMI in Spanish children. Keywords: body mass index; child eating behavior questionnaire; childhood obesity; eating behavior; reliability; validation.
  • Autores: Salas Pérez, F. ; Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; Cuervo Zapatel, Marta; et al.
    Revista: EPIGENETICS
    ISSN 1559-2294 Vol.17 N° 1 2022 págs. 81 - 92
    Resumen
    Differentially methylated regions (DMR) are genomic regions with different methylation status. The aim of this research was to identify DMRs in subjects with obesity that predict the response to a weight-loss dietary intervention and its association with metabolic variables. Based on the change in body mass index (BMI), 201 subjects with overweight and obesity were categorized in tertiles according to their response to a hypocaloric diet: Responders (R; n = 64) and Non-Responders (NR; n = 63). The R group lost 4.55 +/- 0.91 BMI units (kg/m(2)) and the NR group lost 1.95 +/- 0.73 kg/m(2) (p < 0.001). DNA methylation was analysed in buffy coat through a methylation array at baseline. DMRs were analysed using a function of ChAMP (Chip Analysis Methylation Pipeline) in R software. Baseline DNA methylation analysis between R and NR exhibited a DMR located at paraoxonase 3 gene (PON3) consisting of 13 CpG sites, eleven of them significantly hypermethylated in R. To analyse the implication of these 11 CpGs on weight loss, a z-score was performed as a measure of DMR methylation. This analysis showed a correlation between PON3 DNA methylation and BMI loss. This z-score negatively correlated with PON3 protein serum levels. Total paraoxonase activity in serum was not different between groups, but PON enzymatic activity positively correlated with oxidized LDL levels. The present study identified a DMR within PON3 gene that is related to PON3 protein levels in serum, and that could be used as a potential biomarker to predict the response to weight-loss dietary interventions.
  • Autores: Martínez-Pérez, C.; Daimiel, L. (Autor de correspondencia); Climent-Mainar, C.; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
    ISSN 1479-5868 Vol.19 N° 1 2022 págs. 6
    Resumen
    Background: Recent lifestyle changes include increased consumption of highly processed foods (HPF), which has been associated with an increased risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). However, nutritional information relies on the estimation of HPF consumption from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQ) that are not explicitly developed for this purpose. We aimed to develop a short screening questionnaire of HPF consumption (sQ-HPF) that integrates criteria from the existing food classification systems. Methods: Data from 4400 participants (48.1% female and 51.9% male, 64.9 +/- 4.9 years) of the Spanish PREDIMED-Plus ("PREvention with MEDiterranean DIet") trial were used for this analysis. Items from the FFQ were classified according to four main food processing-based classification systems (NOVA, IARC, IFIC and UNC). Participants were classified into tertiles of HPF consumption according to each system. Using binomial logistic regression, food groups associated with agreement in the highest tertile for at least two classification systems were chosen as items for the questionnaire. ROC analysis was used to determine cut-off points for the frequency of consumption of each item, from which a score was calculated. Internal consistency of the questionnaire was assessed through exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Cronbach's analysis, and agreement with the four classifications was assessed with weighted kappa coefficients. Results: Regression analysis identified 14 food groups (items) associated with high HPF consumption for at least two classification systems. EFA showed that items were representative contributors of a single underlying factor, the "HPF dietary pattern" (factor loadings around 0.2). We constructed a questionnaire asking about the frequency of consumption of those items. The threshold frequency of consumption was selected using ROC analysis. Comparison of the four classification systems and the sQ-HPF showed a fair to high agreement. Significant changes in lifestyle characteristics were detected across tertiles of the sQ-HPF score. Longitudinal changes in HPF consumption were also detected by the sQ-HPF, concordantly with existing classification systems. Conclusions: We developed a practical tool to measure HPF consumption, the sQ-HPF. This may be a valuable instrument to study its relationship with NCDs.
  • Autores: Zhu, R.; Fogelholm, M.; Jalo, E.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0261-5614 Vol.41 N° 4 2022 págs. 817 - 828
    Resumen
    Background & aims: Low-energy diet replacement is an effective tool to induce large and rapid weight loss and improve metabolic health, but in the long-term individuals often experience significant weight regain. Little is known about the role of animal-based foods in weight maintenance and metabolic health. We aimed to examine longitudinal associations of animal-based foods with weight maintenance and glycaemic and cardiometabolic risk factors. We also modelled replacement of processed meat with other high-protein foods. Methods: In this secondary analysis, longitudinal data were analysed from 688 adults (26-70 years) with overweight and prediabetes after 8-week low-energy diet-induced weight loss (>= 8% of initial body weight) in a 3-year, multi-centre, diabetes prevention study (PREVIEW). Animal-based food consumption, including unprocessed red meat, processed red meat, poultry, dairy products, fish and seafood, and eggs, was repeatedly assessed using 4-day food records. Multi-adjusted linear mixed models and isoenergetic substitution models were used to examine the potential associations. Results: The available-case analysis showed that each 10-g increment in processed meat, but not total meat, unprocessed red meat, poultry, dairy products, or eggs, was positively associated with weight regain (0.17 kg . year(-1), 95% CI 0.10, 0.25, P < 0.001) and increments in waist circumference, HbA(1c), and triacylglycerols. The associations of processed meat with HbAic or triacylglycerols disappeared when adjusted for weight change. Fish and seafood consumption was inversely associated with triacylglycerols and triacylglycerol-glucose index, independent of weight change. Modelled replacement of processed meat with isoenergetic (250-300 kJ . day(-1) or 60-72 kcal . day(-1)) dairy, poultry, fish and seafood, grains, or nuts was associated with -0.59 (95% CI -0.77, -0.41), -0.66 (95% CI -0.93, -0.40), -0.58 (95% CI -0.88, -0.27), and -0.69 (95% CI -0.96, -0.41) kg . day(-1) of weight regain, respectively (all P < 0.001) and significant improvements in HbA(1c), and triacylglycerols. Conclusions: Higher intake of processed meat, but not total or unprocessed red meat, poultry, dairy products, or eggs may be associated with greater weight regain and more adverse glycaemic and cardiometabolic risk factors. Replacing processed meat with a wide variety of high-protein foods, including unprocessed red meat, poultry, dairy products, fish, eggs, grains, and nuts, could improve weight maintenance and metabolic health after rapid weight loss.
  • Autores: Zhu, R; Larsen, T. M.; Poppitt, S. D.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0261-5614 Vol.41 2022 págs. 219 - 230
    Resumen
    Background & aims: The association of quantity and quality of carbohydrate sources with appetite during long-term weight-loss maintenance (WLM) after intentional weight loss (WL) is unclear. We aimed to investigate longitudinal associations of quantity and quality of carbohydrate sources with changes in subjective appetite sensations during WLM. Methods: This secondary analysis evaluated longitudinal data from the 3-year WLM phase of the PREVIEW study, a 2 × 2 factorial (diet-physical activity arms), multi-center, randomized trial. 1279 individuals with overweight or obesity and prediabetes (25-70 years; BMI¿25 kg m-2) were included. Individuals were merged into 1 group to assess longitudinal associations of yearly changes in appetite sensations. Quantity and quality of carbohydrate sources including total carbohydrate, glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and total dietary fiber were assessed via 4-day food diaries at 4 timepoints (26, 52, 104, and 156 weeks) during WLM. Visual analog scales were used to assess appetite sensations in the previous week. Results: During WLM, participants consumed on average 160.6 (25th, 75th percentiles 131.1, 195.8) g·day-1 of total carbohydrate, with GI 53.8 (48.7, 58.8) and GL 85.3 (67.2, 108.9) g day-1, and 22.3 (17.6, 27.3) g·day-1 of dietary fiber. In the available-case analysis, multivariable-adjusted linear mixed models with repeated measures showed that each 30-g increment in total carbohydrate was associated with increases in hunger (1.36 mm year-1, 95% CI 0.77, 1.95, P < 0.001), desire to eat (1.10 mm year-1, 0.59, 1.60, P < 0.001), desire to eat something sweet (0.99 mm year-1, 0.30, 1.68, P = 0.005), and weight regain (0.20%·year-1, 0.03, 0.36, P = 0.022). Increasing GI was associated with weight regain, but not associated with increases in appetite sensations. Each 20-unit increment in GL was associated with increases in hunger (0.92 mm year-1, 0.33, 1.51, P = 0.002), desire to eat (1.12 mm year-1, 0.62, 1.62, P < 0.001), desire to eat something sweet (1.13 mm year-1, 0.44, 1.81, P < 0.001), and weight regain (0.35%·year-1, 0.18, 0.52, P < 0.001). Surprisingly, dietary fiber was also associated with increases in desire to eat, after adjustment for carbohydrate or GL. Conclusions: In participants with moderate carbohydrate and dietary fiber intake, and low to moderate GI, we found that higher total carbohydrate, GL, and total fiber, but not GI, were associated with increases in subjective desire to eat or hunger over 3 years. This study was registered as ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01777893. Keywords: Desire to eat; Dietary fiber; Glycemic index; Glycemic load; Hunger; Satiety.
  • Autores: Lorenzo, P. M.; Sajoux, I.; Izquierdo, A. G.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0261-5614 Vol.41 N° 7 2022 págs. 1566 - 1577
    Resumen
    Background & aim: Inflammation and oxidative stress are the most probable mechanistic link between obesity and its co-diseases with cancer among them. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the nutritional ketosis and weight loss induced by a very-low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) modulates the inflammatory and oxidative stress profile, compared with a standard, balanced hypocaloric diet (LCD) or bariatric surgery (BS) in patients with obesity. Methods: The study was performed in 79 patients with overweight or obesity and 32 normal-weight volunteers as the control group. Patients with obesity underwent a weight reduction therapy based on VLCKD, LCD or BS. The quantification of the circulating levels of a multiplexing test of cytokines and carcinogenesis/aging biomarkers, as well as of lipid peroxides and total antioxidant power, was carried out. Results: First, we observed that pro-inflammatory cytokines increase, while anti-inflammatory cytokines decrease under excessive body weight. Relevantly, when patients underwent weight loss strategies, it was shown that energy-restricted and surgical strategies of weight loss induced changes in circulating cytokine and lipid peroxides. This effect was more notable in patients following the VLCKD than the LCD or BS and it was observed mainly in the ketosis phase of the intervention. Particularly, IL-11, IL-12, IL-2, INF-gamma, INF-beta, Pentraxin-3 or MMP1 changed after VLCKD. Whereas, APRIL, TWEAK, osteocalcin and IL-28A increased after BS. Conclusion: As far as we know, this is the first study that evaluate the time-course of cytokines and oxidative stress markers after a VLCKD as compared with a standard LCD and BS. The observed results support the immunomodulatory effect of nutritional ketosis induced by a VLCKD synergistically with weight loss as a strategy to improve innate-immunity and to prevent infections and carcinogenesis in patients with obesity.
  • Autores: Yavorov-Dayliev, D.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Ayo, J.; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
    ISSN 1422-0067 Vol.23 N° 5 2022 págs. 2689
    Resumen
    The increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome-related diseases, including type-2 diabetes and obesity, makes it urgent to develop new alternative therapies, such as probiotics. In this study, we have used Caenorhabditis elegans under a high-glucose condition as a model to examine the potential probiotic activities of Pediococcus acidilactici CECT9879 (pA1c). The supplementation with pA1c reduced C. elegans fat accumulation in a nematode growth medium (NGM) and in a high-glucose (10 mM) NGM medium. Moreover, treatment with pA1c counteracted the effect of the high glucose by reducing reactive oxygen species by 20%, retarding the aging process and extending the nematode median survival (> 2 days in comparison with untreated control worms). Gene expression analyses demonstrated that the probiotic metabolic syndrome-alleviating activities were mediated by modulation of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway (IIS) through the reversion of the glucose-nuclear-localization of daf-16 and the overexpression of ins-6 and daf-16 mediators, increased expression of fatty acid (FA) peroxisomal beta-oxidation genes, and downregulation of FA biosynthesis key genes. Taken together, our data suggest that pA1c could be considered a potential probiotic strain for the prevention of the metabolic syndrome-related disturbances and highlight the use of C. elegans as an appropriate in vivo model for the study of the mechanisms underlying these diseases.
  • Autores: Vargas-Alvarez, M. A.; Navas Carretero, Santiago; Palla, L.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.13 N° 6 2021 págs. 1978
    Resumen
    Portion control utensils and reduced size tableware amongst other tools, have the potential to guide portion size intake but their effectiveness remains controversial. This review evaluated the breadth and effectiveness of existing portion control tools on learning/awareness of appropriate portion sizes (PS), PS choice, and PS consumption. Additional outcomes were energy intake and weight loss. Published records between 2006-2020 (n = 1241) were identified from PubMed and WoS, and 36 publications comparing the impact of portion control tools on awareness (n = 7 studies), selection/choice (n = 14), intake plus related measures (n = 21) and weight status (n = 9) were analyzed. Non-tableware tools included cooking utensils, educational aids and computerized applications. Tableware included mostly reduced-size and portion control/calibrated crockery/cutlery. Overall, 55% of studies reported a significant impact of using a tool (typically smaller bowl, fork or glass; or calibrated plate). A meta-analysis of 28 articles confirmed an overall effect of tool on food intake (d = -0.22; 95%CI: -0.38, -0.06; 21 comparisons), mostly driven by combinations of reduced-size bowls and spoons decreasing serving sizes (d = -0.48; 95%CI: -0.72, -0.24; 8 comparisons) and consumed amounts/energy (d = -0.22; 95%CI: -0.39, -0.05, 9 comparisons), but not by reduced-size plates (d = -0.03; 95%CI: -0.12, 0.06, 7 comparisons). Portion control tools marginally induced weight loss (d = -0.20; 95%CI: ...
  • Autores: Peluzio, M. D. G.; Dias, M. D. E.; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN NUTRITION
    ISSN 2296-861X Vol.8 2021
    Resumen
    In the last decades changes in the pattern of health and disease in Latin America and in the world has been observed, with an increase in cases of chronic non-communicable diseases. Changes in intestinal microbiota composition can contribute to the development of these diseases and be useful in their management. In this context, the consumption of fermented foods with probiotic properties, such as kefir, stands out due to its gut microbiota-modulating capacity. There is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir since it can be marketed as a natural beverage containing health-promoting bacteria and has been gaining international popularity in Latin America. Also the consumption of these drinks in Latin America seems to be even more relevant, given the socioeconomic situation of this population, which highlights the need for disease prevention at the expense of its treatment. In this narrative review, we discuss how kefir may work against obesity, diabetes mellitus, liver disease, cardiovascular disorders, immunity, and neurological disorders. Peptides, bioactive compounds and strains occurring in kefir, can modulate gut microbiota composition, low-grade inflammation and intestinal permeability, which consequently may generate health benefits. Kefir can also impact on the regulation of organism homeostasis, with a direct effect on the gut-brain axis, being a possible strategy for the prevention of metabolic diseases. Further studies are needed to standardize these bioactive compounds and better elucidate the mechanisms linking kefir and intestinal microbiota modulation. However, due to the benefits reported, low cost and ease of preparation, kefir seems to be a promising approach to prevent and manage microbiota-related diseases in Latin America and the rest of the world.
  • Autores: Castelnuovo, G.; De Cuevillas García, Begoña; Navas Carretero, Santiago; et al.
    Revista: PROGRESS IN NUTRITION
    ISSN 1129-8723 Vol.23 N° 1 2021 págs. e2021014
    Resumen
    Obesity is a growing public health problem, which often leads to severe comorbidities that can reduce quality of life and living expectancy. Overweight is caused by a greater food intake compared to the energy expenditure, which involves an excessive deposition of body fat. The distribution of adipose tissue also varies depending on sex, whereas men usually show android-type obesity, or visceral adiposity, women exhibit more commonly a deposition of fat involving the gynoid gluteo-femoral or subcutaneous type. Overweight and obesity are accompanied by a series of clinical manifestations, being the most common hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and high blood pressure, which may depend on body fat distribution. Consequently, not only promoting initiatives to adopt a healthy lifestyle based on recommended dietary models and an active living is necessary, but also having reliable techniques for body fat determination. Besides the Body Mass Index (BMI), whose limits on the correct quantification of body fat are known, nowadays diverse approaches for fat measurement are available. In addition, the assessment of body fat could be achieved also through complex methods such as Bioelectric Impedance Analysis (BIA), Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) and Total Body Electrical Conductivity (TOBEC), which may be complemented by approaches to categorize/ differentiate obese individuals through classification systems and scores. Indeed, adequate measurement of fat is required for obesity characterization and for management purposes as reported in this review.
  • Autores: Ramos Lopez, O.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: INFLAMMATION RESEARCH
    ISSN 1023-3830 Vol.70 N° 1 2021 págs. 29 - 49
    Resumen
    Aim and objective Emerging translational evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations (DNA methylation, miRNA expression, and histone modifications) occur after external stimuli and may contribute to exacerbated inflammation and the risk of suffering several diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and neurological disorders. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the harmful effects of high-fat/high-sugar diets, micronutrient deficiencies (folate, manganese, and carotenoids), obesity and associated complications, bacterial/viral infections, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, sleep deprivation, chronic stress, air pollution, and chemical exposure on inflammation through epigenetic mechanisms. Additionally, the epigenetic phenomena underlying the anti-inflammatory potential of caloric restriction, n-3 PUFA, Mediterranean diet, vitamin D, zinc, polyphenols (i.e., resveratrol, gallic acid, epicatechin, luteolin, curcumin), and the role of systematic exercise are discussed. Methods Original and review articles encompassing epigenetics and inflammation were screened from major databases (including PubMed, Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, etc.) and analyzed for the writing of the review paper. Conclusion Although caution should be exercised, research on epigenetic mechanisms is contributing to understand pathological processes involving inflammatory responses, the prediction of disease risk based on the epigenotype, as well as the putative design of therapeutic interventions targeting the epigenome.
  • Autores: De la O Pascual, Víctor; Zazpe García, Itzíar; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION RESEARCH REVIEWS
    ISSN 0954-4224 Vol.34 N° 1 2021 págs. 78 - 106
    Resumen
    The Paleolithic diet (PaleoDiet) is an allegedly healthy dietary pattern inspired by the consumption of wild foods and animals assumed to be consumed in the Paleolithic era. Despite gaining popularity in the media, different operational definitions of this Paleolithic nutritional intake have been used in research. Our hypothesis is that specific components used to define the PaleoDiet may modulate the association of this diet with several health outcomes. We comprehensively reviewed currently applied PaleoDiet scores and suggested a new score based on the food composition of current PaleoDiet definitions and the theoretical food content of a staple dietary pattern in the Paleolithic age. In a PubMed search up to December 2019, fourteen different PaleoDiet definitions were found. We observed some common components of the PaleoDiet among these definitions although we also found high heterogeneity in the list of specific foods that should be encouraged or banned within the PaleoDiet. Most studies suggest that the PaleoDiet may have beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases (type 2 diabetes, overweight/obesity, CVD and hyperlipidaemias) but the level of evidence is still weak because of the limited number of studies with a large sample size, hard outcomes instead of surrogate outcomes and long-term follow-up. Finally, we propose a new PaleoDiet score composed of eleven food items, based on a high consumption of fruits, nuts, vegetables, fish, eggs and unprocessed meats (lean meats); and a minimum content of dairy products, grains and cereals, and legumes and practical absence of processed (or ultra-processed) foods or culinary ingredients.
  • Autores: O'Connor, D.; Pang, M.; Castelnuovo, G.; et al.
    Revista: FOOD & FUNCTION
    ISSN 2042-6496 Vol.12 N° 2 2021 págs. 442 - 465
    Resumen
    Numerous strategies have been investigated to overcome the excessive weight gain that accompanies a chronic positive energy balance. Most approaches focus on a reduction of energy intake and the improvement of lifestyle habits. The use of high intensity artificial sweeteners, also known as non-caloric sweeteners (NCS), as sugar substitutes in foods and beverages, is rapidly developing. NCS are commonly defined as molecules with a sweetness profile of 30 times higher or more that of sucrose, scarcely contributing to the individual's net energy intake as they are hardly metabolized. The purpose of this review is first, to assess the impact of NCS on eating behaviour, including subjective appetite, food intake, food reward and sensory stimulation; and secondly, to assess the metabolic impact of NCS on body weight regulation, glucose homeostasis and gut health. The evidence reviewed suggests that while some sweeteners have the potential to increase subjective appetite, these effects do not translate in changes in food intake. This is supported by a large body of empirical evidence advocating that the use of NCS facilitates weight management when used alongside other weight management strategies. On the other hand, although NCS are very unlikely to impair insulin metabolism and glycaemic control, some studies suggest that NCS could have putatively undesirable effects, through various indirect mechanisms, on body weight, glycemia, adipogenesis and the gut microbiota; however there is insufficient evidence to determine the degree of such effects. Overall, the available data suggests that NCS can be used to facilitate a reduction in dietary energy content without significant negative effects on food intake behaviour or body metabolism, which would support their potential role in the prevention of obesity as a complementary strategy to other weight management approaches. More research is needed to determine the impact of NCS on metabolic health, in particular gut microbiota.
  • Autores: Diez Sainz, Ester; Lorente Cebrián, Silvia (Autor de correspondencia); Aranaz Oroz, Paula; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN NUTRITION
    ISSN 2296-861X Vol.8 2021 págs. 586564
    Resumen
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding single-stranded RNA molecules from 18 to 24 nucleotides that are produced by prokaryote and eukaryote organisms, which play a crucial role in regulating gene expression through binding to their mRNA targets. MiRNAs have acquired special attention for their potential in cross kingdom communication, notably food-derived microRNAs (xenomiRs), which could have an impact on microorganism and mammal physiology. In this review, we mainly aim to deal with new perspectives on: (1) The mechanism by which food-derived xenomiRs (mainly dietary plant xenomiRs) could be incorporated into humans through diet, in a free form, associated with proteins or encapsulated in exosome-like nanoparticles. (2) The impact of dietary plant-derived miRNAs in modulating gut microbiota composition, which in turn, could regulate intestinal barrier permeability and therefore, affect dietary metabolite, postbiotics or food-derived miRNAs uptake efficiency. Individual gut microbiota signature/composition could be also involved in xenomiR uptake efficiency through several mechanisms such us increasing the bioavailability of exosome-like nanoparticles miRNAs. (3) Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been proposed to contribute to disease development by affecting gut epithelial barrier permeability. For his reason, the availability and uptake of dietary plant xenomiRs might depend, among other factors, on this microbiota-related permeability of the intestine. We hypothesize and critically review that xenomiRs-microbiota interaction, which has been scarcely explored yet, could contribute to explain, at least in part, the current disparity of evidences found dealing with dietary miRNA uptake and function in humans. Furthermore, dietary plant xenomiRs could be involved in the establishment of the multiple gut microenvironments, in which microorganism would adapt in order to optimize the resources and thrive in them. Additionally, a particular xenomiR could preferentially accumulate in a specific region of the gastrointestinal tract and participate in the selection and functions of specific gut microbial communities.
  • Autores: Dias, M. D. E.; dos-Reis, S. A.; da-Conceicao, L. L.; et al.
    Revista: DIABETOLOGY & METABOLIC SYNDROME
    ISSN 1758-5996 Vol.13 N° 1 2021
    Resumen
    Overweight and obesity are a worldwide public health problem. Obesity prevalence has increased considerably, which indicates the need for more studies to better understand these diseases and related complications. Diet induced-obesity (DIO) animal models can reproduce human overweight and obesity, and there are many protocols used to lead to excess fat deposition. So, the purpose of this review was to identify the key points for the induction of obesity through diet, as well as identifying which are the necessary endpoints to be achieved when inducing fat gain. For this, we reviewed the literature in the last 6 years, looking for original articles that aimed to induce obesity through the diet. All articles evaluated should have a control group, in order to verify the results found, and had worked with Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats, or with C57BL-/-6 mice strain. Articles that induced obesity by other methods, such as genetic manipulation, surgery, or drugs were excluded, since our main objective was to identify key points for the induction of obesity through diet. Articles in humans, in cell culture, in non-rodent animals, as well as review articles, articles that did not have obesity induction and book chapters were also excluded. Body weight and fat gain, as well as determinants related to inflammation, hormonal concentration, blood glycemia, lipid profile, and liver health, must be evaluated together to better determination of the development of obesity. In addition, to select the best model in each circumstance, it should be considered that each breed and sex respond differently to diet-induced obesity. The composition of the diet and calorie overconsumption are also relevant to the development of obesity. Finally, it is important that a non-obese control group is included in the experimental design.
  • Autores: Zhu, R. X.; Fogelholm, M.; Larsen, T. M.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN NUTRITION
    ISSN 2296-861X Vol.8 N° 736531 2021
    Resumen
    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fnut.2021.685648.]. (vol 8, 685648, 2021)
  • Autores: Gil Iturbe, Eva; Félix Soriano, Elisa; Sáinz Amillo, Neira; et al.
    Revista: APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY NUTRITION AND METABOLISM- PHYSIOLOGIE APPLIQUEE NUTRITION ET METABOLISME
    ISSN 1715-5312 Vol.46 N° 7 2021 págs. 846 - 847
  • Autores: Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Carpene, C.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
    ISSN 1138-7548 Vol.77 N° 1 2021 págs. 105 - 107
    Resumen
    This Special Issue of the Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry contains 6 contributions that exemplify the advances obtained by the mini-network entitled "Consortium of Trans-Pyrenean Investigations on Obesity and Diabetes" (CTPIOD), which is on its 16th year of existence. This scientific community, essentially based in France and Spain, but also open to participants coming from all over the world, is focusing its attention on the prevention and the novel treatments of obesity, diabetes, and other non-communicable diseases. Accordingly, this special issue will cover some nutritional, pharmacologic, and genetic aspects of the current knowledge of metabolic diseases. Some of these papers emerge from the lectures of the 16th Conference on Trans-Pyrenean Investigations in Obesity and Diabetes, held in Soria (Spain) in June 2019.
  • Autores: González Casado, Sandra; Martínez Virto, Lucía; Azcona Martínez, Amaia; et al.
    Revista: TECNIFOOD
    ISSN 1138-9028 N° 136 2021 págs. 83 - 84
  • Autores: Marzo, F.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Barreneche Huici, Jayone; et al.
    Revista: FOODS
    ISSN 2304-8158 Vol.10 N° 4 2021
    Resumen
    Obesity is considered a risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer. In rodents, high-fat (HF) diets are able to increase the formation of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced polyps. Polyphenol-rich apple extracts have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and may induce an amelioration of the manifestations of colorectal cancer. Twenty-seven male Crl:CD-1 mice received AOM during four weeks and were subsequently divided into three groups fed a HF diet (n = 9 each group): a non-supplemented group, a second group supplemented with apple extract at 1%, and a third group supplemented with the same apple extract at 1.5%. Energy metabolism and the respiratory quotient were not affected by the supplementation with the apple extract. Although body weight was not affected by the treatment, the mice supplemented with the apple extract showed less signs of cachexia than the non-treated mice. In the intestine, the mice supplemented with the apple extract showed lower sucrase, dipeptidyl-peptidase IV, and aminopeptidase N activities, and less intestinal lesions (aberrant crypt foci and polyps). Administration of a polyphenol-rich apple extract reduces the number of neoplastic lesions in mice with AOM-induced colorectal cancer and contributes to preserve adipose tissue mass.
  • Autores: Zhu, R. X. ; Larsen, T. M. ; Fogelholm, M.; et al.
    Revista: DIABETES CARE
    ISSN 0149-5992 Vol.44 N° 7 2021 págs. 1672 - 1681
    Resumen
    OBJECTIVE To examine longitudinal and dose-dependent associations of dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and fiber with body weight and glycemic status during 3-year weight loss maintenance (WLM) in adults at high risk of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this secondary analysis we used pooled data from the PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle Intervention and population studies in Europe and around the World (PREVIEW) randomized controlled trial, which was designed to test the effects of four diet and physical activity interventions. A total of 1,279 participants with overweight or obesity (age 25-70 years and BMI >= 25 kg . m(-2)) and prediabetes at baseline were included. We used multiadjusted linear mixed models with repeated measurements to assess longitudinal and dose-dependent associations by merging the participants into one group and dividing them into GI, GL, and fiber tertiles, respectively. RESULTS In the available-case analysis, each 10-unit increment in GI was associated with a greater regain of weight (0.46 kg . year(-1); 95% CI 0.23, 0.68; P < 0.001) and increase in HbA(1c). Each 20-unit increment in GL was associated with a greater regain of weight (0.49 kg . year(-1); 0.24, 0.75; P < 0.001) and increase in HbA(1c). The associations of GI and GL with HbA(1c) were independent of weight change. Compared with those in the lowest tertiles, participants in the highest GI and GL tertiles had significantly greater weight regain and increases in HbA(1c). Fiber was inversely associated with increases in waist circumference, but the associations with weight regain and glycemic status did not remain robust in different analyses. CONCLUSIONS Dietary GI and GL were positively associated with weight regain and deteriorating glycemic status. Stronger evidence on the role of fiber is needed.
  • Autores: Garcia Garcia, Jorge; Ansorena Artieda, Eduardo; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
    ISSN 1422-0067 Vol.22 N° 5 2021 págs. 2729
    Resumen
    Obesity is a global health issue associated with insulin resistance and altered lipid homeostasis. It has been described that reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) activity are involved in the development of these pathologies. The present study describes the role of endothelial NOX5 expression over adipose tissue by using two experimental systems: NOX5 conditional knock-in mice fed with a high-fat diet and 3T3-L1 adipocytes cultured with conditioned media of NOX5-expressing endothelial cells previously treated with glucose and palmitic acid. Animals expressing NOX5 presented lower body weight gain and less mesenteric and epididymal adipose mass compared to control mice fed with the same diet. NOX5-expressing mice also showed significantly lower glycaemia and improved insulin-induced glucose uptake. In addition, Glut4 and Caveolin 1 (Cav1) expression were significantly increased in the adipose tissue of these animals. Likewise, 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with conditioned media from NOX5-expressing endothelial cells, incubated with high glucose and palmitic acid, presented a reduction in lipid accumulation and an increase in glucose uptake. Moreover, a significant increase in the expression of Glut4 and Cav1 was also detected in these cells. Taken together, all these data support that, in response to a highly caloric diet, NOX5 endothelial activity may regulate glucose sensitivity and lipid homeostasis in the adipose tissue.
  • Autores: Crujeiras, A. B.; Izquierdo, A. G.; Primo, D.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0261-5614 Vol.40 N° 6 2021 págs. 3959 - 3972
    Resumen
    Background: The molecular mechanisms underlying the potential health benefits of a ketogenic diet are unknown and could be mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. Objective: To identify the changes in the obesity-related methylome that are mediated by the induced weight loss or are dependent on ketosis in subjects with obesity underwent a very-low calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD). Methods: Twenty-one patients with obesity (n = 12 women, 47.9 +/- 1.02 yr, 33.0 +/- 0.2 kg/m(2)) after 6 months on a VLCKD and 12 normal weight volunteers (n = 6 women, 50.3 +/- 6.2 yrs, 22.7 +/- 1.5 kg/m(2)) were studied. Data from the Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip methylomes of blood leukocytes were obtained at time points of ketotic phases (basal, maximum ketosis, and out of ketosis) during VLCKD (n = 10) and at baseline in volunteers (n = 12). Results were further validated by pyrosequencing in representative cohort of patients on a VLCKD (n = 18) and correlated with gene expression. Results: After weight reduction by VLCKD, differences were found at 988 CpG sites (786 unique genes). The VLCKD altered methylation levels in patients with obesity had high resemblance with those from normal weight volunteers and was concomitant with a downregulation of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT)1, 3a and 3b. Most of the encoded genes were involved in metabolic processes, protein metabolism, and muscle, organ, and skeletal system development. Novel genes representing the top scoring associated events were identified, including ZNF331, FGFRL1 (VLCKD-induced weight loss) and CBFA2T3, C3orf38, JSRP1, and LRFN4 (VLCKD-induced ketosis). Interestingly, ZNF331 and FGFRL1 were validated in an independent cohort and inversely correlated with gene expression. Conclusions: The beneficial effects of VLCKD therapy on obesity involve a methylome more suggestive of normal weight that could be mainly mediated by the VLCKD-induced ketosis rather than weight loss. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • Autores: Huttunen-Lenz, M. (Autor de correspondencia); Hansen, S. ; Vestentoft, P. S.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
    ISSN 1359-1053 Vol.26 N° 14 2021 págs. 2743 - 2755
    Resumen
    Participants with prediabetes were supported to achieve and maintain weight loss with a stage-based behavior change group program named PREview behavior Modification Intervention Toolbox (PREMIT). The tendency to engage in a process of goal adjustment was examined in relation to PREMIT attendance. Analyses were based on 1857 participants who had achieved > 8percent weight loss. Tendency to engage in a process of goal adjustment appeared not to be influenced by PREMIT attendance. Instead, results suggested that when unsure about reaching an intervention goal, participants were more likely to engage in a process of goal adjustment, possibly lessening distress due to potentially unachievable goals, either weight loss or maintenance.
  • Autores: Benito, I.; Encio, I. J.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
    ISSN 1422-0067 Vol.22 N° 9 2021 págs. 4906
    Resumen
    Recent studies have suggested that flavonoids such as quercetin and probiotics such as Bifidobacterium bifidum (Bf) and Lactobacillus gasseri (Lg) could play a relevant role in inhibiting colon cancer cell growth. Our study investigated the role of dietary supplementation with microencapsulated probiotics (Bf and Lg) along with quercetin in the development of mouse colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Adenomatous polyposis coli/multiple intestinal neoplasia (Apc(Min/+)) mice were fed a standard diet or the same diet supplemented with microencapsulated probiotics (Bf and Lg strains, 10(7) CFU/100 g food) or both probiotics strains plus microencapsulated quercetin (15 mg/100 g food) for 73 days. Changes in body and organ weights, energy metabolism, intestinal microbiota, and colon tissue were determined. The expression of genes related to the Wnt pathway was also analyzed in colon samples. Results: Dietary supplementation with microencapsulated probiotics or microencapsulated probiotics plus quercetin reduced body weight loss and intestinal bleeding in Apc(Min/+) mice. An improvement in energy expenditure was observed after 8 weeks but not after 10 weeks of treatment. A supplemented diet with microencapsulated Bf and Lg reduced the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and adenomas by 45% and 60%, respectively, whereas the supplementation with Bf, Lg and quercetin decreased the number of ACF and adenomas by 57% and 80%, respectively. Microencapsulated Bf and Lg in combination with q
  • Autores: Appleton, K. M.; Newbury, A.; Almirón Roig, Eva (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: OBESITY REVIEWS
    ISSN 1467-7881 Vol.22 N° 8 2021
    Resumen
    This systematic review with meta-analyses aimed to identify the sensory and physical characteristics of foods/beverages which increase satiation and/or decrease/delay subsequent consumption without affecting acceptability. Systematic searches were first undertaken to identify review articles investigating the effects of any sensory and physical food characteristic on food intake. These articles provided some evidence that various textural parameters (aeration, hardness, homogeneity, viscosity, physical form, added water) can impact food intake. Individual studies investigating these effects while also investigating acceptability were then assessed. Thirty-seven individual studies investigated a textural manipulation and provided results on food intake and acceptability, 13 studies (27 comparisons, 898 participants) investigated effects on satiation, and 29 studies (54 comparisons, 916 participants) investigated effects on subsequent intake. Meta-analyses of within-subjects comparisons (random-effects models) demonstrated greater satiation (less weight consumed) from food products that were harder, chunkier, more viscous, voluminous, and/or solid, while demonstrating no effects on acceptability. Textural parameters had limited effects on subsequent consumption. Between-subjects studies and sensitivity analyses confirmed these results. These findings provide some evidence that textural parameters can increase satiation without affecting acceptability. The development of harder, chunkier, more viscous, voluminous, and/or solid food/beverage products may be of value in reducing overconsumption.
  • Autores: Zhu, R. X.; Fogelholm, M.; Larsen, T. M.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN NUTRITION
    ISSN 2296-861X Vol.8 N° 685648 2021
    Resumen
    Abstract Background: Previous studies have shown an increase in hunger during weight-loss maintenance (WLM) after diet-induced weight loss. Whether a combination of a higher protein, lower glycemic index (GI) diet and physical activity (PA) can counteract this change remains unclear. Aim: To compare the long-term effects of two diets [high protein (HP)-low GI vs. moderate protein (MP)-moderate GI] and two PA programs [high intensity (HI) vs. moderate intensity (MI)] on subjective appetite sensations during WLM after ¿8% weight loss (WL). Methods: Data derived from the 3-years PREVIEW randomized intervention study. An 8-weeks WL phase using a low-energy diet was followed by a 148-weeks randomized WLM phase. For the WLM phase, participants were assigned to one of the four groups: HP-MI, HP-HI, MP-MI, and MP-HI. Available data from 2,223 participants with overweight or obesity (68% women; BMI ¿ 25 kg/m2). Appetite sensations including satiety, hunger, desire to eat, and desire to eat something sweet during the two phases (at 0, 8 weeks and 26, 52, 104, and 156 weeks) were assessed based on the recall of feelings during the previous week using visual analogue scales. Differences in changes in appetite sensations from baseline between the groups were determined using linear mixed models with repeated measures. Results: There was no significant diet × PA interaction. From 52 weeks onwards, decreases in hunger were significantly greater in HP-low GI than MP-moderate GI (P time × diet = 0.018, P dietgroup = 0.021). Although there was no difference in weight regain between the diet groups (P time × diet = 0.630), hunger and satiety ratings correlated with changes in body weight at most timepoints. There were no significant differences in appetite sensations between the two PA groups. Decreases in hunger ratings were greater at 52 and 104 weeks in HP-HI vs. MP-HI, and greater at 104 and 156 weeks in HP-HI vs. MP-MI. Conclusions: This is the first long-term, large-scale randomized intervention to report that a HP-low GI diet was superior in preventing an increase in hunger, but not weight regain, during 3-years WLM compared with a MP-moderate GI diet. Similarly, HP-HI outperformed MP-HI in suppressing hunger. The role of exercise intensity requires further investigation. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT01777893.
  • Autores: Navas Carretero, Santiago (Autor de correspondencia); San Cristóbal Blanco, Rodrigo (Autor de correspondencia); Vestentoft, P. S.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN NUTRITION
    ISSN 2296-861X Vol.8 2021 págs. 733697
    Resumen
    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of thromboembolism. We investigate the efficacy and safety of oral anticoagulation (OAC) therapy and explored the number needed to treat for net effect (NNTnet) of OAC in the Spanish cohort of the EURObservational Research Programme-AF (EORP-AF) Long-term General Registry. Methods The EORP-AF General Registry is a prospective, multicentre registry conducted in ESC countries, including consecutive AF patients. For the present analysis, we used the Spanish cohort, and the primary outcome was any thromboembolism (TE)/acute coronary syndrome (ACS)/cardiovascular death during the first year of follow-up. Results 729 AF patients were included (57.1% male, median age 75 [IQR 67-81] years, median CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc and HAS-BLED of 3 [IQR 2-5] and 2 [IQR 1-2], respectively). 548 (75.2%) patients received OAC alone (318 [43.6%] on VKAs and 230 [31.6%] on DOACs). After 1 year, the use of OAC alone showed lower rates of any TE/ACS/cardiovascular death (3.0%/year; p < 0.001) compared to other regimens, and non-use of OAC alone (HR 4.18, 95% CI 2.12-8.27) was independently associated with any TE/ACS/cardiovascular death. Balancing the effects of treatment, the NNTnet to provide an overall benefit of OAC therapy was 24. The proportion of patients on OAC increased at 1 year (87% to 88.1%), particularly on DOACs (33.6% to 39.9%) (p = 0.015), with low discontinuation rates. Conclusions In this contemporary cohort of AF patients, OAC therapy was associated with better clinical outcomes at 1 year and positive NNTnet. OAC use slightly increased during the follow-up, with low discontinuation rates and higher prescription of DOACs.
  • Autores: Dorenbos, E.; Drummen, M.; Adam, T. ; et al.
    Revista: PEDIATRIC OBESITY
    ISSN 2047-6310 Vol.16 2021 págs. e12702
    Resumen
    Background Pubertal insulin resistance (IR) is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus development in adolescents with overweight/obesity. Objectives The PREVIEW study was a randomized parallel trial assessing the change in IR, analyzed by Homeostatic Model Assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), at 2 years after randomization to a high protein vs a moderate protein diet in adolescents with overweight/obesity. It was hypothesized that a high protein/low glycaemic index diet would be superior in reducing IR compared to a medium protein/medium GI diet, in insulin resistant adolescents with overweight or obesity. Methods Adolescents with overweight/obesity and IR from the Netherlands, United Kingdom and Spain were randomized into a moderate protein/moderate GI (15/55/30En% protein/carbohydrate/fat, GI >= 56) or high protein/low GI (25/45/30En% protein/carbohydrate/fat, GI < 50) diet. Anthropometric and cardiometabolic parameters, puberty, dietary intake and physical activity (PA) were measured and effects on HOMA-IR were analyzed. Results 126 adolescents were included in this study (13.6 +/- 2.2 years, BMI z-score 3.04 +/- 0.66, HOMA-IR 3.48 +/- 2.28, HP n = 68, MP n = 58). At 2 years, changes in protein intake were not significantly different between timepoints or intervention groups and no effects of the intervention on IR were observed. The retention rate was 39%, while no compliance to the diets was observed. Conclusions The PREVIEW study observed no effect of a high protein/low GI diet on IR in adolescents with overweight/obesity and IR because of lack of feasibility, due to insufficient retention and dietary compliance after 2 years.
  • Autores: Félix Soriano, Elisa; Martínez Gayo, Alejandro; Cobo Díez, María José; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.13 N° 7 2021 págs. 2465
    Resumen
    Resistance training (RT) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) supplementation have emerged as strategies to improve muscle function in older adults. Overweight/obese postmenopausal women (55-70 years) were randomly allocated to one of four experimental groups, receiving placebo (olive oil) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich n-3 PUFA supplementation alone or in combination with a supervised RT-program for 16 weeks. At baseline and at end of the trial, body composition, anthropometrical measures, blood pressure and serum glucose and lipid biomarkers were analyzed. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and strength tests were also performed. All groups exhibit a similar moderate reduction in body weight and fat mass, but the RT-groups maintained bone mineral content, increased upper limbs lean mass, decreased lower limbs fat mass, and increased muscle strength and quality compared to untrained-groups. The RT-program also improved glucose tolerance (lowering the OGTT incremental area under the curve). The DHA-rich supplementation lowered diastolic blood pressure and circulating triglycerides and increased muscle quality in lower limbs. In conclusion, 16-week RT-program improved segmented body composition, bone mineral content, and glucose tolerance, while the DHA-rich supplement had beneficial effects on cardiovascular health markers in overweight/obese postmenopausal women. No synergistic effects were observed for DHA supplementation and RT-program combination.
  • Autores: Cantero González, Irene; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Bullon Vela, Maria Vanessa; et al.
    Revista: ARCHIVES OF MEDICAL SCIENCE
    ISSN 1734-1922 Vol.18 N° 1 2021 págs. 36 - 44
    Resumen
    Introduction: Previous studies have hypothesized fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) as a potential biomarker of the inflammation associated with liver diseases, which is also receiving considerable attention for its potential application concerning the management of obesity and co-morbidities. This study aimed to analyze the response of FGF-21 after a weight loss intervention and the relationships with other putative inflammatory liver biomarkers. Material and methods: Sixty-six obese participants from the RESMENA study were evaluated at baseline and following a 6-month energy restriction treatment. Anthropometric, body composition by DXA, routine laboratory measurements, which included transaminases and g-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were analyzed by standardized methods. Moreover, FGF-21, M30 fragment (M30) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-I) were analyzed as recognized liver inflammatory related biomarkers with specific ELISA kits. Results: Most measurements related to hepatic damage, inflammation and adiposity status improved at the end of the 6-month nutritional intervention. In addition, AFGF-21 shifts showed statistical relationships with changes in AM30, AGGT and APAI. The reduction of M30 showed significant associations with changes in transaminases. Furthermore, PAI-I changes were associated with AM30 and AGGT regardless of weight loss. A linear regression model was set up to assess the influence of APAI-I and AM30 on the variability of AFGF-21 (23.8%) adjusted by weight loss. Conclusions: These results demonstrated interactions of some liver inflammatory mediators, specifically M30 and PAI-I with FGF-21. Thus, more investigation about FGF-21 is required given that this protein could be a biomarker of the obesity-inflammation-liver process.
  • Autores: Martínez Fernández, Leyre; González Muniesa, Pedro; Sáinz Amillo, Neira; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
    ISSN 1138-7548 2021
    Resumen
    Maresin 1 (MaR1) is a DHA-derived pro-resolving lipid mediator. The present study aimed to characterize the ability of MaR1 to prevent the alterations induced by TNF-alpha on insulin actions in glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation in cultured human adipocytes from overweight/obese subjects, as well as to investigate the effects of MaR1 acute and chronic administration on Akt phosphorylation in absence/presence of insulin in white adipose tissue (WAT) and skeletal muscle from lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. MaR1 (0.1 nM) prevented the inhibitory effect of TNF-alpha on insulin-stimulated 2-Deoxy-D-glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation in human adipocytes. Acute treatment with MaR1 (50 mu g/kg, 3 h, i.p.) induced Akt phosphorylation in WAT and skeletal muscle of lean mice. However, MaR1 did not further increase the stimulatory effect of insulin on Akt activation. Interestingly, intragastric chronic treatment with MaR1 (50 mu g/kg, 10 days) in DIO mice reduced the hyperglycemia induced by the high fat diet (HFD) and improved systemic insulin sensitivity. In parallel, MaR1 partially restored the impaired insulin response in skeletal muscle of DIO mice and reversed HFD-induced lower Akt phosphorylation in WAT in non-insulin-stimulated DIO mice while did not restore the defective Akt activation in response to acute insulin observed in DIO mice. Our results suggest that MaR1 attenuates the impaired insulin signaling and glucose uptake induced by proinflammatory cytokines. Moreover, the current data support that MaR1 treatment could be useful to reduce the hyperglycemia and the insulin resistance associated to obesity, at least in part by improving Akt signaling.
  • Autores: Peluzio, M. D. G. (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio
    Revista: TRENDS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
    ISSN 0924-2244 Vol.108 2021 págs. 11 - 26
    Resumen
    Background: The knowledge on the mechanisms through which the metabolites produced by the gut microbiota (postbiotics) prevent diseases, induce therapeutic responses, and behave differently in response to dietary and environmental changes, is one of the major challenges in nutrition research and paves the route for the development of new therapeutic strategies against non-communicable diseases. Scope and approach: In this review, the main mechanisms by which postbiotics provide a link between nutrition, microbiota, and human health are discussed. Postbiotics are the repertoire of metabolites produced in the fermentation process of dietary components (mainly fibers and polyphenols, but also complex carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), as well as the endogenous components generated by bacteria-host interactions that influence human health. Key findings and conclusions: Short-chain fatty acids denote a primary energy source for colonocytes, also acting on the gut-brain axis to reduce appetite and performing epigenetic roles. Polyamines promote homeostasis and affect epigenetic processes, apoptosis, and cell proliferation through interaction with proteins and nucleic acids. Bile acids are involved in glucose metabolism and modulation of the host immune response. p-Cresol features antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, but has been related to enteric pathogens, autism, and kidney diseases. The role of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in cardiovascular diseases is still under debate. Bacteriocins have antibiotic action against pathogens. The beneficial effects of polyphenols are demonstrated by their essentiality in the production of metabolites. Summarizing, metagenomic sequencing, intervention studies, and metabolomics are enabling to understand the modulation and effects of microbiota metabolic activity. However, in order to clearly elucidate the food-microbiota axis, the interplay among the host microbiota and the metabolites secreted by intestinal cells, and the intestine-liver-brain axis, the studies must be directed to the subject habitat.
  • Autores: Colón Mesa, Ignacio; Fernández Galilea, Marta; Sáinz Amillo, Neira; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
    ISSN 1661-6596 Vol.22 N° 21 2021 págs. 11745
    Resumen
    Aging usually comes associated with increased visceral fat accumulation, reaching even an obesity state, and favoring its associated comorbidities. One of the processes involved in aging is cellular senescence, which is highly dependent on the activity of the regulators of the cell cycle. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in the expression of p27 and cdk2 in different adipose tissue depots during aging, as well as their regulation by obesity in mice. Changes in the expression of p27 and CDK2 in visceral and subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) biopsies were also analyzed in a human cohort of obesity and type 2 diabetes. p27, but not cdk2, exhibits a lower expression in subcutaneous than in visceral WAT in mice and humans. p27 is drastically downregulated by aging in subcutaneous WAT (scWAT), but not in gonadal WAT, of female mice. Obesity upregulates p27 and cdk2 expression in scWAT, but not in other fat depots of aged mice. In humans, a significant upregulation of p27 was observed in visceral WAT of subjects with obesity. Taken together, these results show a differential adipose depot-dependent regulation of p27 and cdk2 in aging and obesity, suggesting that p27 and cdk2 could contribute to the adipose-tissue depot's metabolic differences. Further studies are necessary to fully corroborate this hypothesis.
  • Autores: López-González, L.; Becerra-Tomás, N. (Autor de correspondencia); Babio, N. (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0261-5614 Vol.40 N° 4 2021 págs. 1510 - 1518
    Resumen
    Background and aims: Previous studies, mainly focused on quantity rather than variety, have shown beneficial associations between the amount of fruit and vegetable consumed, diet quality and healthy lifestyle. The aim is to evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable consumption, diet quality and lifestyle in an elderly Mediterranean population, considering both variety and the combination of quantity and variety (QV). Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 6647 participants (51.6% of males) was conducted in the framework of the PREDIMED-Plus study. A variety score was created as the sum of vegetables and/or fruits consumed at least once per month using food frequency questionnaires. Dietary Reference Intakes (EAR and IA values) were used to estimate the prevalence of inadequate intake of dietary fiber and micro nutrients. Logistic regression models were performed to examine the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and not meeting the DRIs, by tertiles of fruit and vegetable variety and QV categories. Results: Participants with higher fruit and vegetable variety score reported a significant higher intake of fiber, vitamins, minerals and flavonoids and were significantly more likely to be physically active and non-smoker. Besides, higher variety in fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with lower prevalence of having an inadequate intake of fiber [(0.13 (0.11-0.16)], two or more [(0.17 (0.14-0.21)], three or more [(0.15 (0.13-0.18)] and four or more [(0.11 (0.10-0.14)] micronutrients in our participants. Higher quantity and variety in fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with lower prevalence of having an inadequate intake of fiber [(0.05 (0.04-0.06)], two or more [(0.08 (0.06-0.10)], three or more [(0.08 (0.06-0.09)] and four or more [(0.06 (0.05-0.07)] micronutrients. Conclusion: Greater variety in fruit and vegetable intake was associated with better nutrient adequacy, diet quality and healthier lifestyle in an elderly Mediterranean population.
  • Autores: Marsetti, P. S.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION
    ISSN 0899-9007 Vol.83 2021
    Resumen
    Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the expression pattern of microRNAs (miRNAs) in white blood cells (WBC) in response to two different energy-restricted diets in patients with metabolic syndrome in the Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra-Spain (RESMENA) study. Methods: A subsample of 24 patients with metabolic syndrome features from the randomized, prospective, parallel-designed RESMENA study was selected for this analysis. The RESMENA study consisted of two dietary strategies with a 30% energy restriction: RESMENA (high meal frequency and high adherence to the Mediterranean diet) and control (based on recommendations from the American Heart Association) groups. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters as well as miRNA expression in WBC by miRNA-seq were measured before and after 8 wk of intervention. Results: A total of 49 miRNAs were differentially expressed after 8 wk of dietary intervention, 35 from the American Heart Association and 14 from the RESMENA diet. MiR-410, miR-637, miR-214, and miR-190 evidenced the most significant expression changes due to the weight loss intervention (P < 0.01). MiR-2115, -587, and -96 showed differential expressions between the two dietary strategies after 8 wk of intervention. The expression of several miRNAs was significantly associYated with anthropometric and biochemical parameters: miR-410 levels positively correlated with circulating leptin and body mass index (BMI), and miR-587 expression was associated with vascular cell adhesion protein 1. Conclusions: Different dietary patterns induce specific changes in miRNA expression in WBC. The associations of specific miRNAs with biochemical and anthropometric parameters suggest that these miRNAs might be directly or indirectly involved in the effects of weight-loss diets with different foods and macronutrient composition, and participate in the regulation of metabolic diseases. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Autores: Pérez Díaz Del Campo, Nuria; Marin-Alejandre, B. A.; Cantero González, Irene; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 1436-6207 Vol.60 N° 6 2021 págs. 3043 - 3057
    Resumen
    Purpose Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is worldwide recognized as the most common cause of chronic liver disease. Current NAFLD clinical management relies on lifestyle change, nevertheless, the importance of the genetic make-up on liver damage and the possible interactions with diet are still poorly understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the SH2B1 rs7359397 genetic variant on changes in body composition, metabolic status and liver health after 6-month energy-restricted treatment in overweight/obese subjects with NAFLD. In addition, gene-treatment interactions over the course of the intervention were examined. Methods The SH2B1 genetic variant was genotyped in 86 overweight/obese subjects with NAFLD from the FLiO study (Fatty Liver in Obesity study). Subjects were metabolically evaluated at baseline and at 6-months. Liver assessment included ultrasonography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, elastography, a lipidomic test (OWL(R)-test) and specific blood liver biomarkers. Additionally, body composition, general biochemical markers and dietary intake were determined. Results Both genotypes significantly improved their body composition, general metabolic status and liver health after following an energy-restricted strategy. Liver imaging techniques showed a greater decrease in liver fat content (- 44.3%, p < 0.001) and in serum ferritin levels (p < 0.001) in the carriers of the T allele after the intervention. Moreover, lipidomic analysis, revealed a higher improvement in liver status when comparing risk vs. no-risk genotype (p = 0.006 vs. p = 0.926, respectively). Gene-treatment interactions showed an increase in fiber intake and omega-3 fatty acid in risk genotype (p interaction = 0.056 and p interaction = 0.053, respectively), while a significant increase in MedDiet score was observed in both genotype groups (p = 0.020). Moreover, no-risk genotype presented a relevant decrease in hepatic iron as well as in MUFA intake (p = 0.047 and p = 0.034, respectively). Conclusion Subjects carrying the T allele of the rs7359397 polymorphism may benefit more in terms of hepatic health and liver status when prescribed an energy-restricted treatment, where a Mediterranean dietary pattern rich in fiber and other components such as omega-3 fatty acids might boost the benefits.
  • Autores: Marin, B. A.; Cantero González, Irene; Pérez Díaz Del Campo, Nuria; et al.
    Revista: LIVER INTERNATIONAL
    ISSN 1478-3223 Vol.41 N° 7 2021 págs. 1532 - 1544
    Resumen
    Background and objectives Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) management is focused on lifestyle modifications, but long-term maintenance is a challenge for many individuals. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects of two personalized energy-restricted dietary strategies on weight loss, metabolic and hepatic outcomes in overweight/obese subjects with NAFLD. Methods Ninety-eight subjects from the Fatty Liver in Obesity (FLiO) study (NCT03183193) were randomly assigned to the American Heart Association (AHA) or the FLiO dietary group in a 2-year controlled trial. Anthropometry, body composition (DXA), biochemical parameters and hepatic status (ultrasonography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and elastography) were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months. Results Both the AHA and FLiO diets significantly reduced body weight at 6 (-9.7% vs -10.1%), 12 (-6.7% vs -9.6%), and 24 months (-4.8% vs -7.6%) with significant improvements in body composition, biochemical and liver determinations throughout the intervention. At the end of the follow-up, the FLiO group showed a greater decrease in ALT, liver stiffness and Fatty Liver Index, among others, compared to AHA group, although these differences were attenuated when the analyses were adjusted by weight loss percentage. The FLiO group also showed a greater increase in adiponectin compared to AHA group. Conclusions The AHA and FLiO diets were able to improve body weight and body composition, as well as metabolic and hepatic status of participants with overweight/obesity and NAFLD within a 2-year follow-up. These findings show that both strategies are suitable alternatives for NAFLD management. However, the FLiO strategy may provide more persistent benefits in metabolic and hepatic parameters.
  • Autores: Abbate, M.; Mascaro, C. M. ; Montemayor, S.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.13 N° 2 2021 págs. 629
    Resumen
    To assess the efficacy of three lifestyle interventions on the reduction of liver fat content and metabolic syndrome (MetS), and whether such reductions would influence renal outcomes, we conducted a randomized controlled trial on 128 participants with MetS and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as well as available data on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin-to-creatine ratio (UACR). Patients were randomized in 1:1:1 ratio to either Conventional Diet, Mediterranean diet (MD)-high meal frequency, and MD-physical activity groups. Each intervention aimed at reducing caloric intake by 25%-30% of baseline intake and increase energy expenditure by 400 kcal/70 kg. Patients attended regular visits and were followed-up for 6 months. Increased albuminuria was present in 13.3% of patients, while 32.8% showed hyperfiltration. UACR reduction was associated with higher levels of UACR at baseline but not with changes in liver fat. eGFR decreased in patients presenting hyperfiltration at baseline and was associated with reduction in liver fat and insulin resistance, as well as with increase in energy expenditure (R-2 = 0.248, p = 0.006). No significant differences were observed between the three treatment groups. In patients with NAFLD and MetS, energy expenditure significantly reduced hepatic fat accumulation and insulin resistance, which reduced glomerular hyperfiltration. Increased albuminuria was reduced, but it was not associated with reduced liver fat.
  • Autores: Marhuenda-Muñoz, M.; Rinaldi de Alvarenga, J. F.; Hernáez, A.; et al.
    Revista: ANTIOXIDANTS
    ISSN 2076-3921 Vol.10 N° 3 2021 págs. 473
    Resumen
    Carotenoids are pigments contained mainly in fruit and vegetables (F&V) that have beneficial effects on cardiometabolic health. Due to their lipophilic nature, co-ingestion of fat appears to increase their bioavailability via facilitating transfer to the aqueous micellar phase during digestion. However, the extent to which high fat intake may contribute to increased carotenoid plasma concentrations is still unclear. The objective was to examine the degree to which the consumption of different amounts of both carotenoid-rich foods and fats is associated with plasma carotenoid concentrations within a Mediterranean lifestyle context (subsample from the PREDIMED-Plus study baseline) where consumption of F&V and fat is high. The study population was categorized into four groups according to their self-reported consumption of F&V and fat. Carotenoids were extracted from plasma samples and analyzed by HPLC-UV-VIS-QqQ-MS/MS. Carotenoid systemic concentrations were greater in high consumers of F&V than in low consumers of these foods (+3.04 mu mol/L (95% CI: 0.90, 5.17), p-value = 0.005), but circulating concentrations seemed to decrease when total fat intake was very high (-2.69 mu mol/L (-5.54; 0.16), p-value = 0.064). High consumption of F&V is associated with greater systemic levels of total carotenoids, in particular when fat intake is low-to-moderate rather than very high.
  • Autores: Glenn, A. J.; Hernández-Alonso, P.; Kendall, C. W. C.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0261-5614 Vol.40 N° 5 2021 págs. 2825 - 2836
    Resumen
    Background & aims: The Portfolio and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets have been shown to lower cardiometabolic risk factors in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, the Portfolio diet has only been assessed in RCTs of hyperlipidemic patients. Therefore, to assess the Portfolio diet in a population with metabolic syndrome (MetS), we conducted a longitudinal analysis of one-year data of changes in the Portfolio and DASH diet scores and their association with cardiometabolic risk factors in Prevencion con Dieta Mediterranea (PREDIMED)-Plus trial. Methods: PREDIMED-Plus is an ongoing clinical trial (Trial registration: ISRCTN89898) conducted in Spain that includes 6874 older participants (mean age 65 y, 48% women) with overweight/obesity fulfilling at least three criteria for MetS. Data for this analysis were collected at baseline, six months and one year. Adherence to the Portfolio and DASH diet scores were derived from a validated 143-item food frequency questionnaire. We used linear mixed models to examine the associations of 1-SD increase and quartile changes in the diet scores with concomitant changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. Results: After adjusting for several potential confounders, a 1-SD increase in the Portfolio diet score was significantly associated with lower HbA1c (beta [95% CI]:- 0.02% [-0.02,-0.01], P < 0.001), fasting glucose (-0.47 mg/dL [-0.83,-0.11], P = 0.01), triglycerides (-1.29 mg/dL [-2.31,-0.28], P = 0.01), waist circumference (WC) (-0.51 cm [-0.59,-0.43], P < 0.001), and body mass index (BMI) (-0.17 kg/m(2) [-0.19,-0.15], P < 0.001). A 1-SD increase in the DASH diet score was significantly associated with lower HbA1c (-0.03% [-0.04,-0.02], P < 0.001), glucose (-0.84 mg/dL [-1.18,-0.51], P < 0.001), triglycerides (-3.38 mg/dL [-4.37,-2.38], P < 0.001), non-HDL-cholesterol (-0.47 mg/dL [-0.91,-0.04], P = 0.03), WC (-0.69 cm [-0.76,-0.60 cm], P < 0.001), BMI (-0.25 kg/m(2) [-0.28,-0.26 kg/m(2)], P < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (-0.57 mmHg [-0.81,-0.32 mmHg], P < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (-0.15 mmHg [-0.29,-0.01 mmHg], P = 0.03), and with higher HDL-cholesterol (0.21 mg/dL [0.09, 0.34 mg/dL, P = 0.001]). Similar associations were seen when both diet scores were assessed as quartiles, comparing extreme categories of adherence. Conclusions: Among older adults at high cardiovascular risk with MetS, greater adherence to the Portfolio and DASH diets showed significant favourable prospective associations with several clinically relevant cardiometabolic risk factors. Both diets are likely beneficial for cardiometabolic risk reduction. (C) 2021 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
  • Autores: Abbate, M.; Mascaró, C. M.; Montemayor, S.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE
    ISSN 2077-0383 Vol.10 N° 8 2021 págs. 1717
    Resumen
    Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is early marked by kidney glomerular hyperfiltration. However, the association of NAFLD with kidney glomerular hyperfiltration has not been tested so far in adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Aims: To assess the relationship between NAFLD and kidney glomerular hyperfiltration in adults with MetS. Methods: The study included 154 participants aged 40-60 years with MetS and NAFLD diagnosed by ultrasound. NAFLD was confirmed by MRI in 109 subjects. Participants underwent anthropometric measurements, and biochemistry testing. Estimated GFR (eGFR) was calculated using the CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) formula; hyperfiltration was defined as eGFR >= 120 mL/min. Results: Participants with MRI-proven NAFLD showed a worse metabolic profile and higher levels of eGFR than those with no NAFLD. Presence of NAFLD and increased weight were independently associated with an increased probability of presenting hyperfiltration. Conclusions: The present study shows an association between kidney glomerular hyperfiltration and NAFLD in adults with MetS. Establishing an association between NAFLD and kidney glomerular hyperfiltration would help to earlier identify those patients at increased risk of CKD, who would benefit from an early intervention.
  • Autores: López-Pascual, A.; Trayhurn, P.; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
    Revista: ANTIOXIDANTS AND REDOX SIGNALING
    ISSN 1523-0864 Vol.35 N° 8 2021 págs. 642 - 687
    Resumen
    Significance: In recent years, a number of studies have shown altered oxygen partial pressure at a tissue level in metabolic disorders, and some researchers have considered oxygen to be a (macro) nutrient. Oxygen availability may be compromised in obesity and several other metabolism-related pathological conditions, including sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome, the metabolic syndrome (which is a set of conditions), type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Recent Advances: Strategies designed to reduce adiposity and its accompanying disorders have been mainly centered on nutritional interventions and physical activity programs. However, novel therapies are needed since these approaches have not been sufficient to counteract the worldwide increasing rates of metabolic disorders. In this regard, intermittent hypoxia training and hyperoxia could be potential treatments through oxygen-related adaptations. Moreover, living at a high altitude may have a protective effect against the development of abnormal metabolic conditions. In addition, oxygen delivery systems may be of therapeutic value for supplying the tissue-specific oxygen requirements. Critical Issues: Precise in vivo methods to measure oxygenation are vital to disentangle some of the controversies related to this research area. Further, it is evident that there is a growing need for novel in vitro models to study the potential pathways involved in metabolic dysfunction to find appropriate therapeutic targets. Future Directions: Based on the existing evidence, it is suggested that oxygen availability has a key role in obesity and its related comorbidities. Oxygen should be considered in relation to potential therapeutic strategies in the treatment and prevention of metabolic disorders.
  • Autores: Rosés, C.; Nieto, J. A.; Viadel, B.; et al.
    Revista: FOODS
    ISSN 2304-8158 Vol.10 N° 12 2021 págs. 3020
    Resumen
    The gut microbiota plays a key role in gastrointestinal immune and metabolic functions and is influenced by dietary composition. An in vitro protocol simulating the physiological conditions of the digestive system helps to study the effects of foods/biocompounds on gut microbiome and metabolome. The Dynamic-Colonic Gastrointestinal Digester consists of five interconnected compartments, double jacket vessels that simulate the physiological conditions of the stomach, the small intestine and the three colonic sections, which are the ascending colon, transverse colon and descending colon. Human faeces are required to reproduce the conditions and culture medium of the human colon, allowing the growth of the intestinal microbiota. After a stabilization period of 12 days, a food/biocompound can be introduced to study its modulatory effects during the next 14 days (treatment period). At the end of the stabilization and treatment period, samples taken from the colon compartments are analysed. The 16S rRNA gene analysis reveals the microbiota composition. The untargeted metabolomics analysis gives more than 10,000 features (metabolites/compounds). The present protocol allows in vitro testing of the modulatory effects of foods or biocompounds on gut microbiota composition and metabolic activity.
  • Autores: Livingstone, K. M. ; Celis-Morales, C.; Navas Carretero, Santiago; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
    ISSN 1479-5868 Vol.18 N° 1 2021 págs. 70
    Resumen
    Abstract Background: The effect of personalised nutrition advice on discretionary foods intake is unknown. To date, two national classifications for discretionary foods have been derived. This study examined changes in intake of discretionary foods and beverages following a personalised nutrition intervention using these two classifications. Methods: Participants were recruited into a 6-month RCT across seven European countries (Food4Me) and were randomised to receive generalised dietary advice (control) or one of three levels of personalised nutrition advice (based on diet [L1], phenotype [L2] and genotype [L3]). Dietary intake was derived from an FFQ. An analysis of covariance was used to determine intervention effects at month 6 between personalised nutrition (overall and by levels) and control on i) percentage energy from discretionary items and ii) percentage contribution of total fat, SFA, total sugars and salt to discretionary intake, defined by Food Standards Scotland (FSS) and Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADG) classifications. Results: Of the 1607 adults at baseline, n = 1270 (57% female) completed the intervention. Percentage sugars from FSS discretionary items was lower in personalised nutrition vs control (19.0 ± 0.37 vs 21.1 ± 0.65; P = 0.005). Percentage energy (31.2 ± 0.59 vs 32.7 ± 0.59; P = 0.031), percentage total fat (31.5 ± 0.37 vs 33.3 ± 0.65; P = 0.021), SFA (36.0 ± 0.43 vs 37.8 ± 0.75; P = 0.034) and sugars (31.7 ± 0.44 vs 34.7 ± 0.78; P < 0.001) from ADG discretionary items were lower in personalised nutrition vs control. There were greater reductions in ADG percentage energy and percentage total fat, SFA and salt for those randomised to L3 vs L2. Conclusions: Compared with generalised dietary advice, personalised nutrition advice achieved greater reductions in discretionary foods intake when the classification included all foods high in fat, added sugars and salt. Future personalised nutrition approaches may be used to target intake of discretionary foods.
  • Autores: Garcia-Ibanez, P.; Roses, C.; Agudelo, A.; et al.
    Revista: FOODS
    ISSN 2304-8158 Vol.10 N° 5 2021 págs. 1038
    Resumen
    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the red cabbage extracts on the bioaccessibility of their isothiocyanates, and their effect on the intestinal microbiota using a dynamic model of human digestion treated with the gut microbiome of obese adults. The elicitation of red cabbage plants with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) duplicated the content of glucosinolates (GSLs) in the plant organs used for elaborating the encapsulated formula. The use of plasma membrane vesicles, according to a proper methodology and technology, showed a high retention of sulforaphane (SFN) and indol-3-carbinol (I3C) over the course of the 14-day digestion study. The microbiome was scarcely affected by the treatments in terms of microbiota composition or the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, but a 3 to 4-fold increase was observed in the production of butyric acid with the encapsulated extract treatment. Based on our pilot red cabbage extract study, the consumption of this extract, mainly encapsulated, may play a potential role in the management of obesity in adults.
  • Autores: De Cuevillas García, Begoña; Alvarez Alvarez, Ismael; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
    ISSN 2045-2322 Vol.11 N° 1 2021 págs. 21859
    Resumen
    Rates of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular events and cancer, continue to rise worldwide, which require objective instruments for preventive and management actions. Diverse anthropometric and biochemical markers have been used to qualitatively evaluate degrees of disease, metabolic traits and evolution of nutritional status. The aim of this study was to integrate and assess the interactions between an anthropometric measurement, such as waist circumference (WC), and biochemical data, such as the triglyceride glucose index (TyG), in order to individually characterize metabolic syndrome (MetS) features considering the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype as a marker. An ancillary cross-sectional study was conducted using anthropometric measurements, such as weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, as well as fasting biochemical data of 314 participants. Different indices based on WC (WC, WC*TG and WC*TyG) were estimated to compute MetS components and accompanying comorbidities. ROC curves were fitted to define the strength of the analyses and the validity of the relationships. Associations were confirmed between anthropometric, biochemical and combined indices with some chronic disease manifestations, including hyperglycemia, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Both WC*TG and WC*TyG indices showed similar performance in diagnosing MetS (area under the ROC curve = 0.81). Interestingly, when participants were categorized according to a reference value of the WC*TyG index (842.7 cm*mg/dl), our results evidenced that subjects classified over this limit presented statistically higher prevalence of MetS and accompanying individual components with clinical relevance for interventions. These results revealed that WC*TyG mirrors the hypertriglyceridemic phenotype, which suggests may serve as a good indicator to define the metabolic syndrome phenotype and a suitable, sensitive, and simple proxy to complement others. A reference point was proposed with a good clinical performance and maximized sensitivity and specificity values.
  • Autores: Lostao Crespo, María del Pilar; Loo, D. D.; Hernell, O.; et al.
    Revista: FUNCTION (OXFORD)
    ISSN 2633-8823 Vol.2 N° 5 2021 págs. zqab040
    Resumen
    Glucose-galactose malabsorption (GGM) is due to mutations in the gene coding for the intestinal sodium glucose cotransporter SGLT1 (SLC5A1). Here we identify the rare variant Gln457Arg (Q457R) in a large pedigree of patients in the Vasterbotten County in Northern Sweden with the clinical phenotype of GGM. The functional effect of the Q457R mutation was determined in protein expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using biophysical and biochemical methods. The mutant failed to transport the specific SGLT1 sugar analog alpha-methyl-D-glucopyranoside (alphaMDG). Q457R SGLT1 was synthesized in amounts comparable to the wild-type (WT) transporter. SGLT1 charge measurements and freeze-fracture electron microscopy demonstrated that the mutant protein was inserted into the plasma membrane. Electrophysiological experiments, both steady-state and presteady-state, demonstrated that the mutant bound sugar with an affinity lower than the WT transporter. Together with our previous studies on Q457C and Q457E mutants, we established that the positive charge on Q457R prevented the translocation of sugar from the outward-facing to inward-facing conformation. This is contrary to other GGM cases where missense mutations caused defects in trafficking SGLT1 to the plasma membrane. Thirteen GGM patients are now added to the pedigree traced back to the late 17th century. The frequency of the Q457R variant in Vasterbotten County genomes, 0.0067, is higher than in the general Swedish population, 0.0015...
  • Autores: Aranaz Oroz, Paula; Ramos-Lopez, O.; Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY
    ISSN 0307-0565 Vol.45 N° 10 2021 págs. 0307-0565
    Resumen
    Background and aim Fecal microbiome disturbances are linked to different human diseases. In the case of obesity, gut microbiota seems to play a role in the development of low-grade inflammation. The purpose of the present study was to identify specific bacterial families and genera associated with an increased obesity-related inflammatory status, which would allow to build a regression model for the prediction of the inflammatory status of obese and overweight subjects based on fecal microorganisms. Methods A total of 361 volunteers from the Obekit trial (65 normal-weight, 110 overweight, and 186 obese) were classified according to four variables: waist/hip ratio (>= 0.86 for women and >= 1.00 for men), leptin/adiponectin ratio (LAR, >= 3.0 for women and >= 1.4 for men), and plasma C-reactive protein (>= 2 mg/L) and TNF levels (>= 0.85 pg/mL). An inflammation score was designed to classify individuals in low (those subjects who did exceed the threshold value in 0 or 1 variable) or high inflammatory index (those subjects who did exceed the threshold value in 2 or more variables). Fecal 16 S rRNA sequencing was performed for all participants, and differential abundance analyses for family and genera were performed using the MicrobiomeAnalyst web-based platform. Results Methanobacteriaceae, Christensenellaceae, Coriobacteriaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, Catabacteriaceae, and Dehalobacteriaceae families, and Methanobrevibacter, Eggerthella, Gemmiger, Anaerostipes, and Collinsella gen
  • Autores: Galarregui Miquelarena, Cristina; Navas Carretero, Santiago; González Navarro, Carlos Javier; et al.
    Revista: FOOD & FUNCTION
    ISSN 2042-6496 Vol.12 N° 14 2021 págs. 6540 - 6548
    Resumen
    Introduction: Postprandial hyperglycemia is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance (IR) might affect metabolic responses in non-fasting states. Dietary intake and food composition influence postprandial glucose homeostasis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of different test foods varying in the macronutrient composition on postprandial glycemic responses and whether these outcomes are conditioned by the basal glycemic status in senior subjects. Methods: In a randomized, controlled crossover design, thirty-four adults consumed a test food, a high protein product (n = 19) or a high carbohydrate (CHO) product (n = 15), using the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as a reference. Blood glucose and insulin were measured at fasting and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after starting the food intake. For each type of food, the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for glucose and insulin was calculated. IR was measured using the Homeostatic Model Assessment of IR (HOMA-IR). Results: Consumption of a high protein product significantly lowered the peak and Delta blood glucose concentrations compared to the high CHO product (p < 0.001). Concerning the insulin response, no significant differences between both foods were observed. Fasting glucose was positively correlated with the glucose iAUC only for the high protein product. Positive associations of both fasting insulin and HOMA-IR with the insulin iAUC for all the cases were observed. Linear regression models showed significant positive associations between the glucose iAUC and fasting glucose after adjusting for age and sex. Regarding the insulin iAUC, positive associations were found with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. Regression models also evidenced that both food test consumptions were able to decrease the glucose and insulin iAUC values when compared with the OGTT product. Conclusion: Our research found that not only is the nutritional composition of foods important, but also the baseline glycemic state of individuals when assessing glycemic index estimations and addressing precision nutritional strategies to prevent and treat IR-associated disturbances.
  • Autores: Félix Soriano, Elisa; Sáinz Amillo, Neira; Gil Iturbe, Eva; et al.
    Revista: FASEB JOURNAL
    ISSN 0892-6638 Vol.35 N° 6 2021 págs. e21592
    Resumen
    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dysfunction in aging and obesity has been related to chronic unresolved inflammation, which could be mediated by an impaired production of specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPMs), such as Lipoxins-LXs, Resolvins-Rvs, Protectins-PDs, and Maresins-MaRs. Our aim was to characterize the changes in BAT SPMs signatures and their association with BAT dysfunction during aging, especially under obesogenic conditions, and their modulation by a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich diet. Lipidomic, functional, and molecular studies were performed in BAT of 2- and 18-month-old lean (CT) female mice and in 18-month-old diet-induced obese (DIO) mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD), or a DHA-enriched HFD. Aging downregulated Prdm16 and UCP1 levels, especially in DIO mice, while DHA partially restored them. Arachidonic acid (AA)-derived LXs and DHA-derived MaRs and PDs were the most abundant SPMs in BAT of young CT mice. Interestingly, the sum of LXs and of PDs were significantly lower in aged DIO mice compared to young CT mice. Some of the SPMs most significantly reduced in obese-aged mice included LXB4, MaR2, 4S,14S-diHDHA, 10S,17S-diHDHA (a.k.a. PDX), and RvD6. In contrast, DHA increased DHA-derived SPMs, without modifying LXs. However, MicroPET studies showed that DHA was not able to counteract the impaired cold exposure response in BAT of obese-aged mice. Our data suggest that a defective SPMs production could underlie the decrease of BAT activity observed in obese-aged mice, and highlight the relevance to further characterize the physiological role and therapeutic potential of specific SPMs on BAT development and function.
  • Autores: Konieczna, J.; Morey, M.; Abete Goñi, Itziar; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0261-5614 Vol.40 N° 6 2021 págs. 4290 - 4300
    Resumen
    Background & aims: Ultra-processed food and drink products (UPF) consumption has been associated with obesity and its-related comorbidities. Excess of visceral fat, which appears with increasing age, has been considered as the culprit contributing to adiposity-associated adverse health outcomes. However, none of previous studies elucidated the link between UPF and directly quantified adiposity and its distribution. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association between concurrent changes in UPF consumption and objectively assessed adiposity distribution. Methods: A subsample of 1485 PREDIMED-Plus participants (Spanish men and women aged 55-75 years with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome) underwent body composition measurements. Consumption of UPF at baseline, 6 and 12 months was evaluated using a validated 143-item semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. Food items (g/day) were categorized according to their degree of processing using NOVA system. Regional adiposity (visceral fat (in g) and android-to-gynoid fat & nbsp; ratio) and total fat mass (in g) at three time points were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorpti-ometry (DXA) and were normalized using sex-specific z-scores. The association of changes in UPF consumption, expressed as the percentage of total daily intake (daily g of UPF/total daily g of food and beverage intake*10 0), with adiposity changes was evaluated using linear mixed-effects models. Results: On average, the consumption of UPF accounted for 8.11% (SD 7.41%) of total daily intake (in grams) at baseline. In multivariable-adjusted model, 10% daily increment in consumption of UPF was associated with significantly (all p-values <0.05) greater accumulation of visceral fat (b 0.09 z-scores, 95% CI 0.05; 0.13), android-to-gynoid fat ratio (0.05, 0.00; 0.09) and total fat (0.09, 0.06; 0.13). Conclusion: A higher consumption of UPF was associated with greater age-related visceral and overall adiposity accumulation. Further studies are warranted to confirm these results in other populations and settings. Trial registration: The trial was registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial (ISRCTN: http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN89898870) with number 89898870 and registration date of 24 July 2014, retrospectively registered . (c) 2021 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved. ratio) and total fat mass (in g) at three time points were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and were normalized using sex-specific z-scores. The association of changes in UPF consumption, expressed as the percentage of total daily intake (daily g of UPF/total daily g of food and beverage intake*10 0), with adiposity changes was evaluated using linear mixed-effects models. Results: On average, the consumption of UPF accounted for 8.11% (SD 7.41%) of total daily intake (in grams) at baseline. In multivariable-adjusted model, 10% daily increment in consumption of UPF was associated with significantly (all p-values <0.05) greater accumulation of visceral fat (b 0.09 z-scores, 95% CI 0.05; 0.13), android-to-gynoid fat ratio (0.05, 0.00; 0.09) and total fat (0.09, 0.06; 0.13). Conclusion: A higher consumption of UPF was associated with greater age-related visceral and overall adiposity accumulation. Further studies are warranted to confirm these results in other populations and settings. Trial registration: The trial was registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Autores: Brotons Cantó, Ana (Autor de correspondencia); González Navarro, Carlos Javier; Gil Royo, Ana Gloria; et al.
    Revista: PHARMACEUTICS
    ISSN 1999-4923 Vol.13 N° 3 2021 págs. 361
    Resumen
    Curcumin is a natural compound obtained from turmeric root with high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, clinical application of curcumin has been limited due to its low solubility and bioavailability and rapid metabolism and degradation. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of curcumin incorporation in zein nanoparticles on the pharmacokinetic parameters of systemic curcumin in plasma. Wistar rats were administered a single oral dose of 250 mg/kg of standard curcumin (control) or nanocurcumin (zein-based nanoparticles, Nucaps). The proposed new formulation was also compared with two commercially available curcumin complexes. Blood samples were collected at different times, and plasma levels were determined using HPLC-MS/MS. Overall, nanocurcumin (Nucaps) formulation was well tolerated and showed a 9-fold increase in oral bioavailability when compared to the standard curcumin natural extract. In addition, the nanoparticles prepared in this study demonstrated a bioavailability profile superior to that of other bioavailability-enhanced curcumin complexes currently available in the marketplace. Thus, our nanoparticle-based formulation has shown great potential as a nutraceutical for the oral administration of curcumin.
  • Autores: Aranaz Oroz, Paula; Peña, A.; Vettorazzi Armental, Ariane; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.13 N° 11 2021 págs. 3968
    Resumen
    In recent years, food ingredients rich in bioactive compounds have emerged as candidates to prevent excess adiposity and other metabolic complications characteristic of obesity, such as low-grade inflammation and oxidative status. Among them, fungi have gained popularity for their high polysaccharide content and other bioactive components with beneficial activities. Here, we use the C. elegans model to investigate the potential activities of a Grifola frondosa extract (GE), together with the underlying mechanisms of action. Our study revealed that GE represents an important source of polysaccharides and phenolic compounds with in vitro antioxidant activity. Treatment with our GE extract, which was found to be nongenotoxic through a SOS/umu test, significantly reduced the fat content of C. elegans, decreased the production of intracellular ROS and aging-lipofuscin pigment, and increased the lifespan of nematodes. Gene expression and mutant analyses demonstrated that the in vivo anti-obesity and antioxidant activities of GE were mediated through the daf-2/daf-16 and skn-1/nrf-2 signalling pathways, respectively. Taken together, our results suggest that our GE extract could be considered a potential functional ingredient for the prevention of obesity-related disturbances.
  • Autores: Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Aranaz Oroz, Paula; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.13 N° 8 2021
    Resumen
    Ultra-processed foods (UPFs) consumption could affect gut microbiota diversity and profile. We aimed to evaluate the effects of UPFs on microbiota, considering the role of sex. The consumption of UPFs (using NOVA criteria) was assessed with a validated 137-item food-frequency questionnaire. Participants (n = 359) were classified into less than three servings per day (n = 96) of UPFs and more than five (n = 90). Women and men were subclassified following the same criteria. 16S rRNA sequencing was performed from DNA fecal samples, and differences in microbiota were analyzed using EdgeR. The relationship between UPFs and bacteria was assessed by Spearman correlation and comparison of tertiles of consumption. Women who consumed more than five servings/day of UPFs presented an increase in Acidaminococcus, Butyrivibrio, Gemmiger, Shigella, Anaerofilum, Parabacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Enterobacteriales, Bifidobacteriales and Actinobacteria and a decrease in Melainabacter and Lachnospira. Bifidobacterium, Bifidobacteriales and Actinobacteria was positively associated with pizza and Actinobacteria with industrially processed dairy in women. Men who consumed more than five servings/day presented an increase of Granulicatella, Blautia, Carnobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Bacteroidia and Bacteroidetes and a decrease of Anaerostipes and Clostridiaceae. Bacteroidia and Bacteroidetes correlated positively with industrially processed meat. This study suggests that UPFs may affect microbiota composition differently in women and men.
  • Autores: Solares, I. ; Izquierdo Sánchez, L. ; Morales Conejo, M.; et al.
    Revista: BIOMEDICINES
    ISSN 2227-9059 Vol.9 N° 3 2021 págs. 255
    Resumen
    Acute porphyria attacks are associated with the strong up-regulation of hepatic heme synthesis and over-production of neurotoxic heme precursors. First-line therapy is based on carbohydrate loading. However, altered glucose homeostasis could affect its efficacy. Our first aim was to investigate the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) in an observational case-control study including 44 Spanish patients with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) and 55 age-, gender- and BMI-matched control volunteers. Eight patients (18.2%) and one control (2.3%, p = 0.01) showed a high HOMA-IR index (cut-off ¿ 3.4). Patients with IR and hyperinsulinemia showed clinically stable disease. Thus, the second aim was to evaluate the effect of the co-administration of glucose and a fast-acting or new liver-targeted insulin (the fusion protein of insulin and apolipoprotein A-I, Ins-ApoAI) in AIP mice. The combination of glucose and the Ins-ApoAI promoted partial but sustained protection against hepatic heme synthesis up-regulation compared with glucose alone or co-injected with fast-acting insulin. In a prevention study, Ins-ApoAI improved symptoms associated with a phenobarbital-induced attack but maintained high porphyrin precursor excretion, probably due to the induction of hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis mediated by apolipoprotein A-I. In conclusion, a high prevalence of IR and hyperinsulinemia was observed in patients with AIP. The experimental data provide proof-of-concept for liver-targeted insulin as a way of enhancing glucose therapy for AIP.
  • Autores: Rivera, K.; Quinones, V.; Amigo, L.; et al.
    Revista: BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR AND CELL BIOLOGY OF LIPIDS
    ISSN 1388-1981 Vol.1866 N° 6 2021 págs. 158909
    Resumen
    Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) is a membrane lipoprotein receptor/lipid transporter involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, but its role in obesity and fatty liver development is unclear. Here, we determined the effects of SR-B1 deficiency on plasma metabolic and inflammatory parameters as well as fat deposition in adipose tissue and liver during obesity. To induce obesity, we performed high-fat diet (HFD) exposure for 12 weeks in male SR-B1 knock-out (SR-B1(-/-), n = 14) and wild-type (WT, n = 12) mice. Compared to HFD-fed WT mice, plasma from HFD-fed SR-B1(-/-) animals exhibited increased total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels. In addition, hypertrophied adipocytes and macrophage-containing crown-like structures (CLS) were observed in adipose tissue from HFD-fed SR-B1 deficient mice. Remarkably, liver from obese SR-B1(-/-) mice showed attenuated TG content, dysregulation in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) expression, increased hepatic TG secretion, and altered hepatic fatty acid (FA) composition. In conclusion, we show that SR-B1 deficiency alters the metabolic environment of obese mice through modulation of liver and adipose tissue lipid accumulation. Our findings provide the basis for further elucidation of SR-B1's role in obesity and fatty liver, two major public health issues that increase the risk of advanced chronic diseases and overall mortality.
  • Autores: Galarregui Miquelarena, Cristina; Cantero González, Irene; Marin-Alejandre, B. A.; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 1436-6207 Vol.60 N° 4 2021 págs. 1769 - 1780
    Resumen
    Purpose Identification of dietary factors involved in the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is relevant to the current epidemics of the disease. Dietary amino acids appear to play a key role in the onset and progression of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to analyze potential associations between specific dietary amino acids and variables related to glucose metabolism and hepatic status in adults with overweight/obesity and NAFLD. Methods One hundred and twelve individuals from the Fatty Liver in Obesity (FLiO) study were evaluated. Liver assessment was carried out by ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and analysis of biochemical parameters. Dietary amino acid intake (aromatic amino acids (AAA); branched-chain amino acids (BCAA); sulfur amino acids (SAA)) was estimated by means of a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. Results Higher consumption of these amino acids was associated with worse hepatic health. Multiple adjusted regression models confirmed that dietary AAA, BCAA and SAA were positively associated with liver fat content. AAA and BCAA were positively associated with liver iron concentration. Regarding ferritin levels, a positive association was found with BCAA. Dietary intake of these amino acids was positively correlated with glucose metabolism (glycated hemoglobin, triglyceride and glucose index) although the significance disappeared when potential confounders were included in the model.
  • Autores: Fresquet Arnau, Vicente José; García Barchino, María José; Larráyoz Ilundáin, María José; et al.
    Revista: CANCER DISCOVERY
    ISSN 2159-8274 Vol.11 N° 5 2021 págs. 1268 - 1285
    Resumen
    For millions of years, endogenous retroelements have remained transcriptionally silent within mammalian genomes by epigenetic mechanisms. Modern anticancer therapies targeting the epigenetic machinery awaken retroelement expression, inducing antiviral responses that eliminate tumors through mechanisms not completely understood. Here, we find that massive binding of epigenetically activated retroelements by RIG-I and MDA5 viral sensors promotes ATP hydrolysis and depletes intracellular energy, driving tumor killing independently of immune signaling. Energy depletion boosts compensatory ATP production by switching glycolysis to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, thereby reversing the Warburg effect. However, hyperfunctional succinate dehydrogenase in mitochondrial electron transport chain generates excessive oxidative stress that unleashes RIP1-mediated necroptosis. To maintain ATP generation, hyperactive mitochondrial membrane blocks intrinsic apoptosis by increasing BCL2 dependency. Accordingly, drugs targeting BCL2 family proteins and epigenetic inhibitors yield synergistic responses in multiple cancer types. Thus, epigenetic therapy kills cancer cells by rewiring mitochondrial metabolism upon retroelement activation, which primes mitochondria to apoptosis by BH3-mimetics. SIGNIFICANCE: The state of viral mimicry induced by epigenetic therapies in cancer cells remodels mitochondrial metabolism and drives caspase-independent tumor cell death, which sensitizes to BCL2...
  • Autores: Roses, C.; Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; Quintana, S.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.13 N° 2 2021
    Resumen
    The MD (Mediterranean diet) is recognized as one of the healthiest diets worldwide and is associated with the prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Dietary habits are considered one of the strongest modulators of gut microbiota, which seem to play a significant role in health status of the host. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate interactive associations between gut microbiota composition and habitual dietary intake in 360 Spanish adults from the Obekit cohort (normal weight, overweight, and obese participants). Dietary intake and adherence to the MD tests were administered and fecal samples were collected from each participant. Fecal 16S rRNA (ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid) gene sequencing was performed and checked against the dietary habits. MetagenomeSeq was the statistical tool applied to analyze data at the species taxonomic level. Results from this study identified several beneficial bacteria that were more abundant in the individuals with higher adherence to the MD. Bifidobacterium animalis was the species with the strongest association with the MD. Some SCFA (Short Chain Fatty Acids) -producing bacteria were also associated with MD. In conclusion, this study showed that MD, fiber, legumes, vegetable, fruit, and nut intake are associated with an increase in butyrate-producing taxa such as Roseburia faecis, Ruminococcus bromii, and Oscillospira (Flavonifractor) plautii.
  • Autores: Adam, T. C. (Autor de correspondencia); Drummen, M.; Macdonald, I. ; et al.
    Revista: DIABETES CARE
    ISSN 0149-5992 Vol.44 N° 7 2021 págs. 1491 - 1498
    Resumen
    OBJECTIVE Stress, sleep, eating behavior, and physical activity are associated with weight change and insulin resistance (IR). The aim of this analysis was the assessment of the overall and sex-specific associations of psychobehavioral variables throughout the 3-year PREVIEW intervention using the homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), BMI, and length of time in the study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Associations of psychobehavioral variables, including stress, mood, eating behavior, physical activity (PA), and sleep, with BMI, HOMA-IR, and time spent in the study were assessed in 2,184 participants with prediabetes and overweight/obesity (n = 706 men; n = 1,478 women) during a 3-year lifestyle intervention using linear mixed modeling and general linear modeling. The study was a randomized multicenter trial using a 2 x 2 diet-by-PA design. RESULTS Overall, cognitive restraint and PA increased during the intervention compared with baseline, whereas BMI, HOMA-IR, disinhibition, hunger, and sleepiness decreased (all P < 0.05). Cognitive restraint and PA were negatively, whereas disinhibition, hunger, stress, and total mood disturbance were positively, associated with both BMI and HOMA-IR. Sleep duration, low sleep quality, total mood disturbance, disinhibition, and hunger scores were positively associated with HOMA-IR for men only. Participants who dropped out at 6 months had higher stress and total mood disturbance scores at baseline and throughout their time spent in the study compared with study completers. CONCLUSIONS Eating behavior and PA, control of stress, mood disturbance, and sleep characteristics were associated with BMI, HOMA-IR, and time spent in the study, with different effects in men and women during the PREVIEW lifestyle intervention study.
  • Autores: Mendez, D. A.; Fabra, M. J.; Falcó, I.; et al.
    Revista: FOOD & FUNCTION
    ISSN 2042-650X Vol.12 N° 16 2021 págs. 7428 - 7439
    Resumen
    In this work, a bioactive persimmon extract was produced from discarded fruits. A central composite design was used to evaluate the effect of different extraction parameters and ripeness stages of persimmon fruits on the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the resulting extracts. Significantly greater phenolic contents were obtained from immature persimmon (IP) fruits. The optimum IP extract with the conditions set by the experimental design was industrially up-scaled and its composition and functional properties were evaluated and compared with those obtained under lab-scale conditions. Both extracts contained significant protein (>20%) and phenolic contents (similar to 11-27 mg GA/g dry extract) and displayed significant antiviral activity against murine norovirus and hepatitis A virus. Moreover, the extract showed no toxicity and significantly reduced the fat content and the cellular ageing of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) without affecting the worm development. These effects were mediated by down-regulation of fat-7, suggesting an anti-lipogenic activity of this extract.
  • Autores: Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; Romo Hualde, Ana; Aranaz Oroz, Paula; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 1436-6207 2021
    Resumen
    Purpose Obesity has been related to intestinal dysbiosis and the modification of gut microbiota composition by dietary strategies becomes a promising strategy to help manage obesity. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of two weight-loss diets on the composition and functional profile of gut microbiota. Methods 55 men and 124 women with BMI > 25 kg/m(2) were randomly assigned to moderately high-protein (MHP) or low-fat (LF) diet. Differences in fecal bacteria abundance (based on 16 s rRNA sequencing) between before and after 4 months of calorie restriction was analyzed using EdgeR tool in MicrobiomeAnalyst platform. Bacterial functional profile was predicted using Tax4Fun and metagenomeSeq analysis. Significant KEGG Orthology (KO) terms were selected for the metabolomic study using chromatography. Results After the intervention, MHP-men showed a significant decrease in Negativicutes, Selenomonadales, Dielma and Dielma fastidiosa. LF-men showed a significant increase in Bacilli, Lactobacillales, Christensenellaceae, Peptococcaceae, and Streptococcaceae, Peptococcus, Streptococcus and Christensenella, Duncaniella dubosii_CP039396_93.49%, Roseburia sp_AB744234_98.96% and Alistipes inops_KJ572413_99.57%. MHP-women increased Pasteurellales, Phascolarctobacterium succinatutens, Ruthenibacterium lactatiformans_LR215981_99.55% and decreased in Phascolarctobacterium succinatutens_NR112902_99.56%. Finally, LF-women presented a significant decrease in Bacteroides clarus and Erysipelothrix inopinata_CP060715_84.4%. Surprisingly, no matching bacterial changes were found between these four groups. A total of 42 KO, 10 metabolic pathways and 107 related metabolites related were found implicated in these bacterial changes. Seven metabolites were confirmed in plasma. Conclusion Weight-loss-related-changes in gut microbiome composition and the functional profile occur in a sex- and diet-related manner, showing that women and men could differentially benefit from the consumption of MHP and LF diets.
  • Autores: Yang, Guang Hua; Sáinz Amillo, Neira; Félix Soriano, Elisa; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.13 N° 2 2021 págs. 501
    Resumen
    Obesity and aging are associated to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development. Here, we investigate whether long-term feeding with a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched diet and aerobic exercise, alone or in combination, are effective in ameliorating NAFLD in aged obese mice. Two-month-old female C57BL/6J mice received control or high fat diet (HFD) for 4 months. Then, the diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were distributed into four groups: DIO, DIO + DHA (15% dietary lipids replaced by a DHA-rich concentrate), DIO + EX (treadmill running), and DIO + DHA + EX up to 18 months. The DHA-rich diet reduced liver steatosis in DIO mice, decreasing lipogenic genes (Dgat2, Scd1, Srebp1c), and upregulated lipid catabolism genes (Hsl/Acox) expression. A similar pattern was observed in the DIO + EX group. The combination of DHA + exercise potentiated an increase in Cpt1a and Ppara genes, and AMPK activation, key regulators of fatty acid oxidation. Exercise, alone or in combination with DHA, significantly reversed the induction of proinflammatory genes (Mcp1, Il6, Tnf¿, Tlr4) in DIO mice. DHA supplementation was effective in preventing the alterations induced by the HFD in endoplasmic reticulum stress-related genes (Ern1/Xbp1) and autophagy markers (LC3II/I ratio, p62, Atg7). In summary, long-term DHA supplementation and/or exercise could be helpful to delay NAFLD progression during aging in obesity.
  • Autores: Graham, C. A. M. (Autor de correspondencia); Pilic, L.; King, A.; et al.
    Revista: FOOD QUALITY AND PREFERENCE
    ISSN 0950-3293 Vol.92 2021 págs. 104202
    Resumen
    Over the past decade, a potential sixth taste, fat taste ("oleogustus"), has been identified. Studies in adults and children of various ethnicities have demonstrated that both lifestyle and genetic factors may contribute to fat taste sensitivity (FTS). Data on females in the UK is limited. The aim of this study was to determine, using an ethnically similar, healthy, female cohort, whether known genotypes related to fat taste and dietary intake lead to differences in FTS. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a UK cohort of Caucasian females (32.7 +/- 11.4 years, 23.7 +/- 3.6 kg/m2). We report that FTS differed in individuals with differing genotypes; genotypes that have previously been associated with differences in dietary intake. Specifically, FTS was lower in rs1514175 Troponin I-Interacting Protein Kinase (TNNI3K) gene AA/AG genotype and was higher in rs6265 Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) gene TT/CT genotype (both p < 0.05). We also report that participants in the rs1514175 TNNI3K AA/AG genotype group had a higher energy intake, total fat intake, and subsequently, higher monounsaturated fat and saturated fat intake when compared to the GG genotype (all p < 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first study showing associations between genotypes that have been previously associated to dietary intake are also associated to FTS. Due to the heterogeneity of previous research and the infancy of fat taste research, further research is required on a larger, ethnically similar cohort.
  • Autores: Navas Carretero, Santiago (Autor de correspondencia); San Cristóbal Blanco, Rodrigo; Alvarez Alvarez, Ismael; et al.
    Revista: LIFESTYLE GENOMICS
    ISSN 2504-3161 Vol.14 N° 3 2021 págs. 63 - 72
    Resumen
    Abstract Introduction: Carbohydrate intake and physical activity are related to glucose homeostasis, both being influenced by individual genetic makeup. However, the interactions between these 2 factors, as affected by genetics, on glycaemia have been scarcely reported. Objective: We focused on analysing the interplay between carbohydrate intake and physical activity levels on blood glucose, taking into account a genetic risk score (GRS), based on SNPs related to glucose/energy metabolism. Methods: A total of 1,271 individuals from the Food4Me cohort, who completed the nutritional intervention, were evaluated at baseline. We collected dietary information by using an online-validated food frequency questionnaire, a questionnaire on physical activity, blood biochemistry by analysis of dried blood spots, and by analysis of selected SNPs. Fifteen out of 31 SNPs, with recognized participation in carbohydrate/energy metabolism, were included in the component analyses. The GRS included risk alleles involved in the control of glycaemia or energy-yielding processes. Results: Data concerning anthropometric, clinical, metabolic, dietary intake, physical activity, and genetics related to blood glucose levels showed expected trends in European individuals of comparable sex and age, being categorized by lifestyle, BMI, and energy/carbohydrate intakes, in this Food4Me population. Blood glucose was inversely associated with physical activity level (ß = -0.041, p = 0.013) and positively correlated with the GRS values (ß = 0.015, p = 0.047). Interestingly, an interaction affecting glycaemia, concerning physical activity level with carbohydrate intake, was found (ß = -0.060, p = 0.033), which also significantly depended on the genetic background (GRS). Conclusions: The relationships of carbohydrate intake and physical activity are important in understanding glucose homeostasis, where a role for the genetic background should be ascribed.
  • Autores: Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; López Yoldi, Miguel; et al.
    Revista: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE NUTRICION HUMANA Y DIETETICA
    ISSN 2173-1292 Vol.25 2021 págs. 20 - 21
  • Autores: Vintró-Alcaraz, C.; Baenas, I.; Lozano-Madrid, M.; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW
    ISSN 1072-4133 Vol.29 N° 4 2021 págs. 575 - 587
    Resumen
    Goals To explore affective and cognitive status, later in life, in individuals with and without previous history of eating disorder (ED), and also its association with higher risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) symptomatology. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of 6756 adults, aged 55-75 years with overweight/obesity and MetS participating in the Predimed-Plus study was conducted. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires to examine lifetime history of ED, according to DSM-5 criteria, and other psychopathological and neurocognitive factors. Anthropometric and metabolic measurements were also collected. Results Of the whole sample, 24 individuals (0.35%) reported a previous history of ED. In this subsample, there were more women and singles compared to their counterparts, but they also presented higher levels of depressive symptoms and higher cognitive impairment, but also higher body mass index (BMI) and severe obesity, than those without lifetime ED. Conclusions This is one of the first studies to analyse the cognitive and metabolic impact of a previous history of ED. The results showed that previous ED was associated with greater affective and cognitive impairment, but also with higher BMI, later in life. No other MetS risk factors were found, after controlling for relevant variables.
  • Autores: Raben, A. ; Siig Vestentoft, P.; Brand-Miller, J. ; et al.
    Revista: DIABETES OBESITY AND METABOLISM
    ISSN 1462-8902 Vol.23 N° 2 2021 págs. 324 - 337
    Resumen
    Aim: To compare the impact of two long-term weight-maintenance diets, a high protein (HP) and low glycaemic index (GI) diet versus a moderate protein (MP) and moderate GI diet, combined with either high intensity (HI) or moderate intensity physical activity (PA), on the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) after rapid weight loss. Materials and methods: A 3-year multicentre randomized trial in eight countries using a 2 x 2 diet-by-PA factorial design was conducted. Eight-week weight reduction was followed by a 3-year randomized weight-maintenance phase. In total, 2326 adults (age 25-70 years, body mass index ¿ 25 kg/m2 ) with prediabetes were enrolled. The primary endpoint was 3-year incidence of T2D analysed by diet treatment. Secondary outcomes included glucose, insulin, HbA1c and body weight. Results: The total number of T2D cases was 62 and the cumulative incidence rate was 3.1%, with no significant differences between the two diets, PA or their combination. T2D incidence was similar across intervention centres, irrespective of attrition. Significantly fewer participants achieved normoglycaemia in the HP compared with the MP group (P < .0001). At 3 years, normoglycaemia was lowest in HP-HI (11.9%) compared with the other three groups (20.0%-21.0%, P < .05). There were no group differences in body weight change (-11% after 8-week weight reduction; -5% after 3-year weight maintenance) or in other secondary outcomes. Conclusions: Three-year incidence of T2D was much lower than predicted and did not differ between diets, PA or their combination. Maintaining the target intakes of protein and GI over 3 years was difficult, but the overall protocol combining weight loss, healthy eating and PA was successful in markedly reducing the risk of T2D. This is an important clinically relevant outcome.
  • Autores: Almirón Roig, Eva (Autor de correspondencia); Forde, C. G.; Hollands, G. J.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION REVIEWS
    ISSN 0029-6643 Vol.78 N° 2 2020 págs. 91 - 114
    Resumen
    Although there is considerable evidence for the portion-size effect and its potential impact on health, much of this has not been successfully applied to help consumers reduce portion sizes. The objective of this review is to provide an update on the strength of evidence supporting strategies with potential to reduce portion sizes across individuals and eating contexts. Three levels of action are considered: food-level strategies (targeting commercial snack and meal portion sizes, packaging, food labels, tableware, and food sensory properties), individual-level strategies (targeting eating rate and bite size, portion norms, plate-cleaning tendencies, and cognitive processes), and population approaches (targeting the physical, social, and economic environment and health policy). Food- and individual-level strategies are associated with small to moderate effects; however, in isolation, none seem to have sufficient impact on food intake to reverse the portion-size effect and its consequences. Wider changes to the portion-size environment will be necessary to support individual- and food-level strategies leading to portion control.
  • Autores: Amoutzopoulos, B. (Autor de correspondencia); Page, P.; Roberts, C.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION REVIEWS
    ISSN 0029-6643 Vol.78 N° 11 2020 págs. 885 - 900
    Resumen
    Context: Overestimation or underestimation of portion size leads to measurement error during dietary assessment. Objective: To identify portion size estimation elements (PSEEs) and evaluate their relative efficacy in relation to dietary assessment, and assess the quality of studies validating PSEEs. Data Selection and Extraction: Electronic databases, internet sites, and cross-references of published records were searched, generating 16 801 initial records, from which 334 records were reviewed and 542 PSEEs were identified, comprising 5% 1-dimensional took (eg, food guides), 46% 2-dimensional took (eg, photographic atlases), and 49% 3-dimensional took (eg, household utensils). Out of 334 studies, 21 validated a PSEE (compared PSEE to actual food amounts) and 13 compared PSEEs with other PSEEs. Conclusion: Quality assessment showed that only a few validation studies were of high quality. According to the findings of validation and comparison studies, food image-based PSEEs were more accurate than food models and household utensils. Key factors to consider when selecting a PSEE include efficiency of the PSEE and its applicability to targeted settings and populations.
  • Autores: Radziejewska, A.; Muzsik, A.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: LIFESTYLE GENOMICS
    ISSN 2504-3161 Vol.13 N° 2 2020 págs. 53 - 63
    Resumen
    The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide. Its etiology includes nutritional, genetic, and lifestyle factors. Several mechanisms may link one-carbon metabolism - the associated metabolic pathways of folate, methionine, and choline - to the onset of NAFLD. In this review, we attempted to assess how choline, folate, methionine, and betaine affect NAFLD development, mainly through their role in the secretion of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) from the liver. We also reviewed recent articles that have described the relation between microbiota metabolism and NAFLD progression. Moreover, we describe the effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes related to one-carbon metabolism and disease prevalence. We additionally seek SNP identified by genome-wide associations that may increase the risk of this disease. Even though the evidence available is not entirely consistent, it seems that the concentrations of choline, methionine, folate, and betaine may affect the progression of NAFLD. Since there is no effective therapy for NAFLD, further investigations into the link between nutrition, gut microbiota, genetic factors, and NAFLD are still necessary, with a particular emphasis on methyl donors.
  • Autores: Meneguelli, T. S.; Hinkelmann, J. V.; Hermsdorff, H. H. M. (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCES AND NUTRITION
    ISSN 0963-7486 Vol.71 N° 6 2020 págs. 678 - 692
    Resumen
    Processed and ultra-processed foods (UPF) consumption has been associated with development of noncommunicable chronic diseases (NCD). This systematic review aims to summarise and discuss evidence of the relationship between food consumption according to degree of food processing and cardiometabolic risk. Data search was conducted in databases as PubMed, Bireme and Science Direct until July 2018. Studies have shown a positive association of UPF consumption with excess body weight, hypertension, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome features. However, disparities found in the studies analysed regarding dietary assessment, confounding factors and differences in food classifications makes comparisons between studies difficult. In conclusion, current evidences indicate the need to monitor UPF intake in global population. However, more studies are necessary to interpret better these associations with similar methodologies used in the studies. As well as longitudinal analyses can help to improve comparisons between outcomes and establish cause-effect relationship between UPF intake and cardiometabolic risk.
  • Autores: Tratwal, J.; Labella, R; Bravenboer, N; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY
    ISSN 1664-2392 Vol.11 2020 págs. 65
    Resumen
    The interest in bone marrow adiposity (BMA) has increased over the last decade due to its association with, and potential role, in a range of diseases (osteoporosis, diabetes, anorexia, cancer) as well as treatments (corticosteroid, radiation, chemotherapy, thiazolidinediones). However, to advance the field of BMA research, standardization of methods is desirable to increase comparability of study outcomes and foster collaboration. Therefore, at the 2017 annual BMA meeting, the International Bone Marrow Adiposity Society (BMAS) founded a working group to evaluate methodologies in BMA research. All BMAS members could volunteer to participate. The working group members, who are all active preclinical or clinical BMA researchers, searched the literature for articles investigating BMA and discussed the results during personal and telephone conferences. According to the consensus opinion, both based on the review of the literature and on expert opinion, we describe existing methodologies and discuss the challenges and future directions for (1) histomorphometry of bone marrow adipocytes, (2) ex vivo BMA imaging, (3) in vivo BMA imaging, (4) cell isolation, culture, differentiation and in vitro modulation of primary bone marrow adipocytes and bone marrow stromal cell precursors, (5) lineage tracing and in vivo BMA modulation, and (6) BMA biobanking. We identify as accepted standards in BMA research: manual histomorphometry and osmium tetroxide 3D contrast-enhanced mu CT for ex vivo quantification, specific MRI sequences (WFI and H-MRS) for in vivo studies, and RT-qPCR with a minimal four gene panel or lipid-based assays for in vitro quantification of bone marrow adipogenesis. Emerging techniques are described which may soon come to complement or substitute these gold standards. Known confounding factors and minimal reporting standards are presented, and their use is encouraged to facilitate comparison across studies. In conclusion, specific BMA methodologies have been developed. However, important challenges remain. In particular, we advocate for the harmonization of methodologies, the precise reporting of known confounding factors, and the identification of methods to modulate BMA independently from other tissues. Wider use of existing animal models with impaired BMA production (e.g., Pfrt(-/-), Kit(W/W-v)) and development of specific BMA deletion models would be highly desirable for this purpose.
  • Autores: San Cristóbal Blanco, Rodrigo; Navas Carretero, Santiago (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
    Revista: NATURE REVIEWS ENDOCRINOLOGY
    ISSN 1759-5029 Vol.16 N° 6 2020 págs. 305 - 320
    Resumen
    The specific metabolic contribution of consuming different energy-yielding macronutrients (namely, carbohydrates, protein and lipids) to obesity is a matter of active debate. In this Review, we summarize the current research concerning associations between the intake of different macronutrients and weight gain and adiposity. We discuss insights into possible differential mechanistic pathways where macronutrients might act on either appetite or adipogenesis to cause weight gain. We also explore the role of dietary macronutrient distribution on thermogenesis or energy expenditure for weight loss and maintenance. On the basis of the data discussed, we describe a novel way to manage excessive body weight; namely, prescribing personalized diets with different macronutrient compositions according to the individual's genotype and/or enterotype. In this context, the interplay of macronutrient consumption with obesity incidence involves mechanisms that affect appetite, thermogenesis and metabolism, and the outcomes of these mechanisms are altered by an individual's genotype and microbiota. Indeed, the interactions of the genetic make-up and/or microbiota features of a person with specific macronutrient intakes or dietary pattern consumption help to explain individualized responses to macronutrients and food patterns, which might represent key factors for comprehensive precision nutrition recommendations and personalized obesity management.
  • Autores: Echiburu, B.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Crisosto, N.; et al.
    Revista: EPIGENETICS
    ISSN 1559-2294 Vol.15 N° 11 2020 págs. 1178 - 1194
    Resumen
    Clinical and experimental evidences indicate that epigenetic modifications induced by the prenatal environment are related to metabolic and reproductive derangements in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Alterations in the leptin and adiponectin systems, androgen signalling and antimullerian hormone (AMH) levels have been observed in PCOS women and in their offspring. Using a targeted Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), we studied DNA methylation in promoter regions of the leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR), adiponectin (ADIPOQ), adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2), AMH and androgen receptor (AR) genes in 24 sons and daughters of women with PCOS (12 treated with metformin during pregnancy) and 24 children born to non-PCOS women during early infancy (2-3 months of age). Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood, bisulphite converted and sequenced by NGS. Girls showed differences between groups in 1 CpG site of LEPR, 2 of LEP, 1 of ADIPOR2 and 2 of AR. Boys showed differences in 5 CpG sites of LEP, 3 of AMH and 9 of AR. Maternal metformin treatment prevented some of these changes in LEP, ADIPOR2 and partially in AR in girls, and in LEP and AMH in boys. Maternal BMI at early pregnancy was inversely correlated with the methylation levels of the ChrX-67544981 site in the whole group of girls (r = -0.530, p = 0.008) and with the global Z-score in all boys (r = -0.539, p = 0.007). These data indicate that the intrauterine PCOS environment predisposes the offspring to acquire certain sex-dependent DNA methylation patterns in the promoter regions of metabolic and reproductive genes.
  • Autores: González Ferrero, C.; Irache Garreta, Juan Manuel; Marín Calvo, B.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF MICROENCAPSULATION
    ISSN 0265-2048 Vol.37 N° 3 2020 págs. 242 - 253
    Resumen
    The influence on the stability of Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 220 (25 C/60% relative humidity) of microencapsulation by simple coacervation followed by spray-drying using different Ca2þ-tosoybean protein isolate ratios was evaluated. After optimisation, the selected soybean protein concentrate (SPC) microparticles were used to evaluate the tolerance of L. plantarum under acidic conditions (lactic acid, pH¿4; and HCl, pH¿3) and heat stress (80 C for 1 min) in contrast to free cells. Moreover, after the heat treatment, the influence of the simulated gastric fluid was evaluated. Additionally, different foods were formulated using either microencapsulated or freeze-dried L. plantarum, and the stability of cells during the shelf-life of the formulated foods was studied. Results show that encapsulation with SPC enhanced significantly the stability of the Lactic Acid Bacteria all along the probiotic food value chain, from production to the end of the food shelf-life.
  • Autores: Ovalle-Marin, A.; Reyes-Farias, M.; Vasquez, K. ; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF BERRY RESEARCH
    ISSN 1878-5093 Vol.10 N° 3 2020 págs. 531 - 545
    Resumen
    BACKGROUND: Obesity occurs due to a positive energy imbalance, leading to the expansion of adipose tissue. This phenomenon triggers a chronic low-grade inflammatory state, which is associated with comorbidities development. It is, therefore, of great interest to investigate new counteracting nutritional strategies. In this regard, polyphenol-rich Chilean native fruits, Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui) and Berberis microphylla (Calafate), and also the non-Chilean Vaccinium corymbosum (Blueberry), have been associated with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory features. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate Maqui, Calafate, and Blueberry aqueous extracts treatments on the pathogenic response of human activated macrophages and visceral adipocytes. METHODS: THP-1 monocyte human cell line and differentiated human visceral preadipocytes were activated (with lipopolysaccharide and TNF-a, for 48 and 24 h, respectively), and treated with the aqueous extracts. Inflammation and oxidative stress markers were assessed. RESULTS: Lower NO and IL-6 secretion, and inhibited apoptosis in activated macrophages, were observed. Also, decreased gene expression of MCP-1 and secretion of IL-6, inhibited apoptosis, and increased levels of GSH in activated adipocytes were detected. CONCLUSIONS: Maqui, Calafate, and Blueberry extracts showed anti-inflammatory and antioxidant responses in human macrophages and adipocytes.
  • Autores: Ramos-Lopez, O. ; Cuervo Zapatel, Marta; Goñi Mateos, Leticia; et al.
    Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0002-9165 Vol.111 N° 2 2020 págs. 459 - 470
    Resumen
    Background: Interindividual variability in weight loss and metabolic responses depends upon interactions between genetic, phenotypic, and environmental factors. Objective: We aimed to model an integrative (nutri) prototype based on genetic, phenotypic, and environmental information for the personalized prescription of energy-restricted diets with different macronutrient distribution. Methods: A 4-mo nutritional intervention was conducted in 305 overweight/obese volunteers involving 2 energy-restricted diets (30% restriction) with different macronutrient distribution: a moderately high-protein (MHP) diet (30% proteins, 30% lipids, and 40% carbohydrates) and a low-fat (LF) diet (22% lipids, 18% proteins, and 60% carbohydrates). A total of 201 subjects with good dietary adherence were genotyped for 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to energy homeostasis. Genotyping was performed by targeted next-generation sequencing. Two weighted genetic risk scores for the MHP (wGRS1) and LF (wGRS2) diets were computed using statistically relevant SNPs. Multiple linear regression models were performed to estimate percentage BMI decrease depending on the dietary macronutrient composition. Results: After energy restriction, both the MHP and LF diets induced similar significant decreases in adiposity, body composition, and blood pressure, and improved the lipid profile. Furthermore, statistically relevant differences in anthropometric and biochemical markers depending on sex and age were found. BMI decrease in the MHP diet was best predicted at similar to 28% (optimism-corrected adjusted R-2 = 0.279) by wGRS1 and age, whereas wGRS2 and baseline energy intake explained similar to 29% (optimism-corrected adjusted R-2 = 0.287) of BMI decrease variability in the LF diet. The incorporation of these predictive models into a decision algorithm allowed the personalized prescription of the MHP and LF diets. Conclusions: Different genetic, phenotypic, and exogenous factors predict BMI decreases depending on the administration of a hypocaloric MHP diet or an LF diet. This holistic approach may help to personalize dietary advice for the management of excessive body weight using precision nutrition variables. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02737267.
  • Autores: Moreno Aliaga, María Jesús; Villarroya, F.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
    ISSN 1138-7548 Vol.76 N° 2 2020 págs. 181-184
  • Autores: Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Guruceaga Martínez, Elisabet; et al.
    Revista: MICROORGANISMS
    ISSN 2076-2607 Vol.8 N° 6 2020 págs. 938
    Resumen
    The gut microbiome has been recognized as a tool for understanding adiposity accumulation and for providing personalized nutrition advice for the management of obesity and accompanying metabolic complications. The genetic background is also involved in human energy homeostasis. In order to increase the value of nutrigenetic dietary advice, the interplay between genetics and microbiota must be investigated. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate interactive associations between gut microbiota composition and 95 obesity-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) searched in the literature. Oral mucosa and fecal samples from 360 normal weight, overweight and obese subjects were collected. Next generation genotyping of these 95 SNPs and fecal 16S rRNA sequencing were performed. A genetic risk score (GRS) was constructed with 10 SNPs statistically or marginally associated with body mass index (BMI). Several microbiome statistical analyses at family taxonomic level were applied (LEfSe, Canonical Correspondence Analysis, MetagenomeSeq and Random Forest), and Prevotellaceae family was found in all of them as one of the most important bacterial families associated with BMI and GRS. Thus, in this family it was further analyzed the interactive association between BMI and GRS with linear regression models. Interestingly, women with higher abundance of Prevotellaceae and higher GRS were more obese, compared to women with higher GRS and lower abundance of Prevotellaceae. These findings suggest relevant interrelationships between Prevotellaceae and the genetic background that may determine interindividual BMI differences in women, which opens the way to new precision nutrition-based treatments for obesity.
  • Autores: Landecho Acha, Manuel Fortún (Autor de correspondencia); Alegría-Murillo, L.; López Fidalgo, Jesús Fernando; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
    ISSN 0014-2972 Vol.50 N° 11 2020 págs. e13307
    Resumen
    Background: Obesity is a major public health problem, which continues to be diagnosed and classified by BMI, excluding the most elemental concepts of the precision medicine approach. Obesity does not equally affect males and females, even with the same BMI. Microalbuminuria is a risk marker of cardiovascular disease closely related to obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gender-dependent differences in the development of early obesity-related disease, focusing on pathologic microalbuminuria (PMA). Material and methods: We developed a single-centre cross-sectional study including 1068 consecutive adults from May 2016 to January 2018, divided into two groups: one including the first 787 patients attended, evaluated as a description population; the second group included 281 subjects analysed as an external validation population. Collected data included medical history, anthropometric measures, abdominal bioimpedance and routine laboratory tests. Results: First, we confirmed the lack of accuracy of classic obesity measures in predicting microalbuminuria. Second, we tested the utility of a tailored evaluation to predict PMA, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.78 for females and 0.82 for males. We also confirmed the different physiology of visceral adiposity for males when compared to females, in which small variations of fat mass entail major changes in the clinical repercussion. Third, we performed an external validation of our results, achieving a 77% accuracy rate. Conclusions: Our findings support that there is an individual threshold of fat amount necessary to develop obesity-dependent PMA and that gender plays a major role in the interplay between PMA and adiposity.
  • Autores: Assmann, T. S.; Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; Salas-Perez, F. ; et al.
    Revista: CHRONOBIOLOGY INTERNATIONAL
    ISSN 0742-0528 Vol.37 N° 7 2020 págs. 1048-1058
    Resumen
    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are valuable biomarkers that may provide important insight into the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Moreover, there is an association between chronotypical characteristics and MetS predisposition. Considering that expression of some miRNAs is circadian-rhythm-dependent, the aim of this study was to investigate the circulating miRNA profile in subjects with and without MetS in association with chronotype. The expression of 86 metabolic syndrome-related miRNAs was investigated in the plasma of 21 subjects with MetS and in 82 subjects without MetS using miRCURY LNA miRNA PCR System technology. Chronotype was assessed using the Horne and ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Bioinformatic analyses were performed to explore the target genes and biological pathways regulated by the selected miRNAs. Subjects with MetS were more often evening chronotype compared to non-MetS controls. Additionally, four miRNAs (miR-140-3p, miR-150-5p, miR-375, and miR-29 c-3p) demonstrated interaction with MetS and chronotype. Interestingly, the target genes of these four miRNAs participate in pathways related to the circadian clock. In conclusion, we identified four circulating miRNAs whose circulating levels could interact with MetS and chronotype.
  • Autores: Marin-Alejandre, B. A.; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Monreal Marquiegui, José Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL LIPIDOLOGY
    ISSN 1933-2874 2020
  • Autores: Bullon Vela, Maria Vanessa; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE ENFERMEDADES DIGESTIVAS
    ISSN 1130-0108 Vol.112 N° 2 2020 págs. 94 - 100
  • Autores: Mena-Sánchez, G.; Babió, N.; Becerra-Tomás, N.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
    ISSN 0939-4753 Vol.30 N° 2 2020 págs. 214 - 222
    Resumen
    Background and aims: The prevalence of hyperuricemia has increased substantially in recent decades. It has been suggested that it is an independent risk factor for weight gain, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and cardiovascular disease. Results from epidemiological studies conducted in different study populations have suggested that high consumption of dairy products is associated with a lower risk of developing hyperuricemia. However, this association is still unclear. The aim of the present study is to explore the association of the consumption of total dairy products and their subtypes with the risk of hyperuricemia in an elderly Mediterranean population with MetS. Methods and results: Baseline cross-sectional analyses were conducted on 6329 men/women (mean age 65 years) with overweight/obesity and MetS from the PREDIMED-Plus cohort. Dairy consumption was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regressions were fitted to analyze the association of quartiles of consumption of total dairy products and their subtypes with the prevalence of hyperuricemia. Participants in the upper quartile of the consumption of total dairy products (multiadjusted prevalence ratio (PR) = 0.84; 95% CI: 0.75-0.94; P-trend 0.02), low-fat dairy products (PR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.70-0.89; P-trend <0.001), total milk (PR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.73-0.90; P-trend<0.001), low-fat milk (PR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.72-0.89; P-trend<0.001, respectively), low-fat yogurt (PR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.80-0.98; P-trend 0.051), and cheese (PR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.77-0.96; P-trend 0.003) presented a lower prevalence of hyperuricemia. Whole-fat dairy, fermented dairy, and yogurt consumption were not associated with hyperuricemia. Conclusions: High consumption of total dairy products, total milk, low-fat dairy products, low-fat milk, low-fat yogurt, and cheese is associated with a lower risk of hyperuricemia.
  • Autores: Sáinz Amillo, Neira; Fernández Galilea, Marta; Vasconcelos Costa, Andre Gustavo; et al.
    Revista: FOOD & FUNCTION
    ISSN 2042-6496 Vol.11 N° 10 2020 págs. 9057 - 9066
    Resumen
    Chemerin is a pro-inflammatory adipokine that is increased in obesity and associated with obesity-related comorbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA and DHA), on basal and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced chemerin production in 3T3-L1 and human subcutaneous cultured adipocytes. The potential involvement of G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120), as well as the actions of DHA-derived specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPMs), resolvin D1 and D2 (RvD1 and RvD2) and maresin 1 (MaR1), were also evaluated. DHA significantly lowered both basal and TNF-alpha-stimulated chemerin production in 3T3-L1 and human adipocytes. EPA did not modify basal chemerin production, while it attenuated the induction of chemerin by TNF-alpha. Silencing of GPR120 using siRNA blocked the ability of DHA and EPA to reduce TNF-alpha-induced chemerin secretion. Interestingly, treatment with the DHA-derived SPMs RvD1, RvD2 and MaR1 also reversed the stimulatory effect of TNF-alpha on chemerin production in human adipocytes.
  • Autores: Banaszczak, M.; Maciejewska, D.; Drozd, A.; et al.
    Revista: MEDICINA-LITHUANIA
    ISSN 1010-660X Vol.56 N° 2 2020 págs. 58
    Resumen
    Background: It was previously shown that a bodyweight reduction among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) was connected to the lower concentration of arachidonic and linoleic acid derivatives in their blood. We hypothesized that the concentration of these lipids was correlated with the extent of their body mass reduction and, thus, liver steatosis. Methods: We analyzed 68 individuals who completed the dietary intervention. Patients were divided into two groups depending on their body mass reduction (more or less than 7%). Before and after the dietary intervention, all patients had the following measurements recorded: body mass, waist circumference, stage of steatosis, fatty liver index, liver enzymes, lipid parameters, insulin and glucose. Concentrations of lipoxins A4 (LTX A4), hydroxyeicosatetraenoic fatty acids (5(S)-HETE, 12(S)-HETE and 16(S)-HETE), hydroxyoctadecaenoic acids (9(S)-HODE and 13(S)-HODE) and 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE) were measured in serum samples collected before and after the dietetic intervention using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: Patients who reduced their body mass by more than 7% revealed a significant improvement in their steatosis stage, waist circumference, fatty liver index, triglycerides and cholesterol. Conclusion: A reduction in body mass by more than 7% but not by less than 7% revealed a significant improvement in steatosis stage; waist circumference; fatty liver index; and levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, 5-oxo-ETE and LTXA-4.
  • Autores: Ferreira Todendi, P.; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; Reuter, C. P.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION
    ISSN 0899-9007 Vol.71 2020 págs. UNSP 110645
    Resumen
    Objectives: Lifestyle, obesity, and eating habits are emerging as determinants for the instability of telomeres. The increase in childhood and adolescent obesity and the association of biochemical profiles and dietary components with telomere length (TL) makes it an important issue in nutritional research. The aim of the present study was to investigate TL and its association with ethnic background, adiposity, clinical and biochemical parameters, and dietary patterns among Brazilian children and adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study encompassing 981 children and adolescents between 7 and 17 y of age was performed. Dietary intake habits, anthropometry, and clinical data were collected. TL analysis was performed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: Children presented significantly longer TL than adolescents (P = 0.046). Participants who self-declared as black, mulatto, or brown (P < 0.001) also showed longer TL than those who were white. Regarding biochemical parameters, individuals with altered glucose levels had shorter TL than normoglycemic participants in the total sample (P = 0.014). Such difference remained statistically significant in adolescents (P = 0.019). Participants who reported eating fruits and vegetables regularly had longer TL than those who did not (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The results suggested that both biochemical parameters and the intake of antioxidant-rich food, such as fruits and vegetables, are associated with the stability of telomere biology among young Brazilians.
  • Autores: Carneros, D. ; Medina-Gomez, G. ; Giralt, M.; et al.
    Revista: FASEB JOURNAL
    ISSN 0892-6638 Vol.34 N° 12 2020 págs. 15875-15887
    Resumen
    It is becoming clear that several human pathologies are caused by altered metabolic adaptations. During liver development, there are physiological changes, from the predominant utilization of glucose (fetal life) to the use of lipids (postnatal life). Fasting is another physiological stress that elicits well-known metabolic adjustments. We have reported the metabolic properties of cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), a member of the interleukin-6 family of cytokines. Here, we aimed at analyzing the role of CT-1 in response to these metabolic changes. We used different in vivo models. Furthermore, a differential study was carried out with wild-type and CT-1 null mice in fed (ad libitum) and food-restricted conditions. We demonstrated thatCt-1is a metabolic gene induced in the liver via PPAR alpha in response to lipids in mice (neonates- and food-restricted adults). We found thatCt-1mRNA expression in white adipose tissue directly involved PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma. Finally, the physiological role of CT-1 in fasting is confirmed by the impaired food restriction-induced adipose tissue lipid mobilization in CT-1 null mice. Our findings support a previously unrecognized physiological role of CT-1 in metabolic adaptations, through the regulation of lipid metabolism and contributes to fasting-induced free fatty acid mobilization.
  • Autores: Livingstone, K. M.; Celis-Morales, C.; Navas Carretero, Santiago; et al.
    Revista: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 0007-1145 Vol.123 N° 12 2020 págs. 1396 - 1405
    Resumen
    Little is known about who would benefit from Internet-based personalised nutrition (PN) interventions. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of participants who achieved greatest improvements (i.e. benefit) in diet, adiposity and biomarkers following an Internet-based PN intervention. Adults (n 1607) from seven European countries were recruited into a 6-month, randomised controlled trial (Food4Me) and randomised to receive conventional dietary advice (control) or PN advice. Information on dietary intake, adiposity, physical activity (PA), blood biomarkers and participant characteristics was collected at baseline and month 6. Benefit from the intervention was defined as >= 5 % change in the primary outcome (Healthy Eating Index) and secondary outcomes (waist circumference and BMI, PA, sedentary time and plasma concentrations of cholesterol, carotenoids and omega-3 index) at month 6. For our primary outcome, benefit from the intervention was greater in older participants, women and participants with lower HEI scores at baseline. Benefit was greater for individuals reporting greater self-efficacy for 'sticking to healthful foods' and who 'felt weird if [they] didn't eat healthily'. Participants benefited more if they reported wanting to improve their health and well-being. The characteristics of individuals benefiting did not differ by other demographic, health-related, anthropometric or genotypic characteristics. Findings were similar for secondary outcomes. These findings have implications for the design of more effective future PN intervention studies and for tailored nutritional advice in public health and clinical settings.
  • Autores: Becerra-Tomas, N. ; Mena-Sanchez, G. ; Diaz-Lopez, A. ; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 1436-6207 Vol.59 N° 5 2020 págs. 2195 - 2206
    Resumen
    Purpose: To assess the association between the consumption of non-soy legumes and different subtypes of non-soy legumes and serum uric acid (SUA) or hyperuricemia in elderly individuals with overweight or obesity and metabolic syndrome. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in the framework of the PREDIMED-Plus study. We included 6329 participants with information on non-soy legume consumption and SUA levels. Non-soy legume consumption was estimated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Linear regression models and Cox regression models were used to assess the associations between tertiles of non-soy legume consumption, different subtypes of non-soy legume consumption and SUA levels or hyperuricemia prevalence, respectively. Results: Individuals in the highest tertile (T3) of total non-soy legume, lentil and pea consumption, had 0.14 mg/dL, 0.19 mg/dL and 0.12 mg/dL lower SUA levels, respectively, compared to those in the lowest tertile (T1), which was considered the reference one. Chickpea and dry bean consumption showed no association. In multivariable models, participants located in the top tertile of total non-soy legumes [prevalence ratio (PR): 0.89; 95% CI 0.82-0.97; p trend = 0.01, lentils (PR: 0.89; 95% CI 0.82-0.97; p trend = 0.01), dry beans (PR: 0.91; 95% C: 0.84-0.99; p trend = 0.03) and peas (PR: 0.89; 95% CI 0.82-0.97; p trend = 0.01)] presented a lower prevalence of hyperuricemia (vs. the bottom tertile). Chickpea consumption was not associated with hyperuricemia prevalence. Conclusions: In this study of elderly subjects with metabolic syndrome, we observed that despite being a purine-rich food, non-soy legumes were inversely associated with SUA levels and hyperuricemia prevalence.
  • Autores: Castilla Madrigal, Rosa María; Gil Iturbe, Eva; de Calle, M. L. ; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY
    ISSN 0955-2863 Vol.76 2020 págs. 108264
    Resumen
    Tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-alpha) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine highly-involved in intestinal inflammation. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFAs) show anti-inflammatory actions. We previously demonstrated that the n3-PUFA EPA prevents TNF-alpha inhibition of sugar uptake in Caco-2 cells. Here, we investigated whether the n3-PUFA DHA and its derived specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs) MaR1, RvD1 and RvD2, could block TNF-alpha inhibition of intestinal sugar and glutamine uptake. DHA blocked TNF-alpha-induced inhibition of alpha-methyl-D-glucose (alpha MG) uptake and SGLT1 expression in the apical membrane of Caco-2 cells, through a pathway independent of GPR120. SPMs showed the same preventive effect but acting at concentrations 1000 times lower. In diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, oral gavage of MaR1 reversed the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines found in intestinal mucosa of these mice. However, MaR1 treatment was not able to counteract the reduced intestinal transport of alpha MG and SGLT1 expression in the DIO mice. In Caco-2 cells, TNF-alpha also inhibited glutamine uptake being this inhibition prevented by EPA, DHA and the DHA-derived SPMs. Interestingly, TNF-alpha increased the expression in the apical membrane of the glutamine transporter B(0)AT1. This increase was partially blocked by the n-3 PUFAs. These data reveal DHA and its SPMs as promising biomolecules to restore intestinal nutrients transport during intestinal inflammation. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Autores: Palla, L. (Autor de correspondencia); Chapman, A. ; Beh, E. ; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.12 N° 8 2020 págs. 2235
    Resumen
    This study investigates the relationship between the consumption of foods and eating locations (home, school/work and others) in British adolescents, using data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Program (2008-2012 and 2013-2016). A cross-sectional analysis of 62,523 food diary entries from this nationally representative sample was carried out for foods contributing up to 80% total energy to the daily adolescent's diet. Correspondence analysis (CA) was used to generate food-location relationship hypotheses followed by logistic regression (LR) to quantify the evidence in terms of odds ratios and formally test those hypotheses. The less-healthy foods that emerged from CA were chips, soft drinks, chocolate and meat pies. Adjusted odds ratios (99% CI) for consuming specific foods at a location "other" than home (H) or school/work (S) in the 2008-2012 survey sample were: for soft drinks, 2.8 (2.1 to 3.8) vs. H and 2.0 (1.4 to 2.8) vs. S; for chips, 2.8 (2.2 to 3.7) vs. H and 3.4 (2.1 to 5.5) vs. S; for chocolates, 2.6 (1.9 to 3.5) vs. H and 1.9 (1.2 to 2.9) vs. S; and for meat pies, 2.7 (1.5 to 5.1) vs. H and 1.3 (0.5 to 3.1) vs. S. These trends were confirmed in the 2013-2016 survey sample. Interactions between location and BMI were not significant in either sample. In conclusion, public health policies to discourage less-healthy food choices in locations away from home and school/work are warranted for adolescents, irrespective of their BMI.
  • Autores: Pérez Díaz Del Campo, Nuria; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Cantero González, Irene; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.12 N° 5 2020 págs. 1260
    Resumen
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of liver disease worldwide. Some genetic variants might be involved in the progression of this disease. The study hypothesized that individuals with the rs7359397 T allele have a higher risk of developing severe stages of NAFLD compared with non-carriers where dietary intake according to genotypes could have a key role on the pathogenesis of the disease. SH2B1 genetic variant was genotyped in 110 overweight/obese subjects with NAFLD. Imaging techniques, lipidomic analysis and blood liver biomarkers were performed. Body composition, general biochemical and dietary variables were also determined. The SH2B1 risk genotype was associated with higher HOMA-IR p = 0.001; and Fatty Liver Index (FLI) p = 0.032. Higher protein consumption (p = 0.028), less mono-unsaturated fatty acid and fiber intake (p = 0.045 and p = 0.049, respectively), was also referred to in risk allele genotype. Lipidomic analysis showed that T allele carriers presented a higher frequency of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (69.1% vs. 44.4%; p = 0.006). In the genotype risk group, adjusted logistic regression models indicated a higher risk of developing an advanced stage of NAFLD measured by FLI (OR 2.91) and ultrasonography (OR 4.15). Multinomial logistic regression models showed that risk allele carriers had higher liver fat accumulation risk (RRR 3.93) and an increased risk of NASH (RRR 7.88). Consequently, subjects carrying the T allele were associated with a higher risk of developing a severe stage of NAFLD. These results support the importance of considering genetic predisposition in combination with a healthy dietary pattern in the personalized evaluation and management of NAFLD.
  • Autores: Gil Iturbe, Eva; Félix Soriano, Elisa; Sáinz Amillo, Neira; et al.
    Revista: APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY NUTRITION AND METABOLISM- PHYSIOLOGIE APPLIQUEE NUTRITION ET METABOLISME
    ISSN 1715-5312 Vol.45 N° 9 2020 págs. 957 - 967
    Resumen
    Obesity is characterized by excessive fat accumulation and inflammation. Aging has also been characterized as an inflammatory condition, frequently accompanied by accumulation of visceral fat. Beneficial effects of exercise and 11-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in metabolic disorders have been described. Glucose transporter 12 (GLUT12) is one of the less investigated members of the GLUT family. Glucose, insulin, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) induce GLUT12 translocation to the membrane in muscle, adipose tissue, and intestine. We aimed to investigate GLUT12 expression in obesity and aging, and under diet supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) alone or in combination with physical exercise in mice. Aging increased GLUT12 expression in intestine, kidney, and adipose tissue, whereas obesity reduced it. No changes on the transporter occurred in skeletal muscle. In obese 18-month-old mice, DHA further decreased GLUT12 in the 4 organs. Aerobic exercise alone did not modify GLUT12, but the changes triggered by exercise were able to prevent the DHA-diminishing effect, and almost restored GLUT12 basal levels. In conclusion, the downregulation of metabolism in aging would be a stimulus to upregulate GLUT12 expression. Contrary, obesity, an excessive energy condition, would induce GLUT12 downregulation. The combination of exercise and DHA would contribute to restore basal function of GLUT12.
  • Autores: Fernández Galilea, Marta; Félix Soriano, Elisa; Colón Mesa, Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
    ISSN 1138-7548 Vol.76 N° 2 2020 págs. 251-267
  • Autores: Monserrat-Mesquida, M.; Quetglas-Llabres, M.; Abbate, M.; et al.
    Revista: ANTIOXIDANTS
    ISSN 2076-3921 Vol.9 N° 8 2020 págs. 759
    Resumen
    Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excessive fat accumulation, especially triglycerides, in hepatocytes. If the pathology is not properly treated, it can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and continue to fibrosis, cirrhosis or hepatocarcinoma. Objective: The aim of the current research was to identify the plasma biomarkers of liver damage, oxidative stress and inflammation that facilitate the early diagnosis of the disease and control its progression. Methods: Antioxidant and inflammatory biomarkers were measured in the plasma of patients diagnosed with NAFLD (n= 100 adults; 40-60 years old) living in the Balearic Islands, Spain. Patients were classified according to the intrahepatic fat content (IFC) measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: Circulating glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were higher in patients with an IFC >= 2 of NAFLD in comparison to patients with an IFC of 0 and 1. The plasma levels of catalase, irisin, interleukin-6, malondialdehyde, and cytokeratin 18 were higher in stage >= 2 subjects, whereas the resolvin D1 levels were lower. No differences were observed in xanthine oxidase, myeloperoxidase, protein carbonyl and fibroblast growth factor 21 depending on liver status. Conclusion: The current available data show that the severity of NAFLD is associated with an increase in oxidative stress and proinflammatory status. It may be also useful as diagnostic purpose in clinical practice.
  • Autores: Aranaz Oroz, Paula; Zabala Navó, María; Romo Hualde, Ana; et al.
    Revista: FOOD & FUNCTION
    ISSN 2042-6496 Vol.11 N° 5 2020 págs. 4512 - 4524
    Resumen
    The metabolic properties of omega-6 fatty acid consumption are being increasingly accepted. We had previously observed that supplementation with a borage seed oil (BSO), as a source of linoleic (18:2n-6; LA) and gamma-linolenic (18:3n-6; GLA) acids, reduces body weight and visceral adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity in a diet-induced obesity model of Wistar rats. Here, it was investigated whether the anti-obesogenic properties of BSO could be maintained in a pre-obese model of rats, and if these effects are enhanced by a combination with low doses of quercetin, together with its potential role in the regulation of the adipocyte biology. The combination of BSO and quercetin during 8 weeks was able to ameliorate glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, and to improve liver steatosis. Although no effects were observed on body weight, animals supplemented with this combination exhibited a lower proportion of visceral adiposity. In addition, in vitro differentiation of epididymal adipose-precursor cells of the BSO-treated animals exhibited a down-regulation of Fasn, Glut4, Pparg and Srebp1 genes, in comparison with the control group. Finally, in vitro evaluation of the components of BSO demonstrated that the anti-adipogenic activity of quercetin was significantly potentiated by the combination with both LA and GLA through the down-regulation of different adipogenesis-key genes in 3T3-L1 cells. All these data suggest that omega-6 fatty acids LA and GLA, and their natural sources such as BSO, could be combined with quercetin to potentiate their effects in the prevention of the excess of adiposity and the insulin resistance.
  • Autores: Aranaz Oroz, Paula; Navarro Herrera, D.; Zabala Navó, María; et al.
    Revista: PHARMACEUTICALS
    ISSN 1424-8247 Vol.13 N° 11 2020 págs. 355
    Resumen
    Supplementation with bioactive compounds capable of regulating energy homeostasis is a promising strategy to manage obesity. Here, we have screened the ability of different phenolic compounds (myricetin, kaempferol, naringin, hesperidin, apigenin, luteolin, resveratrol, curcumin and epicatechin), and phenolic acids (p-coumaric, ellagic, ferulic, gallic and vanillic acids) regulating C. elegans fat accumulation. Resveratrol exhibited the strongest lipid-reducing activity, which was accompanied by the improvement of lifespan, oxidative stress and ageing, without affecting worm development. Whole-genome expression microarrays demonstrated that resveratrol affected fat mobilization, fatty acid metabolism, and unfolded protein response of the endoplasmic reticulum (UPRER), mimicking the response to calorie restriction. Apigenin induced the oxidative stress response and lipid mobilization, while vanillic acid affected the unfolded-protein response in ER. In summary, our data demonstrates that phenolic compounds exert a lipid-reducing activity in C. elegans through different biological processes and signaling pathways, including those related with lipid mobilization and fatty acid metabolism, oxidative stress, ageing and UPR-ER response. These findings open the door to the possibility of combining them in order to achieve complementary activity against obesity-related disorders.
  • Autores: Galarregui Miquelarena, Cristina; Marín-Alejandre, B. A.; Pérez Díaz Del Campo, Nuria; et al.
    Revista: DIAGNOSTICS
    ISSN 2075-4418 Vol.10 N° 11 2020
  • Autores: Bullon Vela, Maria Vanessa; Abete Goñi, Itziar (Autor de correspondencia); Tur, J. A.; et al.
    Revista: THERAPEUTIC ADVANCES IN ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM
    ISSN 2042-0188 Vol.11 2020
  • Autores: Bullon Vela, Maria Vanessa; Abete Goñi, Itziar (Autor de correspondencia); Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; et al.
    Revista: MOLECULES
    ISSN 1420-3049 Vol.25 N° 18 2020
  • Autores: Brotons Cantó, Ana (Autor de correspondencia); González Navarro, Carlos Javier; Gurrea, Javier; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF DRUG DELIVERY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
    ISSN 1773-2247 Vol.57 2020 págs. 101704
  • Autores: Paz-Graniel, I. ; Babio, N. ; Becerra¿Tomás, N. ; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 1436-6207 Vol.60 N° 5 2020 págs. 2381 - 2396
    Resumen
    Purpose Coffee is rich in compounds such as polyphenols, caffeine, diterpenes, melanoidins and trigonelline, which can stimulate brain activity. Therefore, the possible association of coffee consumption with cognition is of considerable research interest. In this paper, we assess the association of coffee consumption and total dietary caffeine intake with the risk of poor cognitive functioning in a population of elderly overweight/obese adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods PREDIMED-plus study participants who completed the Mini-Mental State Examination test (MMSE) (n = 6427; mean age = 65 +/- 5 years) or a battery of neuropsychological tests were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Coffee consumption and total dietary caffeine intake were assessed at baseline using a food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the association between total, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption or total dietary caffeine intake and cognitive impairment. Results Total coffee consumers and caffeinated coffee consumers had better cognitive functioning than non-consumers when measured by the MMSE and after adjusting for potential confounders (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.44-0.90 and OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.38-0.83, respectively). Results were similar when cognitive performance was measured using the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) and Trail Making Test B (TMT-B). These associations were not observed for decaffeinated coffee consumption. Participants in the highest tertile of total dietary caffeine intake had lower odds of poor cognitive functioning than those in the reference tertile when screened by the MMSE (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.47-0.87) or other neurophysiological tests evaluating a variety of cognitive domains (i.e., CDT and TMT-A). Conclusions Coffee consumption and total dietary caffeine intake were associated with better cognitive functioning as measured by various neuropsychological tests in a Mediterranean cohort of elderly individuals with MetS.
  • Autores: Bouzas, C.; Bibiloni, M. D. M.; Garcia, S. ; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.12 N° 10 2020
    Resumen
    One-year dietary quality change according to the preceding maximum weight in a lifestyle intervention program (PREDIMED-Plus trial, 55-75-year-old overweight or obese adults; n = 5695) was assessed. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake. A total of 3 groups were made according to the difference between baseline measured weight and lifetime maximum reported weight: (a) participants entering the study at their maximum weight, (b) moderate weight loss maintainers (WLM), and (c) large WLM. Data were analyzed by General Linear Model. All participants improved average lifestyle. Participants entering the study at their maximum weight were the most susceptible to improve significantly their dietary quality, assessed by adherence to Mediterranean diet, DII and both healthful and unhealthful provegetarian patterns. People at maximum weight are the most benefitted in the short term by a weight management program. Long term weight loss efforts may also reduce the effect of a weight management program.
  • Autores: León, I. C.; Quesada Vázquez, S.; Sáinz Amillo, Neira; et al.
    Revista: MICROORGANISMS
    ISSN 2076-2607 Vol.8 N° 8 2020 págs. E-1156
    Resumen
    The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of Maresin 1 (MaR1), a DHA-derived pro-resolving lipid mediator, on obesity-related colonic inflammation and gut dysbiosis in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. In colonic mucosa of DIO mice, the MaR1 treatment decreased the expression of inflammatory genes, such asTnf-alpha andIl-1 beta. As expected, the DIO mice exhibited significant changes in gut microbiota composition at the phylum, genus, and species levels, with a trend to a higher Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. Deferribacteres and Synergistetes also increased in the DIO animals. In contrast, these animals exhibited a significant decrease in the content of Cyanobacteria and Actinobacteria. Treatment with MaR1 was not able to reverse the dysbiosis caused by obesity on the most abundant phyla. However, the MaR1 treatment increased the content ofP. xylanivorans, which have been considered to be a promising probiotic with healthy effects on gut inflammation. Finally, a positive association was found between the Deferribacteres andIl-1 beta expression, suggesting that the increase in Deferribacteres observed in obesity could contribute to the overexpression of inflammatory cytokines in the colonic mucosa. In conclusion, MaR1 administration ameliorates the inflammatory state in the colonic mucosa and partially compensates changes on gut microbiota caused by obesity.
  • Autores: Graham, C. A. M. (Autor de correspondencia); Pedlar, C. R.; Hearne, G.; et al.
    Revista: LIFESTYLE GENOMICS
    ISSN 2504-3161 Vol.13 N° 2 2020 págs. 99 - 106
    Resumen
    Introduction: In the UK, the number of comorbidities seen in children has increased along with the worsening obesity rate. These comorbidities worsen into adulthood. Genome-wide association studies have highlighted single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the weight status of adults and offspring individually. To date, in the UK, parental genetic, lifestyle, and social determinants of health have not been investigated alongside one another as influencers of offspring weight status. A comprehensive obesity prevention scheme would commence prior to conception and involve parental intervention including all known risk factors. This current study aims to identify the proportion of overweight that can be explained by known parental risk factors, including genetic, lifestyle, and social determinants of health with offspring weight status in the UK. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 123 parents. Parental and offspring anthropometric data and parental lifestyle and social determinants of health data were self-reported. Parental genetic data were collected by use of GeneFiX saliva collection vials and genotype were assessed for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene rs6265, melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene rs17782313, transmembrane protein 18 (TMEM18) gene rs2867125, and serine/threonine-protein kinase (TNN13K) gene rs1514175. Associations were assessed between parental data and the weight status of offspring. Results: Maternal body mass index modestly predicted child weight status (p < 0.015; R-2 = 0.15). More mothers of overweight children carried the MC4R rs17782313 risk allele (77.8%; p = 0.007) compared to mothers of normal-weight children. Additionally, fathers who were not Caucasian and parents who slept for <7 h/night had a larger percentage of overweight children when compared to their counterparts (p = 0.039; p = 0.014, respectively). Conclusion: Associations exist between the weight status of offspring based solely on parental genetic, lifestyle, and social determinants of health data. Further research is required to appropriately address future interventions based on genetic and lifestyle risk groups on a pre-parent cohort.
  • Autores: Assmann, T. S.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE
    ISSN 1582-1838 Vol.24 N° 5 2020 págs. 2956 - 2967
    Resumen
    Recent studies have revealed the critical role of several microRNAs (miRNAs) in energy homeostasis and metabolic processes and suggest that circulating miRNAs can be used as early predictors of weight loss in the design of precision nutrition. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate circulating adiposity-related miRNAs as biomarkers of the response to two specific weight loss dietary treatments. The expression of 86 miRNAs was investigated in plasma of 78 subjects with obesity randomized to two different diets [moderately high-protein diet (n = 38) and low-fat diet (n = 40)] and in 25 eutrophic controls (BMI <= 25 kg/m(2)). Bioinformatic analyses were performed to explore the target genes and biological pathways regulated by the dysregulated miRNAs. As results, 26 miRNAs were found differently expressed in eutrophic and volunteers with obesity. Moreover, 7 miRNAs (miR-130a-3p, miR-142-5p, miR-144-5p, miR-15a-5p, miR-22-3p, miR-221-3p and miR-29c-3p) were differentially expressed between responders and non-responders to a low-fat diet. Furthermore, after adjustment for basal glucose levels, 1-SD increase in miR-22-3p expression was associated with reduction in the risk of non-response to low-fat diet [OR = 0.181, 95% CI (0.084-0.947), P = .043]. Bioinformatic analyses evidenced that these 7 miRNAs regulate the expression of genes participating in important metabolic pathways. Conclusively, 7 circulating miRNAs related to adiposity could be used for predicting the response to a low-fat diet intervention prescribed to lose weight.
  • Autores: Swindell, N. (Autor de correspondencia); Rees, P.; Fogelholm, M.; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
    ISSN 1479-5868 Vol.17 N° 1 2020 págs. 29
    Resumen
    Background Physical activity, sedentary time and sleep have been shown to be associated with cardio-metabolic health. However, these associations are typically studied in isolation or without accounting for the effect of all movement behaviours and the constrained nature of data that comprise a finite whole such as a 24 h day. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the composition of daily movement behaviours (including sleep, sedentary time (ST), light intensity physical activity (LIPA) and moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA)) and cardio-metabolic health, in a cross-sectional analysis of adults with pre-diabetes. Further, we quantified the predicted differences following reallocation of time between behaviours. Methods Accelerometers were used to quantify daily movement behaviours in 1462 adults from eight countries with a body mass index (BMI) >= 25 kg center dot m(- 2), impaired fasting glucose (IFG; 5.6-6.9 mmol center dot l(- 1)) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; 7.8-11.0 mmol center dot l(- 1) 2 h following oral glucose tolerance test, OGTT). Compositional isotemporal substitution was used to estimate the association of reallocating time between behaviours. Results Replacing MVPA with any other behaviour around the mean composition was associated with a poorer cardio-metabolic risk profile. Conversely, when MVPA was increased, the relationships with cardiometabolic risk markers was favourable but with smaller predicted changes than when MVPA was replaced. Further, substituting ST with LIPA predicted improvements in cardio-metabolic risk markers, most notably insulin and HOMA-IR. Conclusions This is the first study to use compositional analysis of the 24 h movement composition in adults with overweight/obesity and pre-diabetes. These findings build on previous literature that suggest replacing ST with LIPA may produce metabolic benefits that contribute to the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, the asymmetry in the predicted change in risk markers following the reallocation of time to/from MVPA highlights the importance of maintaining existing levels of MVPA.
  • Autores: Assmann, T. S. ; Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
    ISSN 1422-0067 Vol.21 N° 24 2020
    Resumen
    Background: The determinants that mediate the interactions between microRNAs and the gut microbiome impacting on obesity are scarcely understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate possible interactions between circulating microRNAs and gut microbiota composition in obesity. Method: The sample comprised 78 subjects with obesity (cases, body mass index (BMI): 30-40 kg/m(2)) and 25 eutrophic individuals (controls, BMI <= 25 kg/m(2)). The expression of 96 microRNAs was investigated in plasma of all individuals using miRCURY LNA miRNA Custom PCR Panels. Bacterial DNA sequencing was performed following the Illumina 16S protocol. The FDR correction was used for multiple comparison analyses. Results: A total of 26 circulating microRNAs and 12 bacterial species were found differentially expressed between cases and controls. Interestingly, an interaction among three miRNAs (miR-130b-3p, miR-185-5p and miR-21-5p) with Bacteroides eggerthi and BMI levels was evidenced (r(2) = 0.148, p = 0.004). Moreover, these microRNAs regulate genes that participate in metabolism-related pathways, including fatty acid degradation, insulin signaling and glycerolipid metabolism. Conclusions: This study characterized an interaction between the abundance of 4 bacterial species and 14 circulating microRNAs in relation to obesity. Moreover, the current study also suggests that miRNAs may serve as a communication mechanism between the gut microbiome and human hosts.
  • Autores: Ramos-López, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.12 N° 1 2020 págs. 33
    Resumen
    This study aimed to nutrigenetically screen gene-diet and gene-metabolic interactions influencing insulin resistance (IR) phenotypes. A total of 232 obese or overweight adults were categorized by IR status: non-IR (HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment - insulin resistance) index <= 2.5) and IR (HOMA-IR index > 2.5). A weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) was constructed using 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms related to energy homeostasis, which were genotyped by a next generation sequencing system. Body composition, the metabolic profile and lifestyle variables were evaluated, where individuals with IR showed worse metabolic outcomes. Overall, 16 obesity-predisposing genetic variants were associated with IR (p < 0.10 in the multivariate model). The wGRS strongly associated with the HOMA-IR index (adj. R squared = 0.2705, p < 0.0001). Moreover, the wGRS positively interacted with dietary intake of cholesterol (P int. = 0.002), and with serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (P int. = 0.008) regarding IR status, whereas a negative interaction was found regarding adiponectin blood levels (P int. = 0.006). In conclusion, this study suggests that interactions between an adiposity-based wGRS with nutritional and metabolic/endocrine features influence IR phenotypes, which could facilitate the prescription of personalized nutrition recommendations for precision prevention and management of IR and diabetes.
  • Autores: Santos, J. L. (Autor de correspondencia); Krause, B. J. ; Cataldo, L. R.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.12 N° 9 2020 págs. 2790
    Resumen
    Methylation in CpG sites of the PPARGC1A gene (encoding PGC1-alpha) has been associated with adiposity, insulin secretion/sensitivity indexes and type 2 diabetes. We assessed the association between the methylation profile of the PPARGC1A gene promoter gene in leukocytes with insulin secretion/sensitivity indexes in normoglycemic women. A standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and an abbreviated version of the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) were carried out in n = 57 Chilean nondiabetic women with measurements of plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide. Bisulfite-treated DNA from leukocytes was evaluated for methylation levels in six CpG sites of the proximal promoter of the PPARGC1A gene by pyrosequencing (positions -816, -783, -652, -617, -521 and -515). A strong correlation between the DNA methylation percentage of different CpG sites of the PPARGC1A promoter in leukocytes was found, suggesting an integrated epigenetic control of this region. We found a positive association between the methylation levels of the CpG site -783 with the insulin sensitivity Matsuda composite index (rho = 0.31; p = 0.02) derived from the OGTT. The CpG hypomethylation in the promoter position -783 of the PPARGC1A gene in leukocytes may represent a biomarker of reduced insulin sensitivity after the ingestion of glucose.
  • Autores: Sánchez-Quesada, C.; Toledo Atucha, Estefanía; González-Mata, G.; et al.
    Revista: ATHEROSCLEROSIS
    ISSN 0021-9150 Vol.314 2020 págs. 48 - 57
  • Autores: Marcos-Delgado, A.; Fernández-Villa, T. (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH
    ISSN 1660-4601 Vol.17 N° 10 2020
  • Autores: Marin-Alejandre, B. A.; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Pérez Díaz Del Campo, Nuria; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
    ISSN 0250-6807 Vol.76 N° Supl. 4 2020 págs. 57 - 58
  • Autores: Marin-Alejandre, B. A.; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Cantero González, Irene; et al.
    Revista: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY
    ISSN 0029-6651 Vol.79 N° OCE2 2020 págs. E373
  • Autores: Arpon Miranda, Ana; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY
    ISSN 0029-6651 Vol.79 N° OCE2 2020 págs. E398 - E398
  • Autores: Galarregui Miquelarena, Cristina; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; Marin-Alejandre, B. A.; et al.
    Revista: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY
    ISSN 0029-6651 Vol.79 N° OCE2 2020 págs. E96
  • Autores: Bullon Vela, Maria Vanessa; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; et al.
    Revista: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY
    ISSN 0029-6651 Vol.79 N° OCE2 2020 págs. E378 - E378
  • Autores: Galarregui Miquelarena, Cristina; Marin-Alejandre, B. A. ; Pérez Díaz Del Campo, Nuria; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
    ISSN 0250-6807 Vol.76 N° Supl. 4 2020 págs. 55
  • Autores: Lorente Cebrián, Silvia (Autor de correspondencia); González Muniesa, Pedro; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL SCIENCE
    ISSN 0143-5221 Vol.133 N° 1 2019 págs. 23 - 40
    Resumen
    Obesity is a metabolic condition usually accompanied by insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes (T2D), and dyslipidaemia, which is characterised by excessive fat accumulation and related to white adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction. Enlargement of WAT is associated with a transcriptional alteration of coding and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). For many years, big efforts have focused on understanding protein-coding RNAs and their involvement in the regulation of adipocyte physiology and subsequent role in obesity. However, diverse findings have suggested that a dysfunctional adipocyte phenotype in obesity might be also dependent on specific alterations in the expression pattern of ncRNAs, such as miRNAs. The aim of this review is to update current knowledge on the physiological roles of miRNAs and other ncRNAs in adipose tissue function and their potential impact on obesity. Therefore, we examined their regulatory role on specific WAT features: adipogenesis, adipokine secretion, inflammation, glucose metabolism, lipolysis, lipogenesis, hypoxia and WAT browning. MiRNAs can be released to body fluids and can be transported (free or inside microvesicles) to other organs, where they might trigger metabolic effects in distant tissues, thus opening new possibilities to a potential use of miRNAs as biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and personalisation of obesity treatment. Understanding the role of miRNAs also opens the possibility of using these molecules on individualised dietary strategies for precision weight management. MiRNAs should be envisaged as a future therapeutic approach given that miRNA levels could be modulated by synthetic molecules (f.i. miRNA mimics and inhibitors) and/or specific nutrients or bioactive compounds.
  • Autores: Taberna Huesa, Daniel José; Navas Carretero, Santiago (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
    Revista: CURRENT OPINION IN CLINICAL NUTRITION AND METABOLIC CARE
    ISSN 1363-1950 Vol.22 N° 5 2019 págs. 323 - 328
    Resumen
    A variety of questionnaires, equations and tools were found with ability to assess nutritional status for metabolic care or clinical nutrition purposes, but apparently there is no optimal, universal and reliable nutritional status screening system for all metabolic conditions. Novel assessment instruments should provide high sensibility and specificity, be precise and reliable as well as inexpensive and simple, in order to avoid the additional burden of excessive loads of costs, work and time while dynamically overcoming the influence of disease diversity.
  • Autores: Barron-Cabrera, E. ; Ramos-Lopez, O.; Gonzalez-Becerra, K.; et al.
    Revista: LIFESTYLE GENOMICS
    ISSN 2504-3161 Vol.12 N° 1 2019 págs. 25 - 44
    Resumen
    Background: Chronic diseases arise as a consequence of an unhealthy lifestyle primarily characterized by physical inactivity and unbalanced diets. Regular physical activity can improve health, and there is consistent evidence that these improvements may be the result of epigenetic modifications. Objective: To identify epigenetic modificationsas outcomes of exercise interventions related to specific metabolic alterations. Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) methodology for manuscript research and preparation was followed using PubMed and EBSCO databases for literature review. Out of 2,638 articles identified, only 34 articles met the inclusion criteria. Results: The sections of the review were organized by metabolic alterations in which studies were grouped according to healthy, diseased, and trained individuals. Resistance exercise in humans induced epigenetic changes in pathways associated with energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity, contributing to healthy skeletal muscle. Endurance exercise also caused modifications in biomarkers associated to metabolic alterations through changes in DNA methylation and the expression of specific miRNAs. However, both resistance and endurance exercise are necessary to obtain a better physiological adaptation and a combination of both seems to be needed to properly tackle the increasing prevalence of non-communicable pathologies. Conclusion: Given the heterogeneity and complexity of the existing literature, it is currently not possible to propose a specific recommendation about the type, intensity, or duration of exercise that could be beneficial for different subsets of the population (healthy, diseased, and/or trained). Nevertheless, this review highlights the importance of exercise for health and shows the need to perform more research in this emerging area to identify epigenetic biomarkers that could serve as indicators of exercise adaptations.
  • Autores: Gonzalez-Becerra, K.; Ramos-Lopez, O.; Barron-Cabrera, E. ; et al.
    Revista: LIPIDS IN HEALTH AND DISEASE
    ISSN 1476-511X Vol.18 N° 1 2019
    Resumen
    Background Chronic illnesses like obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases, are worldwide major causes of morbidity and mortality. These pathological conditions involve interactions between environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Recent advances in nutriepigenomics are contributing to clarify the role of some nutritional factors, including dietary fatty acids in gene expression regulation. This systematic review assesses currently available information concerning the role of the different fatty acids on epigenetic mechanisms that affect the development of chronic diseases or induce protective effects on metabolic alterations. Methods A targeted search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline databases using the keywords "fatty acids and epigenetic". The data were analyzed according to the PRISMA-P guidelines. Results Consumption fatty acids like n-3 PUFA: EPA and DHA, and MUFA: oleic and palmitoleic acid was associated with an improvement of metabolic alterations. On the other hand, fatty acids that have been associated with the presence or development of obesity, T2D, pro-inflammatory profile, atherosclerosis and IR were n-6 PUFA, saturated fatty acids (stearic and palmitic), and trans fatty acids (elaidic), have been also linked with epigenetic changes. Conclusions Fatty acids can regulate gene expression by modifying epigenetic mechanisms and consequently result in positive or negative impacts on metabolic outcomes.
  • Autores: Yang, J. C. Z.; Fernández Galilea, Marta; Martínez Fernández, Leyre; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.11 N° 4 2019
    Resumen
    Aging is a complex phenomenon characterized by the progressive loss of tissue and organ function. The oxidative-stress theory of aging postulates that age-associated functional losses are due to the accumulation of ROS-induced damage. Liver function impairment and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are common among the elderly. NAFLD can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and evolve to hepatic cirrhosis or hepatic carcinoma. Oxidative stress, lipotoxicity, and inflammation play a key role in the progression of NAFLD. A growing body of evidence supports the therapeutic potential of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), mainly docosahaexenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), on metabolic diseases based on their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we performed a systematic review of clinical trials analyzing the efficacy of n-3 PUFA on both systemic oxidative stress and on NAFLD/NASH features in adults. As a matter of fact, it remains controversial whether n-3 PUFA are effective to counteract oxidative stress. On the other hand, data suggest that n-3 PUFA supplementation may be effective in the early stages of NAFLD, but not in patients with more severe NAFLD or NASH. Future perspectives and relevant aspects that should be considered when planning new randomized controlled trials are also discussed.
  • Autores: Lorente Cebrián, Silvia; Herrera, K.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
    ISSN 1422-0067 Vol.20 N° 23 2019 págs. 5998
    Resumen
    Obesity prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. With the discovery of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans, BAT activation has emerged as a potential strategy for increasing energy expenditure. Recently, the presence of a third type of fat, referred to as beige or brite (brown in white), has been recognized to be present in certain kinds of white adipose tissue (WAT) depots. It has been suggested that WAT can undergo the process of browning in response to stimuli that induce and enhance the expression of thermogenesis: a metabolic feature typically associated with BAT. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small transcriptional regulators that control gene expression in a variety of tissues, including WAT and BAT. Likewise, it was shown that several food compounds could influence miRNAs associated with browning, thus, potentially contributing to the management of excessive adipose tissue accumulation (obesity) through specific nutritional and dietetic approaches. Therefore, this has created significant excitement towards the development of a promising dietary strategy to promote browning/beiging in WAT to potentially contribute to combat the growing epidemic of obesity. For this reason, we summarize the current knowledge about miRNAs and food compounds that could be applied in promoting adipose browning, as well as the cellular mechanisms involved.
  • Autores: Livingstone, K. M. (Autor de correspondencia); Celis-Morales, C.; Lara, J.; et al.
    Revista: PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION
    ISSN 1368-9800 Vol.22 N° 11 2019 págs. 2141 - 2146
  • Autores: Gessani, S. (Autor de correspondencia); Van Duijnhoven, F. J.; Moreno Aliaga, María Jesús
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY
    ISSN 1664-3224 Vol.10 2019 págs. 2598
  • Autores: Crujeiras Martínez, Ana Belén; Cordero Sánchez, Paul; García Díaz, Diego Fernando; et al.
    Revista: OXIDATIVE MEDICINE AND CELLULAR LONGEVITY
    ISSN 1942-0900 2019
  • Autores: Gibney, M. J. (Autor de correspondencia); O'Sullivan, A. ; Flynn, A.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.11 N° 1 2019
    Resumen
    The present study set out to explore the option of developing food portion size for nutritional labelling purposes using two European Union (EU) dietary surveys. The surveys were selected as they differed in (a) methodologies (food diary versus food frequency questionnaire), (b) populations (Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) versus a seven-country survey based on the pan EU study Food4Me), (c) food quantification (multiple options versus solely photographic album) and (d) duration (4 consecutive days versus recent month). Using data from these studies, portion size was determined for 15 test foods, where portion size was defined as the median intake of a target food when consumed. The median values of the portion sizes derived from both the NANS and Food4Me surveys were correlated (r = 0.823; p < 0.00) and the mean of the two survey data sets were compared to US values from the Recognized as Customarily Consumed (RACC) database. There was very strong agreement across all food categories between the averaged EU and the US portion size (r = 0.947; p < 0.00). It is concluded that notwithstanding the variety of approaches used for dietary survey data in the EU, the present data supports using a standardized approach to food portion size quantification for food labelling in the EU.
  • Autores: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION AND CANCER-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL
    ISSN 0163-5581 Vol.71 N° 5 2019 págs. 840 - 851
    Resumen
    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are independent risk factors for the onset and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to analyze the association of DNA methylation signatures at HCC pathway genes with obesity and related metabolic disturbances. A population of 474 adults within the Methyl Epigenome Network Association (MENA) project was included. DNA methylation levels were measured in white blood cells by microarray. The identification and discrimination of HCC pathway genes were performed using KEGG and PathDIP databases. Anthropometry measurements, the blood metabolic profile, and clinical data were analyzed. The methylation patterns of 20 CpG sites at HCC pathway genes strongly correlated with BMI (FDR <0.0001). These genes encompassed GADD45A, MTOR, FRAT2, E2F3, WNT7B, FRAT1, LRP5, DPF3, GSTA2, APC, MYC, WNT10B, ARID1B, AKT1, GSTA1, WNT5A, CDK4, GAB1, TCF7, which statistically contributed to the regulation of the HCC pathway (P = 2.10e-07). The main biological process where these genes were implicated included uncontrolled cell proliferation, DNA damage, increased survival, and altered oncogenic expression. Interestingly, 9 out of 20 BMI-associated CpGs also correlated with waist circumference and HOMA-IR index. In conclusion, pathway analysis revealed potential associations of DNA methylation signatures at HCC pathway genes with adiposity and insulin resistance phenotypes.
  • Autores: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: GENES AND NUTRITION
    ISSN 1555-8932 Vol.14 2019 págs. 11
    Resumen
    BACKGROUND: Olfaction is an important sense influencing food preferences, appetite, and eating behaviors. This hypothesis-driven study aimed to assess associations between olfactory pathway gene methylation signatures, obesity features, and dietary intakes. METHODS: A nutriepigenomic analysis was conducted in 474 adults from the Methyl Epigenome Network Association (MENA) project. Anthropometric measurements, clinical data, and serum metabolic profiles of the study population were obtained from structured databases of the MENA cohorts. Habitual dietary intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. DNA methylation was measured in circulating white blood cells by microarray (Infinium Human Methylation 450¿K BeadChips). FDR values (p <¿0.0001) were used to select those CpGs that showed the best correlation with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Pathway analyses involving the characterization of genes involved in the olfactory transduction system were performed using KEGG and pathDIP reference databases. RESULTS: Overall, 15 CpG sites at olfactory pathway genes were associated with BMI (p <¿0.0001) and WC (p <¿0.0001) after adjustments for potential confounding factors. Together, methylation levels at the15 CpG sites accounted for 22% and 20% of the variability in BMI and WC (r 2 =¿0.219, p <¿0.001, and r 2 =¿0.204, p <¿0.001, respectively). These genes encompassed olfactory receptors (OR4D2, OR51A7, OR2T34, and OR2Y1) and several downstream signaling molecules (SLC8A1, ANO2, PDE2A, CALML3, GNG7, CALML6, PRKG1, and CAMK2D), which significantly regulated odor detection and signal transduction processes within the complete olfactory cascade, as revealed by pathway enrichment analyses (p =¿1.94¿×¿10-10). Moreover, OR4D2 and OR2Y1 gene methylation patterns strongly correlated with daily intakes of total energy (p <¿0.0001), carbohydrates (p <¿0.0001), protein (p <¿0.0001), and fat (p <¿0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest novel relationships between olfactory pathway gene methylation signatures, obesity indices, and dietary intakes.
  • Autores: Salas-Salvado, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Diaz-Lopez, A.; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; et al.
    Revista: DIABETES CARE
    ISSN 0149-5992 Vol.42 N° 5 2019 págs. 777 - 788
    Resumen
    OBJECTIVE The long-term impact of intentional weight loss on cardiovascular events remains unknown. We describe 12-month changes in body weight and cardiovascular risk factors in PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea (PREDIMED)-Plus, a trial designed to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of an intensive weight loss lifestyle intervention on primary cardiovascular prevention. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Overweight/obese adults with metabolic syndrome aged 55-75 years (n = 626) were randomized to an intensive weight loss lifestyle intervention based on an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet, physical activity promotion, and behavioral support (IG) or a control group (CG). The primary and secondary outcomes were changes in weight and cardiovascular risk markers, respectively. RESULTS Diet and physical activity changes were in the expected direction, with significant improvements in IG versus CG. After 12 months, IG participants lost an average of 3.2 kg vs. 0.7 kg in the CG (P < 0.001), a mean difference of -2.5 kg (95% CI -3.1 to -1.9). Weight loss >= 5% occurred in 33.7% of IG participants compared with 11.9% in the CG (P < 0.001). Compared with the CG, cardiovascular risk factors, including waist circumference, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol, significantly improved in IG participants (P < 0.002). Reductions in insulin resistance, HbA(1c), and circulating levels of leptin, interleukin-18, and MCP-1 were greater in IG than CG participants (P < 0.05). IG participants with prediabetes/diabetes significantly improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity, along with triglycerides and HDL cholesterol levels compared with their CG counterparts. CONCLUSIONS PREDIMED-Plus intensive lifestyle intervention for 12 months was effective in decreasing adiposity and improving cardiovascular risk factors in overweight/obese older adults with metabolic syndrome, as well as in individuals with or at risk for diabetes.
  • Autores: Gil Iturbe, Eva; Castilla Madrigal, Rosa María; Barreneche Huici, Jayone; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY
    ISSN 0021-9541 Vol.234 N° 4 2019 págs. 4396-4408
  • Autores: Navas Carretero, Santiago (Autor de correspondencia); San Cristóbal Blanco, Rodrigo; Livingstone, K. M. ; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCES AND NUTRITION
    ISSN 0963-7486 Vol.70 N° 2 2019 págs. 240 - 253
    Resumen
    The objective was to evaluate differences in macronutrient intake and to investigate the possible association between consumption of vegetable protein and the risk of overweight/obesity, within the Food4Me randomised, online intervention. Differences in macronutrient consumption among the participating countries grouped by EU Regions (Western Europe, British Isles, Eastern Europe and Southern Europe) were assessed. Relation of protein intake, within isoenergetic exchange patterns, from vegetable or animal sources with risk of overweight/obesity was assessed through the multivariate nutrient density model and a multivariate-adjusted logistic regression. A total of 2413 subjects who completed the Food4Me screening were included, with self-reported data on age, weight, height, physical activity and dietary intake. As success rates on reducing overweight/obesity are very low, form a public health perspective, the elaboration of policies for increasing intakes of vegetable protein and reducing animal protein and sugars, may be a method of combating overweight/obesity at a population level.
  • Autores: Rosique-Esteban, N. ; Babio, N.; Diaz-Lopez, A.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0261-5614 Vol.38 N° 3 2019 págs. 1324 - 1331
    Resumen
    Aims: We aimed to examine the associations of leisure-time physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with the prevalence of sarcopenia, body composition and muscle strength among older adults having overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome, from the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Methods: Cross-sectional baseline analysis including 1539 men and women (65 +/- 5 y). Sarcopenia was defined as low muscle mass (according to FNIH cut-offs) plus low muscle strength (lowest sex-specific tertile for 30-s chair-stand test). We applied multivariable-adjusted Cox regression with robust variance and constant time (given the cross-sectional design) for the associations of self-reported leisure time PA and SB with sarcopenia; and multivariable-linear regression for the associations with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived bone mass, fat mass, lean mass and lower-limb muscle strength. Results: Inverse associations were observed between sarcopenia and each hourly increment in total [prevalence ratio 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.70, 0.93)], moderate [0.80 (0.66, 0.97)], vigorous [0.51 (0.32, 0.84)], and moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) [0.74 (0.62, 0.89)]. Incrementing 1-h/day total-PA and MVPA was inversely associated with body-mass-index, waist circumference (WC), fat mass, and positively associated with bone mass and lower-limb muscle strength (all P<.05). One h/day increase in total SB, screen-based SB and TV-viewing was positively associated with body-mass-index, WC and fat mass. Light-PA was not significantly associated with any outcome. Conclusions: Total-PA and PA at moderate and high intensities may protect against the prevalence of sarcopenia, have a beneficial role on body composition and prevent loss of muscle strength. SB, particularly TV-viewing, may have detrimental effects on body composition in older adults at high cardiovascular risk. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
  • Autores: Cantero González, Irene; Elorz Carlón, Mariana; Abete Goñi, Itziar; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES
    ISSN 1449-1907 Vol.16 N° 1 2019 págs. 75 - 83
    Resumen
    Introduction: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may progress to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and complicated hepatocellular carcinoma with defined differential symptoms and manifestations. Objective: To evaluate the fatty liver status by several validated approaches and to compare imaging techniques, lipidomic and routine blood markers with magnetic resonance imaging in adults subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Materials and methods: A total of 127 overweight/obese with NAFLD, were parallelly assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), ultrasonography, transient elastography and a validated metabolomic designed test to diagnose NAFLD in this cross-sectional study. Body composition (DXA), hepatic related biochemical measurements as well as the Fatty Liver Index (FLI) were evaluated. This study was registered as FLiO: Fatty Liver in Obesity study; NCT03183193. Results: The subjects with more severe liver disease were found to have worse metabolic parameters. Positive associations between MRI with inflammatory and insulin biomarkers were found. A linear regression model including ALT, RBP4 and HOMA-IR was able to explain 40.9% of the variability in fat content by MRI. In ROC analyses a combination panel formed of ALT, HOMA-IR and RBP4 followed by ultrasonography, ALT and metabolomic test showed the major predictive ability (77.3%, 74.6%, 74.3% and 71.1%, respectively) for liver fat content. Conclusions: A panel combination including routine blood markers linked to insulin resistance showed highest associations with MRI considered as a gold standard for determining liver fat content. This combination of tests can facilitate the diagnosis of early stages of non-alcoholic liver disease thereby avoiding other invasive and expensive methods.
  • Autores: Cabello-Olmo, M. ; Oneca, M. ; Torre, P. ; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.11 N° 10 2019 págs. 2530
    Resumen
    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease, which involves a maintained hyperglycemia due to the development of an insulin resistance process. Among multiple risk factors, host intestinal microbiota has received increasing attention in T2D etiology and progression. In the present study, we have explored the effect of long-term supplementation with a non-dairy fermented food product (FFP) in Zucker Diabetic and Fatty (ZDF) rats T2D model. The supplementation with FFP induced an improvement in glucose homeostasis according to the results obtained from fasting blood glucose levels, glucose tolerance test, and pancreatic function. Importantly, a significantly reduced intestinal glucose absorption was found in the FFP-treated rats. Supplemented animals also showed a greater survival suggesting a better health status as a result of the FFP intake. Some dissimilarities have been observed in the gut microbiota population between control and FFP-treated rats, and interestingly a tendency for better cardiometabolic markers values was appreciated in this group. However, no significant differences were observed in body weight, body composition, or food intake between groups. These findings suggest that FFP induced gut microbiota modifications in ZDF rats that improved glucose metabolism and protected from T2D development.
  • Autores: Samblas García, Mirian; Mansego Talavera, María Luisa; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 1436-6207 Vol.58 N° 5 2019 págs. 1971 - 1980
    Resumen
    Purpose The interindividual variable response to weight-loss treatments requires the search for new predictive biomarkers for improving the success of weight-loss programs. The aim of this study is to identify novel genes that distinguish individual responses to a weight-loss dietary treatment by using the integrative analysis of mRNA expression and DNA methylation arrays. Methods Subjects from Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra (RESMENA) project were classified as low (LR) or high (HR) responders depending on their weight loss. Transcriptomic (n=24) and epigenomic (n=47) patterns were determined by array-based genome-wide technologies in human white blood cells at the baseline of the treatment period. CD44 expression was validated by qRT-PCR and methylation degree of CpGs of the gene was validated by MassARRAY((R)) EpiTYPER (TM) in a subsample of 47 subjects. CD44 protein levels were measured by ELISA in human plasma. Results Different expression and DNA methylation profiles were identified in LR in comparison to HR. The integrative analysis of both array data identified four genes: CD44, ITPR1, MTSS1 and FBXW5 that were differently methylated and expressed between groups. CD44 showed higher expression and lower DNA methylation levels in LR than in HR. Although differences in CD44 protein levels between LR and HR were not statistically significant, a positive association was observed between CD44 mRNA expression and protein levels. Conclusions In summary, the combination of a genome-wide methylation and expression array dataset can be a useful strategy to identify novel genes that might be considered as predictors of the dietary response. CD44 gene transcription and methylation may be a possible candidate biomarker for weight-loss prediction.
  • Autores: Aranaz Oroz, Paula; Navarro-Herrera, D.; Romo Hualde, Ana; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS
    ISSN 1756-4646 Vol.59 2019 págs. 319 - 328
    Resumen
    Brassicaceae contain bioactive compounds with potential positive effects on metabolic syndrome. Here, we evaluated the eventual anti-obesity properties of an ethanolic broccoli extract (BE), selected by a tested ability to reduce Caenorhabditis elegans fat content. Two doses (14 and 140 mg/kg animal) of BE were evaluated in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) Wistar rat model. After 10 weeks of BE supplementation, animals exhibited reduced body weight gain and food efficiency, decreased atherogenic index of plasma and improved glucose tolerance in comparison with non-supplemented rats. BE also reduced the retroperitoneal fat mass and adipocyte size, all associated to down-regulation of Cebpa, Srebp1, Fasn and Adipoq expression in adipocytes. Finally, BE significantly decreased liver steatosis, accompanied by the up-regulation of Acot8 and Acox1, and the down-regulation of Fasn, Fatp4 and Srebf1 expression in hepatocytes. Our data provides new knowledge about the potential role of broccoli components in the prevention of metabolic syndrome.
  • Autores: Tresserra-Rimbau, A. (Autor de correspondencia); Castro-Barquero, S. ; Vitelli-Storelli, F.; et al.
    Revista: ANTIOXIDANTS
    ISSN 2076-3921 Vol.8 N° 11 2019 págs. 537
    Resumen
    Overweight and obesity are important risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Moving towards healthier diets, namely, diets rich in bioactive compounds, could decrease the odds of suffering T2D. However, those individuals with high body mass index (BMI) may have altered absorption or metabolism of some nutrients and dietary components, including polyphenols. Therefore, we aimed to assess whether high intakes of some classes of polyphenols are associated with T2D in a population with metabolic syndrome and how these associations depend on BMI and sex. This baseline cross-sectional analysis includes 6633 participants from the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Polyphenol intakes were calculated from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). Cox regression models with constant time at risk and robust variance estimators were used to estimate the prevalence ratios (PRs) for polyphenol intake and T2D prevalence using the lowest quartile as the reference group. Analyses were stratified by sex and BMI groups (overweight and obese) to evaluate potential effect modification. Catechins, proanthocyanidins, hydroxybenzoic acids, and lignans were inversely associated with T2D. Hydroxycinnamic acids were directly related in men. These associations were different depending on sex and BMI, that is, women and overweight obtained stronger inverse associations.
  • Autores: Peñalva Sobrón, Rebeca; Esparza Catalán, Irene; Morales-Gracia, J.; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICS
    ISSN 0378-5173 Vol.570 2019 págs. 118652
    Resumen
    The aim of this work was to optimize the preparative process of quercetin loaded casein nanoparticles as well as to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of this flavonoid when administered orally in Wistar rats. Nanoparticles were obtained by coacervation after the incubation of casein, 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) and quercetin in an aqueous environment. Then, nanoparticles were purified and dried. The resulting nanoparticles displayed a size of 200 nm with a negative zeta potential and a payload of about 32 mu g/mg. Release studies showed a zero-order kinetic, suggesting a mechanism based on erosion of the nanoparticle matrix. For the pharmacokinetic study, quercetin was orally administered to rats as a single dose of 25 mg/kg. Animals treated with quercetin-loaded casein nanoparticles displayed higher plasma levels than those observed in animals receiving the solution of the flavonoid (control). Thus, the relative oral bioavailability of quercetin when administered as casein nanoparticles (close to 37%) was found to be about 9-times higher than the oral solution of the flavonoid in a mixture of PEG 400 and water. In summary, the combination of casein and 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin produces nanoparticles that may be a good option to load quercetin for both nutraceutical and pharmaceutical purposes.
  • Autores: Rodriguez-Lozada, C.; Cuervo Zapatel, Marta (Autor de correspondencia); Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.11 N° 6 2019 págs. E1206
    Resumen
    Current evidence proposes diet quality as a modifiable risk factor for mental or emotional impairments. However, additional studies are required to investigate the effect of dietary patterns and weight loss on improving psychological symptoms. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of energy-restriction, prescribed to overweight and obese participants, on anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as the potential predictive value of some baseline psychological features on weight loss. Overweight and obese participants (n = 305) were randomly assigned for 16 weeks to two hypocaloric diets with different macronutrient distribution: a moderately high-protein (MHP) diet and a low-fat (LF) diet. Anthropometrical, clinical, psychological, and lifestyle characteristics were assessed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. The nutritional intervention evidenced that weight loss has a beneficial effect on trait anxiety score in women (beta = 0.24, p = 0.03), depression score in all population (beta = 0.15, p = 0.02), particularly in women (beta = 0.22, p = 0.03) and in subjects who followed the LF diet (beta = 0.22, p = 0.04). Moreover, weight loss could be predicted by anxiety status at baseline, mainly in women and in those who were prescribed a LF diet. This trial suggests that weight loss triggers an improvement in psychological traits, and that anxiety symptoms could predict those volunteers that benefit most from a balanced calorie-restricted intervention, which will contribute to individualized precision nutrition.
  • Autores: Salas-Perez, F. ; Ramos-Lopez, O.; Mansego Talavera, María Luisa; et al.
    Revista: AGING-US
    ISSN 1945-4589 Vol.11 N° 6 2019 págs. 1874 - 1899
    Resumen
    Aging is the main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation (DNAm) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of physiological responses that can vary along lifespan. The aim of this research was to analyze the association between leukocyte DNAm in genes involved in longevity and the occurrence of obesity and related metabolic alterations in an adult population. Subjects from the MENA cohort (n=474) were categorized according to age (<45 vs 45>) and the presence of metabolic alterations: increased waist circumference, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. The methylation levels of 58 CpG sites located at genes involved in longevity-regulating pathways were strongly correlated (FDRadjusted< 0.0001) with BMI. Fifteen of them were differentially methylated (p<0.05) between younger and older subjects that exhibited at least one metabolic alteration. Six of these CpG sites, located at MTOR (cg08862778), ULK1 (cg07199894), ADCY6 (cg11658986), IGF1R (cg01284192), CREB5 (cg11301281), and RELA (cg08128650), were common to the metabolic traits, and CREB5, RELA, and ULK1 were statistically associated with age. In summary, leukocyte DNAm levels of several CpG sites located at genes involved in longevity-regulating pathways were associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome traits, suggesting a role of DNAm in aging-related metabolic alterations.
  • Autores: Sajoux, I.; Lorenzo, P. M. ; Gomez-Arbelaez, D. ; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.11 N° 10 2019 págs. 2368
    Resumen
    The preservation of muscle mass and muscle function after weight loss therapy is currently a considerable challenge in the fight against obesity. Muscle mass secretes proteins called myokines that have relevant functions in the regulation of metabolism and health. This study was aimed to evaluate whether a very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK) diet may modulate myokine levels, in addition to changes in body composition, compared to a standard, balanced low-calorie (LC) diet or bariatric surgery in patients with obesity. Body composition, ketosis, insulin sensitivity and myokines were evaluated in 79 patients with overweight/obesity after a therapy to lose weight with a VLCK diet, a LC diet or bariatric surgery. The follow-up was 6 months. The weight loss therapies induced changes in myokine levels in association with changes in body composition and biochemical parameters. The effects on circulating myokine levels compared to those at baseline were stronger after the VLCK diet than LC diet or bariatric surgery. Differences reached statistical significance for IL-8, MMP2 and irisin. In conclusion, nutritional interventions or bariatric surgery to lose weight induces changes in circulating myokine levels, being this effect potentially most notable after following a VLCK diet.
  • Autores: Almirón Roig, Eva (Autor de correspondencia); Majumdar, A.; Vaughan, D.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.11 N° 5 2019
    Resumen
    Large portion sizes increase consumption and eating smaller portions is recommended as a weight control strategy. However, many people report difficulties enacting this advice. This study examined the experience of individuals using two commercially available portion-control tools to try to manage their weight. In a crossover design, 29 adults with obesity (18 women) who had attended a previous weight loss intervention in the community were invited to use two portion-control tool sets over a period of four weeks (two weeks each) and to complete a semi-structured questionnaire about their experience. The tools were a guided crockery set (sector plate, calibrated bowl, and calibrated glass) and a set of calibrated serving spoons (one for starch, one for protein, and one for vegetables). Data were analyzed using thematic framework analysis. A key theme was related to the educational benefits of the tools, such as generating awareness, guidance, and gaining an independent ability to judge appropriate portions. Other key themes were tool usability, acceptability, and feasibility of usage. Barriers identified by participants included unclear markings/instructions and the inconvenience of using the tool when eating away from home. Overall, the tools were perceived to be educationally useful, easy to use, and potentially effective for learning to control portions, which suggested that these instruments could help in weight management interventions alongside other strategies. Elements of the tool design could influence the ability of participants to adhere to using the tool, and hence allow the educational effect to be mediated.
  • Autores: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN GENETICS
    ISSN 1664-8021 Vol.10 2019 págs. 686
    Resumen
    Aim: To analyze the influence of genetics and interactions with environmental factors on adiposity outcomes [waist circumference reduction (WCR) and total body fat loss (TFATL)] in response to energy-restricted diets in subjects with excessive body weight. Materials and Methods: Two hypocaloric diets (30% energy restriction) were prescribed to overweight/obese subjects during 16 weeks, which had different targeted macronutrient distribution: a low-fat (LF) diet (22% energy from lipids) and a moderately high-protein (MHP) diet (30% energy from proteins). At the end of the trial, a total of 201 participants (LF diet = 105; MHP diet = 96) who presented good/regular dietary adherence were genotyped for 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with weight loss through next-generation sequencing from oral samples. Four unweighted (uGRS) and four weighted (wGRS) genetic risk scores were computed using statistically relevant SNPs for each outcome by diet. Predictions of WCR and TFATL by diet were modeled through recognized multiple linear regression models including genetic (single SNPs, uGRS, and wGRS), phenotypic (age, sex, and WC, or TFAT at baseline), and environment variables (physical activity level and energy intake at baselines) as well as eventual interactions between genes and environmental factors. Results: Overall, 26 different SNPs were associated with differential adiposity outcomes, 9 with WCR and 17 with TFATL, most of which were specific for each dietary intervention. In addition to conventional predictors (age, sex, lifestyle, and adiposity status at baseline), the calculated uGRS/wGRS and interactions with environmental factors were major contributors of adiposity responses. Thus, variances in TFATL-LF diet, TFATL-MHP diet, WCR-LF diet, and WCR-MHP diet were predicted by approximately 38% (optimism-corrected adj. R-2 = 0.3792), 32% (optimism-corrected adj. R-2 = 0.3208), 22% (optimism-corrected adj. R-2 = 0.2208), and 21% (optimism-corrected adj. R-2 = 0.2081), respectively. Conclusions: Different genetic variants and interactions with environmental factors modulate the differential individual responses to MHP and LF dietary interventions. These insights and models may help to optimize personalized nutritional strategies for modeling the prevention and management of excessive adiposity through precision nutrition approaches taking into account not only genetic information but also the lifestyle/clinical factors that interplay in addition to age and sex.
  • Autores: Aranaz Oroz, Paula; Navarro Herrera, D.; Zabala Navó, María; et al.
    Revista: MOLECULES
    ISSN 1420-3049 Vol.24 N° 6 2019 págs. 1 - 21
    Resumen
    Phenolic compounds might modulate adiposity. Here, we report our observation that polyphenols and phenolic acids inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 with different intensity depending on the family and the stage of differentiation. While quercetin and resveratrol inhibited lipid accumulation along the whole process of differentiation, apigenin and myricetin were active during the early and latest stages, but not intermediate, contrary to hesperidin. The activity of phenolic acids was limited to the early stages of the differentiation process, except p-coumaric and ellagic acids. This anti-adipogenic effect was accompanied by down-regulation of Scd1 and Lpl. Molecular docking analysis revealed that the inhibitory activity of these phenolic compounds over the early stages of adipogenesis exhibits a significant correlation (r = 0.7034; p = 0.005) with their binding affinity to the ligand-binding domain of PPAR¿. Results show that polyphenols and phenolic acids would interact with specific residues of the receptor, which could determine their potential anti-adipogenic activity during the early stages of the differentiation. Residues Phe264, His266, Ile281, Cys285 and Met348 are the most frequently involved in these interactions, which might suggest a crucial role for these amino acids modulating the activity of the receptor. These data contribute to elucidate the possible mechanisms of phenolic compounds in the control of adipogenesis.
  • Autores: Cataldo, L. R.; Suazo, J. ; Olmos, P. ; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF DIABETES RESEARCH
    ISSN 2314-6745 Vol.2019 2019 págs. 2714049
    Resumen
    Most peripheral serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT)) is synthetized in the gut with platelets being its main circulating reservoir. 5HT is acting as a hormone in key organs to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the relation between platelet 5HT levels and traits related to glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism in humans remains poorly explored. The objectives of this study were (a) to assess the association between platelet 5HT levels and plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and some adipokines including leptin and its soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R), (b) to assess the association between platelet 5HT levels and anthropometric traits and indexes of insulin secretion/sensitivity derived from oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and (c) to evaluate changes in platelet 5HT levels in response to OGTT. In a cross-sectional study, 59 normoglycemic women underwent a standard 2-hour OGTT. Plasma leptin, sOb-R, total and high molecular weight adiponectin, TNF, and MCP1 were determined by immunoassays. Platelet 5HT levels and NEFAs were measured before and after OGTT. The free leptin index was calculated from leptin and sOb-R measurements. Insulin sensitivity indexes derived from OGTT (HOMA-S and Matsuda ISICOMP) and plasma NEFAs (Adipose-IR, Revised QUICKI) were also calculated. Our data show that among metabolic traits, platelet 5HT levels were associated with plasma sOb-R (r=0.39, p=0.003, corrected p=0.018). Platelet 5HT levels were reduced in response to OGTT (779 +/- 237 vs.731 +/- 217ng/109 platelets, p=0.005). In conclusion, platelet 5HT levels are positively associated with plasma sOb-R concentrations and reduced in response to glucose intake possibly indicating a role of peripheral 5HT in leptin-mediated appetite regulation.
  • Autores: Ferreira Todendi, P.; de Moura Valim, A. R.; Klinger, E.; et al.
    Revista: OBESITY RESEARCH AND CLINICAL PRACTICE
    ISSN 1871-403X Vol.13 N° 2 2019 págs. 137 - 142
    Resumen
    We investigated the association of IRX3 SNP rs3751723 with anthropometric characteristics related to adiposity and potential relationships with FTO SNP rs9939609 in a population of Brazilian children and adolescents. METHODS: A total of 871 children and adolescents between 7 and 17 years of age were recruited. Adiposity measurements and biochemical parameters were assessed. The variants were genotyped by real-time PCR. Analysis of multiple linear regression, multiple logistic regression, and generalised multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity were applied to test the polymorphisms association with obesity-related phenotypes and the interaction between them. RESULTS: The analyses showed that IRX3 was associated with obesity and fat percentage (BF%). An association of FTO rs9939609 with body mass index (BMI) Z-Score and with waist circumference (WC) was detected. The odds ratios (OR) showed that IRX3 rs3751723 was associated with risk of obesity in additive model (p=0.017), recessive model (p=0.016) and with high BF% in all models. FTO rs9939609 was associated with risk of obesity in additive model (p=0.031), recessive (p=0.033) and with altered WC in all models. GMDR-based predictive models for the risk of obesity, altered WC and high BF% adjusted by age, ethnicity and sex suggested no interaction of the two loci. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic variants rs3751723 and rs9939609 have an influence on the characteristics of adiposity; however, the effects of IRX3 and FTO investigated polymorphisms are independent in relation to adiposity parameters.
  • Autores: Greenway, F. L.; Aronne, L. J.; Raben, A.; et al.
    Revista: OBESITY
    ISSN 1930-7381 Vol.27 N° 2 2019 págs. 205-216
  • Autores: Recaredo, G.; Marin-Alejandre, B. A. ; Cantero González, Irene; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.11 N° 10 2019 págs. 2359
    Resumen
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Obesity and unhealthy dietary habits are described as risk factors for NAFLD. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the consumption of different animal protein sources and hepatic status in NAFLD adults. A total of 112 overweight/obese participants with NAFLD from Fatty Liver in Obesity (FLiO) study were evaluated at baseline. Diet, body composition, and biochemical variables were evaluated. Hepatic status was also assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging, ultrasonography, and elastography. Red meat consumption showed a positive relationship with liver iron content (r = 0.224; p = 0.021) and ferritin concentration (r = 0.196; p = 0.037). Processed meat consumption exhibited a positive association with liver iron content (r = 0.308; p = 0.001), which was also found in the quantile regression (beta = 0.079; p = 0.028). Fish consumption was related with lower concentration of ferritin (r = -0.200; p = 0.034). This association was further evidenced in the regression model (beta = -0.720; p = 0.033). These findings suggest that the consumption of different animal protein sources differentially impact on liver status in obese subjects with NAFLD, showing fish consumption as a healthier alternative for towards NAFLD features.
  • Autores: de Cuevillas, B.; Alvarez Alvarez, Ismael; Cuervo Zapatel, Marta; et al.
    Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
    ISSN 0212-1611 Vol.36 N° 4 2019 págs. 862 - 874
    Resumen
    Background: there are numerous approaches to assess nutritional status, which are putatively applied to nutritionally classify diseased people, but less information is available to study the role of environmental factors on nutritional well-being. A qualitative (nutritypes) and quantitative (nutrimeter) nutritional categorization based on dietary, lifestyle and disease criteria can be a useful nutritional approach to personalize health interventions and identify at risk individuals. Methods: cross-sectional study conducted on 102 patients (60 women), evaluating quality of life using the Short-Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36) and lifestyle factors with a general questionnaire, the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) and the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). A nutrimeter based on physical activity, fat mass, diet and diseases (hypertension, prediabetes, obesity and dyslipidemia) data was defined with an equation to quantitatively score the nutritive well-being of the participants, and classify them into two (proto)nutritypes. Results: participants were categorized into two groups (lower/higher global health) according to quality of life. Significant or marginal statistical differences in physical activity, fat mass, diet and disease were found (all p < 0.1). Two (proto)nutritypes were identified based on participant's age, sex, fat mass, physical activity, diet and diseases. Participants classified as high nutritional well-being nutritype showed higher value
  • Autores: Arpon Miranda, Ana; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Ramos-Lopez, O.; et al.
    Revista: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
    ISSN 2045-2322 Vol.9 N° 1 2019
    Resumen
    Insulin resistance (IR) is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic risk. An epigenetic phenomena such as DNA methylation might be involved in the onset and development of systemic IR. The aim of this study was to explore the genetic DNA methylation levels in peripheral white blood cells with the objective of identifying epigenetic signatures associated with IR measured by the Homeostatic Model Assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) following an epigenome-wide association study approach. DNA methylation levels were assessed using Infinium Methylation Assay (Illumina), and were associated with HOMA-IR values of participants from the Methyl Epigenome Network Association (MENA) project, finding statistical associations for at least 798 CpGs. A stringent statistical analysis revealed that 478 of them showed a differential methylation pattern between individuals with HOMA-IR <= 3 and > 3. ROC curves of top four CpGs out of 478 allowed differentiating individuals between both groups (AUC approximate to 0.88). This study demonstrated the association between DNA methylation in some specific CpGs and HOMA-IR values that will help to the understanding and in the development of new strategies for personalized approaches to predict and prevent IR-associated diseases.
  • Autores: Navas Carretero, Santiago (Autor de correspondencia); San Cristóbal Blanco, Rodrigo; Livingstone, K. M.; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCES AND NUTRITION
    ISSN 0963-7486 Vol.70 N° 2 2019 págs. 240 - 253
    Resumen
    The objective was to evaluate differences in macronutrient intake and to investigate the possible association between consumption of vegetable protein and the risk of overweight/obesity, within the Food4Me randomised, online intervention. Differences in macronutrient consumption among the participating countries grouped by EU Regions (Western Europe, British Isles, Eastern Europe and Southern Europe) were assessed. Relation of protein intake, within isoenergetic exchange patterns, from vegetable or animal sources with risk of overweight/obesity was assessed through the multivariate nutrient density model and a multivariate-adjusted logistic regression. A total of 2413 subjects who completed the Food4Me screening were included, with self-reported data on age, weight, height, physical activity and dietary intake. As success rates on reducing overweight/obesity are very low, form a public health perspective, the elaboration of policies for increasing intakes of vegetable protein and reducing animal protein and sugars, may be a method of combating overweight/obesity at a population level.
  • Autores: Hazas, M. C. L.; Martin-Hernandez, R.; Crespo, M. C.; et al.
    Revista: FOOD & FUNCTION
    ISSN 2042-6496 Vol.10 N° 8 2019 págs. 4897 - 4910
    Resumen
    Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is involved in healthful activities and is beneficial to lipid metabolism. Many investigations focused on finding tissue-specific targets of HT through the use of different omics approaches such as transcriptomics and proteomics. However, it is not clear which (if any) of the potential molecular targets of HT reported in different studies are concurrently affected in various tissues. Following the bioinformatic analyses of publicly available data from a selection of in vivo studies involving HT-supplementation, we selected differentially expressed lipid metabolism-related genes and proteins common to more than one study, for validation in rodent liver samples from the entire selection. Four miRNAs (miR-802-5p, miR-423-3p, miR-30a-5p, and miR-146b-5p) responded to HT supplementation. Of note, miR-802-5p was commonly regulated in the liver and intestine. Our premise was that, in an organ crucial for lipid metabolism such as the liver, consistent modulation should be found for a specific target of HT even if different doses and duration of HT supplementation were used in vivo. Even though our results show inconsistency regarding differentially expressed lipid metabolism-related genes and proteins across studies, we found Fgf21 and Rora as potential novel targets of HT. Omics approaches should be fine-tuned to better exploit the available databases.
  • Autores: Arpon Miranda, Ana; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Santos, J. L.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY
    ISSN 1664-2392 Vol.10 2019
    Resumen
    The distribution of adipose tissue is influenced by gender and by age, shifting from subcutaneous to visceral depots with longevity, increasing the development of several aging-related diseases and manifestations such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance. Epigenetics might have an important role in aging processes. The aim of this research was to investigate the interactions between aging and epigenetic processes and the role of visceral adipose tissue, insulin resistance, and dyslipidaemia. Two different study samples of 366 and 269 adult participants were analyzed. Anthropometric, biochemical (including the triglycerides-glucose (TyG) index), and blood pressure measurements were assessed following standardized methods. Body composition measurements by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were also performed for the second sample. Methylation data were assessed by Infinium Human Methylation BeadChip (Illumina) in peripheral white blood cells. Epigenetic age acceleration was calculated using the methods DNAmAge (AgeAcc) and GrimAge (AgeAccGrim). Age acceleration (AgeAccGrim) showed better correlations than AgeAcc with most of the measured variables (waist circumference, glucose, HOMA-IR, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and TyG index) for the first sample. In the second sample, all the previous correlations were confirmed, except for HOMA-IR. In addition, many of the anthropometricalmeasurements assessed by DXA and C-reactive protein (CRP) were also statistically associated with AgeAccGrim. Associations separated by sex showed statistically significant correlations between AgeAccGrim and HDL-cholesterol or CRP in women, whereas, in men, the association was with visceral adipose tissue mass DXA, triglycerides and TyG index. Linear regression models (model 1 included visceral adipose tissuemass DXA and TyGindex andmodel 2 included HDL-cholesterol and CRP) showed a significant association for men concerning visceral adipose tissue mass DXA and TyG index, while HDL-cholesterol and CRP were associated in women. Moreover, structural equation modeling showed that the TyG index was mediating the majority of the visceral adipose tissue mass action on age acceleration. Collectively, these findings showed that there are different mechanisms affecting epigenetic age acceleration depending on sex. The identified relationships between epigenetic age acceleration and disease markers will contribute to the understanding of the development of age-related diseases.
  • Autores: Almirón Roig, Eva (Autor de correspondencia); Pastor, María A.; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
    Revista: BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    ISSN 1469-1825 Vol.42 2019 págs. e37
    Resumen
    Poverty-related food insecurity can be viewed as a form of economic and nutritional uncertainty that can lead, in some situations, to a desire for more filling and satisfying food. Given the current obesogenic food environment and the nature of the food supply, those food choices could engage a combination of sensory, neurophysiological, and genetic factors as potential determinants of obesity.
  • Autores: Marín-Alejandre, B. A.; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Cantero González, Irene; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.11 N° 2 2019 págs. 322
    Resumen
    The relevance of sleep patterns in the onset or evolution of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is still poorly understood. Our aim was to investigate the association between sleep characteristics and hepatic status indicators in obese people with NAFLD compared to normal weight non-NAFLD controls. Ninety-four overweight or obese patients with NAFLD and 40 non-NAFLD normal weight controls assessed by abdominal ultrasonography were enrolled. Hepatic status evaluation considered liver stiffness determined by Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse elastography (ARFI) and transaminases. Additionally, anthropometric measurements, clinical characteristics, and biochemical profiles were determined. Sleep features were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Hepatic status parameters, anthropometric measurements, and clinical and biochemical markers differed significantly in NAFLD subjects compared to controls, as well as sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance score, and sleep quality score. In the NAFLD group, a higher prevalence of short sleep duration (p = 0.005) and poor sleep quality (p = 0.041) were found. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for NAFLD considering sleep disturbance was 1.59 (1.11¿2.28). Regression models that included either sleep disturbance or sleep quality predicted up to 20.3% and 20.4% of the variability of liver stiffness, respectively, and after adjusting for potential confounders. Current findings suggest that sleep disruption may be contributing to the pathogenesis of NAFLD as well as the alteration of the liver may be affecting sleep patterns. Consequently, sleep characteristics may be added to the list of modifiable behaviors to consider in health promotion strategies and in the prevention and management of NAFLD.
  • Autores: Castilla Madrigal, Rosa María; Gil Iturbe, Eva; Sáinz Amillo, Neira; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY
    ISSN 0021-9541 Vol.234 N° 4 2019 págs. 4352 - 4361
    Resumen
    We have previously demonstrated in Caco-2 cells that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) inhibits sugar uptake, acting from the apical membrane, by decreasing the expression of the Na+-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 in the brush border membrane. The goal was to investigate the hypothesis that TNF-alpha from abdominal adipose tissue (adipocytes and macrophages) would decrease sugar and amino acid transport acting from the basolateral membrane of the enterocytes. TNF-alpha placed in the basal compartment of Caco-2 cells decreased alpha-methyl- d-glucose (alphaMG) and glutamine uptake. The apical medium derived from these Caco-2 cells apically placed in another set of cells, also reduced sugar and glutamine transport. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated upregulation of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and MCP1 expression in Caco-2 cells exposed to basal TNF-alpha. Similarly, MG uptake was inhibited after Caco-2 cells were incubated, in the basal compartment, with medium from visceral human mesenchymal stem cells-derived adipocytes of overweight individuals. The apical medium collected from those Caco-2 cells, and placed in the upper side of other set of cells, also decreased sugar uptake. Basal presence of medium derived from lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages and nonactivated macrophages decreased MG uptake as well. Diet-induced obese mice showed an increase in the visceral adipose tissue surrounding the intestine.
  • Autores: Konieczna, J.; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Galmes, A. M. ; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0261-5614 Vol.38 N° 4 2019 págs. 1883 - 1891
    Resumen
    Background & aims: Excess adiposity is associated with poor cardiometabolic (CM) health. To date, several techniques and indicators have been developed to determine adiposity. We aimed to compare the ability of traditional anthropometric, as well as standard and novel DXA-derived parameters related to overall and regional adiposity, to evaluate CM risk. Methods: Using the cross-sectional design in the context of the PREDIMED-Plus trial, 1207 Caucasian senior men and women with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) were assessed. At baseline, anthropometry- and DXA-measured parameters of central, visceral, peripheral and central-to peripheral adiposity together with comprehensive set of CM risk factors were obtained. Partial correlations and areas under the ROC curve (AUC) were estimated to compare each adiposity measure with CM risk parameters, separately for men and women, and in the overall sample. Results: DXA-derived indicators, other than percentage of total body fat, showed stronger correlations (rho 0.172 to 0.206, p < 0.001) with CM risk than anthropometric indicators, after controlling for age, diabetes and medication use. In both sexes, DXA-derived visceral adipose tissue measures (VAT, VAT/Total fat, visceral-to-subcutaneous fat) together with lipodystrophy indicators (Trunk/Legs fat and Android/Gynoid fat) were strongly and positively correlated (p < 0.001) with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), the triglyceride and glucose index (TyG), triglycerides (TG), the ratio TG/HDL-cholesterol (TG/HDL-C), and were inversely related to HDL-C levels (p < 0.001). Furthermore, in AUC analyses for both sexes, VAT/Total fat showed the highest predictive ability for abnormal HbAl c levels (AUC = 0.629), VAT for TyG (AUC = 0.626), both lipodystrophy indicators for TG (AUCs = 0.556), and Trunk/Legs fat for HDL-C (AUC = 0.556) and TG/HDL-C (AUC = 0.581). Conclusions: DXA regional adiposity measures offer advantages beyond traditional anthropometric and DXA overall adiposity indicators for CM risk assessment in senior overweight/obese subjects with MetS. In particular, in both sexes, visceral adiposity better stratifies individuals at risk for glucose abnormalities, and indicators of lipodystrophy better predict markers of dyslipidemia. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
  • Autores: Assmann, T. S.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: MOLECULAR MEDICINE REPORTS
    ISSN 1791-2997 Vol.20 N° 4 2019 págs. 3543 - 3554
    Resumen
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that regulate gene expression. Emerging knowledge has suggested that miRNAs have a role in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, supporting the hypothesis that miRNAs may represent potential biomarkers or targets for this set of diseases. However, the current evidence is often controversial. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the associations between miRNAs-target genes, miRNA-long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), and miRNAs-small molecules in human metabolic diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The metabolic disease-related miRNAs were obtained from the Human MicroRNA Disease Database (HMDD) and miR2Disease database. A search on the databases Matrix Decomposition and Heterogeneous Graph Inference (MDHGI) and DisGeNET were also performed. miRNAs target genes were obtained from three independent sources: Microcosm, TargetScan and miRTarBase. The interactions between miRNAs-lncRNA and miRNA-small molecules were performed using the miRNet web tool. The network analyses were performed using Cytoscape software. As a result, a total of 20 miRNAs were revealed to be associated with metabolic disorders in the present study. Notably, 6 miRNAs (miR-17-5p, miR-29c-3p, miR-34a-5p, miR-103a-3p, miR-107 and miR-132-3p) were found in the four resources (HMDD, miR2Disease, MDHGI, and DisGeNET) used for these analyses, presenting a stronger association with the diseases. Furthermore, the target genes of these miRNAs participate in several pathways previously associated with metabolic diseases. In addition, interactions between miRNA-lncRNA and miRNA-small molecules were also found, suggesting that some molecules can modulate gene expression via such an indirect way. Thus, the results of this data mining and integration analysis provide further information on the possible molecular basis of the metabolic disease pathogenesis as well as provide a path to search for potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets concerning metabolic diseases.
  • Autores: Celis-Morales, C.; Livingstone, K. M.; Petermann-Rocha, F. ; et al.
    Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
    ISSN 0749-3797 Vol.57 N° 2 2019 págs. 209 - 219
    Resumen
    Introduction: This study tested the hypothesis that providing personalized nutritional advice and feedback more frequently would promote larger, more appropriate, and sustained changes in dietary behavior as well as greater reduction in adiposity. Study design: A 6-month RCT (Food4Me) was conducted in seven European countries between 2012 and 2013. Setting/participants: A total of 1,125 participants were randomized to Lower- (n=562) or Higher- (n=563) Frequency Feedback groups. Intervention: Participants in the Lower-Frequency group received personalized nutritional advice at baseline and at Months 3 and 6 of the intervention, whereas the Higher-Frequency group received personalized nutritional advice at baseline and at Months 1, 2, 3 and 6. Main outcome measures: The primary outcomes were change in dietary intake (at food and nutrient levels) and obesity-related traits (body weight, BMI, and waist circumference). Participants completed an online Food Frequency Questionnaire to estimate usual dietary intake at baseline and at Months 3 and 6 of the intervention. Overall diet quality was evaluated using the 2010 Healthy Eating Index. Obesity-related traits were self-measured and reported by participants via the Internet. Statistical analyses were performed during the first quarter of 2018. Results: At 3 months, participants in the Lower- and Higher-Frequency Feedback groups showed improvements in Healthy Eating Index score; this improvement was larger in the Higher-Frequency group than the Lower-Frequency group (Delta=1.84 points, 95% CI=0.79, 2.89,p=0.0001). Similarly, there were greater improvements for the Higher- versus Lower-Frequency group for body weight (Delta= -0.73 kg, 95% CI= -1.07, -0.38, p<0.0001), BMI (Delta= -0.24 kg/m(2), 95% CI= -0.36, -0.13, p<0.0001), and waist circumference (Delta= -1.20 cm, 95% CI= 2.36, -0.04, p=0.039). However, only body weight and BMI remained significant at 6 months. Conclusions: At 3 months, higher-frequency feedback produced larger improvements in overall diet quality as well as in body weight and waist circumference than lower-frequency feedback. However, only body weight and BMI remained significant at 6 months. (C) 2019 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Autores: Gil Iturbe, Eva; Arbones-Mainar, J. M. ; Moreno Aliaga, María Jesús; et al.
    Revista: ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA
    ISSN 1748-1708 Vol.226 N° 4 2019
    Resumen
    AimThe facilitative glucose transporter GLUT12 was isolated from the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 by its homology with GLUT4. GLUT12 is expressed in insulin-sensitive tissues such as adipose tissue. The aim of this work was to investigate GLUT12 expression and hormonal regulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in adipose tissue of lean and diet-induced obese mice. MethodsUptake studies were performed using radio-labelled sugars; alpha-methyl-d-glucose (alpha MG) was used as specific substrate of GLUT12. Expression and localization of GLUT12 in adipocytes were investigated by western blot and immunohistochemical methods. ResultsGLUT12 is expressed in the peri-nuclear region of mouse adipocytes. Insulin, by AKT activation, and TNF-alpha, by AMPK activation, increase alpha MG uptake by inducing GLUT12 translocation to the membrane. In contrast, leptin and adiponectin decrease GLUT12 activity through its internalization. Under hypoxia conditions GLUT12 expression is upregulated. The response of GLUT12 to TNF-alpha, leptin, adiponectin and hypoxia is the opposite to that of GLUT4. In diet-induced obese mice and obese subjects, GLUT12 protein is decreased. Intraperitoneal injection of insulin increases AKT phosphorylation and GLUT12 expression, but this effect is lost in obese animals. ConclusionWe hypothesize that GLUT12 would contribute to modulate sugar absorption in physiological and pathophysiological situations such as obesity.
  • Autores: Mercader, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Sabater, A. G.; Le Gonidec, S. ; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL THERAPEUTICS
    ISSN 0022-3565 Vol.371 N° 2 2019 págs. 555 - 566
    Resumen
    Novel mechanisms and health benefits have been recently suggested for the antidepressant drug phenelzine (PHE), known as a nonselective monoamine oxidase inhibitor. They include an antilipogenic action that could have an impact on excessive fat accumulation and obesity-related metabolic alterations. We evaluated the metabolic effects of an oral PHE treatment on mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Eleven-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD and either a 0.028% PHE solution (HFD + PHE) or water to drink for 11 weeks. PHE attenuated the increase in body weight and adiposity without affecting food consumption. Energy efficiency was lower in HFD + PHE mice. Lipid content was reduced in subcutaneous fat pads, liver, and skeletal muscle. In white adipose tissue (WAT), PHE reduced sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA levels, inhibited amine-induced lipogenesis, and did not increase lipolysis. Moreover, HFD + PHE mice presented diminished levels of hydrogen peroxide release in subcutaneous WAT and reduced expression of leukocyte transmigration markers and proinflammatory cytokines in visceral WAT and liver. PHE reduced the circulating levels of glycerol, triacylglycerols, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and insulin. Insulin resistance was reduced, without affecting glucose levels and glucose tolerance. In contrast, PHE increased rectal temperature and slightly increased energy expenditure. The mitigation of HFD-induced metabolic disturbances points toward a promising role for PHE in obesity treatment and encourages further research on its mechanisms of action. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Phenelzine reduces body fat, markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance in high-fat diet mice. Senn icarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase, monoamine oxidase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c are involved in the metabolic effects of phenelzine. Phenelzine could be potentially used for the treatment of obesity-related complications.
  • Autores: Santos, J. L. (Autor de correspondencia); Cataldo, L. R.; Cortés-Rivera, C.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
    ISSN 1138-7548 Vol.75 N° 3 2019 págs. 285 - 297
    Resumen
    High plasma lactate levels have been associated with reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity and increased type 2 diabetes risk, while mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number has been proposed as a biomarker of mitochondrial function linked to glucose homeostasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between circulating lactate levels and leukocyte mtDNA copy numbers with insulin secretion/sensitivity indexes in 65 Chilean non-diabetic women. mtDNA copy numbers were measured in leukocytes using qPCR and digital-droplet PCR. A 75-g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) was performed to calculate systemic and tissue-specific insulin sensitivity indexes, as well as insulin secretion surrogates based on plasma c-peptide. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT; 0.3 g/kg) was also carried out. Disposition indexes were calculated as the product of insulin secretion × sensitivity. Plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, TNF-¿, MCP-1, and non-esterified fatty acids were also determined. Fasting plasma lactate shows a significant association with a wide range of insulin sensitivity/resistance indexes based on fasting plasma samples (HOMA-S, adipose IR index, Revised-QUICKI, leptin-adiponectin ratio, TyG index, McAuley index and TG-to-HDL-C ratio), as well as OGTT-based measures such as the Matsuda index, the hepatic insulin resistance index, and the disposition index. Fasting plasma lactate was also positively associated with the circulating adipokines TNF-¿ and MCP-1. We also detected a direct association between fasting plasma lactate with leukocyte mtDNA copy numbers. The above results support the use of fasting plasma lactate, and possibly leukocyte mtDNA copy numbers, as biomarkers of reduced oxidative mitochondrial capacity, decreased hepatic insulin sensitivity, and future diabetes risk.
  • Autores: Huttunen-Lenz, M. (Autor de correspondencia); Hansen, S.; Larsen, T. M.; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
    ISSN 2512-8442 Vol.26 N° 1 2019 págs. 10 - 20
    Resumen
    Individuals at risk of Type 2 Diabetes are advised to change health habits. This study investigated how the PREMIT behavior modification intervention and its association with socio-economic variables influenced weight maintenance and habit strength in the PREVIEW study. Overweight adults with pre-diabetes were enrolled (n = 2,224) in a multi-center RCT including a 2-month weight-loss phase and a 34-month weight-maintenance phase for those who lost >= 8% body weight. Initial stages of the PREMIT covered the end of weight-loss and the beginning of weight-maintenance phase (18 weeks). Cross-sectional and longitudinal data were explored. Frequent PREMIT sessions attendance, being female, and lower habit strength for poor diet were associated with tower weight re-gain. Being older and not in employment were associated with lower habit strength for physical inactivity. The PREMIT appeared to support weight loss maintenance. Younger participants, males, and those in employment appeared to struggle more with inactivity habit change and weight maintenance.
  • Autores: Lopez-Pascual, A. ; Urrutia-Sarratea, A. ; Lorente Cebrián, Silvia; et al.
    Revista: OXIDATIVE MEDICINE AND CELLULAR LONGEVITY
    ISSN 1942-0900 Vol.2019 2019 págs. 2695289
    Resumen
    Insulin resistance is associated with oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and a chronic low-grade inflammatory status. In this sense, cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are promising nanomaterials with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the effect of CeO, NPs in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes, RAW 264.7 macrophages, and C2C12 myotubes under control or proinflammatory conditions. Macrophages were treated with LPS, and both adipocytes and myotubes with conditioned medium (25% LPS-activated macrophages medium) to promote inflammation. CeO2 NPs showed a mean size of <= 25.3 nm (96.7%) and a zeta potential of 30.57 +/- 0.58 mV, suitable for cell internalization. CeO, NPs reduced extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in adipocytes with inflammation while increased in myotubes with control medium. The CeO2 NPs increased mitochondrial content was observed in adipocytes under proinflammatory conditions. Furthermore, the expression of Adipoq and Il10 increased in adipocytes treated with CeO, NPs. In myotubes, both Il1b and Adipoq were downregulated while Irs1 was upregulated. Overall, our results suggest that CeO2 NPs could potentially have an insulin-sensitizing effect specifically on adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. However, further research is needed to confirm these findings.
  • Autores: Arpon Miranda, Ana; Santos, J. L. (Autor de correspondencia); Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
    ISSN 1422-0067 Vol.20 N° 12 2019
    Resumen
    Hyperglycaemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are associated with impaired insulin secretion and/or insulin action. Since few studies have addressed the relation between DNA methylation patterns with elaborated surrogates of insulin secretion/sensitivity based on the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between DNA methylation and an insulin sensitivity index based on IVGTT (calculated insulin sensitivity index (CSi)) in peripheral white blood cells from 57 non-diabetic female volunteers. The CSi and acute insulin response (AIR) indexes, as well as the disposition index (DI = CSi x AIR), were estimated from abbreviated IVGTT in 49 apparently healthy Chilean women. Methylation levels were assessed using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450k BeadChip. After a statistical probe filtering, the two top CpGs whose methylation was associated with CSi were cg04615668 and cg07263235, located in the catenin delta 2 (CTNND2) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) genes, respectively. Both CpGs conjointly predicted insulin sensitivity status with an area under the curve of 0.90. Additionally, cg04615668 correlated with homeostasis model assessment insulin-sensitivity (HOMA-S) and AIR, whereas cg07263235 was associated with plasma creatinine and DI. These results add further insights into the epigenetic regulation of insulin sensitivity and associated complications, pointing the CTNND2 and LPL genes as potential underlying epigenetic biomarkers for future risk of insulin-related diseases.
  • Autores: Aranaz Oroz, Paula; Romo Hualde, Ana; Navarro-Herrera, D.; et al.
    Revista: FOOD & FUNCTION
    ISSN 2042-6496 Vol.10 N° 8 2019 págs. 4811 - 4822
    Resumen
    Cocoa polyphenols exhibit high antioxidant activity and have been proposed as a potential adjuvant for the treatment of metabolic disturbances. Here, we demonstrate that supplementation with low doses (14 and 140 mg per kg per rat) of a complete cocoa extract induces metabolic benefits in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) model of Wistar rats. After 10 weeks, cocoa extract-supplemented animals exhibited significantly lower body weight gain and food efficiency, with no differences in energy intake. Cocoa significantly reduced visceral (epididymal and retroperitoneal) and subcutaneous fat accumulation accompanied by a significant reduction in the adipocyte size, which was mediated by downregulation of the adipocyte-specific genes Cebpa, Fasn and Adipoq. Additionally, cocoa extract supplementation reduced the triacylglycerol/high density lipoprotein (TAG/HDL) ratio, decreased hepatic triglyceride accumulation, improved insulin sensitivity by reducing HOMA-IR, and significantly ameliorated glucose tolerance after an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. Finally, no adverse effect was observed in an in vivo toxicity evaluation of our cocoa extract at doses up to 500 mg kg -1 day -1. Our data demonstrate that low doses of cocoa extract supplementation (14 and 140 mg kg -1 day -1) are safe and sufficient to counteract obesity and type-2 diabetes in rats and provide new insights into the potential application of cocoa supplements in the management of the metabolic syndrome.
  • Autores: Arpon Miranda, Ana; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Ramos-Lopez, O.; et al.
    Revista: GENES
    ISSN 2073-4425 Vol.10 N° 6 2019 págs. 444
    Resumen
    Epigenetic signatures such as DNA methylation may be associated with specific obesity traits in different tissues. The onset and development of some obesity-related complications are often linked to visceral fat accumulation. The aim of this study was to explore DNA methylation levels in peripheral white blood cells to identify epigenetic methylation marks associated with waist circumference (WC). DNA methylation levels were assessed using Infinium Human Methylation 450K and MethylationEPIC beadchip (Illumina) to search for putative associations with WC values of 473 participants from the Methyl Epigenome Network Association (MENA) project. Statistical analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) were employed for assessing the relationship between methylation and WC. A total of 669 CpGs were statistically associated with WC (FDR < 0.05, slope >= |0.1|). From these CpGs, 375 CpGs evidenced a differential methylation pattern between females with WC <= 88 and > 88 cm, and 95 CpGs between males with WC <= 102 and > 102 cm. These differentially methylated CpGs are located in genes related to inflammation and obesity according to IPA. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the top four significant differentially methylated CpGs separated by sex discriminated individuals with presence or absence of abdominal fat. ROC curves of all the CpGs from females and one CpG from males were validated in an independent sample (n = 161). These methylation results add further insights about the relationships between obesity, adiposity-associated comorbidities, and DNA methylation where inflammation processes may be involved.
  • Autores: Samblas García, Mirian; Carraro, J. C.; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
    ISSN 1138-7548 Vol.75 N° 3 2019 págs. 341 - 349
    Resumen
    Fatty acids (FAs) are known to participate in body inflammatory responses. In particular, saturated FAs such as palmitic acid (PA) induce inflammatory signals in macrophages, whereas polyunsaturated FAs, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been related to anti-inflammatory effects. Several studies have suggested a role of fatty acids on DNA methylation, epigenetically regulating gene expression in inflammation processes. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of PA and DHA on the inflammation-related genes on human macrophages. In addition, a second aim was to study the epigenetic mechanism underlying the effect of FAs on the inflammatory response. For these purposes, human acute monocytic leukaemia cells (THP-1) were differentiated into macrophages with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), followed by an incubation with PA or DHA. At the end of the experiment, mRNA expression, protein secretion, and CpG methylation of the following inflammatory genes were analysed: interleukin 1 beta (IL1B), tumour necrosis factor (TNF), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (SERPINE1) and interleukin 18 (IL18). The results showed that the treatment with PA increased IL-18 and TNF-alpha production. Contrariwise, the supplementation with DHA reduced IL-18, TNF-alpha and PAI-1 secretion by macrophages. However, the incubation with these fatty acids did not apparently modify the DNA methylation status of the investigated genes in the screened CpG sites. This research reveals that PA induces important pro-inflammatory markers in human macrophages, whereas DHA decreases the inflammatory response. Apparently, DNA methylation is not directly involved in the fatty acid-mediated regulation of the expression of these inflammation-related genes.
  • Autores: Abete Goñi, Itziar; Lu, Y. X. (Autor de correspondencia); Lassale, C. ; et al.
    Revista: BMJ OPEN
    ISSN 2044-6055 Vol.9 N° 10 2019
    Resumen
    Background White cell count (WCC) is a clinical marker of inflammation. Data are limited regarding the association of total and differential WCC with risk of mortality, and its role related with smoking and body mass index (BMI). Methods A total of 14 433 participants (4150 men; 10 283 women; average age 47.3 +/- 11.8 years) from the Dutch European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort were included. The associations between prediagnostic total WCC and its subtypes and risk of all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality were assessed. The role of WCC related with smoking and BMI on mortality was further explored. Multivariate Cox regression models were performed to estimate the HR and 95% CI. Results After an average follow-up of 15.8 years, a total of 936 death cases were identified (466 cancer; 179 CVD; 291 other causes). Statistically significant graded associations between total WCC, and counts of lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils and risk of total mortality were observed. These associations were more apparent in current smokers. Strong associations for all-cause mortality or cancer mortality were observed in subjects with BMI >= 25 kg/m(2), ever smoking and elevated WCC (HR 3.92, 95% CI 2.76 to 5.57; HR 3.93, 95% CI 2.30 to 6.72). WCC partly mediated the associations between smoking or BMI and all-cause mortality. Conclusions Prediagnostic WCC and its subtypes are associated with all-cause, cancer and CVD mortality risk. It may play a partially mediate role on the association between smoking or obesity and mortality.
  • Autores: Goñi Mateos, Leticia; Sun, D. J. Y.; Heianza, Y. ; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 1436-6207 Vol.58 N° 4 2019 págs. 1381 - 1389
    Resumen
    PurposeA common variant of the melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B) gene has been related to increased signaling of melatonin, a hormone previously associated with body fatness mainly through effects on energy metabolism. We examined whether the MTNR1B variant affects changes of body fatness and composition in response to a dietary weight loss intervention.MethodsThe MTNR1B rs10830963 variant was genotyped for 722 overweight and obese individuals, who were randomly assigned to one of four diets varying in macronutrient composition. Anthropometric and body composition measurements (DXA scan) were collected at baseline and at 6 and 24 months of follow-up.ResultsStatistically significant interactions were observed between the MTNR1B genotype and low-/high-fat diet on changes in weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and total body fat (p interaction=0.01, 0.02, 0.002 and 0.04, respectively), at 6months of dietary intervention. In the low-fat diet group, increasing number of the sleep disruption-related G allele was significantly associated with a decrease in weight (p=0.004), BMI (p=0.005) and WC (p=0.001). In the high-fat diet group, carrying the G allele was positively associated with changes in body fat (p=0.03). At 2years, the associations remained statistically significant for changes in body weight (p=0.02), BMI (p=0.02) and WC (p=0.048) in the low-fat diet group, although the gene-diet interaction became less significant.ConclusionsThe results suggest that carriers of the G allele of the MTNR1B rs10830963 may have a greater improvement in body adiposity and fat distribution when eating a low-fat diet.
  • Autores: Cuevas-Sierra, A.; Ramos-López, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: ADVANCES IN NUTRITION
    ISSN 2161-8313 Vol.10 N° Suppl.1 2019 págs. S17 - S30
    Resumen
    Diverse evidence suggests that the gut microbiota is involved in the development of obesity and associated comorbidities. It has been reported that the composition of the gut microbiota differs in obese and lean subjects, suggesting that microbiota dysbiosis can contribute to changes in body weight. However, the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota participates in energy homeostasis are unclear. Gut microbiota can be modulated positively or negatively by different lifestyle and dietary factors. Interestingly, complex interactions between genetic background, gut microbiota, and diet have also been reported concerning the risk of developing obesity and metabolic syndrome features. Moreover, microbial metabolites can induce epigenetic modifications (i.e., changes in DNA methylation and micro-RNA expression), with potential implications for health status and susceptibility to obesity. Also, microbial products, such as short-chain fatty acids or membrane proteins, may affect host metabolism by regulating appetite, lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, inflammation, and other functions. Metabolomic approaches are being used to identify new postbiotics with biological activity in the host, allowing discovery of new targets and tools for incorporation into personalized therapies. This review summarizes the current understanding of the relations between the human gut microbiota and the onset and development of obesity. These scientific insights are paving the way to understanding the complex relation between obesity and microbiota. Among novel approaches, prebiotics, probiotics, postbiotics, and fecal microbiome transplantation could be useful to restore gut dysbiosis.
  • Autores: Malafarina, V. (Autor de correspondencia); Malafarina, C.; Biain Ugarte, A.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.11 N° 9 2019 págs. 2243
    Resumen
    Background: Admitted bedridden older patients are at risk of the development of sarcopenia during hospital stay (incident sarcopenia). The objective of this study was to assess the factors associated with sarcopenia (incident and chronic) and its impact on mortality in older people with hip fracture. Methods: A multicenter, pragmatic, prospective observational study was designed. Older subjects with hip fracture admitted to two rehabilitation units were included. Sarcopenia was assessed at admission and at discharge according to the revised EWGSOP (European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People) consensus definition. The mortality was evaluated after 7 years of follow-up. Results: A total of 187 subjects (73.8% women) age 85.2 +/- 6.3 years were included. Risk factors associated to incident and chronic sarcopenia were undernutrition (body mass index-BMI and Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form-MNA-SF), hand-grip strength and skeletal muscle index. During follow-up 114 patients died (60.5% sarcopenic vs. 39.5% non-sarcopenic, p = 0.001). Cox regression analyses showed that factors associated to increased risk of mortality were sarcopenia (HR: 1.67, 95% CI 1.11-2.51) and low hand-grip strength (HR: 1.76, 95% CI 1.08-2.88). Conclusions: Older patients with undernutrition have a higher risk of developing sarcopenia during hospital stay, and sarcopenic patients have almost two times more risk of mortality than non-sarcopenic patients during follow-up after hip fracture.
  • Autores: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: THERAPEUTIC ADVANCES IN ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM
    ISSN 2042-0188 Vol.10 2019 págs. 1 - 12
  • Autores: Valdecantos, M. P.; Pérez-Matute, P. (Autor de correspondencia); Prieto-Hontoria, P.; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCES AND NUTRITION
    ISSN 0963-7486 Vol.70 N° 7 2019 págs. 834 - 844
    Resumen
    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ¿-lipoic acid (¿-LA) on liver mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative status for 8¿weeks in normal-healthy animals. A pair-fed group was included to differentiate between ¿-LA direct effects and those changes due to reduced food intake. ¿-LA decreased body weight gain, liver weight and insulin levels with no differences compared to its pair-fed group. ¿-LA significantly reduced energy efficiency, the activity of the electron transport chain complexes and induced a lower efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation with reduced ATP production. ¿-LA supplementation directly decreased plasma triglycerides (TGs), free fatty acids and ketone bodies levels. A significant reduction in hepatic TG content was also observed. A significant up-regulation of Cpt1a, Acadl and Sirt3, all ß-oxidation genes, along with a significant deacetylation of the forkhead transcription factor 3a (FOXO3A) was found in ¿-LA-treated animals. Thus, ¿-LA along with a standard chow diet has direct actions on lipid metabolism and liver by modulating mitochondrial function in normal-weight rats. These results should be taken into account when ¿-LA is administered or recommended to a healthy population.
  • Autores: Papandreou, C.; Babio, N. ; Diaz-Lopez, A.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.11 N° 4 2019 págs. 761
    Resumen
    The aim of the study was to evaluate sleep duration and sleep variability in relation to serum uric acid (SUA) concentrations and SUA to creatinine ratio. This is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 1842 elderly participants with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome in the (Prevencion con Dieta Mediterranea) PREDIMED-Plus trial. Accelerometry-derived sleep duration and sleep variability were measured. Linear regression models were fitted to examine the aforementioned associations. A 1 hour/night increment in sleep duration was inversely associated with SUA concentrations ( = -0.07, p = 0.047). Further adjustment for leukocytes attenuated this association (p = 0.050). Each 1-hour increment in sleep duration was inversely associated with SUA to creatinine ratio ( = -0.15, p = 0.001). The findings of this study suggest that longer sleep duration is associated with lower SUA concentrations and lower SUA to creatinine ratio.
  • Autores: Ek, A. (Autor de correspondencia); Delisle Nystrom, C.; Chirita-Emandi, A.; et al.
    Revista: BMC PUBLIC HEALTH
    ISSN 1471-2458 Vol.19 N° 1 2019 págs. 945
    Resumen
    BackgroundChildhood overweight and obesity is a serious public health issue with an increase being observed in preschool-aged children. Treating childhood obesity is difficult and few countries use standardized treatments. Therefore, there is a need to find effective approaches that are feasible for both health care providers and families. Thus, the overall aim of this study is to assess the acceptance and effectiveness of a parent support program (the More and Less, ML) for the management of overweight and obesity followed by a mobile health (mHealth) program (the MINISTOP application) in a socially diverse population of families.Methods/designA two-arm, parallel design randomized controlled trial in 300 2-to 6-year-old children with overweight and obesity from Romania, Spain and Sweden (n=100 from each). Following baseline assessments children are randomized into the intervention or control group in a 1:1 ratio. The intervention, the ML program, consists of 10-weekly group sessions which focus on evidence-based parenting practices, followed by the previously validated MINISTOP application for 6-months to support healthy eating and physical activity behaviors. The primary outcome is change in body mass index (BMI) z-score after 9-months and secondary outcomes include: waist circumference, eating behavior (Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire), parenting behavior (Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire), physical activity (ActiGraph wGT3x-BT), dietary patterns (based onmetabolic markers from urine and 24h dietary recalls), epigenetic and gut hormones (fasting blood samples), and the overall acceptance of the overweight and obesity management in young children (semi-structured interviews). Outcomes are measured at baseline and after: 10-weeks (only BMI z-score, waist circumference), 9-months (all outcomes), 15- and 21-months (all outcomes except physical activity, dietary patterns, epigenetics and gut hormones) post-baseline.DiscussionThis study will evaluate a parent support program for weight management in young children in three European countries. To boost the effect of the ML program the families will be supported by an app for 6-months. If the program is found to be effective, it has the potential to be implemented into routine care to reduce overweight and obesity in young children and the app could prove to be a viable option for sustained effects of the care provided.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT03800823; 11 Jan 2019.
  • Autores: Norouzirad, R. ; Gholami, H. ; Ghanbari, M.; et al.
    Revista: LIFE SCIENCES
    ISSN 0024-3205 Vol.230 2019 págs. 188 - 196
    Resumen
    Aims: Hyperoxia has beneficial metabolic effects in type 2 diabetes. However, hyperoxia exacerbates already existing oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes. Nitrate, a nitric oxide donor, is an effective new treatment in type 2 diabetes and also has antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to determine whether nitrate administration can attenuate hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress in obese type 2 diabetic rats. Main methods: Fifty-six male Wistar rats (190-210 g) were divided into 8 groups: Controls (non-treated, nitratetreated, O-2-treated, and nitrate + O-2-treated) and diabetes (non-treated, nitrate-treated, O-2-treated, and nitrate + O-2-treated). Diabetes was induced using high-fat diet and low-dose of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg). Rats in intervention groups, were exposed to 95% oxygen and consumed sodium nitrate (100 mg/L) in drinking water. Serum fasting glucose, oxidized (GSSG) and reduced (GSH) glutathiones, total oxidant status (TOS), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured after intervention. Oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated as TOS/TAC ratio. Key findings: Diabetic rats had increased oxidative stress and hyperoxia exacerbated it. In 0 2 -diabetic rats, nitrate decreased GSSG (102.7 +/- 2.1 vs. 236.0 +/- 20.1 mu M, P < 0.001), TOS (67.7 +/- 7.3 vs. 104 +/- 3.8 mu M, P < 0.001), and OSI (0.44 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.91 +/- 0.07, P < 0.001) and increased catalase (2.8 +/- 0.13 vs. 1.8 +/- 0.21 KU/L, P = 0.014), SOD (53.4 +/- 1.5 vs. 38.4 +/- 1.2 U/mL, P < 0.001), GSH (43.7 +/- 1.4 vs. 17.8 +/- 0.5 mM, P = 0.003), TAC (152.5 +/- 1.9 vs. 116.7 +/- 5.0 mM, P < 0.001), and GSH/GSSG ratio (0.43 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.08 +/- 0.01, P = 0.005). Nitrate also potentiated effects of hyperoxia on decreasing fasting glucose. Significance: Our results showed that dietary nitrate attenuates hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic rats.
  • Autores: Gil, A. (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
    Revista: ADVANCES IN NUTRITION
    ISSN 2161-8313 Vol.10 N° Supl. 1 2019 págs. S1 - S3
    Resumen
    The proposal to form the International Union of Nutritional Sciences (IUNS) was first discussed in July 1946 in London at a meeting that was attended by 22 investigators from 13 countries. Statutes and bylaws were discussed, and the principal objectives of the Union were defined as 1) the exchange of information, 2) the organization of international congresses, and 3) the publication of the results of scientific investigation. Since then, the Union has grown steadily. At first the holding of the congresses was its main task, but, over the course of the years, other equally important activities have been developed, which required long-term planning and efficient administration.
  • Autores: Martínez Fernández, Leyre; González Muniesa, Pedro; Sáinz Amillo, Neira; et al.
    Revista: MOLECULAR NUTRITION & FOOD RESEARCH (ONLINE)
    ISSN 1613-4133 Vol.63 N° 24 2019 págs. 1 - 9
    Resumen
    SCOPE: To study the effects of Maresin 1 (MaR1), a docosahexaenoic-acid-derived lipid mediator, on fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) production and to characterize the tissue-specific regulation of Fgf21 and its signaling pathway in liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose tissue (WAT). METHODS AND RESULTS: Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice are treated with MaR1 (50g kg-1 , 10 days, oral gavage) and serum FGF21 levels and liver, muscle and WAT Fgf21, beta-Klotho, Fgfr1, Egr1, and cFos mRNA expression are evaluated. Additionally, MaR1 effects are tested in mouse primary hepatocytes, HepG2 human hepatocytes, C2C12 myotubes, and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In DIO mice, MaR1 decreases circulating FGF21 levels and HFD-induced hepatic Fgf21 mRNA expression. MaR1 increases hepatic beta-Klotho, Egr1, and cFos in DIO mice. In WAT, MaR1 counteracts the HFD-induced downregulation of Fgf21, Fgfr1, and beta-Klotho. In muscle, MaR1 does not modify Fgf21 but promoted Fgfr1 expression. In mouse primary hepatocytes, MaR1 decreases Fgf21 expression and downregulated Pparalpha mRNA levels. In HepG2 cells, MaR1 reverses the increased production of FGF21 and the downregulation of FGFR1, Beta-KLOTHO, EGR1, and cFOS induced by palmitate. Preincubation with a PPARalpha antagonist prevents MaR1 effects on FGF21 secretion. CONCLUSION: The ability of MaR1 to modulate FGF21 can contribute to its beneficial metabolic effects.
  • Autores: Salas-Perez, F.; Assmann, TS; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
    ISSN 0250-6807 Vol.75 N° Supl. 2 2019 págs. 53 - 54
  • Autores: Martinez-Hernandez, L.; González Muniesa, Pedro; Sáinz Amillo, Neira; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
    ISSN 0250-6807 Vol.75 2019 págs. 23
  • Autores: Aranaz Oroz, Paula; Navarro-Herrera, D.; Romo Hualde, Ana; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
    ISSN 0250-6807 Vol.75 2019 págs. 49 - 49
  • Autores: Assmann, T. S.; Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
    ISSN 0250-6807 Vol.75 2019 págs. 43 - 44
  • Autores: Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Guruceaga Martínez, Elisabet; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
    ISSN 0250-6807 Vol.75 N° Supl. 2 2019 págs. 18 - 18
  • Autores: Navas Carretero, Santiago
    Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
    ISSN 0250-6807 Vol.75 N° Supl. 2 2019 págs. 11 - 11
  • Autores: Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
    Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
    ISSN 0250-6807 Vol.75 N° Supl. 3 2019 págs. 1
  • Autores: Graham, C. A. M.; Pipe, J. ; Holton, J. ; et al.
    Revista: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY
    ISSN 0029-6651 Vol.78 N° OCE1 2019 págs. E2 - E2
  • Autores: Almirón Roig, Eva (Autor de correspondencia); Navas Carretero, Santiago; Emery, P.; et al.
    Revista: FOOD & FUNCTION
    ISSN 2042-6496 Vol.9 N° 2 2018 págs. 715 - 739
    Resumen
    Portion sizes for certain foods have been increasing dramatically in recent years alongside obesity rates, concurring with the phenomenon of the portion size effect (more is consumed when more is offered). Portion size may be defined based on different purposes such as for dietary assessment, or therapeutic advice or food labelling, resulting in a variety of measurement methods and specifications. This situation has resulted in disagreements on establishing portion size recommendations by manufacturers, food distributors, restaurants, health professionals and policy makers, contributing to confusion amongst consumers on the amounts of food to be consumed, and potentially increasing the likelihood of overeating and other obesity-related behaviours. Such variability is also reflected in the research field making comparison across studies on portion size difficult. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of definitions and methods used in research to evaluate portion-size related outcomes, including methods to estimate amounts consumed by individuals as part of dietary assessment; methods to analyse cognitive mechanisms related to portion size behaviour; and methods to evaluate the impact of portion size manipulations as well as individual plus environmental factors on portion size behaviour. Special attention has been paid to behavioural studies exploring portion size cognitive processes given the lack of previous methodological reviews in this area. This information may help researchers, clinicians and other stakeholders to establish clearer definitions of portion size in their respective areas of work and to standardise methods to analyse portion size effects.
  • Autores: Janeiro Arenas, Manuel Humberto; Ramírez Gil, María Javier; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.10 N° 10 2018
    Resumen
    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a molecule generated from choline, betaine, and carnitine via gut microbial metabolism. The plasma level of TMAO is determined by several factors including diet, gut microbial flora, drug administration and liver flavin monooxygenase activity. In humans, recent clinical studies evidence a positive correlation between elevated plasma levels of TMAO and an increased risk for major adverse cardiovascular events. A direct correlation between increased TMAO levels and neurological disorders has been also hypothesized. Several therapeutic strategies are being explored to reduce TMAO levels, including use of oral broad spectrum antibiotics, promoting the growth of bacteria that use TMAO as substrate and the development of target-specific molecules. Despite the accumulating evidence, it is questioned whether TMAO is the mediator of a bystander in the disease process. Thus, it is important to undertake studies to establish the role of TMAO in human health and disease. In this article, we reviewed dietary sources and metabolic pathways of TMAO, as well as screened the studies suggesting possible involvement of TMAO in the etiology of cardiovascular and neurological disorders, underlying the importance of TMAO mediating inflammatory processes. Finally, the potential utility of TMAO as therapeutic target is also analyzed.
  • Autores: Galarregui, C.; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Navas Carretero, Santiago; et al.
    Revista: ANALES DEL SISTEMA SANITARIO DE NAVARRA
    ISSN 1137-6627 Vol.41 N° 2 2018 págs. 227 - 243
    Resumen
    El envejecimiento de la población supone un importante reto, económico y cualitativo, para el sistema de salud orientándolo hacia una atención de tipo preventivo, en la que la nutrición de precisión (NP) y la prescripción de hábitos saludables adquieren relevancia capital. El fin de la NP es procurar una nutrición adaptada a cada individuo, entendiendo que la prevención o el tratamiento de trastornos crónicos (obesidad, diabetes, enfermedad cardiovascular, etc.) deben abordarse de un modo integral, considerando información personal y clínica relevante, edad y características feno- y genotípicas. La elaboración de la presente guía surge de la necesidad de desarrollar modelos nutricionales de precisión que permitan la individualización del tratamiento nutricional, con énfasis en el adulto mayor. Las necesidades nutricionales, las recomendaciones dietéticas y los ingredientes para una NP en las personas pre-sénior y sénior quedan resumidas en realizar al menos 3 comidas diarias, reducir las calorías totales, optar por una alimentación variada y equilibrada con alimentos frescos y de alta densidad nutricional, incorporar verduras, legumbres y pescado, consumir productos lácteos y fibra, preferir carnes blancas en lugar de rojas, evitar frituras, embutidos y alimentos procesados, moderar el consumo de sal, café y alcohol, e hidratarse adecuadamente. The aging of the population underlines an important challenge for the health system not only from sanitary and economic reasons but
  • Autores: Hernández Ruiz de Eguilaz, María; Martínez de Morentin Aldabe, Blanca Esther; Almirón Roig, Eva; et al.
    Revista: ENDOCRINOLOGIA DIABETES Y NUTRICION
    ISSN 2530-0180 Vol.65 N° 2 2018 págs. 114 - 125
    Resumen
    Research in obesity has traditionally focused on prevention strategies and treatments aimed at changing lifestyle habits. However, recent research suggests that eating behavior is a habit regulated not only by homeostatic mechanisms, but also by the hedonic pathway that controls appetite and satiety processes. Cognitive, emotional, social, economic, and cultural factors, as welt as organoleptic properties of food, are basic aspects to consider in order to understand eating behavior and its impact on health. This review presents a multisensory integrative view of food at both the homeostatic and non-homeostatic levels. This information will be of scientific interest to determine behavior drivers leading to overeating and, thus, to propose effective measures, at both the individual and population levels, for the prevention of obesity and associated metabolic diseases. (C) 2017 SEEN y SED. Published by Elsevier Espana, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
  • Autores: Malafarina, V. (Autor de correspondencia); Reginster, J. Y.; Cabrerizo, S. ; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.10 N° 5 2018
    Resumen
    Malnutrition is very prevalent in geriatric patients with hip fracture. Nevertheless, its importance is not fully recognized. The objective of this paper is to review the impact of malnutrition and of nutritional treatment upon outcomes and mortality in older people with hip fracture. We searched the PubMed database for studies evaluating nutritional aspects in people aged 70 years and over with hip fracture. The total number of studies included in the review was 44, which analyzed 26,281 subjects (73.5% women, 83.6 +/- 7.2 years old). Older people with hip fracture presented an inadequate nutrient intake for their requirements, which caused deterioration in their already compromised nutritional status. The prevalence of malnutrition was approximately 18.7% using the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) (large or short form) as a diagnostic tool, but the prevalence was greater (45.7%) if different criteria were used (such as Body Mass Index (BMI), weight loss, or albumin concentration). Low scores in anthropometric indices were associated with a higher prevalence of complications during hospitalization and with a worse functional recovery. Despite improvements in the treatment of geriatric patients with hip fracture, mortality was still unacceptably high (30% within 1 year and up to 40% within 3 years). Malnutrition was associated with an increase in mortality. Nutritional intervention was cost effective and was associated with an improvement in nutritional status and a greater functional recovery. To conclude, in older people, the prevention of malnutrition and an early nutritional intervention can improve recovery following a hip fracture.
  • Autores: Estruch, R. (Autor de correspondencia); Ros, E.; Salas-Salvado, J.; et al.
    Revista: NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE
    ISSN 0028-4793 Vol.378 N° 25 2018 págs. 2441 - 2442
  • Autores: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: ADIPOCYTE
    ISSN 2162-3945 Vol.7 N° 2 2018 págs. 137 - 142
    Resumen
    Unresolved ER stress is involved in the onset and progression of several obesity-related metabolic disorders, including dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Different epigenetic modifications may regulate ER stress response and consequently disease risks. These epigenetic phenomena encompass DNA and histone methylation patterns in ER stress genes and downstream signaling molecules, as well as microRNA expression. Our results suggest potential associations of methylation signatures at ER regulatory genes in white blood cells with an abdominal/central obesity marker (waist circumference), dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. Interestingly, most of these genes were implicated in ER stress, as revealed by pathway enrichment analysis. Together, these findings add knowledge into the current understanding of relationships between obesity and accompanying complications with epigenetics and ER stress. Here, we comment about the implication of ER stress in central/abdominal adiposity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, with an emphasis on the role that epigenetics may play on these pathological processes.
  • Autores: Russolillo-Femenias, G.; Menal-Puey, S. (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF THE ACADEMY OF NUTRITION AND DIETETICS
    ISSN 2212-2672 Vol.118 N° 11 2018 págs. 2029 - 2041
  • Autores: Fallaize, R.; Livingstone, K. M. ; Celis-Morales, C.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.10 N° 1 2018 págs. 49
    Resumen
    Diet-quality scores (DQS), which are developed across the globe, are used to define adherence to specific eating patterns and have been associated with risk of coronary heart disease and type-II diabetes. We explored the association between five diet-quality scores (Healthy Eating Index, HEI; Alternate Healthy Eating Index, AHEI; MedDietScore, MDS; PREDIMED Mediterranean Diet Score, P-MDS; Dutch Healthy Diet-Index, DHDI) and markers of metabolic health (anthropometry, objective physical activity levels (PAL), and dried blood spot total cholesterol (TC), total carotenoids, and omega-3 index) in the Food4Me cohort, using regression analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Participants (n = 1480) were adults recruited from seven European Union (EU) countries. Overall, women had higher HEI and AHEI than men (p < 0.05), and scores varied significantly between countries. For all DQS, higher scores were associated with lower body mass index, lower waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference, and higher total carotenoids and omega-3-index (p trends < 0.05). Higher HEI, AHEI, DHDI, and P-MDS scores were associated with increased daily PAL, moderate and vigorous activity, and reduced sedentary behaviour (p trend < 0.05). We observed no association between DQS and TC. To conclude, higher DQS, which reflect better dietary patterns, were associated with markers of better nutritional status and metabolic health.
  • Autores: Cárdenas Fuentes, G.; Bawaked, R. A.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH
    ISSN 1101-1262 Vol.28 N° 5 2018 págs. 944 - 950
    Resumen
    Background: There is limited, and inconsistent, data on the prospective association between physical activity and surrogate markers of adiposity in older adults. We aim to determine the prospective association of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and the incidence of obesity. Methods: This prospective analysis included 7144 individuals with a mean age of 67 +/- 6.2 years, from the PREvencio ' n con DIeta MEDiterra ' nea (PREDIMED) study. BMI and WC were measured and LTPA was recorded using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Exposure and outcome variables were calculated as cumulative average of repeated measurements. Results: Total LTPA was inversely associated (P < 0.001) with BMI and WC. The difference in BMI and WC between extreme quintiles of LTPA (Q1-Q5) was 2.1 kg/m 2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.68. // 2.49, P < 0.001) and 4.8 cm (CI 2.28. // 7.25, P < 0.001), respectively. Lowintensity LTPA was inversely associated with BMI but not with WC, while moderate/vigorous LTPA showed an inverse relationship with BMI and WC. The hazard of general and abdominal obesity incidence decreased across quintiles of total and moderate/vigorous LTPA (P < 0.001 for both), whereas low-intensity LTPA was inversely associated with the incidence of general obesity (P < 0.001). Conclusion: LTPA was inversely associated with BMI, WC and incidence of general and abdominal obesity. The finding that low-intensity LTPA was inversely related to BMI and the incidence of obesity is of particular importance because this level of physical activity could be a feasible option for many older adults.
  • Autores: Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR
    ISSN 2162-3279 Vol.8 N° 8 2018
    Resumen
    Introduction: Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter that regulates the rewarding and motivational processes underlying food intake and eating behaviors. This study hypothesized associations of DNA methylation signatures at genes modulating DA signaling with obesity features, metabolic profiles, and dietary intake. Methods: An adult population within the Methyl Epigenome Network Association project was included (n = 473). DNA methylation levels in white blood cells were measured by microarray (450K). Differentially methylated genes were mapped within the dopaminergic synapse pathway using the KEGG reference database (map04728). Subsequently, network enrichment analyses were run in the pathDIP portal. Associations of methylation patterns with anthropometric markers of general (BMI) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference), the blood metabolic profile, and daily dietary intakes were screened. Results: After applying a correction for multiple comparisons, 12 CpG sites were strongly associated (p < 0.0001) with BMI: cg03489495 (ITPR3), cg22851378 (PPP2R2D), cg04021127 (PPP2R2D), cg22441882 (SLC18A1), cg03045635 (DRD5), cg23341970 (ITPR2), cg13051970 (DDC), cg08943004 (SLC6A3), cg20557710 (CACNA1C), cg24085522 (GNAL), cg16846691 (ITPR2), and cg09691393 (SLC6A3). Moreover, average methylation levels of these genes differed according to the presence or absence of abdominal obesity. Pathway analyses revealed a statistically significant contribution of the aforementioned genes to dopaminergic synapse transmission (p = 4.78E-08). Furthermore, SLC18A1 and SLC6A3 gene methylation signatures correlated with total energy (p < 0.001) and carbohydrate (p < 0.001) intakes. Conclusions: The results of this investigation reveal that methylation status on DA signaling genes may underlie epigenetic mechanisms contributing to carbohydrate and calorie consumption and fat deposition.
  • Autores: Moller, G. (Autor de correspondencia); Andersen, J. R.; Ritz, C.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.10 N° 1 2018 págs. 54
    Resumen
    Concerns about detrimental renal effects of a high-protein intake have been raised due to an induced glomerular hyperfiltration, since this may accelerate the progression of kidney disease. The aim of this sub-study was to assess the effect of a higher intake of protein on kidney function in pre-diabetic men and women, aged 55 years and older. Analyses were based on baseline and one-year data in a sub-group of 310 participants included in the PREVIEW project (PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle Intervention and population studies in Europe and around the World). Protein intake was estimated from four-day dietary records and 24-hour urinary urea excretion. We used linear regression to assess the association between protein intake after one year of intervention and kidney function markers: creatinine clearance, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), urinary urea/creatinine ratio (UCR), serum creatinine, and serum urea before and after adjustments for potential confounders. A higher protein intake was associated with a significant increase in UCR (p = 0.03) and serum urea (p = 0.05) after one year. There were no associations between increased protein intake and creatinine clearance, eGFR, ACR, or serum creatinine. We found no indication of impaired kidney function after one year with a higher protein intake in pre-diabetic older adults.
  • Autores: Manios, Y. (Autor de correspondencia); Moschonis, G.; Lambrinou, C. P.; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 1436-6207 Vol.57 N° 4 2018 págs. 1357 - 1368
    Resumen
    Purpose To report the vitamin D status in adults from seven European countries and to identify behavioural correlates. Methods In total, 1075 eligible adult men and women from Ireland, Netherlands, Spain, Greece, UK, Poland and Germany, were included in the study. Results Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, defined as 25-hydroxy vitamin D-3 (25-OHD3) concentration of < 30 and 30-49.9 nmol/L, respectively, were observed in 3.3 and 30.6% of the participants. The highest prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was found in the UK and the lowest in the Netherlands (8.2 vs. 1.1%, P < 0.05). In addition, the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was higher in females compared with males (36.6 vs. 22.6%, P < 0.001), in winter compared with summer months (39.3 vs. 25.0%, P < 0.05) and in younger compared with older participants (36.0 vs. 24.4%, P < 0.05). Positive dose-response associations were also observed between 25-OHD3 concentrations and dietary vitamin D intake from foods and supplements, as well as with physical activity (PA) levels. Vitamin D intakes of >= 5 mu g/day from foods and >= 5 mu g/day from supplements, as well as engagement in >= 30 min/day of moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA were associated with higher odds (P < 0.05) for maintaining sufficient (>= 50 nmol/L) 25-OHD3 concentrations. Conclusions The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency varied considerably among European adults. Dietary intakes of >= 10 mu g/day of vitamin D from foods and/or supplements and at least 30 min/day of moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA were the minimum thresholds associated with vitamin D sufficiency.
  • Autores: Mena-Sanchez, G. ; Babio, N. (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
    ISSN 0939-4753 Vol.28 N° 10 2018 págs. 1002 - 1011
    Resumen
    Background and Aims: Fermented dairy products have been associated with a better diet quality and cardio-metabolic profile. However, in Mediterranean populations, these associations have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to assess the diet quality and the associations between the consumption of total fermented dairy products and their subtypes and the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) components in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Methods and Results: Baseline cross-sectional analyses were conducted on 6,572 men and women (mean age: 65 years) with overweight or obesity and MetS recruited into the PREDIMED-Plus cohort. A 143-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was used, and anthropometrical, biochemical, and blood pressure measurements were recorded. Multivariate-adjusted Cox regressions were fitted to analyze the association between quartiles of consumption of fermented dairy products and their subtypes and MetS components to estimate the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Participants who were high consumers of fermented dairy products reported a higher consumption of fruit, vegetables, fish, nuts, and whole bread and a lower consumption of white bread, alcohol, and cookies. Participants in the higher quartile showed a lower prevalence of the low HDL-cholesterol component of the MetS (RR=0.88; 95% CI: 0.78-0.98) than those in the lowest quartile of cheese consumption. Cheese consumption was inversely associated with the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia. Total fermented dairy products, yogurt, and its types were not associated with any of the MetS components. Conclusions: Compared to nonconsumers, participants consuming fermented dairy products reported a better diet quality and, particularly, cheese consumers presented a lower prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol plasma levels, which are MetS components. (C) 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Autores: Dorenbos, E. ; Drummen, M.; Rijks, J.; et al.
    Revista: DIABETES OBESITY AND METABOLISM
    ISSN 1462-8902 Vol.20 N° 5 2018 págs. 1096 - 1101
    Resumen
    Insulin resistance (IR) in adolescence is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM]. The PREVIEW (Prevention of Diabetes Through Lifestyle Intervention and Population Studies in Europe and Around the World) study assessed the effectiveness of a high-protein, low-glycaemic-index diet and a moderate-protein, moderate-glycaemic-index diet to decrease IR in insulin-resistant children who were overweight or obese. Inclusion criteria were age 10 to 17 years, homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) ¿2.0 and overweight/obesity. In 126 children (mean ± SD age 13.6 ± 2.2 years, body mass index [BMI] z-score 3.04 ± 0.66, HOMA-IR 3.48 ± 2.28) anthropometrics, fat mass percentage (FM%), metabolic characteristics, physical activity, food intake and sleep were measured. Baseline characteristics did not differ between the groups. IR was higher in pubertal children with morbid obesity than in prepubertal children with morbid obesity (5.41 ± 1.86 vs 3.23 ± 1.86; P = .007) and prepubertal and pubertal children with overweight/obesity (vs 3.61 ± 1.60, P = .004, and vs 3.40 ± 1.50, P < .001, respectively). IR was associated with sex, Tanner stage, BMI z-score and FM%. Fasting glucose concentrations were negatively associated with Baecke sport score (r = -0.223, P = .025) and positively with daytime sleepiness (r = 0.280, P = .016) independent of sex, Tanner stage, BMI z-score and FM%. In conclusion, IR was most severe in pubertal children with morbid obesity. The associations between fasting glucose concentration and Baecke sport score and sleepiness suggest these might be possible targets for diabetes prevention.
  • Autores: Huttunen-Lenz, M. (Autor de correspondencia); Hansen, S.; Christensen, P.; et al.
    Revista: PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH AND BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT
    ISSN 1179-1578 Vol.11 2018 págs. 383 - 394
    Resumen
    Purpose: Onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is often gradual and preceded by impaired glucose homeostasis. Lifestyle interventions including weight loss and physical activity may reduce the risk of developing T2D, but adherence to a lifestyle change is challenging. As part of an international T2D prevention trial (PREVIEW), a behavior change intervention supported participants in achieving a healthier diet and physically active lifestyle. Here, our aim was to explore the influence of this behavioral program (PREMIT) on social-cognitive variables during an 8-week weight loss phase. Methods: PREVIEW consisted of an initial weight loss, Phase I, followed by a weight-maintenance, Phase II, for those achieving the 8-week weight loss target of >= 8% from initial bodyweight. Overweight and obese (BMI >= 25 kg/m(2))individuals aged 25 to 70 years with confirmed pre-diabetes were enrolled. Uni- and multivariate statistical methods were deployed to explore differences in intentions, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancies between those who achieved the target weight loss ("achievers") and those who did not ("non-achievers"). Results: At the beginning of Phase I, no significant differences in intentions, self-efficacy and outcome expectancies between "achievers" (1,857) and "non-achievers" (163) were found. "Non-achievers" tended to be younger, live with child/ren, and attended the PREMIT sessions less frequently. At the end of Phase I, "achievers" reported higher intentions (healthy eating chi(2)((1))=2.57; P < 0.008, exercising chi(2)((1))=0.66; P < 0.008), self-efficacy (F-(2;1970)=10.27, P <0.005), and were more positive about the expected outcomes (F-(4; 1968)=11.22, P < 0.005). Conclusion: Although statistically significant, effect sizes observed between the two groups were small. Behavior change, however, is multi-determined. Over a period of time, even small differences may make a cumulative effect. Being successful in behavior change requires that the "new" behavior is implemented time after time until it becomes a habit. Therefore, having even slightly higher self-efficacy, positive outcome expectancies and intentions may over time result in considerably improved chances to achieve long-term lifestyle changes.
  • Autores: Goñi Mateos, Leticia; García-Granero Marquez, Marta; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION AND DIABETES
    ISSN 2044-4052 Vol.8 N° 1 2018 págs. 27
    Resumen
    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease resulting from the interactions among genetics, metabolic, behavioral, sociocultural and environmental factors. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to identify phenotype and genotype variables that could be relevant determinants of body mass index (BMI) variability. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In the present study, a total of 1050 subjects (798 females; 76%) were included. Least angle regression (LARS) analysis was used as regression model selection technique, where the dependent variable was BMI and the independent variables were age, sex, energy intake, physical activity level, and 16 polymorphisms previously related to obesity and lipid metabolism. RESULTS: The LARS analysis obtained the following formula for BMI explanation: (64.7¿+¿0.10¿×¿age [years]¿+¿0.42¿×¿gender [0, men; 1, women]¿+¿-40.6¿×¿physical activity [physical activity level]¿+¿0.004¿×¿energy intake [kcal]¿+¿0.74¿×¿rs9939609 [0 or 1-2 risk alleles]¿+¿-0.72¿×¿rs1800206 [0 or 1-2 risk alleles]¿+¿-0.86¿×¿rs1801282 [0 or 1-2 risk alleles]¿+¿0.87¿×¿rs429358 [0 or 1-2 risk alleles]. The multivariable regression model accounted for 21% of the phenotypic variance in BMI. The regression model was internally validated by the bootstrap method (r2 original data set¿=¿0.208, mean r2 bootstrap data sets¿=¿0.210). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, age, physical activity, energy intake and polymorphisms in FTO, APOE, PPARG and PPARA genes are significant predictors of the BMI trait.
  • Autores: Romo Hualde, Ana; Huerta Hernández, Ana Elsa; González Navarro, Carlos Javier; et al.
    Revista: LIPIDS IN HEALTH AND DISEASE
    ISSN 1476-511X Vol.17 2018 págs. 103
    Resumen
    Background: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and alpha-lipoic acid (alpha-LA) have been investigated for their beneficial effects on obesity and cardiovascular risk factors. In the current research, the goal was to evaluate metabolomic changes following the dietary supplementation of these two lipids, alone or combined in healthy overweight/obese sedentary women following an energy-restricted diet. For this purpose, an untargeted metabolomics approach was conducted on urine samples using liquid chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF-MS). Methods: This is a short-term double blind placebo-controlled study with a parallel nutritional design that lasted 10 weeks. Participants were assigned to one of the 4 experimental groups [Control, EPA (1.3 g/d), alpha-LA (0.3 g/d) and EPA+alpha-LA (1.3 g/d + 0.3 g/d)]. All intervention groups followed an energy-restricted diet of 30% less than total energy expenditure. Clinically relevant biochemical measurements were analyzed. Urine samples (24 h) were collected at baseline and after 10 weeks. Untargeted metabolomic analysis on urine samples was carried out, and principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were performed for the pattern recognition and characteristic metabolites identification. Results: Urine samples were scattered in the PCA scores plots in response to the supplementation with alpha-LA. Totally, 28 putative discriminant metabolites in positive ionization, and 6 in negative ionization were identified among groups clearly differentiated according to the a-LA administration. Remarkably is the presence of an ascorbate intermediate metabolite (one of the isomers of trihydroxy-dioxohexanoate, or dihydroxy-oxohexanedionate) in the groups supplemented with aLA. This fact might be associated with antioxidant properties of both alpha-LA and ascorbic acid. Correlations between phenotypical parameters and putative metabolites of provided additional information on whether there is a direct or inverse relationship between them. Especially interesting are the negative correlation between ascorbate intermediate metabolite and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and the positive one between superoxide dismutase (SOD) and aLA supplementation. Conclusions: This metabolomic approach supports that the beneficial effects of alpha-LA administration on body weight reduction may be partly explained by the antioxidant properties of this organosulfur carboxylic acid mediated by isomers of trihydroxy-dioxohexanoate, or dihydroxy-oxohexanedionate.
  • Autores: Cantero González, Irene; Abete Goñi, Itziar; del Bas, J. M. ; et al.