Grupos Investigadores

Miembros del Grupo

Colaboradores
Adriana
Andrés Arija
María
Cartagena López
Gwenaelle
Ceniceros
Verónica
Ciaurriz Fernández
María del Carmen
Cristobo Pérez
Cristina
Del Burgo Gutiérrez
Sergio
Esteban Echeverría
María del Rocío
Felix Garcia
María
Goñi Echeverría
Paola
Gámez Macías
María
Hernández Ruiz de Eguilaz
Ana
Lorente Nieva
Gabriela
Macedo Fraiz
Cristina
Matías Sáinz
Salomé
Pérez Díez
María Asunción
Redín Pérez
Ana Luz
Tobaruela Resola
María
Zabala Navó
Miren Josune
Zubieta Satrustegui

Líneas de Investigación

  • Desarrollo de kits e índices (scores) de clasificación nutricional, diagnóstico/pronóstico de patologías asociadas a la obesidad, y de respuesta y/o adherencia a una dieta.
  • Desarrollo de nuevos abordajes nutricionales frente a la obesidad y el síndrome metabólico basados en la dieta mediterránea o algunos de sus componentes individuales, en la distribución de macronutrientes, la actividad física y la crononutrición.
  • Estudio de compuestos bioactivos para prevención y tratamiento de obesidad/síndrome metabólico
  • Identificación de biomarcadores bioquímicos, genéticos, epigenéticos, transcriptómicos, proteómicos, metabolómicos y metagenómicos relacionados con el riego a desarrollar comorbilidades asociadas al síndrome metabólico.
  • Investigación sobre saciedad, tamaño de ración y comportamiento alimentario.
  • Mecanismos implicados en obesidad y envejecimiento: inflamación, resistencia a la insulina, hígado graso.
  • Optimización del tratamiento de la obesidad y sus comorbilidades mediante la implementación de la nutrición de precisión.
  • Regulación de transportadores de nutrientes en estados fisiológicos y patofisiológicos.
  • Regulación del tejido adiposo blanco, pardo, beige, y su implicación en la susceptibilidad a desarrollar obesidad y síndrome metabólico.

Palabras Clave

  • Alimentos funcionales
  • Ambientoma
  • Biomarcador
  • Caenorhabditis elegans
  • Ciclinas/cdks
  • Compuestos (poli)fenólicos
  • Compuestos bioactivos
  • Diabetes
  • Envejecimiento
  • Epigenética
  • Hipoxia
  • Hígado graso
  • Mediadores lipídicos proresolutivos
  • Metabolómica
  • Microbiota
  • miRNA
  • Nutrición de precisión
  • Nutrición personalizada
  • Nutrigenética/Nutrigenómica
  • Obesidad
  • Plant-based foods
  • Prebióticos, probióticos y postbióticos
  • Resistencia a la insulina
  • Saciedad
  • Scores nutricionales
  • Síndrome metabólico
  • Tamaño de porción
  • Tejido adiposo
  • Transportadores de nutrientes
  • Ínflamación

Publicaciones Científicas desde 2018

  • Autores: Gauthier, E.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Navas Carretero, Santiago (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0899-9007 Vol.117 2024 págs. 112237
    Resumen
    Use of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) has increased worldwide in recent decades. However, evidence from preclinical studies shows that sweetener consumption may induce glucose intolerance through changes in the gut microbiota, which raises public health concerns. As studies conducted on humans are lacking, the aim of this review was to gather and summarize the current evidence on the effects of NNSs on human gut microbiota. Only clinical trials and cross-sectional studies were included in the review. Regarding NNSs (i.e, saccharin, sucralose, aspartame, and stevia), only two of five clinical trials showed significant changes in gut microbiota composition after the intervention protocol. These studies concluded that saccharin and sucralose impair glycemic tolerance. In three of the four cross-sectional studies an association between NNSs and the microbial composition was observed. All three clinical trials on polyols (i.e, xylitol) showed prebiotic effects on gut microbiota, but these studies had multiple limitations (publication date, dosage, duration) that jeopardize their validity. The microbial response to NNSs consumption could be strongly mediated by the gut microbial composition at baseline. Further studies in which the potential personalized microbial response to NNSs consumption is acknowledged, and that include longer intervention protocols, larger cohorts, and more realistic sweetener dosage are needed to broaden these findings.(c) 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
  • Autores: Diez Sainz, Ester; Aranaz Oroz, Paula; Amri, E. Z.; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
    ISSN: 1661-6596 Vol.25 N° 3 2024 págs. 1721 - *
    Resumen
    Plant-based food interventions are promising therapeutic approaches for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) treatment, and microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as functional bioactive components of dietary plants involved in cross-kingdom communication. Deeper investigations are needed to determine the potential impact of plant miRNAs in NAFLD. This study aimed to identify plant miRNAs that could eventually modulate the expression of human metabolic genes and protect against the progression of hepatic steatosis. Plant miRNAs from the miRBase were used to predict human target genes, and miR8126-3p and miR8126-5p were selected as candidates for their potential role in inhibiting glucose and lipid metabolism-related genes. Human HepG2 cells were transfected with plant miRNA mimics and then exposed to a mixture of oleic and palmitic acids to mimic steatosis. miR8126-3p and miR8126-5p transfections inhibited the expression of the putative target genes QKI and MAPKAPK2, respectively, and had an impact on the expression profile of key metabolic genes, including PPARA and SREBF1. Quantification of intrahepatic triglycerides revealed that miR8126-3p and miR8126-5p attenuated lipid accumulation. These findings suggest that plant miR8126-3p and miR8126-5p would induce metabolic changes in human hepatocytes eventually protecting against lipid accumulation, and thus, they could be potential therapeutic tools for preventing and alleviating lipid accumulation.
  • Autores: Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Capel, F.; Carpene, C. (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
    ISSN: 1138-7548 Vol.79 N° 2 2023 págs. 367 - 369
    Resumen
    This Special Issue of the Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry contains 7 contributions that have been elaborated in the context of the mini-network Consortium of Trans-Pyrenean Investigations on Obesity and Diabetes (CTPIOD), which is on its 18th year of existence. This scientific community, mostly involving research groups from France and Spain, but also open to participants coming from all over the world, is focusing its attention on the prevention and the novel treatments of obesity, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and other noncommunicable diseases. Accordingly, this special issue covers some nutritional, pharmacologic, and genetic aspects of the current knowledge of metabolic diseases. Some of these papers emerge from the lectures of the 18th Conference on Trans-Pyrenean Investigations in Obesity and Diabetes, organized by the University of Clermont-Ferrand and celebrated online in November 30, 2021.
  • Autores: Laiglesia González, Laura María; Escoté Miró, Xavier; Sáinz Amillo, Neira; et al.
    Revista: MOLECULAR METABOLISM
    ISSN: 2212-8778 Vol.74 2023 págs. 101749 - *
    Resumen
    Objective: Maresin 1 (MaR1) is a docosahexaenoic acid-derived proresolving lipid mediator with insulin-sensitizing and anti-steatosis properties. Here, we aim to unravel MaR1 actions on brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation and white adipose tissue (WAT) browning. Methods: MaR1 actions were tested in cultured murine brown adipocytes and in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC)-derived adipocytes. In vivo effects of MaR1 were tested in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and lean WT and Il6 knockout (Il6-/-) mice.Results: In cultured differentiated murine brown adipocytes, MaR1 reduces the expression of inflammatory genes, while stimulates glucose uptake, fatty acid utilization and oxygen consumption rate, along with the upregulation of mitochondrial mass and genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function and the thermogenic program. In Leucine Rich Repeat Containing G Protein-Coupled Receptor 6 (LGR6)-depleted brown adipocytes using siRNA, the stimulatory effect of MaR1 on thermogenic genes was abrogated. In DIO mice, MaR1 promotes BAT remodeling, characterized by higher expression of genes encoding for master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and function and iBAT thermogenic activation, together with increased M2 macrophage markers. In addition, MaR1-treated DIO mice exhibit a better response to cold-induced BAT activation. Moreover, MaR1 induces a beige adipocyte signature in inguinal WAT of DIO mice and in hMSC-derived adipocytes. MaR1 potentiates Il6 expression in brown adipocytes and BAT of cold exposed lean WT mice. Interestingly, the thermogenic properties of MaR1 were abrogated inConclusions: These data reveal MaR1 as a novel agent that promotes BAT activation and WAT browning by regulating thermogenic program in adipocytes and M2 polarization of macrophages. Moreover, our data suggest that LGR6 receptor is mediating MaR1 actions on brown adipocytes, and that IL-6 is required for the thermogenic effects of MaR1. C 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • Autores: Félix Soriano, Elisa; Sáinz Amillo, Neira; Gil Iturbe, Eva; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
    ISSN: 1138-7548 Vol.79 N° 2 2023 págs. 451 - 465
    Resumen
    Obesity exacerbates aging-induced adipose tissue dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate the effects of long-term exercise on inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) and interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) of aged obese mice. Two-month-old female mice received a high-fat diet for 4 months. Then, six-month-old diet-induced obese animals were allocated to sedentarism (DIO) or to a long-term treadmill training (DIOEX) up to 18 months of age. In exercised mice, iWAT depot revealed more adaptability, with an increase in the expression of fatty acid oxidation genes (Cpt1a, Acox1), and an amelioration of the inflammatory status, with a favorable modulation of pro/antiinflammatory genes and lower macrophage infiltration. Additionally, iWAT of trained animals showed an increment in the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis (Pgc1a, Tfam, Nrf1), thermogenesis (Ucp1), and beige adipocytes genes (Cd137, Tbx1). In contrast, iBAT of aged obese mice was less responsive to exercise. Indeed, although an increase in functional brown adipocytes genes and proteins (Pgc1a, Prdm16 and UCP1) was observed, few changes were found on inflammation-related and fatty acid metabolism genes. The remodeling of iWAT and iBAT depots occurred along with an improvement in the HOMA index for insulin resistance and in glucose tolerance. In conclusion, long-term exercise effectively prevented the loss of iWAT and iBAT thermogenic properties during aging and obesity. In iWAT, the long-term exercise program also reduced the inflammatory status and stimulated a fat-oxidative gene profile. These exercise-induced adipose tissue adaptations could contribute to the beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis in aged obese mice.
  • Autores: Rosés, C.; Garcia-Ibañez, P.; Agudelo, A.; et al.
    Revista: ACS OMEGA
    ISSN: 2470-1343 Vol.8 N° 26 2023 págs. 23373 - 23388
    Resumen
    The gut microbiotaprofile is determined by diet composition, andtherefore this interaction is crucial for promoting specific bacterialgrowth and enhancing the health status. Red radish (Raphanus sativus L.) contains severalsecondary plant metabolites that can exert a protective effect onhuman health. Recent studies have shown that radish leaves have ahigher content of major nutrients, minerals, and fiber than roots,and they have garnered attention as a healthy food or supplement.Therefore, the consumption of the whole plant should be considered,as its nutritional value may be of greater interest. The aim of thiswork is to evaluate the effects of glucosinolate (GSL)-enriched radishwith elicitors on the intestinal microbiota and metabolic syndrome-relatedfunctionalities by using an in vitro dynamic gastrointestinalsystem and several cellular models developed to study the GSL impacton different health indicators such as blood pressure, cholesterolmetabolism, insulin resistance, adipogenesis, and reactive oxygenspecies (ROS). The treatment with red radish had an influence on short-chainfatty acids (SCFA) production, especially on acetic and propionicacid and many butyrate-producing bacteria, suggesting that consumptionof the entire red radish plant (leaves and roots) could modify thehuman gut microbiota profile toward a healthier one. The evaluationof the metabolic syndrome-related functionalities showed a significantdecrease in the gene expression of endothelin, interleukin IL-6, andcholesterol transporter-associated biomarkers (ABCA1 and ABCG5), suggestingan improvement of three risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome.The results support the idea that the use of elicitors on red radishcrops and its further consumption (the entire plant) may contributeto improving the general health status and gut microbiota profile.
  • Autores: Yavorov-Dayliev, D.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Ayo, J.; et al.
    Revista: DIABETOLOGIA
    ISSN: 0012-186X Vol.66 N° 11 2023 págs. 2117 - 2138
    Resumen
    Aims/hypothesis Modulation of gut microbiota has emerged as a promising strategy to treat or prevent the development of different metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. Previous data from our group suggest that the strain Pediococcus acidilactici CECT9879 (pA1c) could be an effective probiotic for regulating glucose metabolism. Hence, the objectives of this study were to verify the effectiveness of pA1c on glycaemic regulation in diet-induced obese mice and to evaluate whether the combination of pA1c with other normoglycaemic ingredients, such as chromium picolinate (PC) and oat beta-glucans (BGC), could increase the efficacy of this probiotic on the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Methods Caenorhabditis elegans was used as a screening model to describe the potential synbiotic activities, together with the underlying mechanisms of action. In addition, 4-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed with a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFS) for 6 weeks to induce hyperglycaemia and obesity. Mice were then divided into eight groups (n=12 mice/group) according to dietary supplementation: control-diet group; HFS group; pA1c group (10(10) colony-forming units/day); PC; BGC; pA1c+PC+BGC; pA1c+PC; and pA1c+BGC. Supplementations were maintained for 10 weeks. Fasting blood glucose was determined and an IPGTT was performed prior to euthanasia. Fat depots, liver and other organs were weighed, and serum biochemical variables were analysed. Gene expression analyses were conducted by real-time quantitative PCR. Sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene from faecal samples of each group was performed, and differential abundance for family, genera and species was analysed by ALDEx2R package. Results Supplementation with the synbiotic (pA1c+PC+BGC) counteracted the effect of the high glucose by modulating the insulin-IGF-1 signalling pathway in C. elegans, through the reversal of the glucose nuclear localisation of daf-16. In diet-induced obese mice, all groups supplemented with the probiotic significantly ameliorated glucose tolerance after an IPGTT, demonstrating the glycaemia-regulating effect of pA1c. Further, mice supplemented with pA1c+PC+BGC exhibited lower fasting blood glucose, a reduced proportion of visceral adiposity and a higher proportion of muscle tissue, together with an improvement in the brown adipose tissue in comparison with the HFS group. Besides, the effect of the HFS diet on steatosis and liver damage was normalised by the synbiotic. Gene expression analyses demonstrated that the synbiotic activity was mediated not only by modulation of the insulin-IGF-1 signalling pathway, through the overexpression of GLUT-1 and GLUT-4 mediators, but also by a decreased expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1. 16S metagenomics demonstrated that the synbiotic combinations allowed an increase in the concentration of P. acidilactici, together with improvements in the intestinal microbiota such as a reduction in Prevotella and an increase in Akkermansia muciniphila. Conclusions/interpretation Our data suggest that the combination of pA1c with PC and BGC could be a potential synbiotic for blood glucose regulation and may help to fight insulin resistance, diabetes and obesity.
  • Autores: Almirón Roig, Eva; Navas Carretero, Santiago (Autor de correspondencia); Castelnuovo, G.; et al.
    Revista: APPETITE
    ISSN: 1095-8304 Vol.184 2023 págs. 106515
    Resumen
    Project SWEET examined the barriers and facilitators to the use of non-nutritive sweeteners and sweetness enhancers (hereafter "S&SE") alongside potential risks/benefits for health and sustainability. The Beverages trial was a double-blind multi-centre, randomised crossover trial within SWEET evaluating the acute impact of three S&SE blends (plant-based and alternatives) vs. a sucrose control on glycaemic response, food intake, appetite sensations and safety after a carbohydrate-rich breakfast meal. The blends were: mogroside V and stevia RebM; stevia RebA and thaumatin; and sucralose and acesulfame-potassium (ace-K). At each 4h visit, 60 healthy volunteers (53% male; all with overweight/obesity) consumed a 330mL beverage with either an S&SE blend (0kJ) or 8% sucrose (26g, 442kJ), shortly followed by a standardised breakfast (2600 or 1800kJ with 77 or 51g carbohydrates, depending on sex). All blends reduced the 2-h incremental area-under-the-curve (iAUC) for blood insulin (p<0.001 in mixed-effects models), while the stevia RebA and sucralose blends reduced the glucose iAUC (p<0.05) compared with sucrose. Post-prandial levels of triglycerides plus hepatic transaminases did not differ across conditions (p>0.05 for all). Compared with sucrose, there was a 3% increase in LDL-cholesterol after stevia RebA-thaumatin (p<0.001 in adjusted models); and a 2% decrease in HDL-cholesterol after sucralose-ace-K (p<0.01). There was an impact of blend on fullness and desire to eat ratings (both p<0.05) and sucralose-acesulfame K induced higher prospective intake vs sucrose (p<0.001 in adjusted models), but changes were of a small magnitude and did not translate into energy intake differences over the next 24h. Gastro-intestinal symptoms for all beverages were mostly mild. In general, responses to a carbohydrate-rich meal following consumption of S&SE blends with stevia or sucralose were similar to sucrose.
  • Autores: Pascual Masiá, Lluís; Calvo Martínez, María Isabel; Martínez Galán, Fernando María
    Revista: REVISTA DE LA O.F.I.L.
    ISSN: 1131-9429 Vol.33 N° 3 2023 págs. 244 - 248
    Resumen
    Objetivo: Poner en práctica y optimizar una metodología para evaluar los riesgos implicados en la elaboración de medicamentos en Servicios de Farmacia Hospitalaria con el fin de priorizar la validación de métodos analíticos de control de calidad. Método: Se han diseñado dos métodos para el cálculo del Número de Prioridad de Riesgo. Para el análisis y comparación entre ambos, se seleccionaron 3 parámetros a evaluar en cada medicamento: vía de administración, frecuencia de dispensación y complejidad del proceso de elaboración. A cada uno se asignó 4 niveles de gravedad, siendo 1 el más bajo y 4 el más alto. Se modificaron los criterios para la asignación de la gravedad en cada parámetro evaluado en el Método 2 con respecto al Método 1. Ambos métodos se han ensayado sobre 65 fórmulas. Resultados: El Método 1 segrega las formulaciones en 8 grupos según su Número de Prioridad de Riesgo. El Método 2 las separa en 14 grupos de 16 posibles. La frecuencia, en el Método 1 agrupa el 92,31% de las fórmulas en el primer nivel; la complejidad acumula el 86,15% en los niveles 2 y 4. Mientras el Método 2 separa el 25% de fórmulas en cada nivel según frecuencia, al segregar por cuartiles. La complejidad, al diferenciar las fórmulas asépticas con esterilización final de las elaboradas mediante llenado aséptico, separa las formulaciones en grupos más homogéneos. Conclusiones: El Método 2 es capaz de priorizar de forma más eficaz la validación de los métodos analíticos de las fórmulas analizadas, mejorando la consecución del objetivo propuesto.
  • Autores: Diez Sainz, Ester; Lorente-Cebrián, S. (Autor de correspondencia); Aranaz Oroz, Paula; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN NUTRITION
    ISSN: 2296-861X Vol.10 2023
    Resumen
    Background: Edible plants can exert anti-inflammatory activities in humans, being potentially useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Plant-derived microRNAs have emerged as cross-kingdom gene expression regulators and could act as bioactive molecules involved in the beneficial effects of some edible plants. We investigated the role of edible plant-derived microRNAs in the modulation of pro-inflammatory human genes.Methods: MicroRNAs from plant-derived foods were identified by next-generation sequencing. MicroRNAs with inflammatory putative targets were selected, after performing in silico analyses. The expression of candidate plant-derived miRNAs was analyzed by qPCR in edible plant-derived foods and their effects were evaluated in THP-1 monocytes differentiated to macrophages. The bioavailability of candidate plant miRNAs in humans was evaluated in feces and serum samples by qPCR.Results: miR482f and miR482c-5p are present in several edible plant-derived foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and cooked legumes and cereals, and fats and oils. Transfections with miR482f and miR482c-5p mimics decreased the gene expression of CLEC7A and NFAM1, and TRL6, respectively, in human THP-1 monocytes differentiated to macrophages, which had an impact on gene expression profile of inflammatory biomarkers. Both microRNAs (miR482f and miR482c-5p) resisted degradation during digestion and were detected in human feces, although not in serum.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that miR482f and miR482c-5p can promote an anti-inflammatory gene expression profile in human macrophages in vitro and their bioavailability in humans can be achieved through diet, but eventually restricted at the gut level.
  • Autores: Moreno-Ortega, A. (Autor de correspondencia); Pereira-Caro, G.; Ludwig Sanz Orrio, Iziar Amaia; et al.
    Revista: ANTIOXIDANTS
    ISSN: 2076-3921 Vol.12 N° 4 2023 págs. 925
    Resumen
    The consumption of black garlic has been related to a decreased risk of many human diseases due to the presence of phytochemicals such as organosulfur compounds (OSCs). However, information on the metabolization of these compounds in humans is limited. By means of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS), this study aims to determine the OSCs and their metabolites excreted in urine 24 h after an acute intake of 20 g of black garlic by healthy humans. Thirty-three OSCs were identified and quantified, methiin (17,954 +/- 6040 nmol), isoalliin (15,001 +/- 9241 nmol), S-(2-carboxypropyl)-L-cysteine (8804 +/- 7220 nmol) and S-propyl-L-cysteine (deoxypropiin) (7035 +/- 1392 nmol) being the main ones. Also detected were the metabolites N-acetyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine (NASAC), N-acetyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (NASACS) and N-acetyl-S-(2-carboxypropyl)-L-cysteine (NACPC), derived from S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC), alliin and S-(2-carboxypropyl)-L-cysteine, respectively. These compounds are potentially N-acetylated in the liver and kidney. The total excretion of OSCs 24 h after the ingestion of black garlic was 64,312 +/- 26,584 nmol. A tentative metabolic pathway has been proposed for OSCs in humans.
  • Autores: Andueza Pacheco, Naroa; Martín Calvo, Nerea; Navas Carretero, Santiago (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.15 N° 10 2023 págs. 2375
    Resumen
    The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a new nutritional intervention, focused on improving the quality of the diet in children aged 6 to 12 years. A 2-month parallel, controlled randomized trial was conducted in the Spanish child population. The children were randomized to ALINFA nutritional intervention, which consisted of a normocaloric diet that incorporates products, ready-to-eat meals and healthy recipes specifically designed for the study, or a control group, which received the usual advice on healthy eating. The change in diet quality was assessed through the Kidmed index. The secondary outcomes were anthropometry, glucose and lipid profiles, inflammation markers, dietary intake and lifestyle. The participants in the intervention group showed an increase in the mean score of the Kidmed index (p < 0.001). Alongside that, these children decreased their intake of calories (p = 0.046), and total and saturated fat (p = 0.016//p = 0.011), and increased fiber intake (p < 0.001). Likewise, the children in the ALINFA group increased the intake of white fish (p = 0.001), pulses (p = 0.004), whole grains (p < 0.001) and nuts (p < 0.001), and decreased fatty meat (p = 0.014), refined grain (p = 0.008), pastry (p < 0.001), fast food (p < 0.001) and sugar (p = 0.001) intake. Moreover, these children had a significantly decreased BMI (p < 0.001), BMI z-score (p < 0.001), waist circumference (p = 0.016) and fat mass (p = 0.011), as well as leptin (p = 0.004). Participants in the control group did not report significant changes in diet quality. In conclusion, ALINFA nutritional intervention is possibly a useful strategy to increase the diet quality in children, which is associated to improvements in the nutritional status. These results highlight the importance of developing well-designed nutritional interventions.
  • Autores: Salas-Perez, F.; Silveira Assmann, T.; Ramos-Lopez, O.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.15 N° 7 2023 págs. 1550
    Resumen
    Changes in gut microbiota composition and in epigenetic mechanisms have been proposed to play important roles in energy homeostasis, and the onset and development of obesity. However, the crosstalk between epigenetic markers and the gut microbiome in obesity remains unclear. The main objective of this study was to establish a link between the gut microbiota and DNA methylation patterns in subjects with obesity by identifying differentially methylated DNA regions (DMRs) that could be potentially regulated by the gut microbiota. DNA methylation and bacterial DNA sequencing analysis were performed on 342 subjects with a BMI between 18 and 40 kg/m(2). DNA methylation analyses identified a total of 2648 DMRs associated with BMI, while ten bacterial genera were associated with BMI. Interestingly, only the abundance of Ruminococcus was associated with one BMI-related DMR, which is located between the MACROD2/SEL1L2 genes. The Ruminococcus abundance negatively correlated with BMI, while the hypermethylated DMR was associated with reduced MACROD2 protein levels in serum. Additionally, the mediation test showed that 19% of the effect of Ruminococcus abundance on BMI is mediated by the methylation of the MACROD2/SEL1L2 DMR. These findings support the hypothesis that a crosstalk between gut microbiota and epigenetic markers may be contributing to obesity development.
  • Autores: Silvestre, M. P. (Autor de correspondencia); Fogelholm, M.; Alves, M.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0261-5614 Vol.42 N° 5 2023 págs. 636 - 643
    Resumen
    Aims: To examine the differences between HbA1c and glucose related variables in predicting weight loss and glycaemic changes following 8 weeks of low energy diet (LED) in individuals with overweight and hyperglycaemia. Research design and methods: 2178 individuals with ADA-defined pre-diabetes -impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) -who started an 8 week LED weight loss diet, were included in this analysis. Participants were enrolled in the PREVIEW (PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle in-terventions and population studies In Europe and around the World) clinical trial. Multivariable linear mixed effects regression models and generalised additive mixed effect logistic models were used. Results: Only 1 in 3 participants (33%) had HbA1c levels defined as pre-diabetes. Neither baseline HbA1c, IFG or IGT were associated with body weight change at 8 weeks. Higher baseline body weight, baseline fasting insulin and weight loss predicted normalisation of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), whilst higher baseline fasting insulin, C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and older age predicted normalisation of HbA1c. Additionally, male sex and higher baseline BMI, body fat and energy intake were positively associated with weight loss, whereas greater age and higher HDL-cholesterol predicted less weight loss. Conclusions: Whilst neither HbA1c nor fasting glucose predicts short-term weight loss success, both may impact the metabolic response to rapid weight loss. We propose a role of inflammation versus total body adiposity since these variables are independent predictors of the normalisation of HbA1c and fasting glucose, respectively.
  • Autores: Martínez Fernández, Leyre; Burgos Lozano, Miguel; Sáinz Amillo, Neira; et al.
    Revista: BIOMOLECULES
    ISSN: 2218-273X Vol.13 N° 6 2023 págs. 919
    Resumen
    This study analyses the effects of Maresin 1 (MaR1), a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-derived specialized proresolving lipid mediator with anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing actions, on the expression of adipokines, including adiponectin, leptin, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), and irisin (FNDC5), both in vitro and in in vivo models of obesity. The in vivo effects of MaR1 (50 & mu;g/kg, 10 days, oral gavage) were evaluated in epididymal adipose tissue (eWAT), liver and muscle of diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Moreover, two models of human differentiated primary adipocytes were incubated with MaR1 (1 and 10 nM, 24 h) or with a combination of tumor necrosis factor-& alpha; (TNF-& alpha;, 100 ng/mL) and MaR1 (1-200 nM, 24 h) and the expression and secretion of adipokines were measured in both models. MaR1-treated DIO mice exhibited an increased expression of adiponectin and Ct-1 in eWAT, increased expression of Fndc5 and Ct-1 in muscle and a decreased expression of hepatic Dpp-4. In human differentiated adipocytes, MaR1 increased the expression of ADIPONECTIN, LEPTIN, DPP4, CT-1 and FNDC5. Moreover, MaR1 counteracted the downregulation of ADIPONECTIN and the upregulation of DPP-4 and LEPTIN observed in adipocytes treated with TNF-& alpha;. Differential effects for TNF-& alpha; and MaR1 on the expression of CT-1 and FNDC5 were observed between both models of human adipocytes. In conclusion, MaR1 reverses the expression of specific adipomyokines and hepatokines altered in obese mice in a tissue-dependent manner. Moreover, MaR1 regulates the basal expression of adipokines in human adipocytes and counteracts the alterations of adipokines expression induced by TNF-& alpha; in vitro. These actions could contribute to the metabolic benefits of this lipid mediator.
  • Autores: Moreno-Ortega, A. (Autor de correspondencia); Ludwig Sanz Orrio, Iziar Amaia; Motilva, M. J.; et al.
    Revista: FOOD & FUNCTION
    ISSN: 2042-6496 Vol.14 N° 11 2023 págs. 5023 - 5031
    Resumen
    Onion (Allium cepa L.) and its newly derived product black onion are characterised by the presence of compounds with potential bioactivity, particularly organosulfur compounds (OSCs). However, little is known about the metabolism, distribution, and excretion of these compounds as they pass through the gastrointestinal tract. This study monitored healthy subjects after an acute intake of black onion and analysed the excretion of OSCs using UHPLC-HRMS. A total of 31 OSCs were detected in urine after the acute ingestion of black onion, the main components being S-methyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide (methiin) (13.6 +/- 3.9 mu mol), isoalliin (12.4 +/- 4.7 mu mol) and S-propyl-l-cysteine (deoxypropiin) (3.1 +/- 0.7 mu mol). Moreover, N-acetylated metabolites of the major OSCs detected in black onion, namely, N-acetyl-S-(1-propenyl)-l-cysteine sulfoxide (NAS1PCS) and N-acetyl-S-(1-propenyl)-l-cysteine (NAS1PC), were found in urine after black onion consumption. The N-acetylation reaction takes place in the kidneys and liver, and metabolism pathways are proposed to explain the excretion of OSCs in urine. The basis of the identification of OSCs as urinary metabolites after black onion consumption is described for the first time and provides the basis for further research.
  • Autores: Félix Soriano, Elisa; Sáinz Amillo, Neira; Fernández Galilea, Marta; et al.
    Revista: THE JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY
    ISSN: 1873-4847 Vol.111 2023 págs. 109153
    Resumen
    This study aimed to characterize the potential beneficial effects of chronic docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on restoring subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) plasticity in obese aged female mice. Two-month-old female C57BL/6J mice received a control (CT) or a high fat diet (HFD) for 4 months. Then, 6-month-old diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were distributed into the DIO and the DIOMEG group (fed with a DHA-enriched HFD) up to 18 months. In scWAT, the DHA-enriched diet reduced the mean adipocyte size and reversed the upregulation of lipogenic genes induced by the HFD, reaching values even lower than those observed in CT animals. DIO mice exhibited an up-regulation of lipolytic and fatty oxidation gene expressions that was reversed in DHA-supplemented mice except for Cpt1a mRNA levels, which were higher in DIOMEG as compared to CT mice. DHA restored the increase of proinflammatory genes observed in scWAT of DIO mice. While no changes were observed in total macrophage F4/80+/CD11b+ content, the DHA treatment switched scWAT macrophages profile by reducing the M1 marker Cd11c and increasing the M2 marker CD206. These events occurred alongside with a stimulation of beige adipocyte specific genes, the restoration of UCP1 and pAKT/AKT ratio, and a recovery of the HFD-induced Fgf21 upregulation. In summary, DHA supplementation induced a metabolic remodeling of scWAT to a healthier phenotype in aged obese mice by modulating genes controlling lipid accumulation in adipocytes, reducing the inflammatory status, and inducing beige adipocyte markers in obese aged mice.
  • Autores: Nishi, S. K. (Autor de correspondencia); Babio, N. (Autor de correspondencia); Paz-Graniel, I.; et al.
    Revista: BMC MEDICINE
    ISSN: 1741-7015 Vol.21 N° 1 2023 págs. 82
    Resumen
    BackgroundWater intake and hydration status have been suggested to impact cognition; however, longitudinal evidence is limited and often inconsistent. This study aimed to longitudinally assess the association between hydration status and water intake based on current recommendations, with changes in cognition in an older Spanish population at high cardiovascular disease risk.MethodsA prospective analysis was conducted of a cohort of 1957 adults (aged 55-75) with overweight/obesity (BMI between >= 27 and < 40 kg/m(2)) and metabolic syndrome from the PREDIMED-Plus study. Participants had completed bloodwork and validated, semiquantitative beverage and food frequency questionnaires at baseline, as well as an extensive neuropsychological battery of 8 validated tests at baseline and 2 years of follow-up. Hydration status was determined by serum osmolarity calculation and categorized as < 295 mmol/L (hydrated), 295-299.9 mmol/L (impending dehydration), and >= 300 mmol/L (dehydrated). Water intake was assessed as total drinking water intake and total water intake from food and beverages and according to EFSA recommendations. Global cognitive function was determined as a composite z-score summarizing individual participant results from all neuropsychological tests. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted to assess the associations between baseline hydration status and fluid intake, continuously and categorically, with 2-year changes in cognitive performance.ResultsThe mean baseline daily total water intake was 2871 +/- 676 mL/day (2889 +/- 677 mL/day in men; 2854 +/- 674 mL/day in women), and 80.2% of participants met the ESFA reference values for an adequate intake. Serum osmolarity (mean 298 +/- 24 mmol/L, range 263 to 347 mmol/L) indicated that 56% of participants were physiologically dehydrated. Lower physiological hydration status (i.e., greater serum osmolarity) was associated with a greater decline in global cognitive function z-score over a 2-year period (beta: - 0.010; 95% CI - 0.017 to - 0.004, p-value = 0.002). No significant associations were observed between water intake from beverages and/or foods with 2-year changes in global cognitive function.ConclusionsReduced physiological hydration status was associated with greater reductions in global cognitive function over a 2-year period in older adults with metabolic syndrome and overweight or obesity. Future research assessing the impact of hydration on cognitive performance over a longer duration is needed.
  • Autores: García-Alvarez, N. C.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.15 N° 24 2023 págs. 5023
    Resumen
    Background and aims: Obesity is a public health problem. The usual treatment is a reduction in calorie intake and an increase in energy expenditure, but not all individuals respond equally to these treatments. Epigenetics could be a factor that contributes to this heterogeneity. The aim of this research was to determine the association between DNA methylation at baseline and the percentage of BMI loss (%BMIL) after two dietary interventions, in order to design a prediction model to evaluate %BMIL based on methylation data. Methods and Results: Spanish participants with overweight or obesity (n = 306) were randomly assigned to two lifestyle interventions with hypocaloric diets: one moderately high in protein (MHP) and the other low in fat (LF) for 4 months (Obekit study; ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02737267). Basal DNA methylation was analyzed in white blood cells using the Infinium MethylationEPIC array. After identifying those methylation sites associated with %BMIL (p < 0.05 and SD > 0.1), two weighted methylation sub-scores were constructed for each diet: 15 CpGs were used for the MHP diet and 11 CpGs for the LF diet. Afterwards, a total methylation score was made by subtracting the previous sub-scores. These data were used to design a prediction model for %BMIL through a linear mixed effect model with the interaction between diet and total score. Conclusion: Overall, DNA methylation predicts the %BMIL of two 4-month hypocaloric diets and was able to determine which type of diet is the most appropriate for each individual. The results of this pioneer study confirm that epigenetic biomarkers may be further used for precision nutrition and the design of personalized dietary strategies against obesity.
  • Autores: Baquerizo-Sedano, L.; Goñi Mateos, Leticia; Sayon Orea, María del Carmen; et al.
    Revista: BMC PUBLIC HEALTH
    ISSN: 1471-2458 Vol.23 N° 1 2023 págs. 1054
    Resumen
    BackgroundThe COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world in multiple ways and has been a challenge for the health systems of each country. From the beginning, risk factors for the severity and mortality of the disease were considered, as the spread of the virus was related to the living conditions of each population.MethodsIn this ecological study we have evaluated the role of geography, precisely the altitude above sea level in the incidence and mortality of COVID-19 in Peru. Incidence and mortality data were taken from the open-access database of the government of Peru until March 2021. COVID-19 cases and COVID-19 mortality were treated as cases/density population and 1000 x cases/inhabitants while altitude was treated as continuous and as a categorical variable divided in 7 categories. The relationship between COVID-19 cases or deaths for COVID-19 and altitude as continuous variable was determined using Spearman correlation test. Meanwhile when altitude was considered as a categorical variable, Poisson regression or negative binomial analyses were applied.ResultsA significant inverse correlation was found between COVID-19 cases by population density and altitude (r=-0.37 p < 0.001). By altitude categories, the lowest risk for infection was observed between 3,000 and 3,500 m (IRR 0.08; 95% CI 0.05,0.12). Moreover, we found an inverse correlation between altitude and COVID-19 mortality (r=-0.39 p < 0.001). Also, the lowest risk for mortality was observed between 3,000 and 3,500 m (IRR 0.12; 95%CI 0.08; 0.18). Similar results were found when analyses were adjusted for inhabitants and stratified by sex.ConclusionThis study reports an inverse relationship between COVID-19 incidence and mortality with respect to the altitude of residence, particularly, a u-shaped protection is shown, with a highest benefit between 3000 and 3500 m. The possibility of using hypoxia as an alternative treatment requires more complex studies that should allow knowing the physiological and environmental mechanisms of the protective role.
  • Autores: Garciduenas-Fimbres, T. E.; Paz-Graniel, I.; Gomez-Martinez, C.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS
    ISSN: 0022-3476 Vol.252 2023 págs. 31
    Resumen
    Objective To assess the associations between eating speed, adiposity, cardiometabolic risk factors, and diet quality in a cohort of Spanish preschool-children. Study design A cross-sectional study in 1371 preschool age children (49% girls; mean age, 4.8 +/- 1.0 years) from the Childhood Obesity Risk Assessment Longitudinal Study (CORALS) cohort was conducted. After exclusions, 956 participants were included in the analyses. The eating speed was estimated by summing the total minutes used in each of the 3 main meals and then categorized into slow, moderate, or fast. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were fitted to assess the beta-coefficient, or OR and 95% CI, between eating speed and body mass index, waist circumference, fat mass index (FMI), blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and lipid profile. Results Compared with participants in the slow-eating category, those in the fast-eating category had a higher prevalence risk of overweight/ obesity (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.8-4.4; P < .01); larger waist circumference (0, 2.6 cm; 95% CI, 1.5-3.8 cm); and greater FMI (beta, 0.3 kg/m(2); 95% CI, 0.1-0.5 kg/m(2)), systolic blood pressure (beta, 2.8 mmHg; 95% CI, 0.64.9 mmHg), and fasting plasma glucose levels (beta, 2.7 mg/dL, 95% CI, 1.2-4.2 mg/dL) but lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet (beta,-0.5 points; 95% CI,-0.9 to-0.1 points). Conclusions Eating fast is associated with higher adiposity, certain cardiometabolic risk factors, and lower adherence to a Mediterranean diet. Further long-term and interventional studies are warranted to confirm these associations. (J Pediatr 2023;252:31-9).
  • Autores: Yavorov-Dayliev, D.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); López Yoldi, Miguel; et al.
    Revista: FOOD & FUNCTION
    ISSN: 2042-6496 Vol.14 N° 24 2023 págs. 10855 - 10867
    Resumen
    Due to the importance of the gut microbiota in the regulation of energy homeostasis, probiotics have emerged as an alternative therapy to ameliorate obesity-related disturbances, including cholesterol metabolism dysregulation, dyslipidemia and inflammation. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of the probiotic strain Pediococcus acidilactici (pA1c (R)) on the regulation of adiposity, cholesterol and lipid metabolism, inflammatory markers and gut microbiota composition in diet-induced obese rats. Twenty-nine four-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: rats fed a control diet (CNT group, n = 8), rats fed a high fat/high sucrose diet (HFS group, n = 11), and rats fed a HFS diet supplemented with pA1c (R) (pA1c (R) group, n = 10). Organs and fat depots were weighed, and different biochemical parameters were analysed in serum. Gene expression analyses in the adipose tissue were conducted using real-time quantitative-PCR. Faecal microbiota composition was evaluated using 16S metagenomics. Animals supplemented with pA1c (R) exhibited a lower proportion of visceral adiposity, a higher proportion of muscle, an improvement in the total-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio and a decrease in the total cholesterol, triglyceride and aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) serum levels, together with a decrease in several inflammation-related molecules. The expression of key genes related to adipose (Adipoq, Cebpa and Pparg) and glucose (Slc2a1 and Slc2a4) metabolism in the adipose tissue was normalized by pA1c (R). Moreover, it was demonstrated that pA1c (R) supplementation activated fatty acid beta-oxidation in the adipose tissue and the liver. Metagenomics demonstrated the presence of pA1c (R) in the faecal samples, an increase in alpha diversity, an increase in the abundance of beneficial bacteria, and a decrease in the abundance of harmful micro-organisms, including the Streptococcus genus. Thus, our data suggest the potential of pA1c (R) in the prevention of obesity-related disturbances including hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, inflammation and gut microbiota dysbiosis.
  • Autores: Vargas Álvarez, M. Á.; Brunstrom, J. M.; Díaz, A. E.; et al.
    Revista: APPETITE
    ISSN: 0195-6663 Vol.185 2023 págs. 106542
    Resumen
    Portion control tableware has been described as a potentially effective approach for weight management, however the mechanisms by which these tools work remain unknown. We explored the processes by which a portion control (calibrated) plate with visual stimuli for starch, protein and vegetable amounts modulates food intake, satiety and meal eating behaviour. Sixty-five women (34 with overweight/obesity) participated in a counterbalanced cross-over trial in the laboratory, where they self-served and ate a hot meal including rice, meatballs and vegetables, once with a calibrated plate and once with a conventional (control) plate. A sub-sample of 31 women provided blood samples to measure the cephalic phase response to the meal. Effects of plate type were tested through linear mixed-effect models. Meal portion sizes (mean ± SD) were smaller for the calibrated compared with the control plate (served: 296 ± 69 vs 317 ± 78 g; consumed: 287 ± 71 vs 309 ± 79 g respectively), especially consumed rice (69 ± 24 vs 88 ± 30 g) (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). The calibrated plate significantly reduced bite size (3.4 ± 1.0 vs 3.7 ± 1.0 g; p < 0.01) in all women and eating rate (32.9 ± 9.5 vs 33.7 ± 9.2 g/min; p < 0.05), in lean women. Despite this, some women compensated for the reduced intake over the 8 h following the meal. Pancreatic polypeptide and ghrelin levels increased post-prandially with the calibrated plate but changes were not robust. Plate type had no influence on insulin, glucose levels, or memory for portion size. Meal size was reduced by a portion control plate with visual stimuli for appropriate amounts of starch, protein and vegetables, potentially because of the reduced self-served portion size and the resulting reduced bite size. Sustained effects may require the continued use of the plate for long-term impact.
  • Autores: Colón Mesa, Ignacio; Sáinz Amillo, Neira; Corrales, P.; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
    ISSN: 1422-0067 Vol.24 N° 3 2023 págs. 2664
    Resumen
    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of the whole-body deletion of p27 on the activity of brown adipose tissue and the susceptibility to develop obesity and glucose homeostasis disturbances in mice, especially when subjected to a high fat diet. p27 knockout (p27(-/-)) and wild type (WT) mice were fed a normal chow diet or a high fat diet (HFD) for 10-weeks. Body weight and composition were assessed. Insulin and glucose tolerance tests and indirect calorimetry assays were performed. Histological analysis of interscapular BAT (iBAT) was carried out, and expression of key genes/proteins involved in BAT function were characterized by qPCR and Western blot. iBAT activity was estimated by F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)FDG) uptake with microPET. p27(-/-) mice were more prone to develop obesity and insulin resistance, exhibiting increased size of all fat depots. p27(-/-) mice displayed a higher respiratory exchange ratio. iBAT presented larger adipocytes in p27(-/-) HFD mice, accompanied by downregulation of both Glut1 and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in parallel with defective insulin signalling. Moreover, p27(-/-) HFD mice exhibited impaired response to cold exposure, characterized by a reduced iBAT (18)FDG uptake and difficulty to maintain body temperature when exposed to cold compared to WT HFD mice, suggesting reduced thermogenic capacity. These data suggest that p27 could play a role in BAT activation and in the susceptibility to develop obesity and insulin resistance.
  • Autores: Zhu, R.; Huttunen-Lenz, M.; Stratton, G.; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY
    ISSN: 0307-0565 Vol.47 N° 9 2023 págs. 833 - 840
    Resumen
    Background/ObjectivesSome individuals with overweight/obesity may be relatively metabolically healthy (MHO) and have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease than those with metabolically unhealthy overweight/obesity (MUO). We aimed to compare changes in body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors and type 2 diabetes incidence during a lifestyle intervention between individuals with MHO vs MUO.MethodsThis post-hoc analysis included 1012 participants with MHO and 1153 participants with MUO at baseline in the randomized trial PREVIEW. Participants underwent an eight-week low-energy diet phase followed by a 148-week lifestyle-based weight-maintenance intervention. Adjusted linear mixed models and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used.ResultsThere were no statistically significant differences in weight loss (%) between participants with MHO vs MUO over 156 weeks. At the end of the study, weight loss was 2.7% (95% CI, 1.7%-3.6%) in participants with MHO and 3.0% (2.1%-4.0%) in those with MUO. After the low-energy diet phase, participants with MHO had smaller decreases in triglyceride (mean difference between MHO vs MUO 0.08 mmol & BULL;L-1 [95% CI, 0.04-0.12]; P < 0.001) but similar reductions in fasting glucose and HOMA-IR than those with MUO. However, at the end of weight maintenance, those with MHO had greater reductions in triglyceride (mean difference -0.08 mmol & BULL;L-1 [-0.12--0.04]; P < 0.001), fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose (difference -0.28 mmol & BULL;L-1 [-0.41--0.16]; P < 0.001), and HOMA-IR than those with MUO. Participants with MHO had smaller decreases in diastolic blood pressure and HbA(1c) and greater decreases in HDL cholesterol after weight loss than those with MUO, whereas the statistically significant differences disappeared at the end of weight maintenance. Participants with MHO had lower 3-year type 2 diabetes incidence than those with MUO (adjusted hazard ratio 0.37 [0.20-0.66]; P < 0.001).ConclusionsIndividuals with MUO had greater improvements in some cardiometabolic risk factors during the low-energy diet phase, but had smaller improvements during long-term lifestyle intervention than those with MHO.
  • Autores: García Unciti, María Soledad (Autor de correspondencia); Palacios-Samper, N. ; Méndez-Sandoval, S.; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH
    ISSN: 1660-4601 Vol.20 N° 6 2023 págs. 4872
    Resumen
    This study examines both the effect of a twice-weekly combined exercise-1 h session of strength and 1 h session of impact-aerobic-on body composition and dietary habits after one year of treatment with aromatase inhibitors (AI) in breast cancer survivors. Overall, forty-three postmenopausal women with a BMI ¿ 35 kg/m2, breast cancer survivors treated with AI, were randomized into two groups: a control group (CG) (n = 22) and a training group (IG) (n = 21). Body composition, i.e., abdominal, visceral, and subcutaneous adipose tissue) was measured by magnetic resonance. In addition, some questionnaires were used to gather dietary data and to measure adherence to the Mediterranean diet. After one year, women in the IG showed a significant improvement in body composition, indicated by decreases in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, and total fat tissue. Furthermore, the dietary habits were compatible with moderate adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern and a low dietary intake of Ca, Zn, Folic Ac, and vitamins D, A, and E. A twice-weekly training program combining impact aerobic exercise and resistance exercise may be effective in improving the body composition for postmenopausal women who have breast cancer treated with AI, and the results suggest the need for nutritional counselling for this population.
  • Autores: Sanchis, P. (Autor de correspondencia); Prieto, R. M.; Konieczna, J.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.15 N° 7 2023 págs. 1791
    Resumen
    The main objective of this work was to explore the association of dietary phytate intake with bone mineral density (BMD) in a Mediterranean population of postmenopausal women. For this purpose, a cross-sectional analysis of 561 women aged 55-75 years with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome from a Mediterranean area and with data on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans in femur and lumbar spine was performed. Estimated phytate intake was calculated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Our results indicated that phytate intake was associated with BMD [beta(95%CI) per each 25 mg/100 kcal] in femoral neck [0.023(0.060-0.040) g/cm(2)], femoral Ward's triangle [0.033(0.013-0.054) g/cm(2)], total femur [0.018(0.001-0.035) g/cm(2)], and all the analyzed lumbar spine sites [L1-L4: 0.033(0.007-0.059) g/cm(2)] after adjusting for potential confounders. The sensitivity analysis showed that phytate intake was directly associated with lumbar spine BMD in women younger than 66 years, with a body mass index higher than 32.6 kg/cm(2) and without type 2 diabetes (all p-for interactions < 0.05). The overall results indicated that phytate, a substance present in food as cereals, legumes and nuts, was positively associated with BMD in Mediterranean postmenopausal women. Phytate may have a protective effect on bone resorption by adsorbing on the surfaces of HAP. Nevertheless, large, long-term, and randomized prospective clinical studies must be performed to assess the possible benefits of phytate consumption on BMD in postmenopausal women.
  • Autores: Roses, C.; Viadel, B.; Nieto, J. A. ; et al.
    Revista: FOOD BIOSCIENCE
    ISSN: 2212-4292 Vol.55 2023 págs. 103006
    Resumen
    The main goal of the present work is to investigate the modulatory effect of Brassica oleracea italica x alboglabra (Bimi (R)) on gut microbiota composition through an in vitro digester and an in vivo trial. The digester simulates the entire gastrointestinal digestive process. The maintenance of the microbial population during the stabilization and treatment period was checked by bacteria plate counts The human trial included 15 Spanish adults who included 90 g of Bimi (R) every two days into their habitual diet. Plate counts showed that the treatment with Bimi (R) elicits eubiosis, favouring the growth of health promoting gut microbes, as seen on the total anaerobic values In vitro results showed many short chain fatty acids (SCFAs)-producing bacteria favoured by synergetic effects of the fibres, resistant starch and polyphenols present in Bimi (R). The human intervention confirmed some of these results and evidenced an increase in beneficial bacteria such as the genus Lactobacillus, and the species Chistensenella minuta, and Ruminococcus bromii, suggesting that Bimi (R) is capable of modulating gut microbiota towards a healthier status, with great potential in the management of human disorders related to microbiota dysbiosis.
  • Autores: Del Burgo Gutiérrez, Cristina; Cid Canda, María Concepción; Ludwig Sanz Orrio, Iziar Amaia (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY
    ISSN: 0021-8561 Vol.71 N° 15 2023 págs. 6050 - 6060
    Resumen
    Pepper constitutes an important source of (poly)phenols, mainly flavonoids. Nevertheless, heat treatments applied prior to consumption may have an impact on these antioxidants, and thus may also affect their potential bioactivity. In this study, the effect of industrial and culinary treatments on the total and individual (poly)phenolic content of Piquillo pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Piquillo) was thoroughly evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 40 (poly)phenols were identified and quantified in raw pepper. Flavonoids (10 flavonols, 15 flavones, and 2 flavanones) were the major compounds identified (62.6%). Among the 13 phenolic acids identified in raw samples, cinnamic acids were the most representative. High temperatures applied and subsequent peeling during industrial grilling drastically decreased the total (poly)phenolic content from 2736.34 to 1099.38 ??g/g dm (59.8% reduction). In particular, flavonoids showed a higher reduction of 87.2% after grilling compared to nonflavonoids which only decreased by 14%. Moreover, 9 nonflavonoids were generated during grilling, modifying the (poly)phenolic profile. After culinary treatments, specifically frying, (poly)phenols appear to be better released from the food matrix, enhancing their extractability. Overall, industrial and culinary treatments differently affect both the total and individual (poly)phenolic compounds of pepper and, despite the reduction, they might also positively influence their bioaccessibility.
  • Autores: Cabello-Olmo, M.; Oneca, M.; Urtasun, R.; et al.
    Revista: PHARMACEUTICS
    ISSN: 1999-4923 Vol.15 N° 4 2023 págs. 1203
    Resumen
    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease, which involves maintained hyperglycemia, mainly due to the development of an insulin resistance process. Metformin administration is the most prescribed treatment for diabetic patients. In a previously published study, we demonstrated that Pediococcus acidilactici pA1c (R) (pA1c) protects from insulin resistance and body weight gain in HFD-induced diabetic mice. The present work aimed to evaluate the possible beneficial impact of a 16-week administration of pA1c, metformin, or the combination of pA1c and metformin in a T2D HFD-induced mice model. We found that the simultaneous administration of both products attenuated hyperglycemia, increased high-intensity insulin-positive areas in the pancreas and HOMA-beta, decreased HOMA-IR and also provided more beneficial effects than metformin treatment (regarding HOMA-IR, serum C-peptide level, liver steatosis or hepatic Fasn expression), and pA1c treatment (regarding body weight or hepatic G6pase expression). The three treatments had a significant impact on fecal microbiota and led to differential composition of commensal bacterial populations. In conclusion, our findings suggest that P. acidilactici pA1c (R) administration improved metformin beneficial effects as a T2D treatment, and it would be a valuable therapeutic strategy to treat T2D.
  • Autores: De Cuevillas García, Begoña (Autor de correspondencia); Lubrecht, J.; Navas Carretero, Santiago; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS
    ISSN: 1432-1076 2023
    Resumen
    Sleep is a factor associated with overweight/obesity risk, wherein interactions with fatty liver should be ascertained. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the possible relationships of sleep with liver health and whether this interplay is related to body adiposity distribution in children and adolescents. Anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical measurements were performed in children and adolescents (2-18 years old) with overweight/obesity (n=854). Body fat distribution was clinically assessed, and several hepatic markers, including hepatic steatosis index, were calculated. Sleep time mediation (hours/day) in the relationship between the hepatic steatosis index and body fat distribution was investigated. Differences among diverse fatty liver disease scores were found between children with overweight or obesity (p<0.05). Linear regression models showed associations between hepatic steatosis index and lifestyle markers (p<0.001). Hepatic steatosis index was higher (about+15%) in children with obesity compared to overweight (p<0.001). Pear-shaped body fat distribution may seemingly play a more detrimental role on liver fat deposition. The association between sleep time and hepatic steatosis index was dependent on body mass index z-score. Post hoc analyses showed that 39% of the relationship of body fat distribution on hepatic steatosis index may be explained by sleep time. Conclusion: An association of sleep time in the relationship between body fat distribution and hepatic steatosis index was observed in children and adolescents with overweight/obesity, which can be relevant in the prevention and treatment of excessive adiposity between 2 and 18 years old.CLINICAL TRIAL: NCT04805762. Import: As part of a healthy lifestyle, sleep duration might be a modifiable factor in the management of fatty liver disease in children.WHAT IS KNOWN: Sleep is an influential factor of overweight and obesity in children. Excessive adiposity is associated with liver status in children and adolescents.WHAT IS NEW: Sleep time plays a role in the relationship between body fat distribution and liver disease. Monitoring sleep pattern may be beneficial in the treatment of hepatic steatosis in children with excessive body weight.
  • Autores: Baquerizo Sedano, L.; Chaquila, J. A.; Barriga, D.; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
    ISSN: 0250-6807 Vol.79 N° Suppl.1 2023 págs. 860 - 860
  • Autores: Diez Sainz, Ester; Lorente-Cebrián, S.; Aranaz Oroz, Paula; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
    ISSN: 0250-6807 Vol.79 N° Suppl. 1 2023 págs. 289 - 289
  • Autores: Yavorov Dayliev, D.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Ayo, J.; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
    ISSN: 0250-6807 Vol.79 2023 págs. 485 - 486
  • Autores: De Cuevillas García, Begoña; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Tur, J. A.; et al.
    Revista: OBESITY REVIEWS
    ISSN: 1467-7881 Vol.23 N° Supl. 1 2022 págs. e13394
    Resumen
    Childhood obesity is a costly burden in most regions with relevant and adverse long-term health consequences in adult life. Several studies have associated excessive body weight with a specific profile of gut microbiota. Different factors related to fecal microorganism abundance seem to contribute to childhood obesity, such as gestational weight gain, perinatal diet, antibiotic administration to the mother and/or child, birth delivery, and feeding patterns, among others. This review reports and discusses diverse factors that affect the infant intestinal microbiota with putative or possible implications on the increase of the obesity childhood rates as well as microbiota shifts associated with excessive body weight in children.
  • Autores: Andueza Pacheco, Naroa; Navas Carretero, Santiago (Autor de correspondencia); Cuervo Zapatel, Marta
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.14 N° 2 2022 págs. 372
    Resumen
    Dietary habits, that are formed during childhood and consolidated in adulthood, are known to influence the development of future chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of nutritional interventions carried out in recent years focused on improving the quality of the diet of the child population. A systematic search of the PubMed and Scopus databases was performed from January 2011 until September 2021. A total of 910 articles were identified and screened based on their title, abstract and full text. Finally, 12 articles were included in the current systematic review. Of those, in six studies the intervention was based on the provision of healthy meals and in the other six studies the intervention focused on modifying the school environment. Six of the studies selected included other components in their intervention such as nutritional education sessions, physical activity and/or families. A wide variety of methods were used for diet assessments, from direct method to questionnaires. The results suggest that interventions that modify the school environment or provide different meals or snacks may be effective in improving children's dietary patterns, both in the short and long term. Further research is necessary to evaluate the real effectiveness of strategies with multidisciplinary approach (nutritional sessions, physical activity and family's involvement).
  • Autores: Ramos-López, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: CURRENT OPINION IN CLINICAL NUTRITION AND METABOLIC CARE
    ISSN: 1363-1950 Vol.25 N° 4 2022 págs. 235 - 240
    Resumen
    Purpose of review This article aims to critically overview the current interplay of genetic/epigenetic factors and several nutritional aspects influencing obesity susceptibility and adiposity outcomes for obesity management and weight status monitoring. Recent findings Single nucleotide polymorphisms located in or near genes participating in energy homeostasis, fatty acid metabolism, appetite control, brain regulation, and thermogenesis have been associated with body composition measures (body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, body fat percentage, and visceral adipose tissue) depending on nutrient intakes, dietary patterns, and eating behaviors. Moreover, studies analyzing interactions between the epigenome and dietary intakes in relation to adiposity outcomes are reported. The main epigenetic mechanisms include methylation levels of promoter sequences, telomere length, and micro-ribonucleic acid expression profiles, whereas covalent histone modifications remain less studied. Exploring potential interactions between the genetic/epigenetic background and nutritional features is improving the current understanding of the obesity physiopathogenesis and the usefulness of translating this precision information in the clinical setting for weight gain prediction, the design of personalized nutrition therapies as well as individual responsiveness estimation to dietary advice. The analysis of further relationships between the genotype, the epigenotype and other precision markers including the gut microbiota and the metabolome is warranted.
  • Autores: Ramos-López, O. (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez, J. A.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.14 N° 19 2022 págs. 4074-*
    Resumen
    The combination of multiple omics approaches has emerged as an innovative holistic scope to provide a more comprehensive view of the molecular and physiological events underlying human diseases (including obesity, dyslipidemias, fatty liver, insulin resistance, and inflammation), as well as for elucidating unique and specific metabolic phenotypes. These omics technologies include genomics (polymorphisms and other structural genetic variants), epigenomics (DNA methylation, histone modifications, long non-coding RNA, telomere length), metagenomics (gut microbiota composition, enterotypes), transcriptomics (RNA expression patterns), proteomics (protein quantities), and metabolomics (metabolite profiles), as well as interactions with dietary/nutritional factors. Although more evidence is still necessary, it is expected that the incorporation of integrative omics could be useful not only for risk prediction and early diagnosis but also for guiding tailored dietary treatments and prognosis schemes. Some challenges include ethical and regulatory issues, the lack of robust and reproducible results due to methodological aspects, the high cost of omics methodologies, and high-dimensional data analyses and interpretation. In this review, we provide examples of system biology studies using multi-omics methodologies to unravel novel insights into the mechanisms and pathways connecting the genotype to clinically relevant traits and therapy outcomes for precision nutrition applications in health and disease.
  • Autores: Baquerizo-Sedano, L. (Autor de correspondencia); Chaquila, J. A.; Aguilar, L.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0261-5614 Vol.41 N° 12 2022 págs. 3135 -3136
  • Autores: Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Demaison, L.; Carpene, C. (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
    ISSN: 1138-7548 Vol.78 N° 2 2022 págs. 461 - 463
  • Autores: Jimeno-Martínez, A.; Maneschy, I.; Moreno, L.A.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY
    ISSN: 1664-1078 Vol.13 2022 págs. 1075681
  • Autores: Vargas-Álvarez, M. A.; Al-Sehaim, H.; Brunstrom, J. M.; et al.
    Revista: BEHAVIOR RESEARCH METHODS
    ISSN: 1554-351X Vol.54 N° 6 2022 págs. 2777 - 2801
    Resumen
    To fully understand the causes and mechanisms involved in overeating and obesity, measures of both cognitive and physiological determinants of eating behavior need to be integrated. Effectively synchronizing behavioral measures such as meal micro-structure (e.g., eating speed), cognitive processing of sensory stimuli, and metabolic parameters, can be complex. However, this step is central to understanding the impact of food interventions on body weight. In this paper, we provide an overview of the existing gaps in eating behavior research and describe the development and validation of a new methodological platform to address some of these issues. As part of a controlled trial, 76 men and women self-served and consumed food from a buffet, using a portion-control plate with visual stimuli for appropriate amounts of main food groups, or a conventional plate, on two different days, in a random order. In both sessions participants completed behavioral and cognitive tests using a novel methodological platform that measured gaze movement (as a proxy for visual attention), eating rate and bite size, memory for portion sizes, subjective appetite and portion-size perceptions. In a sub-sample of women, hormonal secretion in response to the meal was also measured. The novel platform showed a significant improvement in meal micro-structure measures from published data (13 vs. 33% failure rate) and high comparability between an automated gaze mapping protocol vs. manual coding for eye-tracking studies involving an eating test (ICC between methods 0.85; 90% CI 0.74, 0.92). This trial was registered at Clinical Trials.gov with Identifier NCT03610776.
  • Autores: Cantero González, Irene; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Bullon Vela, Maria Vanessa; et al.
    Revista: ARCHIVES OF MEDICAL SCIENCE
    ISSN: 1734-1922 Vol.18 N° 1 2022 págs. 36 - 44
    Resumen
    Introduction: Previous studies have hypothesized fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) as a potential biomarker of the inflammation associated with liver diseases, which is also receiving considerable attention for its potential application concerning the management of obesity and co-morbidities. This study aimed to analyze the response of FGF-21 after a weight loss intervention and the relationships with other putative inflammatory liver biomarkers. Material and methods: Sixty-six obese participants from the RESMENA study were evaluated at baseline and following a 6-month energy restriction treatment. Anthropometric, body composition by DXA, routine laboratory measurements, which included transaminases and g-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were analyzed by standardized methods. Moreover, FGF-21, M30 fragment (M30) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-I) were analyzed as recognized liver inflammatory related biomarkers with specific ELISA kits. Results: Most measurements related to hepatic damage, inflammation and adiposity status improved at the end of the 6-month nutritional intervention. In addition, AFGF-21 shifts showed statistical relationships with changes in AM30, AGGT and APAI. The reduction of M30 showed significant associations with changes in transaminases. Furthermore, PAI-I changes were associated with AM30 and AGGT regardless of weight loss. A linear regression model was set up to assess the influence of APAI-I and AM30 on the variability of AFGF-21 (23.8%) adjusted by weight loss. Conclusions: These results demonstrated interactions of some liver inflammatory mediators, specifically M30 and PAI-I with FGF-21. Thus, more investigation about FGF-21 is required given that this protein could be a biomarker of the obesity-inflammation-liver process.
  • Autores: Gibbons, C. (Autor de correspondencia); O'Hara, B.; O'Connor, D.; et al.
    Revista: BMJ OPEN
    ISSN: 2044-6055 Vol.12 N° 12 2022 págs. e063903
    Resumen
    IntroductionIntake of free sugars in European countries is high and attempts to reduce sugar intake have been mostly ineffective. Non-nutritive sweeteners and sweetness enhancers (S&SEs) can maintain sweet taste in the absence of energy, but little is known about the impact of acute and repeated consumption of S&SE in foods on appetite. This study aims to evaluate the effect of acute and repeated consumption of two individual S&SEs and two S&SE blends in semisolid and solid foods on appetite and related behavioural, metabolic and health outcomes.Methods and analysisA work package of the SWEET Project; this study consists of five double-blind randomised cross-over trials which will be carried out at five sites across four European countries, aiming to have n=213. Five food matrices will be tested across three formulations (sucrose-sweetened control vs two reformulated products with S&SE blends and no added sugar). Participants (body mass index 25-35kg/m(2); aged 18-60 years) will consume each formulation for 14 days. The primary endpoint is composite appetite score (hunger, inverse of fullness, desire to eat and prospective food consumption) over a 3-hour postprandial incremental area under the curve during clinical investigation days on days 1 and 14.Ethics and disseminationThe trial has been approved by national ethical committees and will be conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Results will be published in international peer-reviewed open-access scientific journals. Research data from the trial will be deposited in an open-access online research data archive.Trial registration numberNCT04633681.
  • Autores: Montemayor, S. ; Mascaro, C. M.; Ugarriza, L. ; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.14 N° 15 2022 págs. 3186
    Resumen
    Unhealthy diet is an important factor in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previous studies showed the benefits of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on Metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular diseases, which usually have a pathophysiological relationship with NAFLD. To assess the effect of adherence to a MedDiet on NAFLD in MetS patients after lifestyle intervention, this multicentre (Mallorca and Navarra, Spain) prospective randomized trial, with personalized nutritional intervention based on a customized MedDiet, coupled with physical activity promotion was performed to prevent, and reverse NAFLD among patients with MetS. The current analysis included 138 patients aged 40 to 60 years old, Body Mass Index (BMI) 27-40 kg/m(2), diagnosed with NAFLD using MRI, and MetS according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake. Adherence to Mediterranean diet by means of a 17-item validated questionnaire, anthropometrics, physical activity, blood pressure, blood biochemical parameters, and intrahepatic fat contents (IFC) were measured. The independent variable used was changes in MedDiet adherence, categorized in tertiles after 6 months follow-up. Subjects with high adherence to the MedDiet showed higher decreases in BMI, body weight, WC, SBP, DBP, and IFC. An association between improvement in adherence to the MedDiet and amelioration of IFC after 6-month follow-up was observed. High adherence to the MedDiet is associated with better status of MetS features, and better values of IFC.
  • Autores: Zhu, R.; Craciun, I.; Bernhards-Werge, J.; et al.
    Revista: DIABETOLOGIA
    ISSN: 0012-186X Vol.65 N° 8 2022 págs. 1262 - 1277
    Resumen
    Aims/hypothesis Lifestyle interventions are the first-line treatment option for body weight and cardiometabolic health management. However, whether age groups or women and men respond differently to lifestyle interventions is under debate. We aimed to examine age- and sex-specific effects of a low-energy diet (LED) followed by a long-term lifestyle intervention on body weight, body composition and cardiometabolic health markers in adults with prediabetes (i.e. impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance). Methods This observational study used longitudinal data from 2223 overweight participants with prediabetes in the multicentre diabetes prevention study PREVIEW. The participants underwent a LED-induced rapid weight loss (WL) period followed by a 3 year lifestyle-based weight maintenance (WM) intervention. Changes in outcomes of interest in prespecified age (younger: 25-45 years; middle-aged: 46-54 years; older: 55-70 years) or sex (women and men) groups were compared. Results In total, 783 younger, 319 middle-aged and 1121 older adults and 1503 women and 720 men were included in the analysis. In the available case and complete case analyses, multivariable-adjusted linear mixed models showed that younger and older adults had similar weight loss after the LED, whereas older adults had greater sustained weight loss after the WM intervention (adjusted difference for older vs younger adults -1.25% [95% CI -1.92, -0.58], p<0.001). After the WM intervention, older adults lost more fat-free mass and bone mass and had smaller improvements in 2 h plasma glucose (adjusted difference for older vs younger adults 0.65 mmol/l [95% CI 0.50, 0.80], p<0.001) and systolic blood pressure (adjusted difference for older vs younger adults 2.57 mmHg [95% CI 1.37, 3.77], p<0.001) than younger adults. Older adults had smaller decreases in fasting and 2 h glucose, HbA(1c) and systolic blood pressure after the WM intervention than middle-aged adults. In the complete case analysis, the above-mentioned differences between middle-aged and older adults disappeared, but the direction of the effect size did not change. After the WL period, compared with men, women had less weight loss (adjusted difference for women vs men 1.78% [95% CI 1.12, 2.43], p<0.001) with greater fat-free mass and bone mass loss and smaller improvements in HbA(1c), LDL-cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure. After the WM intervention, women had greater fat-free mass and bone mass loss and smaller improvements in HbA(1c) and LDL-cholesterol, while they had greater improvements in fasting glucose, triacylglycerol (adjusted difference for women vs men -0.08 mmol/l [-0.11, -0.04], p<0.001) and HDL-cholesterol. Conclusions/interpretation Older adults benefited less from a lifestyle intervention in relation to body composition and cardiometabolic health markers than younger adults, despite greater sustained weight loss. Women benefited less from a LED followed by a lifestyle intervention in relation to body weight and body composition than men. Future interventions targeting older adults or women should take prevention of fat-free mass and bone mass loss into consideration.
  • Autores: Martínez-Pérez, C.; Daimiel, L. (Autor de correspondencia); Climent-Mainar, C.; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
    ISSN: 1479-5868 Vol.19 N° 1 2022 págs. 6
    Resumen
    Background: Recent lifestyle changes include increased consumption of highly processed foods (HPF), which has been associated with an increased risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). However, nutritional information relies on the estimation of HPF consumption from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQ) that are not explicitly developed for this purpose. We aimed to develop a short screening questionnaire of HPF consumption (sQ-HPF) that integrates criteria from the existing food classification systems. Methods: Data from 4400 participants (48.1% female and 51.9% male, 64.9 +/- 4.9 years) of the Spanish PREDIMED-Plus ("PREvention with MEDiterranean DIet") trial were used for this analysis. Items from the FFQ were classified according to four main food processing-based classification systems (NOVA, IARC, IFIC and UNC). Participants were classified into tertiles of HPF consumption according to each system. Using binomial logistic regression, food groups associated with agreement in the highest tertile for at least two classification systems were chosen as items for the questionnaire. ROC analysis was used to determine cut-off points for the frequency of consumption of each item, from which a score was calculated. Internal consistency of the questionnaire was assessed through exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Cronbach's analysis, and agreement with the four classifications was assessed with weighted kappa coefficients. Results: Regression analysis identified 14 food groups (items) associated with high HPF consumption for at least two classification systems. EFA showed that items were representative contributors of a single underlying factor, the "HPF dietary pattern" (factor loadings around 0.2). We constructed a questionnaire asking about the frequency of consumption of those items. The threshold frequency of consumption was selected using ROC analysis. Comparison of the four classification systems and the sQ-HPF showed a fair to high agreement. Significant changes in lifestyle characteristics were detected across tertiles of the sQ-HPF score. Longitudinal changes in HPF consumption were also detected by the sQ-HPF, concordantly with existing classification systems. Conclusions: We developed a practical tool to measure HPF consumption, the sQ-HPF. This may be a valuable instrument to study its relationship with NCDs.
  • Autores: López-González, L.; Becerra-Tomás, N.; Babio, N. (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0954-3007 Vol.76 N° 10 2022 págs. 1393 - 1402
    Resumen
    Background and aims Previous studies have shown beneficial associations between fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors. However, variety in FV, which may play an important role on cardiovascular health due to the different nutrient and phytochemical content among the different groups and subgroups of FV has been poorly investigated. We longitudinally investigated associations between 1-year changes in variety and quantity of FV and concurrent changes in cardiometabolic risk factors in elderly subjects with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome. Methods a one-year data longitudinal analysis of 6647 PREDIMED-plus study participants (48% women) was conducted. Data were collected at baseline, six months and 1-year of follow-up. Variety and quantity of FV were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and continuous scores for variety were created based on items/month of FV. Linear mixed-models adjusted for potential confounders were performed to estimate associations (beta-coefficients and 95% confidence interval) between 1-year changes in FV variety and/or quantity and concurrent changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. Results Two points increment in the FV variety score over one year was associated with a concurrent decrease in glucose (-0.33 mg/dL (0.58, -0.07)), body weight (-0.07 kg (-0.13, -0.02)) and waist circumference (WC) (-0.08 cm (-0.16, -10.01)). An increment of 100 g/d of FV over one year was associated with a concurrent decrease in triglycerides (-0.50 mg/dL (-0.93, -0.08)), glucose (-0.21 mg/dL (-0.32, -0.11)), body weight (-0.11 kg (-0.15, -0.07)) and WC (-0.10 cm (-0.14, -0.06)) over 1-year. Changes in FV consumption which led to higher quantity and variety over one year were associated with downward changes in glucose (-1.26 mg/dL (-2.09, -0.43)), body weight (-0.40 kg (-0.58, -0.23)) and WC (-0.50 cm (-0.73, -0.28)). Conclusion Greater variety, in combination with higher quantity of FV was significantly associated with a decrease in several cardiometabolic risk factors among elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk.
  • Autores: Jalo, E. (Autor de correspondencia); Konttinen, H.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION AND DIABETES
    ISSN: 2044-4052 Vol.12 N° 1 2022 págs. 47
    Resumen
    Background To better support participants to achieve long-lasting results within interventions aiming for weight loss and maintenance, more information is needed about the maintenance of behavioral changes. Therefore, we examined whether perceived stress predicts the maintenance of changes in eating behavior (flexible and rigid restraint of eating, disinhibition, and hunger). Methods The present study was a secondary analysis of the PREVIEW intervention including participants with overweight (BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)) at baseline and high risk of type 2 diabetes (n = 1311). Intervention included a 2-month low-energy diet phase and a 34-month subsequent weight maintenance phase. The first 6 months were considered an active behavior change stage and the remaining 2.5 years were considered a behavior maintenance stage. Eating behavior was measured using the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire and stress using the Perceived Stress Scale. The associations between stress and eating behavior were analyzed using linear mixed effects models for repeated measurements. Results Perceived stress measured after the active behavior change stage (at 6 months) did not predict changes in eating behavior during the behavior maintenance stage. However, frequent high stress during this period was associated with greater lapse of improved flexible restraint (p = 0.026). The mean (SD) change in flexible restraint from 6 to 36 months was -1.1 (2.1) in participants with frequent stress and -0.7 (1.8) in participants without frequent stress (Cohen's d(s) (95% CI) = 0.24 (0.04-0.43)). Higher perceived stress at 6 months was associated with less flexible restraint and more disinhibition and hunger throughout the behavior maintenance stage (all p < 0.001). Conclusions Perceived stress was associated with features of eating behavior that may impair successful weight loss maintenance. Future interventions should investigate, whether incorporating stress reduction techniques results in more effective treatment, particularly for participants experiencing a high stress level.
  • Autores: Baquerizo-Sedano, L. (Autor de correspondencia); Chaquila, J. A.; Aguilar, L.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0261-5614 Vol.41 N° 12 2022 págs. 2988 - 2995
    Resumen
    Background & aims: Emergency measures in the face of the recent COVID-19 pandemic have been different among countries, although most have opted for confinement and restrictions on social contact. These measures have generated lifestyle changes with potential effects on individuals' health. The dis-turbances in daily routines due to confinement and remote work have impacted circadian rhythms and energy balance; however, the consequences of these disruptions have not been studied in depth. The objective was to evaluate the impact of 12-week confinement on body weight, considering changes in several external synchronizers of the biological clock.Methods: The participants, 521 university students (16-35 years), responded to 52 questions oriented to determine light exposure, sleep patterns, sedentary lifestyle, and eating times.Results: We found a reduction in sunlight exposure and sleep duration, an increment in sedentarism and screen exposure, and a delay in the timing of the main meals and sleep in the whole cohort. These behavioral changes were associated with a twofold increase in obesity. Subjects who increased their sedentary hours and shortened their sleep to a higher degree were those who gained more bodyweight. The most influential factors in body weight variation during confinement were sleep duration, physical activity (sedentarism), and light (timing of screen exposure). The mediation model explained 6% of the total body weight variation.Conclusions: Results support a significant impact of confinement on several external synchronizers of the biological clock and on body weight. Health-related recommendations during the pandemic must include behavioral recommendations to mitigate the adverse effects on the biological clock.(c) 2021 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
  • Autores: Diez Sainz, Ester; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
    ISSN: 1138-7548 Vol.78 N° 2 2022 págs. 485 - 499
    Resumen
    Obesity and diabetes incidence rates are increasing dramatically, reaching pandemic proportions. Therefore, there is an urgent need to unravel the mechanisms underlying their pathophysiology. Of particular interest is the close interconnection between gut microbiota dysbiosis and obesity and diabetes progression. Hence, microbiota manipulation through diet has been postulated as a promising therapeutic target. In this regard, secretion of gut microbiota-derived extracellular vesicles is gaining special attention, standing out as key factors that could mediate gut microbiota-host communication. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from gut microbiota and probiotic bacteria allow to encapsulate a wide range of bioactive molecules (such as/or including proteins and nucleic acids) that could travel short and long distances to modulate important biological functions with the overall impact on the host health. EV-derived from specific bacteria induce differential physiological responses. For example, a high-fat diet-induced increase of the proteobacterium Pseudomonas panacis-derived EV is closely associated with the progression of metabolic dysfunction in mice. In contrast, Akkermansia muciniphila EV are linked with the alleviation of high-fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes in mice. Here, we review the newest pieces of evidence concerning the potential role of gut microbiota and probiotic-derived EV on obesity and diabetes onset, progression, and management, through the modulation of inflammation, metabolism, and gut permeability. In addition, we discuss the role of certain dietary patterns on gut microbiota-derived EV profile and the clinical implication that dietary habits could have on metabolic diseases progression through the shaping of gut microbiota-derived EV.
  • Autores: Elorz Carlón, Mariana; Benito-Boilos, A.; Marin, B. A.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.14 N° 23 2022 págs. 5160
    Resumen
    Neck circumference (NC) and its relationship to height (NHtR) and weight (NWtR) appear to be good candidates for the non-invasive management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to evaluate the ability of routine variables to assess and manage NAFLD in 98 obese subjects with NAFLD included in a 2-year nutritional intervention program. Different measurements were performed at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months. The nutritional intervention significantly improved the anthropometric, metabolic and imaging variables. NC was significantly associated with the steatosis degree at baseline (r = 0.29), 6 m (r = 0.22), 12 m (r = 0.25), and 24 m (r = 0.39) (all p < 0.05). NC was also significantly associated with visceral adipose tissue at all the study time-points (basal r = 0.78; 6 m r = 0.65; 12 m r = 0.71; 24 m r = 0.77; all p < 0.05). NC and neck ratios combined with ALT levels and HOMA-IR showed a good prediction ability for hepatic fat content and hepatic steatosis (at all time-points) in a ROC analysis. The model improved when weight loss was included in the panel (NC-ROC: 0.982 for steatosis degree). NC and ratios combined with ALT and HOMA-IR showed a good prediction ability for hepatic fat during the intervention. Thus, their application in clinical practice could improve the prevention and management of NAFLD.
  • Autores: Khoury, N.; Gómez-Donoso, C.; Martínez, M. A.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN NUTRITION
    ISSN: 2296-861X Vol.9 2022 págs. 897089
    Resumen
    Background: Helping consumers to improve the nutritional quality of their diet is a key public health action to prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The modified version of the Food Standard Agency Nutrient Profiling System Dietary Index (FSAm-NPS DI) underpinning the Nutri-Score front-of-pack label has been used in public health strategies to address the deleterious consequences of poor diets. This study aimed to assess the association between the FSAm-NPS DI and some CVD risk factors including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, plasma glucose levels, triglyceride levels, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and diastolic and systolic blood pressure. Materials and Methods: Dietary intake was assessed at baseline and after 1 year of follow-up using a 143-item validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Dietary indices based on FSAm-NPS applied at an individual level were computed to characterize the diet quality of 5,921 participants aged 55-75 years with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome from the PREDIMED-plus cohort. Associations between the FSAm-NPS DI and CVD risk factors were assessed using linear regression models. Results: Compared to participants with a higher nutritional quality of diet (measured by a lower FSAm-NPS DI at baseline or a decrease in FSAm-NPS DI after 1 year), those participants with a lower nutritional quality of diet (higher FSAm-NPS DI or an increase in score) showed a significant increase in the levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides, diastolic blood pressure, BMI, and waist circumference (beta coefficient [95% confidence interval]; P for trend) (1.67 [0.43, 2.90]; <0.001; 6.27 [2.46, 10.09]; <0.001; 0.56 [0.08, 1.05]; 0.001; 0.51 [0.41, 0.60]; <0.001; 1.19 [0.89, 1.50]; <0.001, respectively). No significant associations in relation to changes in HDL and LDL-cholesterol nor with systolic blood pressure were shown. Conclusion: This prospective cohort study suggests that the consumption of food items with a higher FSAm-NPS DI is associated with increased levels of several major risk factors for CVD including adiposity, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and diastolic blood pressure. However, results must be cautiously interpreted because no significant prospective associations were identified for critical CVD risk factors, such as HDL and LDL-cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure.
  • Autores: Zhu, R; Larsen, T. M.; Poppitt, S. D.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0261-5614 Vol.41 2022 págs. 219 - 230
    Resumen
    Background & aims: The association of quantity and quality of carbohydrate sources with appetite during long-term weight-loss maintenance (WLM) after intentional weight loss (WL) is unclear. We aimed to investigate longitudinal associations of quantity and quality of carbohydrate sources with changes in subjective appetite sensations during WLM. Methods: This secondary analysis evaluated longitudinal data from the 3-year WLM phase of the PREVIEW study, a 2 × 2 factorial (diet-physical activity arms), multi-center, randomized trial. 1279 individuals with overweight or obesity and prediabetes (25-70 years; BMI¿25 kg m-2) were included. Individuals were merged into 1 group to assess longitudinal associations of yearly changes in appetite sensations. Quantity and quality of carbohydrate sources including total carbohydrate, glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and total dietary fiber were assessed via 4-day food diaries at 4 timepoints (26, 52, 104, and 156 weeks) during WLM. Visual analog scales were used to assess appetite sensations in the previous week. Results: During WLM, participants consumed on average 160.6 (25th, 75th percentiles 131.1, 195.8) g·day-1 of total carbohydrate, with GI 53.8 (48.7, 58.8) and GL 85.3 (67.2, 108.9) g day-1, and 22.3 (17.6, 27.3) g·day-1 of dietary fiber. In the available-case analysis, multivariable-adjusted linear mixed models with repeated measures showed that each 30-g increment in total carbohydrate was associated with increases in hunger (1.36 mm year-1, 95% CI 0.77, 1.95, P < 0.001), desire to eat (1.10 mm year-1, 0.59, 1.60, P < 0.001), desire to eat something sweet (0.99 mm year-1, 0.30, 1.68, P = 0.005), and weight regain (0.20%·year-1, 0.03, 0.36, P = 0.022). Increasing GI was associated with weight regain, but not associated with increases in appetite sensations. Each 20-unit increment in GL was associated with increases in hunger (0.92 mm year-1, 0.33, 1.51, P = 0.002), desire to eat (1.12 mm year-1, 0.62, 1.62, P < 0.001), desire to eat something sweet (1.13 mm year-1, 0.44, 1.81, P < 0.001), and weight regain (0.35%·year-1, 0.18, 0.52, P < 0.001). Surprisingly, dietary fiber was also associated with increases in desire to eat, after adjustment for carbohydrate or GL. Conclusions: In participants with moderate carbohydrate and dietary fiber intake, and low to moderate GI, we found that higher total carbohydrate, GL, and total fiber, but not GI, were associated with increases in subjective desire to eat or hunger over 3 years. This study was registered as ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01777893. Keywords: Desire to eat; Dietary fiber; Glycemic index; Glycemic load; Hunger; Satiety.
  • Autores: Martínez Gayo, Alejandro; Félix Soriano, Elisa; Sáinz Amillo, Neira; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.14 N° 20 2022 págs. 4240
    Resumen
    Obesity and aging promote chronic low-grade systemic inflammation. The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of long-term physical exercise and/or omega-3 fatty acid Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on genes or proteins related to muscle metabolism, inflammation, muscle damage/regeneration and myokine expression in aged and obese mice. Two-month-old C57BL/6J female mice received a control or a high-fat diet for 4 months. Then, the diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were distributed into four groups: DIO, DIO + DHA, DIO + EX (treadmill training) and DIO + DHA + EX up to 18 months. Mice fed a control diet were sacrificed at 2, 6 and 18 months. Aging increased the mRNA expression of Tnf-alpha and decreased the expression of genes related to glucose uptake (Glut1, Glut4), muscle atrophy (Murf1, Atrogin-1, Cas-9) and myokines (Metrnl, Il-6). In aged DIO mice, exercise restored several of these changes. It increased the expression of genes related to glucose uptake (Glut1, Glut4), fatty acid oxidation (Cpt1b, Acox), myokine expression (Fndc5, Il-6) and protein turnover, decreased Tnf-alpha expression and increased p-AKT/AKT ratio. No additional effects were observed when combining exercise and DHA. These data suggest the effectiveness of long-term training to prevent the deleterious effects of aging and obesity on muscle dysfunction.
  • Autores: Montemayor, S.; Bouzas, C.; Mascaro, C. M.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.14 N° 11 2022 págs. 2223
    Resumen
    Background: Adults with fatty liver present unusual glycaemia and lipid metabolism; as a result, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now considered as part of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Objective: To assess the 6- and 12-month effects of customized hypocaloric dietary and enhanced physical activity intervention on intrahepatic fat contents and progression of NAFLD, in patients with MetS. Design: Cross-sectional study in 155 participants (40-60 years old) from Balearic Islands and Navarra (Spain) with a diagnosis of NAFLD and MetS, and BMI (body mass index) between 27 and 40 kg/m(2); patients were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to either Conventional Diet, Mediterranean diet (MD)-high meal frequency, and MD-physical activity groups. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to Mediterranean diet, anthropometrics, physical activity, and biochemical parameters (fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase-ALT-, gamma-glutamyl transferase, uric acid, urea, creatinine, albumin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol-HDL-cholesterol-, and triglycerides) were also assessed. Results: Subjects with NAFLD and MetS had reduced intrahepatic fat contents, and liver stiffness, despite the intervention the participants went through. All participants ameliorated BMI, insulin, Hb1Ac, diastolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, and ALT, and improved consumption of total energy, fish, and legumes. Participants in the MD-HMF group improved waist circumference. Conclusions: Customized hypocaloric dietary and enhanced physical activity interventions may be useful to ameliorate NAFLD.
  • Autores: Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Barajas, M.; Pérez-Sánchez, T.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.14 N° 24 2022 págs. 5212
    Resumen
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease, reaching epidemic proportions worldwide. Targeting the gut-adipose tissue-liver axis by modulating the gut microbiota can be a promising therapeutic approach in NAFLD. Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, a potent lactic-acid-producing bacterium, has been shown to attenuate NAFLD. However, to our knowledge, the possible effect of the Lactiplantibacillus plantarum strain DSM20174 (L.p. DSM20174) on the gut-adipose tissue axis, diminishing inflammatory mediators as fuel for NAFLD progression, is still unknown. Using a NAFLD mouse model fed a high-fat, high-fructose (HFHF) diet for 10 weeks, we show that L.p DSM20174 supplementation of HFHF mice prevented weight gain, improved glucose and lipid homeostasis, and reduced white adipose inflammation and NAFLD progression. Furthermore, 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the faecal microbiota suggested that treatment of HFHF-fed mice with L.p DSM20174 changed the diversity and altered specific bacterial taxa at the levels of family, genus, and species in the gut microbiota. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of L.p DSM20174 in preventing fatty liver progression may be related to modulations in the composition and potential function of gut microbiota associated with lower metabolic risk factors and a reduced M1-like/M2-like ratio of macrophages and proinflammatory cytokine expression in white adipose tissue and liver.
  • Autores: Zamanillo-Campos, R.; Chaplin, A.; Romaguera, D. (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0261-5614 Vol.41 N° 10 2022 págs. 2264 - 2274
    Resumen
    Background & aims: The quality of dietary carbohydrates rather than total carbohydrate intake may determine the accumulation of visceral fat; however, to date, few studies have examined the impact of diet on adiposity using specific imaging techniques. Thus, the aim of this prospective study was to investigate the association between concurrent changes in carbohydrate quality index (CQI) and objectively-quantified adiposity distribution over a year. Methods: We analyzed a cohort of 1476 participants aged 55-75 years with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) from the PREDIMED-Plus randomized controlled trial. Dietary intake information was obtained at baseline, 6- and 12-months from a validated 143-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire, and CQI (range: 4 to 20) was calculated based on four dietary criteria: total dietary fibre, glycemic index, wholegrain/total grain carbohydrate ratio, and solid/total carbohydrate ratio. Overall and regional adiposity (total body fat, visceral fat and android-to-gynoid fat ratio) was quantified using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at all three time points. Multiple adjusted linear mixed-effects models were used to assess associations between concurrent changes in repeatedly measured CQI and adiposity over time. Results: After controlling for potential confounding factors, a 3-point increment in CQI over 12-month follow-up was associated with a decrease in visceral fat (beta-0.067 z-score, 95% CI-0.088;-0.046, p < 0.001), android-to-gynoid fat ratio (-0.038,-0.059;-0.017, p < 0.001), and total fat (-0.064,-0.080;-0.047, p < 0.001). Fibre intake and the ratio of wholegrain/total grain showed the strongest inverse associations with all adiposity indicators. Conclusions: In this prospective cohort of older adults with overweight/obesity and MetS, we found that improvements in dietary carbohydrate quality over a year were associated with concurrent favorable changes in visceral and overall fat deposition. These associations were mostly driven by dietary fibre and the wholegrain/total grain ratio.Trial registration: The trial was registered at the International Standard Randomized.
  • Autores: Yavorov-Dayliev, D.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Ayo, J.; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
    ISSN: 1422-0067 Vol.23 N° 5 2022 págs. 2689
    Resumen
    The increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome-related diseases, including type-2 diabetes and obesity, makes it urgent to develop new alternative therapies, such as probiotics. In this study, we have used Caenorhabditis elegans under a high-glucose condition as a model to examine the potential probiotic activities of Pediococcus acidilactici CECT9879 (pA1c). The supplementation with pA1c reduced C. elegans fat accumulation in a nematode growth medium (NGM) and in a high-glucose (10 mM) NGM medium. Moreover, treatment with pA1c counteracted the effect of the high glucose by reducing reactive oxygen species by 20%, retarding the aging process and extending the nematode median survival (> 2 days in comparison with untreated control worms). Gene expression analyses demonstrated that the probiotic metabolic syndrome-alleviating activities were mediated by modulation of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway (IIS) through the reversion of the glucose-nuclear-localization of daf-16 and the overexpression of ins-6 and daf-16 mediators, increased expression of fatty acid (FA) peroxisomal beta-oxidation genes, and downregulation of FA biosynthesis key genes. Taken together, our data suggest that pA1c could be considered a potential probiotic strain for the prevention of the metabolic syndrome-related disturbances and highlight the use of C. elegans as an appropriate in vivo model for the study of the mechanisms underlying these diseases.
  • Autores: De Cuevillas García, Begoña; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Abete Goñi, Itziar; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0899-9007 Vol.103 - 104 2022 págs. 111841
    Resumen
    Objectives: The number of people aged >= 60 y is increasing worldwide, so establishing a relationship between lifestyle and health-associated factors, such as gut microbiota in an older population, is important. This study aimed to characterize the gut microbiota of a presenior population, and analyze the association between some bacteria and quality of life with the Short Form (SF) 36 questionnaire. Methods: Participants were adult men and women ages 50 to 80 y (n = 74). In addition to the SF-36 questionnaire, fecal samples were collected in cryotubes, and 16S RNA gene sequencing was performed to characterize microbial features. Participants were classified into two groups according to SF-36 punctuation. Linear and logistic regression models were performed to assess the possible association between any bacterial bowl and SF-36 score. Receiver operating characteristics curves were fitted to define the relative diagnostic strength of different bacterial taxa for the correct determination of quality of life. Results: A positive relationship was established between SF-36 score and Actinobacteria (P = 0.0310; R = 0.2510) compared with Peptostreptococcaceae (P = 0.0259; R = -0.2589), which increased with decreasing quality of life. Logistic regressions models and receiver operating characteristics curves showed that the relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Peptostreptococcaceae may be useful to predict quality of life in a presenior population (area under the curve: 0.71). Conclusions: Quality of life may be associated with the relative abundance of certain bacteria, especially Actinobacteria and Peptostreptococcaceae, which may have a specific effect on certain markers and health care, which is important to improve quality of life in older populations. (c) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
  • Autores: Jimeno-Martinez, A; Maneschy, I.; Moreno, L.A.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY
    ISSN: 1664-1078 Vol.13 2022 págs. 705912
    Resumen
    Introduction: Eating behavior is often established during the first years of life. Therefore, it is important to make a research on it to understand the relationships that children have with food and how this can contribute to prevent the development of childhood obesity. An appropriate assessment of eating behavior can be achieved using the "Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire" (CEBQ). This questionnaire has been validated in several populations and languages, but it has never been translated, adapted, and validated for Spanish children. Aim: To evaluate the reliability and internal consistency of the CEBQ questionnaire, culturally adapted and translated into Spanish (Spain), in Spanish families with children aged 3 to 6 years, as well as its association with children's body mass index (BMI) to test its construct validity. Materials and methods: Children between 3 and 6 years old were recruited from the ongoing MELI-POP randomized controlled clinical trial, as well as from public schools located in middle class neighborhoods of Zaragoza, Spain, to complete the sample. Sociodemographic characteristics and anthropometric measures were obtained according to standardized methods. The 35-item CEBQ questionnaire was completed twice with a time difference of 3 weeks between each response. Statistical analyses included the evaluation of internal consistency and reliability of the questionnaire, a confirmatory factor analysis, and the association between the different CEBQ scales and the children's BMI. Results: A total of 197 children completed variables; 97 of them were boys (49.2%) and 100 girls (50.8%). Mean age of the total sample was 4.7 ± 0.9 years. There was a high test-re-test reliability of the questionnaire with values close to 1, with an average of 0.66 and a good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha with values above 0.7), so that a high reliability is established between the items in each scale. A gradual positive association was found between the score of different "pro-intake" scales of the CEBQ: "Food Responsiveness," "Emotional Overeating," and "Enjoyment of food" and the children's BMI; at the opposite, negative associations were observed between BMI and the score of anti-intake scales "Satiety Responsiveness," "Slowness in Eating," and "Emotional Undereating." Conclusion: The Spanish version of the CEBQ is a useful tool to assess the eating behavior of Spanish children because the high reliability and internal validity. There is a significant association between eating behavior and BMI in Spanish children. Keywords: body mass index; child eating behavior questionnaire; childhood obesity; eating behavior; reliability; validation.
  • Autores: Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Guruceaga Martínez, Elisabet; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0261-5614 Vol.41 N° 8 2022 págs. 1712 - 1723
    Resumen
    Background & aims: The response to weight loss depends on the interindividual variability of determinants such as gut microbiota and genetics. The aim of this investigation was to develop an integrative model using microbiota and genetic information to prescribe the most suitable diet for a successful weight loss in individuals with excess of body weight. Methods: A total of 190 Spanish overweight and obese participants were randomly assigned to two hypocaloric diets for 4 months: 61 women and 29 men followed a moderately high protein (MHP) diet, and 72 women and 28 men followed a low fat (LF) diet. Baseline fecal DNA was sequenced and used for the construction of four microbiota subscores associated with the percentage of BMI loss for each diet (MHP and LF) and for each sex. Bootstrapping techniques and multiple linear regression models were used for the selection of families, genera and species included in the subscores. Finally, two total microbiota scores were generated for each sex. Two genetic subscores previously reported to weight loss were used to generate a total genetic score. In an attempt to personalize the weight loss prescription, several linear mixed models that included interaction with diet between microbiota scores and genetic scores for both, men and women, were studied. Results: The microbiota subscore for the women who followed the MHP-diet included Coprococcus, Dorea, Flavonifractor, Ruminococcus albus and Clostridium bolteaea. For LF-diet women, Cytophagaceae, Catabacteriaceae, Flammeovirgaceae, Rhodobacteriaceae, Clostridium-x1vb, Bacteriodes nordiiay, Alistipes senegalensis, Blautia wexlerae and Psedoflavonifractor phocaeensis. For MHP-diet men, Cytophagaceae, Acidaminococcaceae, Marinilabiliaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Fusicatenibacter, Odoribacter and Ruminococcus faecis; and for LF-men, Porphyromanadaceae, Intestinimonas, Bacteroides finegoldii and Clostridium bartlettii. The mixed models with microbiota scores facilitated the selection of diet in 72% of women and in 84% of men. The model including genetic information allows to select the type of diet in 84% and 73%, respectively.
  • Autores: Zhu, R.; Fogelholm, M.; Jalo, E.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0261-5614 Vol.41 N° 4 2022 págs. 817 - 828
    Resumen
    Background & aims: Low-energy diet replacement is an effective tool to induce large and rapid weight loss and improve metabolic health, but in the long-term individuals often experience significant weight regain. Little is known about the role of animal-based foods in weight maintenance and metabolic health. We aimed to examine longitudinal associations of animal-based foods with weight maintenance and glycaemic and cardiometabolic risk factors. We also modelled replacement of processed meat with other high-protein foods. Methods: In this secondary analysis, longitudinal data were analysed from 688 adults (26-70 years) with overweight and prediabetes after 8-week low-energy diet-induced weight loss (>= 8% of initial body weight) in a 3-year, multi-centre, diabetes prevention study (PREVIEW). Animal-based food consumption, including unprocessed red meat, processed red meat, poultry, dairy products, fish and seafood, and eggs, was repeatedly assessed using 4-day food records. Multi-adjusted linear mixed models and isoenergetic substitution models were used to examine the potential associations. Results: The available-case analysis showed that each 10-g increment in processed meat, but not total meat, unprocessed red meat, poultry, dairy products, or eggs, was positively associated with weight regain (0.17 kg . year(-1), 95% CI 0.10, 0.25, P < 0.001) and increments in waist circumference, HbA(1c), and triacylglycerols. The associations of processed meat with HbAic or triacylglycerols disappeared when adjusted for weight change. Fish and seafood consumption was inversely associated with triacylglycerols and triacylglycerol-glucose index, independent of weight change. Modelled replacement of processed meat with isoenergetic (250-300 kJ . day(-1) or 60-72 kcal . day(-1)) dairy, poultry, fish and seafood, grains, or nuts was associated with -0.59 (95% CI -0.77, -0.41), -0.66 (95% CI -0.93, -0.40), -0.58 (95% CI -0.88, -0.27), and -0.69 (95% CI -0.96, -0.41) kg . day(-1) of weight regain, respectively (all P < 0.001) and significant improvements in HbA(1c), and triacylglycerols. Conclusions: Higher intake of processed meat, but not total or unprocessed red meat, poultry, dairy products, or eggs may be associated with greater weight regain and more adverse glycaemic and cardiometabolic risk factors. Replacing processed meat with a wide variety of high-protein foods, including unprocessed red meat, poultry, dairy products, fish, eggs, grains, and nuts, could improve weight maintenance and metabolic health after rapid weight loss.
  • Autores: Barahona, I.; Rada, P.; Calero-Pérez, S.; et al.
    Revista: CELL DEATH AND DIFFERENTIATION
    ISSN: 1350-9047 Vol.29 N° 12 2022 págs. 2362 - 2380
    Resumen
    Activation of oval cells (OCs) has been related to hepatocyte injury during chronic liver diseases including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, OCs plasticity can be affected under pathological environments. We previously found protection against hepatocyte cell death by inhibiting protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). Herein, we investigated the molecular and cellular processes involved in the lipotoxic susceptibility in OCs expressing or not PTP1B. Palmitic acid (PA) induced apoptotic cell death in wild-type (Ptpn1(+/+)) OCs in parallel to oxidative stress and impaired autophagy. This lipotoxic effect was attenuated in OCs lacking Ptpn1 that showed upregulated antioxidant defences, increased unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling, higher endoplasmic reticulum (ER) content and elevated stearoyl CoA desaturase (Scd1) expression and activity. These effects in Ptpn1(-/-) OCs concurred with an active autophagy, higher mitochondrial efficiency and a molecular signature of starvation, favoring lipid droplet (LD) formation and dynamics. Autophagy blockade in Ptpn1(-/-) OCs reduced Scd1 expression, mitochondrial fitness, LD formation and restored lipoapoptosis, an effect also recapitulated by Scd1 silencing. PTP1B immunostaining was detected in OCs from mouse liver and, importantly, LDs were found in OCs from Ptpn1(-/-) mice with NAFLD. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Ptpn1 deficiency restrains lipoapoptosis in OCs through a metabolic rewiring towards a starvation-like fate, favoring autophagy, mitochondrial fitness and LD formation. Dynamic LD-lysosomal interations likely ensure lipid recycling and, overall, these adaptations protect against lipotoxicity. The identification of LDs in OCs from Ptpn1(-/-) mice with NAFLD opens therapeutic perspectives to ensure OC viability and plasticity under lipotoxic liver damage.
  • Autores: Pérez Díaz Del Campo, Nuria; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Marin-Alejandre, B. A.; et al.
    Revista: PANMINERVA MEDICA
    ISSN: 0031-0808 Vol.64 N° 4 2022 págs. 485 - 496
    Resumen
    BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development is linked to insulin resistance and influenced by environmental fac-tors, but it also underlined a genetic predisposition. The aim of this research was to build a predictive model based on genetic and hepatic health information, deeming insulin resistance markers in order to personalize dietary treatment in overweight/obese subjects with NAFLD.METHODS: A 6-month nutritional intervention was conducted in 86 overweight/obese volunteers with NAFLD randomly assigned to 2 energy-restricted diets: the American Heart Association (AHA) diet and the Fatty Liver in Obesity (FLiO) diet. Individuals were genotyped using a pre-designed panel of 95 genetic variants. A Genetic Risk Score (GRS) for each diet was computed using statistically relevant SNPs for the change on Fatty Liver Index (FLI) after 6-months of nutritional intervention. Body composition, liver injury and insulin resistance markers, as well as physical activity and dietary intake were also assessed.RESULTS: Under energy restriction, both the AHA and FLiO diets induced similar significant improvements on body composition, insulin re-sistance markers, hepatic health and dietary and lifestyle outcomes. The calculated score included in the linear mixed regression model was able to predict the change of FLI adjusted by diet, age and sex. This model allowed to personalize the most suitable diet for 72% of the volunteers. Similar models were also able to predict the changes on Triglycerides and Glucose (TyG) Index and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels depending on diet.CONCLUSIONS: Models integrating genetic screening and insulin resistance markers can be useful for the personalization of NAFLD weight loss treatments.
  • Autores: Cano-Ibáñez, N. (Autor de correspondencia); Serra-Majem, L.; Martin-Peláez, S.; et al.
    Revista: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0007-1145 Vol.128 N° 6 2022 págs. 1170 - 1179
    Resumen
    The burden of depression is increasing worldwide, specifically in older adults. Unhealthy dietary patterns may partly explain this phenomenon. In the Spanish PREDIMED-Plus study, we explored (1) the cross-sectional association between the adherence to the Prime Diet Quality Score (PDQS), an a priori-defined high-quality food pattern, and the prevalence of depressive symptoms at baseline (cross-sectional analysis) and (2) the prospective association of baseline PDQS with changes in depressive symptomatology after 2 years of follow-up. After exclusions, we assessed 6612 participants in the cross-sectional analysis and 5523 participants in the prospective analysis. An energy-adjusted high-quality dietary score (PDQS) was assessed using a validated FFQ. The cross-sectional association between PDQS and the prevalence of depression or presence of depressive symptoms and the prospective changes in depressive symptoms were evaluated through multivariable regression models (logistic and linear models and mixed linear-effects models). PDQS was inversely associated with depressive status in the cross-sectional analysis. Participants in the highest quintile of PDQS (Q5) showed a significantly reduced odds of depression prevalence as compared to participants in the lowest quartile of PDQS (Q1) (OR (95 %) CI = 0 center dot 82 (0 center dot 68, 0 center dot 98))). The baseline prevalence of depression decreased across PDQS quintiles (P (for trend) = 0 center dot 015). A statistically significant association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms after 2-years follow-up was found (beta (95 %) CI = -0 center dot 67 z-score (-1 center dot 17, -0 center dot 18). A higher PDQS was cross-sectionally related to a lower depressive status. Nevertheless, the null finding in our prospective analysis raises the possibility of reverse causality. Further prospective investigation is required to ascertain the association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms along time.
  • Autores: Bouzas, C. ; Bibiloni, M. D.; Garcia, S.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN NUTRITION
    ISSN: 2296-861X Vol.9 2022 págs. 848055
    Resumen
    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) worsens quality of life and increases mortality. Dissatisfaction with weight in patients with MetS may modify the effect of lifestyle interventions to achieve changes in health-related behaviors. Objective: To assess 1-year changes in cardiovascular risk scores, self-perceived general health and health-related behaviors according to observed changes in desired weight loss during the first year of intervention in a large cardiovascular prevention trial. Design: Prospective analysis of the PREDIMED-PLUS trial, including 5,499 adults (55-75 years old) with overweight or obesity at baseline. Methods: The desired weight loss was the difference between ideal and measured weight. Tertiles of change in desired weight loss (1 year vs. baseline) were defined by the following cut-off points: >= 0.0 kg (T1, n = 1,638); 0.0 to -4.0 kg (T2, n = 1,903); <=-4.0 kg (T3, n = 1,958). A food frequency questionnaire assessed diet and the Minnesota-REGICOR questionnaire assessed physical activity. The Framingham equation assessed cardiovascular risks. The changes in the severity of MetS were also assessed. The Beck Depression Inventory assessed depressive symptoms and the SF-36 assessed health-related quality of life. Data were analyzed using general linear models. Results: BMI decreased at T2 and T3 (T1: 0.3, T2: -0.7, T3: -1.9). The most significant improvement in diet quality was observed at T3. Cardiovascular risk decreased at T2 and T3. Mean reductions in MetS severity score were: -0.02 at T1, -0.39 at T2 and -0.78 at T3. The perception of physical health increases in successive tertiles. Conclusions: In older adults with MetS, more ambitious desired weight loss goals were associated with improvements in diet, cardiovascular health and perceived physical health during the first year of a healthy lifestyle intervention programme. Weight dissatisfaction needs to be considered by health professionals.
  • Autores: Lorenzo, P. M.; Sajoux, I.; Izquierdo, A. G.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0261-5614 Vol.41 N° 7 2022 págs. 1566 - 1577
    Resumen
    Background & aim: Inflammation and oxidative stress are the most probable mechanistic link between obesity and its co-diseases with cancer among them. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the nutritional ketosis and weight loss induced by a very-low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) modulates the inflammatory and oxidative stress profile, compared with a standard, balanced hypocaloric diet (LCD) or bariatric surgery (BS) in patients with obesity. Methods: The study was performed in 79 patients with overweight or obesity and 32 normal-weight volunteers as the control group. Patients with obesity underwent a weight reduction therapy based on VLCKD, LCD or BS. The quantification of the circulating levels of a multiplexing test of cytokines and carcinogenesis/aging biomarkers, as well as of lipid peroxides and total antioxidant power, was carried out. Results: First, we observed that pro-inflammatory cytokines increase, while anti-inflammatory cytokines decrease under excessive body weight. Relevantly, when patients underwent weight loss strategies, it was shown that energy-restricted and surgical strategies of weight loss induced changes in circulating cytokine and lipid peroxides. This effect was more notable in patients following the VLCKD than the LCD or BS and it was observed mainly in the ketosis phase of the intervention. Particularly, IL-11, IL-12, IL-2, INF-gamma, INF-beta, Pentraxin-3 or MMP1 changed after VLCKD. Whereas, APRIL, TWEAK, osteocalcin and IL-28A increased after BS. Conclusion: As far as we know, this is the first study that evaluate the time-course of cytokines and oxidative stress markers after a VLCKD as compared with a standard LCD and BS. The observed results support the immunomodulatory effect of nutritional ketosis induced by a VLCKD synergistically with weight loss as a strategy to improve innate-immunity and to prevent infections and carcinogenesis in patients with obesity.
  • Autores: Villaseñor-Aranguren, M.; Roses, C.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.14 N° 23 2022 págs. 4966
    Resumen
    This study aims to analyze the relationship between gut microbiota composition and health parameters through specific biochemical markers and food consumption patterns in the Spanish population. This research includes 60 Spanish adults aged 47.3 +/- 11.2 years old. Biochemical and anthropometric measurements, and a self-referred dietary survey (food frequency questionnaire), were analyzed and compared with the participant ' s gut microbiota composition analyzed by 16s rDNA sequencing. Several bacterial strains differed significantly with the biochemical markers analyzed, suggesting an involvement in the participant ' s metabolic health. Lower levels of Lactobacillaceae and Oscillospiraceae and an increase in Pasteurellaceae, Phascolarctobacterium, and Haemophilus were observed in individuals with higher AST levels. Higher levels of the Christensenellaceae and a decrease in Peptococcaceae were associated with higher levels of HDL-c. High levels of Phascolarctobacterium and Peptococcus and low levels of Butyricicoccus were found in individuals with higher insulin levels. This study also identified associations between bacteria and specific food groups, such as an increase in lactic acid bacteria with the consumption of fermented dairy products or an increase in Verrucomicrobiaceae with the consumption of olive oil. In conclusion, this study reinforces the idea that specific food groups can favorably modulate gut microbiota composition and have an impact on host ' s health.
  • Autores: Salas Pérez, F. ; Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; Cuervo Zapatel, Marta; et al.
    Revista: EPIGENETICS
    ISSN: 1559-2294 Vol.17 N° 1 2022 págs. 81 - 92
    Resumen
    Differentially methylated regions (DMR) are genomic regions with different methylation status. The aim of this research was to identify DMRs in subjects with obesity that predict the response to a weight-loss dietary intervention and its association with metabolic variables. Based on the change in body mass index (BMI), 201 subjects with overweight and obesity were categorized in tertiles according to their response to a hypocaloric diet: Responders (R; n = 64) and Non-Responders (NR; n = 63). The R group lost 4.55 +/- 0.91 BMI units (kg/m(2)) and the NR group lost 1.95 +/- 0.73 kg/m(2) (p < 0.001). DNA methylation was analysed in buffy coat through a methylation array at baseline. DMRs were analysed using a function of ChAMP (Chip Analysis Methylation Pipeline) in R software. Baseline DNA methylation analysis between R and NR exhibited a DMR located at paraoxonase 3 gene (PON3) consisting of 13 CpG sites, eleven of them significantly hypermethylated in R. To analyse the implication of these 11 CpGs on weight loss, a z-score was performed as a measure of DMR methylation. This analysis showed a correlation between PON3 DNA methylation and BMI loss. This z-score negatively correlated with PON3 protein serum levels. Total paraoxonase activity in serum was not different between groups, but PON enzymatic activity positively correlated with oxidized LDL levels. The present study identified a DMR within PON3 gene that is related to PON3 protein levels in serum, and that could be used as a potential biomarker to predict the response to weight-loss dietary interventions.
  • Autores: Zhu, R. X.; Jalo, E.; Silvestre, M. P.; et al.
    Revista: DIABETES CARE
    ISSN: 0149-5992 Vol.45 N° 11 2022 págs. 2698 - 2708
    Resumen
    OBJECTIVE To examine whether the effect of a 3-year lifestyle intervention on body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors differs by prediabetes metabolic phenotype. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This post hoc analysis of the multicenter, randomized trial, PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle interventions and population studies In Europe and around the World (PREVIEW), included 1,510 participants with prediabetes (BMI >= 25 kg . m(-2); defined using oral glucose tolerance tests). Of these, 58% had isolated impaired fasting glucose (iIFG), 6% had isolated impaired glucose tolerance (iIGT), and 36% had IFG+IGT; 73% had normal hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c); <39 mmol . mol(-1)) and 25% had intermediate HbA(1c) (39-47 mmol . mol(-1)). Participants underwent an 8-week diet-induced rapid weight loss, followed by a 148-week lifestyle-based weight maintenance intervention. Linear mixed models adjusted for intervention arm and other confounders were used. RESULTS In the available-case and complete-case analyses, participants with IFG+IGT had greater sustained weight loss after lifestyle intervention (adjusted mean at 156 weeks -3.5% [95% CI, -4.7%, -2.3%]) than those with iIFG (mean -2.5% [-3.6%, -1.3%]) relative to baseline (P = 0.011). Participants with IFG+IGT and iIFG had similar cardiometabolic benefits from the lifestyle intervention. The differences in cardiometabolic benefits between those with iIGT and IFG+IGT were minor or inconsistent in different analyses. Participants with normal versus intermediate HbA(1c) had similar weight loss over 3 years and minor differences in cardiometabolic benefits during weight loss, whereas those with normal HbA(1c) had greater improvements in fasting glucose, 2-h glucose (adjusted between-group difference at 156 weeks -0.54 mmol . L-1 [95% CI -0.70, -0.39], P < 0.001), and triglycerides (difference -0.07 mmol . L-1 [-0.11, -0.03], P < 0.001) during the lifestyle intervention. CONCLUSIONS Individuals with iIFG and IFG+IGT had similar improvements in cardiometabolic health from a lifestyle intervention. Those with normal HbA(1c) had greater improvements than those with intermediate HbA(1c).
  • Autores: Konieczna, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Fiol, M.; Colom, A.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.14 N° 19 2022 págs. 4142
    Resumen
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a spectrum of liver alterations that can result in severe disease and even death. Consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) has been associated with obesity and related comorbidities. However, the link between UPF and NAFLD has not been sufficiently assessed. We aimed to investigate the prospective association between UPF consumption and liver health biomarkers. Methods: We followed for 1 year 5867 older participants with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) from the PREDIMED-Plus trial. A validated 143-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate consumption of UPF at baseline, 6, and 12 months. The degree of processing for foods and beverages (g/day) was established according to the NOVA classification system. The non-invasive fatty liver index (FLI) and hepatic steatosis index (HSI) were used to evaluate liver health at three points in time. The associations between changes in UPF consumption (percentage of total daily dietary intake (g)) and liver biomarkers were assessed using mixed-effects linear models with repeated measurements. Results: In this cohort, UPF consumption at baseline was 8.19% (SD 6.95%) of total daily dietary intake in grams. In multivariable models, each 10% daily increment in UPF consumption in 1 year was associated with significantly greater FLI (beta 1.60 points, 95% CI 1.24;1.96 points) and HSI (0.43, 0.29; 0.57) scores (all p-values < 0.001). These associations persisted statistically significant after adjusting for potential dietary confounders and NAFLD risk factors. Conclusions: A higher UPF consumption was associated with higher levels of NAFLD-related biomarkers in older adults with overweight/obesity and MetS.
  • Autores: Marzo, F.; Jauregui, P.; Barreneche Huici, Jayone; et al.
    Revista: PROBIOTICS AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEINS
    ISSN: 1867-1306 Vol.14 N° 3 2022 págs. 407 - 414
    Resumen
    Previous studies have reported that dietary sphingomyelin could inhibit early stages of colon cancer. Lactic acid-producing bacteria have also been associated with an amelioration of cancer symptoms. However, little is known about the potential beneficial effects of the combined administration of both sphingomyelin and lactic acid-producing bacteria. This article analyzes the effect of a diet supplemented with a combination of the probiotics Lacticaseibacillus casei and Bifidobacterium bifidum (10(8) CFU/ml) and sphingomyelin (0.05%) on mice with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon cancer. Thirty-six BALB/c mice were divided into 3 groups: one healthy group (group C) and two groups with DMH-induced cancer, one fed a standard diet (group D) and the other fed a diet supplemented with sphingomyelin and probiotics (DS). The number of aberrant crypt foci, marker of colon cancer development, was lower in the DS. The dietary supplementation with the synbiotic reversed the cancer-induced impairment of galactose uptake in enterocyte brush-border-membrane vesicles. These results confirm the beneficial effects of the synbiotic on the intestinal physiology of colon cancer mice and contribute to the understanding of the possible mechanisms involved.
  • Autores: Andueza Pacheco, Naroa; Cuervo Zapatel, Marta; Martín Calvo, Nerea; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
    ISSN: 0250-6807 Vol.78 N° SUPPL 3 2022 págs. 38 - 38
  • Autores: Yavorov-Dayliev, D.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Ayo, J.; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
    ISSN: 0250-6807 Vol.78 N° SUPPL 3 2022 págs. 24 - 24
  • Autores: Valdecantos, P.; Barahona, I.; Calero, S.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY (ONLINE)
    ISSN: 0168-8278 Vol.77 N° Suppl. 1 2022 págs. S749 - S750
  • Autores: Cuevas-Sierra, A.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Cuervo Zapatel, Marta; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
    ISSN: 0250-6807 Vol.78 N° SUPPL 3 2022 págs. 26 - 26
  • Autores: Goyache Sarasa, Ignacio; Yavlrov-Dayliev, D.; López Yoldi, Miguel; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
    ISSN: 0250-6807 Vol.78 N° SUPPL 3 2022 págs. 24 - 24
  • Autores: O'Connor, D.; Pang, M.; Castelnuovo, G.; et al.
    Revista: FOOD & FUNCTION
    ISSN: 2042-6496 Vol.12 N° 2 2021 págs. 442 - 465
    Resumen
    Numerous strategies have been investigated to overcome the excessive weight gain that accompanies a chronic positive energy balance. Most approaches focus on a reduction of energy intake and the improvement of lifestyle habits. The use of high intensity artificial sweeteners, also known as non-caloric sweeteners (NCS), as sugar substitutes in foods and beverages, is rapidly developing. NCS are commonly defined as molecules with a sweetness profile of 30 times higher or more that of sucrose, scarcely contributing to the individual's net energy intake as they are hardly metabolized. The purpose of this review is first, to assess the impact of NCS on eating behaviour, including subjective appetite, food intake, food reward and sensory stimulation; and secondly, to assess the metabolic impact of NCS on body weight regulation, glucose homeostasis and gut health. The evidence reviewed suggests that while some sweeteners have the potential to increase subjective appetite, these effects do not translate in changes in food intake. This is supported by a large body of empirical evidence advocating that the use of NCS facilitates weight management when used alongside other weight management strategies. On the other hand, although NCS are very unlikely to impair insulin metabolism and glycaemic control, some studies suggest that NCS could have putatively undesirable effects, through various indirect mechanisms, on body weight, glycemia, adipogenesis and the gut microbiota; however there is insufficient evidence to determine the degree of such effects. Overall, the available data suggests that NCS can be used to facilitate a reduction in dietary energy content without significant negative effects on food intake behaviour or body metabolism, which would support their potential role in the prevention of obesity as a complementary strategy to other weight management approaches. More research is needed to determine the impact of NCS on metabolic health, in particular gut microbiota.
  • Autores: Vargas-Alvarez, M. A.; Navas Carretero, Santiago; Palla, L.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.13 N° 6 2021 págs. 1978
    Resumen
    Portion control utensils and reduced size tableware amongst other tools, have the potential to guide portion size intake but their effectiveness remains controversial. This review evaluated the breadth and effectiveness of existing portion control tools on learning/awareness of appropriate portion sizes (PS), PS choice, and PS consumption. Additional outcomes were energy intake and weight loss. Published records between 2006-2020 (n = 1241) were identified from PubMed and WoS, and 36 publications comparing the impact of portion control tools on awareness (n = 7 studies), selection/choice (n = 14), intake plus related measures (n = 21) and weight status (n = 9) were analyzed. Non-tableware tools included cooking utensils, educational aids and computerized applications. Tableware included mostly reduced-size and portion control/calibrated crockery/cutlery. Overall, 55% of studies reported a significant impact of using a tool (typically smaller bowl, fork or glass; or calibrated plate). A meta-analysis of 28 articles confirmed an overall effect of tool on food intake (d = -0.22; 95%CI: -0.38, -0.06; 21 comparisons), mostly driven by combinations of reduced-size bowls and spoons decreasing serving sizes (d = -0.48; 95%CI: -0.72, -0.24; 8 comparisons) and consumed amounts/energy (d = -0.22; 95%CI: -0.39, -0.05, 9 comparisons), but not by reduced-size plates (d = -0.03; 95%CI: -0.12, 0.06, 7 comparisons). Portion control tools marginally induced weight loss (d = -0.20; 95%CI: ...
  • Autores: Diez Sainz, Ester; Lorente Cebrián, Silvia (Autor de correspondencia); Aranaz Oroz, Paula; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN NUTRITION
    ISSN: 2296-861X Vol.8 2021 págs. 586564
    Resumen
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding single-stranded RNA molecules from 18 to 24 nucleotides that are produced by prokaryote and eukaryote organisms, which play a crucial role in regulating gene expression through binding to their mRNA targets. MiRNAs have acquired special attention for their potential in cross kingdom communication, notably food-derived microRNAs (xenomiRs), which could have an impact on microorganism and mammal physiology. In this review, we mainly aim to deal with new perspectives on: (1) The mechanism by which food-derived xenomiRs (mainly dietary plant xenomiRs) could be incorporated into humans through diet, in a free form, associated with proteins or encapsulated in exosome-like nanoparticles. (2) The impact of dietary plant-derived miRNAs in modulating gut microbiota composition, which in turn, could regulate intestinal barrier permeability and therefore, affect dietary metabolite, postbiotics or food-derived miRNAs uptake efficiency. Individual gut microbiota signature/composition could be also involved in xenomiR uptake efficiency through several mechanisms such us increasing the bioavailability of exosome-like nanoparticles miRNAs. (3) Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been proposed to contribute to disease development by affecting gut epithelial barrier permeability. For his reason, the availability and uptake of dietary plant xenomiRs might depend, among other factors, on this microbiota-related permeability of the intestine. We hypothesize and critically review that xenomiRs-microbiota interaction, which has been scarcely explored yet, could contribute to explain, at least in part, the current disparity of evidences found dealing with dietary miRNA uptake and function in humans. Furthermore, dietary plant xenomiRs could be involved in the establishment of the multiple gut microenvironments, in which microorganism would adapt in order to optimize the resources and thrive in them. Additionally, a particular xenomiR could preferentially accumulate in a specific region of the gastrointestinal tract and participate in the selection and functions of specific gut microbial communities.
  • Autores: Peluzio, M. D. G.; Dias, M. D. E.; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN NUTRITION
    ISSN: 2296-861X Vol.8 2021
    Resumen
    In the last decades changes in the pattern of health and disease in Latin America and in the world has been observed, with an increase in cases of chronic non-communicable diseases. Changes in intestinal microbiota composition can contribute to the development of these diseases and be useful in their management. In this context, the consumption of fermented foods with probiotic properties, such as kefir, stands out due to its gut microbiota-modulating capacity. There is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir since it can be marketed as a natural beverage containing health-promoting bacteria and has been gaining international popularity in Latin America. Also the consumption of these drinks in Latin America seems to be even more relevant, given the socioeconomic situation of this population, which highlights the need for disease prevention at the expense of its treatment. In this narrative review, we discuss how kefir may work against obesity, diabetes mellitus, liver disease, cardiovascular disorders, immunity, and neurological disorders. Peptides, bioactive compounds and strains occurring in kefir, can modulate gut microbiota composition, low-grade inflammation and intestinal permeability, which consequently may generate health benefits. Kefir can also impact on the regulation of organism homeostasis, with a direct effect on the gut-brain axis, being a possible strategy for the prevention of metabolic diseases. Further studies are needed to standardize these bioactive compounds and better elucidate the mechanisms linking kefir and intestinal microbiota modulation. However, due to the benefits reported, low cost and ease of preparation, kefir seems to be a promising approach to prevent and manage microbiota-related diseases in Latin America and the rest of the world.
  • Autores: De la O Pascual, Víctor; Zazpe García, Itzíar; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION RESEARCH REVIEWS
    ISSN: 0954-4224 Vol.34 N° 1 2021 págs. 78 - 106
    Resumen
    The Paleolithic diet (PaleoDiet) is an allegedly healthy dietary pattern inspired by the consumption of wild foods and animals assumed to be consumed in the Paleolithic era. Despite gaining popularity in the media, different operational definitions of this Paleolithic nutritional intake have been used in research. Our hypothesis is that specific components used to define the PaleoDiet may modulate the association of this diet with several health outcomes. We comprehensively reviewed currently applied PaleoDiet scores and suggested a new score based on the food composition of current PaleoDiet definitions and the theoretical food content of a staple dietary pattern in the Paleolithic age. In a PubMed search up to December 2019, fourteen different PaleoDiet definitions were found. We observed some common components of the PaleoDiet among these definitions although we also found high heterogeneity in the list of specific foods that should be encouraged or banned within the PaleoDiet. Most studies suggest that the PaleoDiet may have beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases (type 2 diabetes, overweight/obesity, CVD and hyperlipidaemias) but the level of evidence is still weak because of the limited number of studies with a large sample size, hard outcomes instead of surrogate outcomes and long-term follow-up. Finally, we propose a new PaleoDiet score composed of eleven food items, based on a high consumption of fruits, nuts, vegetables, fish, eggs and unprocessed meats (lean meats); and a minimum content of dairy products, grains and cereals, and legumes and practical absence of processed (or ultra-processed) foods or culinary ingredients.
  • Autores: Castelnuovo, G.; De Cuevillas García, Begoña; Navas Carretero, Santiago; et al.
    Revista: PROGRESS IN NUTRITION
    ISSN: 1129-8723 Vol.23 N° 1 2021 págs. e2021014
    Resumen
    Obesity is a growing public health problem, which often leads to severe comorbidities that can reduce quality of life and living expectancy. Overweight is caused by a greater food intake compared to the energy expenditure, which involves an excessive deposition of body fat. The distribution of adipose tissue also varies depending on sex, whereas men usually show android-type obesity, or visceral adiposity, women exhibit more commonly a deposition of fat involving the gynoid gluteo-femoral or subcutaneous type. Overweight and obesity are accompanied by a series of clinical manifestations, being the most common hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and high blood pressure, which may depend on body fat distribution. Consequently, not only promoting initiatives to adopt a healthy lifestyle based on recommended dietary models and an active living is necessary, but also having reliable techniques for body fat determination. Besides the Body Mass Index (BMI), whose limits on the correct quantification of body fat are known, nowadays diverse approaches for fat measurement are available. In addition, the assessment of body fat could be achieved also through complex methods such as Bioelectric Impedance Analysis (BIA), Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) and Total Body Electrical Conductivity (TOBEC), which may be complemented by approaches to categorize/ differentiate obese individuals through classification systems and scores. Indeed, adequate measurement of fat is required for obesity characterization and for management purposes as reported in this review.
  • Autores: Dias, M. D. E.; dos-Reis, S. A.; da-Conceicao, L. L.; et al.
    Revista: DIABETOLOGY & METABOLIC SYNDROME
    ISSN: 1758-5996 Vol.13 N° 1 2021
    Resumen
    Overweight and obesity are a worldwide public health problem. Obesity prevalence has increased considerably, which indicates the need for more studies to better understand these diseases and related complications. Diet induced-obesity (DIO) animal models can reproduce human overweight and obesity, and there are many protocols used to lead to excess fat deposition. So, the purpose of this review was to identify the key points for the induction of obesity through diet, as well as identifying which are the necessary endpoints to be achieved when inducing fat gain. For this, we reviewed the literature in the last 6 years, looking for original articles that aimed to induce obesity through the diet. All articles evaluated should have a control group, in order to verify the results found, and had worked with Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats, or with C57BL-/-6 mice strain. Articles that induced obesity by other methods, such as genetic manipulation, surgery, or drugs were excluded, since our main objective was to identify key points for the induction of obesity through diet. Articles in humans, in cell culture, in non-rodent animals, as well as review articles, articles that did not have obesity induction and book chapters were also excluded. Body weight and fat gain, as well as determinants related to inflammation, hormonal concentration, blood glycemia, lipid profile, and liver health, must be evaluated together to better determination of the development of obesity. In addition, to select the best model in each circumstance, it should be considered that each breed and sex respond differently to diet-induced obesity. The composition of the diet and calorie overconsumption are also relevant to the development of obesity. Finally, it is important that a non-obese control group is included in the experimental design.
  • Autores: Ramos Lopez, O.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: INFLAMMATION RESEARCH
    ISSN: 1023-3830 Vol.70 N° 1 2021 págs. 29 - 49
    Resumen
    Aim and objective Emerging translational evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations (DNA methylation, miRNA expression, and histone modifications) occur after external stimuli and may contribute to exacerbated inflammation and the risk of suffering several diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and neurological disorders. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the harmful effects of high-fat/high-sugar diets, micronutrient deficiencies (folate, manganese, and carotenoids), obesity and associated complications, bacterial/viral infections, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, sleep deprivation, chronic stress, air pollution, and chemical exposure on inflammation through epigenetic mechanisms. Additionally, the epigenetic phenomena underlying the anti-inflammatory potential of caloric restriction, n-3 PUFA, Mediterranean diet, vitamin D, zinc, polyphenols (i.e., resveratrol, gallic acid, epicatechin, luteolin, curcumin), and the role of systematic exercise are discussed. Methods Original and review articles encompassing epigenetics and inflammation were screened from major databases (including PubMed, Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, etc.) and analyzed for the writing of the review paper. Conclusion Although caution should be exercised, research on epigenetic mechanisms is contributing to understand pathological processes involving inflammatory responses, the prediction of disease risk based on the epigenotype, as well as the putative design of therapeutic interventions targeting the epigenome.
  • Autores: Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Carpene, C.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
    ISSN: 1138-7548 Vol.77 N° 1 2021 págs. 105 - 107
    Resumen
    This Special Issue of the Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry contains 6 contributions that exemplify the advances obtained by the mini-network entitled "Consortium of Trans-Pyrenean Investigations on Obesity and Diabetes" (CTPIOD), which is on its 16th year of existence. This scientific community, essentially based in France and Spain, but also open to participants coming from all over the world, is focusing its attention on the prevention and the novel treatments of obesity, diabetes, and other non-communicable diseases. Accordingly, this special issue will cover some nutritional, pharmacologic, and genetic aspects of the current knowledge of metabolic diseases. Some of these papers emerge from the lectures of the 16th Conference on Trans-Pyrenean Investigations in Obesity and Diabetes, held in Soria (Spain) in June 2019.
  • Autores: Zhu, R. X.; Fogelholm, M.; Larsen, T. M.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN NUTRITION
    ISSN: 2296-861X Vol.8 N° 736531 2021
    Resumen
    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fnut.2021.685648.]. (vol 8, 685648, 2021)
  • Autores: Gil Iturbe, Eva; Félix Soriano, Elisa; Sáinz Amillo, Neira; et al.
    Revista: APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY NUTRITION AND METABOLISM- PHYSIOLOGIE APPLIQUEE NUTRITION ET METABOLISME
    ISSN: 1715-5312 Vol.46 N° 7 2021 págs. 846 - 847
  • Autores: Mendez, D. A.; Fabra, M. J.; Falcó, I.; et al.
    Revista: FOOD & FUNCTION
    ISSN: 2042-650X Vol.12 N° 16 2021 págs. 7428 - 7439
    Resumen
    In this work, a bioactive persimmon extract was produced from discarded fruits. A central composite design was used to evaluate the effect of different extraction parameters and ripeness stages of persimmon fruits on the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the resulting extracts. Significantly greater phenolic contents were obtained from immature persimmon (IP) fruits. The optimum IP extract with the conditions set by the experimental design was industrially up-scaled and its composition and functional properties were evaluated and compared with those obtained under lab-scale conditions. Both extracts contained significant protein (>20%) and phenolic contents (similar to 11-27 mg GA/g dry extract) and displayed significant antiviral activity against murine norovirus and hepatitis A virus. Moreover, the extract showed no toxicity and significantly reduced the fat content and the cellular ageing of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) without affecting the worm development. These effects were mediated by down-regulation of fat-7, suggesting an anti-lipogenic activity of this extract.
  • Autores: Félix Soriano, Elisa; Sáinz Amillo, Neira; Gil Iturbe, Eva; et al.
    Revista: FASEB JOURNAL
    ISSN: 0892-6638 Vol.35 N° 6 2021 págs. e21592
    Resumen
    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dysfunction in aging and obesity has been related to chronic unresolved inflammation, which could be mediated by an impaired production of specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPMs), such as Lipoxins-LXs, Resolvins-Rvs, Protectins-PDs, and Maresins-MaRs. Our aim was to characterize the changes in BAT SPMs signatures and their association with BAT dysfunction during aging, especially under obesogenic conditions, and their modulation by a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich diet. Lipidomic, functional, and molecular studies were performed in BAT of 2- and 18-month-old lean (CT) female mice and in 18-month-old diet-induced obese (DIO) mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD), or a DHA-enriched HFD. Aging downregulated Prdm16 and UCP1 levels, especially in DIO mice, while DHA partially restored them. Arachidonic acid (AA)-derived LXs and DHA-derived MaRs and PDs were the most abundant SPMs in BAT of young CT mice. Interestingly, the sum of LXs and of PDs were significantly lower in aged DIO mice compared to young CT mice. Some of the SPMs most significantly reduced in obese-aged mice included LXB4, MaR2, 4S,14S-diHDHA, 10S,17S-diHDHA (a.k.a. PDX), and RvD6. In contrast, DHA increased DHA-derived SPMs, without modifying LXs. However, MicroPET studies showed that DHA was not able to counteract the impaired cold exposure response in BAT of obese-aged mice. Our data suggest that a defective SPMs production could underlie the decrease of BAT activity observed in obese-aged mice, and highlight the relevance to further characterize the physiological role and therapeutic potential of specific SPMs on BAT development and function.
  • Autores: Graham, C. A. M. (Autor de correspondencia); Pilic, L.; King, A.; et al.
    Revista: FOOD QUALITY AND PREFERENCE
    ISSN: 0950-3293 Vol.92 2021 págs. 104202
    Resumen
    Over the past decade, a potential sixth taste, fat taste ("oleogustus"), has been identified. Studies in adults and children of various ethnicities have demonstrated that both lifestyle and genetic factors may contribute to fat taste sensitivity (FTS). Data on females in the UK is limited. The aim of this study was to determine, using an ethnically similar, healthy, female cohort, whether known genotypes related to fat taste and dietary intake lead to differences in FTS. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a UK cohort of Caucasian females (32.7 +/- 11.4 years, 23.7 +/- 3.6 kg/m2). We report that FTS differed in individuals with differing genotypes; genotypes that have previously been associated with differences in dietary intake. Specifically, FTS was lower in rs1514175 Troponin I-Interacting Protein Kinase (TNNI3K) gene AA/AG genotype and was higher in rs6265 Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) gene TT/CT genotype (both p < 0.05). We also report that participants in the rs1514175 TNNI3K AA/AG genotype group had a higher energy intake, total fat intake, and subsequently, higher monounsaturated fat and saturated fat intake when compared to the GG genotype (all p < 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first study showing associations between genotypes that have been previously associated to dietary intake are also associated to FTS. Due to the heterogeneity of previous research and the infancy of fat taste research, further research is required on a larger, ethnically similar cohort.
  • Autores: Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Aranaz Oroz, Paula; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.13 N° 8 2021
    Resumen
    Ultra-processed foods (UPFs) consumption could affect gut microbiota diversity and profile. We aimed to evaluate the effects of UPFs on microbiota, considering the role of sex. The consumption of UPFs (using NOVA criteria) was assessed with a validated 137-item food-frequency questionnaire. Participants (n = 359) were classified into less than three servings per day (n = 96) of UPFs and more than five (n = 90). Women and men were subclassified following the same criteria. 16S rRNA sequencing was performed from DNA fecal samples, and differences in microbiota were analyzed using EdgeR. The relationship between UPFs and bacteria was assessed by Spearman correlation and comparison of tertiles of consumption. Women who consumed more than five servings/day of UPFs presented an increase in Acidaminococcus, Butyrivibrio, Gemmiger, Shigella, Anaerofilum, Parabacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Enterobacteriales, Bifidobacteriales and Actinobacteria and a decrease in Melainabacter and Lachnospira. Bifidobacterium, Bifidobacteriales and Actinobacteria was positively associated with pizza and Actinobacteria with industrially processed dairy in women. Men who consumed more than five servings/day presented an increase of Granulicatella, Blautia, Carnobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Bacteroidia and Bacteroidetes and a decrease of Anaerostipes and Clostridiaceae. Bacteroidia and Bacteroidetes correlated positively with industrially processed meat. This study suggests that UPFs may affect microbiota composition differently in women and men.
  • Autores: Rivera, K.; Quinones, V.; Amigo, L.; et al.
    Revista: BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR AND CELL BIOLOGY OF LIPIDS
    ISSN: 1388-1981 Vol.1866 N° 6 2021 págs. 158909
    Resumen
    Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) is a membrane lipoprotein receptor/lipid transporter involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, but its role in obesity and fatty liver development is unclear. Here, we determined the effects of SR-B1 deficiency on plasma metabolic and inflammatory parameters as well as fat deposition in adipose tissue and liver during obesity. To induce obesity, we performed high-fat diet (HFD) exposure for 12 weeks in male SR-B1 knock-out (SR-B1(-/-), n = 14) and wild-type (WT, n = 12) mice. Compared to HFD-fed WT mice, plasma from HFD-fed SR-B1(-/-) animals exhibited increased total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels. In addition, hypertrophied adipocytes and macrophage-containing crown-like structures (CLS) were observed in adipose tissue from HFD-fed SR-B1 deficient mice. Remarkably, liver from obese SR-B1(-/-) mice showed attenuated TG content, dysregulation in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) expression, increased hepatic TG secretion, and altered hepatic fatty acid (FA) composition. In conclusion, we show that SR-B1 deficiency alters the metabolic environment of obese mice through modulation of liver and adipose tissue lipid accumulation. Our findings provide the basis for further elucidation of SR-B1's role in obesity and fatty liver, two major public health issues that increase the risk of advanced chronic diseases and overall mortality.
  • Autores: Benito, I.; Encio, I. J.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
    ISSN: 1422-0067 Vol.22 N° 9 2021 págs. 4906
    Resumen
    Recent studies have suggested that flavonoids such as quercetin and probiotics such as Bifidobacterium bifidum (Bf) and Lactobacillus gasseri (Lg) could play a relevant role in inhibiting colon cancer cell growth. Our study investigated the role of dietary supplementation with microencapsulated probiotics (Bf and Lg) along with quercetin in the development of mouse colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Adenomatous polyposis coli/multiple intestinal neoplasia (Apc(Min/+)) mice were fed a standard diet or the same diet supplemented with microencapsulated probiotics (Bf and Lg strains, 10(7) CFU/100 g food) or both probiotics strains plus microencapsulated quercetin (15 mg/100 g food) for 73 days. Changes in body and organ weights, energy metabolism, intestinal microbiota, and colon tissue were determined. The expression of genes related to the Wnt pathway was also analyzed in colon samples. Results: Dietary supplementation with microencapsulated probiotics or microencapsulated probiotics plus quercetin reduced body weight loss and intestinal bleeding in Apc(Min/+) mice. An improvement in energy expenditure was observed after 8 weeks but not after 10 weeks of treatment. A supplemented diet with microencapsulated Bf and Lg reduced the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and adenomas by 45% and 60%, respectively, whereas the supplementation with Bf, Lg and quercetin decreased the number of ACF and adenomas by 57% and 80%, respectively. Microencapsulated Bf and Lg in combination with q
  • Autores: López-Pascual, A.; Trayhurn, P.; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
    Revista: ANTIOXIDANTS AND REDOX SIGNALING
    ISSN: 1523-0864 Vol.35 N° 8 2021 págs. 642 - 687
    Resumen
    Significance: In recent years, a number of studies have shown altered oxygen partial pressure at a tissue level in metabolic disorders, and some researchers have considered oxygen to be a (macro) nutrient. Oxygen availability may be compromised in obesity and several other metabolism-related pathological conditions, including sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome, the metabolic syndrome (which is a set of conditions), type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Recent Advances: Strategies designed to reduce adiposity and its accompanying disorders have been mainly centered on nutritional interventions and physical activity programs. However, novel therapies are needed since these approaches have not been sufficient to counteract the worldwide increasing rates of metabolic disorders. In this regard, intermittent hypoxia training and hyperoxia could be potential treatments through oxygen-related adaptations. Moreover, living at a high altitude may have a protective effect against the development of abnormal metabolic conditions. In addition, oxygen delivery systems may be of therapeutic value for supplying the tissue-specific oxygen requirements. Critical Issues: Precise in vivo methods to measure oxygenation are vital to disentangle some of the controversies related to this research area. Further, it is evident that there is a growing need for novel in vitro models to study the potential pathways involved in metabolic dysfunction to find appropriate therapeutic targets. Future Directions: Based on the existing evidence, it is suggested that oxygen availability has a key role in obesity and its related comorbidities. Oxygen should be considered in relation to potential therapeutic strategies in the treatment and prevention of metabolic disorders.
  • Autores: López-González, L.; Becerra-Tomás, N. (Autor de correspondencia); Babio, N. (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0261-5614 Vol.40 N° 4 2021 págs. 1510 - 1518
    Resumen
    Background and aims: Previous studies, mainly focused on quantity rather than variety, have shown beneficial associations between the amount of fruit and vegetable consumed, diet quality and healthy lifestyle. The aim is to evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable consumption, diet quality and lifestyle in an elderly Mediterranean population, considering both variety and the combination of quantity and variety (QV). Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 6647 participants (51.6% of males) was conducted in the framework of the PREDIMED-Plus study. A variety score was created as the sum of vegetables and/or fruits consumed at least once per month using food frequency questionnaires. Dietary Reference Intakes (EAR and IA values) were used to estimate the prevalence of inadequate intake of dietary fiber and micro nutrients. Logistic regression models were performed to examine the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and not meeting the DRIs, by tertiles of fruit and vegetable variety and QV categories. Results: Participants with higher fruit and vegetable variety score reported a significant higher intake of fiber, vitamins, minerals and flavonoids and were significantly more likely to be physically active and non-smoker. Besides, higher variety in fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with lower prevalence of having an inadequate intake of fiber [(0.13 (0.11-0.16)], two or more [(0.17 (0.14-0.21)], three or more [(0.15 (0.13-0.18)] and four or more [(0.11 (0.10-0.14)] micronutrients in our participants. Higher quantity and variety in fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with lower prevalence of having an inadequate intake of fiber [(0.05 (0.04-0.06)], two or more [(0.08 (0.06-0.10)], three or more [(0.08 (0.06-0.09)] and four or more [(0.06 (0.05-0.07)] micronutrients. Conclusion: Greater variety in fruit and vegetable intake was associated with better nutrient adequacy, diet quality and healthier lifestyle in an elderly Mediterranean population.
  • Autores: Pérez Díaz Del Campo, Nuria; Marin-Alejandre, B. A.; Cantero González, Irene; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN: 1436-6207 Vol.60 N° 6 2021 págs. 3043 - 3057
    Resumen
    Purpose Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is worldwide recognized as the most common cause of chronic liver disease. Current NAFLD clinical management relies on lifestyle change, nevertheless, the importance of the genetic make-up on liver damage and the possible interactions with diet are still poorly understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the SH2B1 rs7359397 genetic variant on changes in body composition, metabolic status and liver health after 6-month energy-restricted treatment in overweight/obese subjects with NAFLD. In addition, gene-treatment interactions over the course of the intervention were examined. Methods The SH2B1 genetic variant was genotyped in 86 overweight/obese subjects with NAFLD from the FLiO study (Fatty Liver in Obesity study). Subjects were metabolically evaluated at baseline and at 6-months. Liver assessment included ultrasonography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, elastography, a lipidomic test (OWL(R)-test) and specific blood liver biomarkers. Additionally, body composition, general biochemical markers and dietary intake were determined. Results Both genotypes significantly improved their body composition, general metabolic status and liver health after following an energy-restricted strategy. Liver imaging techniques showed a greater decrease in liver fat content (- 44.3%, p < 0.001) and in serum ferritin levels (p < 0.001) in the carriers of the T allele after the intervention. Moreover, lipidomic analysis, revealed a higher improvement in liver status when comparing risk vs. no-risk genotype (p = 0.006 vs. p = 0.926, respectively). Gene-treatment interactions showed an increase in fiber intake and omega-3 fatty acid in risk genotype (p interaction = 0.056 and p interaction = 0.053, respectively), while a significant increase in MedDiet score was observed in both genotype groups (p = 0.020). Moreover, no-risk genotype presented a relevant decrease in hepatic iron as well as in MUFA intake (p = 0.047 and p = 0.034, respectively). Conclusion Subjects carrying the T allele of the rs7359397 polymorphism may benefit more in terms of hepatic health and liver status when prescribed an energy-restricted treatment, where a Mediterranean dietary pattern rich in fiber and other components such as omega-3 fatty acids might boost the benefits.
  • Autores: Garcia Garcia, Jorge; Ansorena Artieda, Eduardo; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
    ISSN: 1422-0067 Vol.22 N° 5 2021 págs. 2729
    Resumen
    Obesity is a global health issue associated with insulin resistance and altered lipid homeostasis. It has been described that reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) activity are involved in the development of these pathologies. The present study describes the role of endothelial NOX5 expression over adipose tissue by using two experimental systems: NOX5 conditional knock-in mice fed with a high-fat diet and 3T3-L1 adipocytes cultured with conditioned media of NOX5-expressing endothelial cells previously treated with glucose and palmitic acid. Animals expressing NOX5 presented lower body weight gain and less mesenteric and epididymal adipose mass compared to control mice fed with the same diet. NOX5-expressing mice also showed significantly lower glycaemia and improved insulin-induced glucose uptake. In addition, Glut4 and Caveolin 1 (Cav1) expression were significantly increased in the adipose tissue of these animals. Likewise, 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with conditioned media from NOX5-expressing endothelial cells, incubated with high glucose and palmitic acid, presented a reduction in lipid accumulation and an increase in glucose uptake. Moreover, a significant increase in the expression of Glut4 and Cav1 was also detected in these cells. Taken together, all these data support that, in response to a highly caloric diet, NOX5 endothelial activity may regulate glucose sensitivity and lipid homeostasis in the adipose tissue.
  • Autores: Marin, B. A.; Cantero González, Irene; Pérez Díaz Del Campo, Nuria; et al.
    Revista: LIVER INTERNATIONAL
    ISSN: 1478-3223 Vol.41 N° 7 2021 págs. 1532 - 1544
    Resumen
    Background and objectives Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) management is focused on lifestyle modifications, but long-term maintenance is a challenge for many individuals. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects of two personalized energy-restricted dietary strategies on weight loss, metabolic and hepatic outcomes in overweight/obese subjects with NAFLD. Methods Ninety-eight subjects from the Fatty Liver in Obesity (FLiO) study (NCT03183193) were randomly assigned to the American Heart Association (AHA) or the FLiO dietary group in a 2-year controlled trial. Anthropometry, body composition (DXA), biochemical parameters and hepatic status (ultrasonography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and elastography) were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months. Results Both the AHA and FLiO diets significantly reduced body weight at 6 (-9.7% vs -10.1%), 12 (-6.7% vs -9.6%), and 24 months (-4.8% vs -7.6%) with significant improvements in body composition, biochemical and liver determinations throughout the intervention. At the end of the follow-up, the FLiO group showed a greater decrease in ALT, liver stiffness and Fatty Liver Index, among others, compared to AHA group, although these differences were attenuated when the analyses were adjusted by weight loss percentage. The FLiO group also showed a greater increase in adiponectin compared to AHA group. Conclusions The AHA and FLiO diets were able to improve body weight and body composition, as well as metabolic and hepatic status of participants with overweight/obesity and NAFLD within a 2-year follow-up. These findings show that both strategies are suitable alternatives for NAFLD management. However, the FLiO strategy may provide more persistent benefits in metabolic and hepatic parameters.
  • Autores: Navas Carretero, Santiago (Autor de correspondencia); San Cristóbal Blanco, Rodrigo; Alvarez Alvarez, Ismael; et al.
    Revista: LIFESTYLE GENOMICS
    ISSN: 2504-3161 Vol.14 N° 3 2021 págs. 63 - 72
    Resumen
    Abstract Introduction: Carbohydrate intake and physical activity are related to glucose homeostasis, both being influenced by individual genetic makeup. However, the interactions between these 2 factors, as affected by genetics, on glycaemia have been scarcely reported. Objective: We focused on analysing the interplay between carbohydrate intake and physical activity levels on blood glucose, taking into account a genetic risk score (GRS), based on SNPs related to glucose/energy metabolism. Methods: A total of 1,271 individuals from the Food4Me cohort, who completed the nutritional intervention, were evaluated at baseline. We collected dietary information by using an online-validated food frequency questionnaire, a questionnaire on physical activity, blood biochemistry by analysis of dried blood spots, and by analysis of selected SNPs. Fifteen out of 31 SNPs, with recognized participation in carbohydrate/energy metabolism, were included in the component analyses. The GRS included risk alleles involved in the control of glycaemia or energy-yielding processes. Results: Data concerning anthropometric, clinical, metabolic, dietary intake, physical activity, and genetics related to blood glucose levels showed expected trends in European individuals of comparable sex and age, being categorized by lifestyle, BMI, and energy/carbohydrate intakes, in this Food4Me population. Blood glucose was inversely associated with physical activity level (ß = -0.041, p = 0.013) and positively correlated with the GRS values (ß = 0.015, p = 0.047). Interestingly, an interaction affecting glycaemia, concerning physical activity level with carbohydrate intake, was found (ß = -0.060, p = 0.033), which also significantly depended on the genetic background (GRS). Conclusions: The relationships of carbohydrate intake and physical activity are important in understanding glucose homeostasis, where a role for the genetic background should be ascribed.
  • Autores: Appleton, K. M.; Newbury, A.; Almirón Roig, Eva (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: OBESITY REVIEWS
    ISSN: 1467-7881 Vol.22 N° 8 2021
    Resumen
    This systematic review with meta-analyses aimed to identify the sensory and physical characteristics of foods/beverages which increase satiation and/or decrease/delay subsequent consumption without affecting acceptability. Systematic searches were first undertaken to identify review articles investigating the effects of any sensory and physical food characteristic on food intake. These articles provided some evidence that various textural parameters (aeration, hardness, homogeneity, viscosity, physical form, added water) can impact food intake. Individual studies investigating these effects while also investigating acceptability were then assessed. Thirty-seven individual studies investigated a textural manipulation and provided results on food intake and acceptability, 13 studies (27 comparisons, 898 participants) investigated effects on satiation, and 29 studies (54 comparisons, 916 participants) investigated effects on subsequent intake. Meta-analyses of within-subjects comparisons (random-effects models) demonstrated greater satiation (less weight consumed) from food products that were harder, chunkier, more viscous, voluminous, and/or solid, while demonstrating no effects on acceptability. Textural parameters had limited effects on subsequent consumption. Between-subjects studies and sensitivity analyses confirmed these results. These findings provide some evidence that textural parameters can increase satiation without affecting acceptability. The development of harder, chunkier, more viscous, voluminous, and/or solid food/beverage products may be of value in reducing overconsumption.
  • Autores: Aranaz Oroz, Paula; Ramos-Lopez, O.; Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY
    ISSN: 0307-0565 Vol.45 N° 10 2021 págs. 0307-0565
    Resumen
    Background and aim Fecal microbiome disturbances are linked to different human diseases. In the case of obesity, gut microbiota seems to play a role in the development of low-grade inflammation. The purpose of the present study was to identify specific bacterial families and genera associated with an increased obesity-related inflammatory status, which would allow to build a regression model for the prediction of the inflammatory status of obese and overweight subjects based on fecal microorganisms. Methods A total of 361 volunteers from the Obekit trial (65 normal-weight, 110 overweight, and 186 obese) were classified according to four variables: waist/hip ratio (>= 0.86 for women and >= 1.00 for men), leptin/adiponectin ratio (LAR, >= 3.0 for women and >= 1.4 for men), and plasma C-reactive protein (>= 2 mg/L) and TNF levels (>= 0.85 pg/mL). An inflammation score was designed to classify individuals in low (those subjects who did exceed the threshold value in 0 or 1 variable) or high inflammatory index (those subjects who did exceed the threshold value in 2 or more variables). Fecal 16 S rRNA sequencing was performed for all participants, and differential abundance analyses for family and genera were performed using the MicrobiomeAnalyst web-based platform. Results Methanobacteriaceae, Christensenellaceae, Coriobacteriaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, Catabacteriaceae, and Dehalobacteriaceae families, and Methanobrevibacter, Eggerthella, Gemmiger, Anaerostipes, and Collinsella gen
  • Autores: Rosés, C.; Nieto, J. A.; Viadel, B.; et al.
    Revista: FOODS
    ISSN: 2304-8158 Vol.10 N° 12 2021 págs. 3020
    Resumen
    The gut microbiota plays a key role in gastrointestinal immune and metabolic functions and is influenced by dietary composition. An in vitro protocol simulating the physiological conditions of the digestive system helps to study the effects of foods/biocompounds on gut microbiome and metabolome. The Dynamic-Colonic Gastrointestinal Digester consists of five interconnected compartments, double jacket vessels that simulate the physiological conditions of the stomach, the small intestine and the three colonic sections, which are the ascending colon, transverse colon and descending colon. Human faeces are required to reproduce the conditions and culture medium of the human colon, allowing the growth of the intestinal microbiota. After a stabilization period of 12 days, a food/biocompound can be introduced to study its modulatory effects during the next 14 days (treatment period). At the end of the stabilization and treatment period, samples taken from the colon compartments are analysed. The 16S rRNA gene analysis reveals the microbiota composition. The untargeted metabolomics analysis gives more than 10,000 features (metabolites/compounds). The present protocol allows in vitro testing of the modulatory effects of foods or biocompounds on gut microbiota composition and metabolic activity.
  • Autores: Galarregui Miquelarena, Cristina; Navas Carretero, Santiago; González Navarro, Carlos Javier; et al.
    Revista: FOOD & FUNCTION
    ISSN: 2042-6496 Vol.12 N° 14 2021 págs. 6540 - 6548
    Resumen
    Introduction: Postprandial hyperglycemia is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance (IR) might affect metabolic responses in non-fasting states. Dietary intake and food composition influence postprandial glucose homeostasis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of different test foods varying in the macronutrient composition on postprandial glycemic responses and whether these outcomes are conditioned by the basal glycemic status in senior subjects. Methods: In a randomized, controlled crossover design, thirty-four adults consumed a test food, a high protein product (n = 19) or a high carbohydrate (CHO) product (n = 15), using the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as a reference. Blood glucose and insulin were measured at fasting and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after starting the food intake. For each type of food, the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for glucose and insulin was calculated. IR was measured using the Homeostatic Model Assessment of IR (HOMA-IR). Results: Consumption of a high protein product significantly lowered the peak and Delta blood glucose concentrations compared to the high CHO product (p < 0.001). Concerning the insulin response, no significant differences between both foods were observed. Fasting glucose was positively correlated with the glucose iAUC only for the high protein product. Positive associations of both fasting insulin and HOMA-IR with the insulin iAUC for all the cases were observed. Linear regression models showed significant positive associations between the glucose iAUC and fasting glucose after adjusting for age and sex. Regarding the insulin iAUC, positive associations were found with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. Regression models also evidenced that both food test consumptions were able to decrease the glucose and insulin iAUC values when compared with the OGTT product. Conclusion: Our research found that not only is the nutritional composition of foods important, but also the baseline glycemic state of individuals when assessing glycemic index estimations and addressing precision nutritional strategies to prevent and treat IR-associated disturbances.
  • Autores: Zhu, R. X. ; Larsen, T. M. ; Fogelholm, M.; et al.
    Revista: DIABETES CARE
    ISSN: 0149-5992 Vol.44 N° 7 2021 págs. 1672 - 1681
    Resumen
    OBJECTIVE To examine longitudinal and dose-dependent associations of dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and fiber with body weight and glycemic status during 3-year weight loss maintenance (WLM) in adults at high risk of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this secondary analysis we used pooled data from the PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle Intervention and population studies in Europe and around the World (PREVIEW) randomized controlled trial, which was designed to test the effects of four diet and physical activity interventions. A total of 1,279 participants with overweight or obesity (age 25-70 years and BMI >= 25 kg . m(-2)) and prediabetes at baseline were included. We used multiadjusted linear mixed models with repeated measurements to assess longitudinal and dose-dependent associations by merging the participants into one group and dividing them into GI, GL, and fiber tertiles, respectively. RESULTS In the available-case analysis, each 10-unit increment in GI was associated with a greater regain of weight (0.46 kg . year(-1); 95% CI 0.23, 0.68; P < 0.001) and increase in HbA(1c). Each 20-unit increment in GL was associated with a greater regain of weight (0.49 kg . year(-1); 0.24, 0.75; P < 0.001) and increase in HbA(1c). The associations of GI and GL with HbA(1c) were independent of weight change. Compared with those in the lowest tertiles, participants in the highest GI and GL tertiles had significantly greater weight regain and increases in HbA(1c). Fiber was inversely associated with increases in waist circumference, but the associations with weight regain and glycemic status did not remain robust in different analyses. CONCLUSIONS Dietary GI and GL were positively associated with weight regain and deteriorating glycemic status. Stronger evidence on the role of fiber is needed.
  • Autores: Crujeiras, A. B.; Izquierdo, A. G.; Primo, D.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0261-5614 Vol.40 N° 6 2021 págs. 3959 - 3972
    Resumen
    Background: The molecular mechanisms underlying the potential health benefits of a ketogenic diet are unknown and could be mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. Objective: To identify the changes in the obesity-related methylome that are mediated by the induced weight loss or are dependent on ketosis in subjects with obesity underwent a very-low calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD). Methods: Twenty-one patients with obesity (n = 12 women, 47.9 +/- 1.02 yr, 33.0 +/- 0.2 kg/m(2)) after 6 months on a VLCKD and 12 normal weight volunteers (n = 6 women, 50.3 +/- 6.2 yrs, 22.7 +/- 1.5 kg/m(2)) were studied. Data from the Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip methylomes of blood leukocytes were obtained at time points of ketotic phases (basal, maximum ketosis, and out of ketosis) during VLCKD (n = 10) and at baseline in volunteers (n = 12). Results were further validated by pyrosequencing in representative cohort of patients on a VLCKD (n = 18) and correlated with gene expression. Results: After weight reduction by VLCKD, differences were found at 988 CpG sites (786 unique genes). The VLCKD altered methylation levels in patients with obesity had high resemblance with those from normal weight volunteers and was concomitant with a downregulation of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT)1, 3a and 3b. Most of the encoded genes were involved in metabolic processes, protein metabolism, and muscle, organ, and skeletal system development. Novel genes representing the top scoring associated events were identified, including ZNF331, FGFRL1 (VLCKD-induced weight loss) and CBFA2T3, C3orf38, JSRP1, and LRFN4 (VLCKD-induced ketosis). Interestingly, ZNF331 and FGFRL1 were validated in an independent cohort and inversely correlated with gene expression. Conclusions: The beneficial effects of VLCKD therapy on obesity involve a methylome more suggestive of normal weight that could be mainly mediated by the VLCKD-induced ketosis rather than weight loss. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • Autores: Aranaz Oroz, Paula; Peña, A.; Vettorazzi Armental, Ariane; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.13 N° 11 2021 págs. 3968
    Resumen
    In recent years, food ingredients rich in bioactive compounds have emerged as candidates to prevent excess adiposity and other metabolic complications characteristic of obesity, such as low-grade inflammation and oxidative status. Among them, fungi have gained popularity for their high polysaccharide content and other bioactive components with beneficial activities. Here, we use the C. elegans model to investigate the potential activities of a Grifola frondosa extract (GE), together with the underlying mechanisms of action. Our study revealed that GE represents an important source of polysaccharides and phenolic compounds with in vitro antioxidant activity. Treatment with our GE extract, which was found to be nongenotoxic through a SOS/umu test, significantly reduced the fat content of C. elegans, decreased the production of intracellular ROS and aging-lipofuscin pigment, and increased the lifespan of nematodes. Gene expression and mutant analyses demonstrated that the in vivo anti-obesity and antioxidant activities of GE were mediated through the daf-2/daf-16 and skn-1/nrf-2 signalling pathways, respectively. Taken together, our results suggest that our GE extract could be considered a potential functional ingredient for the prevention of obesity-related disturbances.
  • Autores: Marhuenda-Muñoz, M.; Rinaldi de Alvarenga, J. F.; Hernáez, A.; et al.
    Revista: ANTIOXIDANTS
    ISSN: 2076-3921 Vol.10 N° 3 2021 págs. 473
    Resumen
    Carotenoids are pigments contained mainly in fruit and vegetables (F&V) that have beneficial effects on cardiometabolic health. Due to their lipophilic nature, co-ingestion of fat appears to increase their bioavailability via facilitating transfer to the aqueous micellar phase during digestion. However, the extent to which high fat intake may contribute to increased carotenoid plasma concentrations is still unclear. The objective was to examine the degree to which the consumption of different amounts of both carotenoid-rich foods and fats is associated with plasma carotenoid concentrations within a Mediterranean lifestyle context (subsample from the PREDIMED-Plus study baseline) where consumption of F&V and fat is high. The study population was categorized into four groups according to their self-reported consumption of F&V and fat. Carotenoids were extracted from plasma samples and analyzed by HPLC-UV-VIS-QqQ-MS/MS. Carotenoid systemic concentrations were greater in high consumers of F&V than in low consumers of these foods (+3.04 mu mol/L (95% CI: 0.90, 5.17), p-value = 0.005), but circulating concentrations seemed to decrease when total fat intake was very high (-2.69 mu mol/L (-5.54; 0.16), p-value = 0.064). High consumption of F&V is associated with greater systemic levels of total carotenoids, in particular when fat intake is low-to-moderate rather than very high.
  • Autores: Colón Mesa, Ignacio; Fernández Galilea, Marta; Sáinz Amillo, Neira; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
    ISSN: 1661-6596 Vol.22 N° 21 2021 págs. 11745
    Resumen
    Aging usually comes associated with increased visceral fat accumulation, reaching even an obesity state, and favoring its associated comorbidities. One of the processes involved in aging is cellular senescence, which is highly dependent on the activity of the regulators of the cell cycle. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in the expression of p27 and cdk2 in different adipose tissue depots during aging, as well as their regulation by obesity in mice. Changes in the expression of p27 and CDK2 in visceral and subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) biopsies were also analyzed in a human cohort of obesity and type 2 diabetes. p27, but not cdk2, exhibits a lower expression in subcutaneous than in visceral WAT in mice and humans. p27 is drastically downregulated by aging in subcutaneous WAT (scWAT), but not in gonadal WAT, of female mice. Obesity upregulates p27 and cdk2 expression in scWAT, but not in other fat depots of aged mice. In humans, a significant upregulation of p27 was observed in visceral WAT of subjects with obesity. Taken together, these results show a differential adipose depot-dependent regulation of p27 and cdk2 in aging and obesity, suggesting that p27 and cdk2 could contribute to the adipose-tissue depot's metabolic differences. Further studies are necessary to fully corroborate this hypothesis.
  • Autores: Brotons Cantó, Ana (Autor de correspondencia); González Navarro, Carlos Javier; Gil Royo, Ana Gloria; et al.
    Revista: PHARMACEUTICS
    ISSN: 1999-4923 Vol.13 N° 3 2021 págs. 361
    Resumen
    Curcumin is a natural compound obtained from turmeric root with high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, clinical application of curcumin has been limited due to its low solubility and bioavailability and rapid metabolism and degradation. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of curcumin incorporation in zein nanoparticles on the pharmacokinetic parameters of systemic curcumin in plasma. Wistar rats were administered a single oral dose of 250 mg/kg of standard curcumin (control) or nanocurcumin (zein-based nanoparticles, Nucaps). The proposed new formulation was also compared with two commercially available curcumin complexes. Blood samples were collected at different times, and plasma levels were determined using HPLC-MS/MS. Overall, nanocurcumin (Nucaps) formulation was well tolerated and showed a 9-fold increase in oral bioavailability when compared to the standard curcumin natural extract. In addition, the nanoparticles prepared in this study demonstrated a bioavailability profile superior to that of other bioavailability-enhanced curcumin complexes currently available in the marketplace. Thus, our nanoparticle-based formulation has shown great potential as a nutraceutical for the oral administration of curcumin.
  • Autores: Félix Soriano, Elisa; Martínez Gayo, Alejandro; Cobo Díez, María José; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.13 N° 7 2021 págs. 2465
    Resumen
    Resistance training (RT) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) supplementation have emerged as strategies to improve muscle function in older adults. Overweight/obese postmenopausal women (55-70 years) were randomly allocated to one of four experimental groups, receiving placebo (olive oil) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich n-3 PUFA supplementation alone or in combination with a supervised RT-program for 16 weeks. At baseline and at end of the trial, body composition, anthropometrical measures, blood pressure and serum glucose and lipid biomarkers were analyzed. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and strength tests were also performed. All groups exhibit a similar moderate reduction in body weight and fat mass, but the RT-groups maintained bone mineral content, increased upper limbs lean mass, decreased lower limbs fat mass, and increased muscle strength and quality compared to untrained-groups. The RT-program also improved glucose tolerance (lowering the OGTT incremental area under the curve). The DHA-rich supplementation lowered diastolic blood pressure and circulating triglycerides and increased muscle quality in lower limbs. In conclusion, 16-week RT-program improved segmented body composition, bone mineral content, and glucose tolerance, while the DHA-rich supplement had beneficial effects on cardiovascular health markers in overweight/obese postmenopausal women. No synergistic effects were observed for DHA supplementation and RT-program combination.
  • Autores: Yang, Guang Hua; Sáinz Amillo, Neira; Félix Soriano, Elisa; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.13 N° 2 2021 págs. 501
    Resumen
    Obesity and aging are associated to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development. Here, we investigate whether long-term feeding with a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched diet and aerobic exercise, alone or in combination, are effective in ameliorating NAFLD in aged obese mice. Two-month-old female C57BL/6J mice received control or high fat diet (HFD) for 4 months. Then, the diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were distributed into four groups: DIO, DIO + DHA (15% dietary lipids replaced by a DHA-rich concentrate), DIO + EX (treadmill running), and DIO + DHA + EX up to 18 months. The DHA-rich diet reduced liver steatosis in DIO mice, decreasing lipogenic genes (Dgat2, Scd1, Srebp1c), and upregulated lipid catabolism genes (Hsl/Acox) expression. A similar pattern was observed in the DIO + EX group. The combination of DHA + exercise potentiated an increase in Cpt1a and Ppara genes, and AMPK activation, key regulators of fatty acid oxidation. Exercise, alone or in combination with DHA, significantly reversed the induction of proinflammatory genes (Mcp1, Il6, Tnf¿, Tlr4) in DIO mice. DHA supplementation was effective in preventing the alterations induced by the HFD in endoplasmic reticulum stress-related genes (Ern1/Xbp1) and autophagy markers (LC3II/I ratio, p62, Atg7). In summary, long-term DHA supplementation and/or exercise could be helpful to delay NAFLD progression during aging in obesity.
  • Autores: Martínez Fernández, Leyre; González Muniesa, Pedro; Sáinz Amillo, Neira; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
    ISSN: 1138-7548 2021
    Resumen
    Maresin 1 (MaR1) is a DHA-derived pro-resolving lipid mediator. The present study aimed to characterize the ability of MaR1 to prevent the alterations induced by TNF-alpha on insulin actions in glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation in cultured human adipocytes from overweight/obese subjects, as well as to investigate the effects of MaR1 acute and chronic administration on Akt phosphorylation in absence/presence of insulin in white adipose tissue (WAT) and skeletal muscle from lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. MaR1 (0.1 nM) prevented the inhibitory effect of TNF-alpha on insulin-stimulated 2-Deoxy-D-glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation in human adipocytes. Acute treatment with MaR1 (50 mu g/kg, 3 h, i.p.) induced Akt phosphorylation in WAT and skeletal muscle of lean mice. However, MaR1 did not further increase the stimulatory effect of insulin on Akt activation. Interestingly, intragastric chronic treatment with MaR1 (50 mu g/kg, 10 days) in DIO mice reduced the hyperglycemia induced by the high fat diet (HFD) and improved systemic insulin sensitivity. In parallel, MaR1 partially restored the impaired insulin response in skeletal muscle of DIO mice and reversed HFD-induced lower Akt phosphorylation in WAT in non-insulin-stimulated DIO mice while did not restore the defective Akt activation in response to acute insulin observed in DIO mice. Our results suggest that MaR1 attenuates the impaired insulin signaling and glucose uptake induced by proinflammatory cytokines. Moreover, the current data support that MaR1 treatment could be useful to reduce the hyperglycemia and the insulin resistance associated to obesity, at least in part by improving Akt signaling.
  • Autores: Livingstone, K. M. ; Celis-Morales, C.; Navas Carretero, Santiago; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
    ISSN: 1479-5868 Vol.18 N° 1 2021 págs. 70
    Resumen
    Abstract Background: The effect of personalised nutrition advice on discretionary foods intake is unknown. To date, two national classifications for discretionary foods have been derived. This study examined changes in intake of discretionary foods and beverages following a personalised nutrition intervention using these two classifications. Methods: Participants were recruited into a 6-month RCT across seven European countries (Food4Me) and were randomised to receive generalised dietary advice (control) or one of three levels of personalised nutrition advice (based on diet [L1], phenotype [L2] and genotype [L3]). Dietary intake was derived from an FFQ. An analysis of covariance was used to determine intervention effects at month 6 between personalised nutrition (overall and by levels) and control on i) percentage energy from discretionary items and ii) percentage contribution of total fat, SFA, total sugars and salt to discretionary intake, defined by Food Standards Scotland (FSS) and Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADG) classifications. Results: Of the 1607 adults at baseline, n = 1270 (57% female) completed the intervention. Percentage sugars from FSS discretionary items was lower in personalised nutrition vs control (19.0 ± 0.37 vs 21.1 ± 0.65; P = 0.005). Percentage energy (31.2 ± 0.59 vs 32.7 ± 0.59; P = 0.031), percentage total fat (31.5 ± 0.37 vs 33.3 ± 0.65; P = 0.021), SFA (36.0 ± 0.43 vs 37.8 ± 0.75; P = 0.034) and sugars (31.7 ± 0.44 vs 34.7 ± 0.78; P < 0.001) from ADG discretionary items were lower in personalised nutrition vs control. There were greater reductions in ADG percentage energy and percentage total fat, SFA and salt for those randomised to L3 vs L2. Conclusions: Compared with generalised dietary advice, personalised nutrition advice achieved greater reductions in discretionary foods intake when the classification included all foods high in fat, added sugars and salt. Future personalised nutrition approaches may be used to target intake of discretionary foods.
  • Autores: Peluzio, M. D. G. (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio
    Revista: TRENDS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
    ISSN: 0924-2244 Vol.108 2021 págs. 11 - 26
    Resumen
    Background: The knowledge on the mechanisms through which the metabolites produced by the gut microbiota (postbiotics) prevent diseases, induce therapeutic responses, and behave differently in response to dietary and environmental changes, is one of the major challenges in nutrition research and paves the route for the development of new therapeutic strategies against non-communicable diseases. Scope and approach: In this review, the main mechanisms by which postbiotics provide a link between nutrition, microbiota, and human health are discussed. Postbiotics are the repertoire of metabolites produced in the fermentation process of dietary components (mainly fibers and polyphenols, but also complex carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), as well as the endogenous components generated by bacteria-host interactions that influence human health. Key findings and conclusions: Short-chain fatty acids denote a primary energy source for colonocytes, also acting on the gut-brain axis to reduce appetite and performing epigenetic roles. Polyamines promote homeostasis and affect epigenetic processes, apoptosis, and cell proliferation through interaction with proteins and nucleic acids. Bile acids are involved in glucose metabolism and modulation of the host immune response. p-Cresol features antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, but has been related to enteric pathogens, autism, and kidney diseases. The role of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in cardiovascular diseases is still under debate. Bacteriocins have antibiotic action against pathogens. The beneficial effects of polyphenols are demonstrated by their essentiality in the production of metabolites. Summarizing, metagenomic sequencing, intervention studies, and metabolomics are enabling to understand the modulation and effects of microbiota metabolic activity. However, in order to clearly elucidate the food-microbiota axis, the interplay among the host microbiota and the metabolites secreted by intestinal cells, and the intestine-liver-brain axis, the studies must be directed to the subject habitat.
  • Autores: Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; López Yoldi, Miguel; et al.
    Revista: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE NUTRICION HUMANA Y DIETETICA
    ISSN: 2173-1292 Vol.25 2021 págs. 20 - 21
  • Autores: Vintró-Alcaraz, C.; Baenas, I.; Lozano-Madrid, M.; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW
    ISSN: 1072-4133 Vol.29 N° 4 2021 págs. 575 - 587
    Resumen
    Goals To explore affective and cognitive status, later in life, in individuals with and without previous history of eating disorder (ED), and also its association with higher risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) symptomatology. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of 6756 adults, aged 55-75 years with overweight/obesity and MetS participating in the Predimed-Plus study was conducted. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires to examine lifetime history of ED, according to DSM-5 criteria, and other psychopathological and neurocognitive factors. Anthropometric and metabolic measurements were also collected. Results Of the whole sample, 24 individuals (0.35%) reported a previous history of ED. In this subsample, there were more women and singles compared to their counterparts, but they also presented higher levels of depressive symptoms and higher cognitive impairment, but also higher body mass index (BMI) and severe obesity, than those without lifetime ED. Conclusions This is one of the first studies to analyse the cognitive and metabolic impact of a previous history of ED. The results showed that previous ED was associated with greater affective and cognitive impairment, but also with higher BMI, later in life. No other MetS risk factors were found, after controlling for relevant variables.
  • Autores: Adam, T. C. (Autor de correspondencia); Drummen, M.; Macdonald, I. ; et al.
    Revista: DIABETES CARE
    ISSN: 0149-5992 Vol.44 N° 7 2021 págs. 1491 - 1498
    Resumen
    OBJECTIVE Stress, sleep, eating behavior, and physical activity are associated with weight change and insulin resistance (IR). The aim of this analysis was the assessment of the overall and sex-specific associations of psychobehavioral variables throughout the 3-year PREVIEW intervention using the homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), BMI, and length of time in the study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Associations of psychobehavioral variables, including stress, mood, eating behavior, physical activity (PA), and sleep, with BMI, HOMA-IR, and time spent in the study were assessed in 2,184 participants with prediabetes and overweight/obesity (n = 706 men; n = 1,478 women) during a 3-year lifestyle intervention using linear mixed modeling and general linear modeling. The study was a randomized multicenter trial using a 2 x 2 diet-by-PA design. RESULTS Overall, cognitive restraint and PA increased during the intervention compared with baseline, whereas BMI, HOMA-IR, disinhibition, hunger, and sleepiness decreased (all P < 0.05). Cognitive restraint and PA were negatively, whereas disinhibition, hunger, stress, and total mood disturbance were positively, associated with both BMI and HOMA-IR. Sleep duration, low sleep quality, total mood disturbance, disinhibition, and hunger scores were positively associated with HOMA-IR for men only. Participants who dropped out at 6 months had higher stress and total mood disturbance scores at baseline and throughout their time spent in the study compared with study completers. CONCLUSIONS Eating behavior and PA, control of stress, mood disturbance, and sleep characteristics were associated with BMI, HOMA-IR, and time spent in the study, with different effects in men and women during the PREVIEW lifestyle intervention study.
  • Autores: Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; Romo Hualde, Ana; Aranaz Oroz, Paula; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN: 1436-6207 2021
    Resumen
    Purpose Obesity has been related to intestinal dysbiosis and the modification of gut microbiota composition by dietary strategies becomes a promising strategy to help manage obesity. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of two weight-loss diets on the composition and functional profile of gut microbiota. Methods 55 men and 124 women with BMI > 25 kg/m(2) were randomly assigned to moderately high-protein (MHP) or low-fat (LF) diet. Differences in fecal bacteria abundance (based on 16 s rRNA sequencing) between before and after 4 months of calorie restriction was analyzed using EdgeR tool in MicrobiomeAnalyst platform. Bacterial functional profile was predicted using Tax4Fun and metagenomeSeq analysis. Significant KEGG Orthology (KO) terms were selected for the metabolomic study using chromatography. Results After the intervention, MHP-men showed a significant decrease in Negativicutes, Selenomonadales, Dielma and Dielma fastidiosa. LF-men showed a significant increase in Bacilli, Lactobacillales, Christensenellaceae, Peptococcaceae, and Streptococcaceae, Peptococcus, Streptococcus and Christensenella, Duncaniella dubosii_CP039396_93.49%, Roseburia sp_AB744234_98.96% and Alistipes inops_KJ572413_99.57%. MHP-women increased Pasteurellales, Phascolarctobacterium succinatutens, Ruthenibacterium lactatiformans_LR215981_99.55% and decreased in Phascolarctobacterium succinatutens_NR112902_99.56%. Finally, LF-women presented a significant decrease in Bacteroides clarus and Erysipelothrix inopinata_CP060715_84.4%. Surprisingly, no matching bacterial changes were found between these four groups. A total of 42 KO, 10 metabolic pathways and 107 related metabolites related were found implicated in these bacterial changes. Seven metabolites were confirmed in plasma. Conclusion Weight-loss-related-changes in gut microbiome composition and the functional profile occur in a sex- and diet-related manner, showing that women and men could differentially benefit from the consumption of MHP and LF diets.
  • Autores: Galarregui Miquelarena, Cristina; Cantero González, Irene; Marin-Alejandre, B. A.; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN: 1436-6207 Vol.60 N° 4 2021 págs. 1769 - 1780
    Resumen
    Purpose Identification of dietary factors involved in the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is relevant to the current epidemics of the disease. Dietary amino acids appear to play a key role in the onset and progression of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to analyze potential associations between specific dietary amino acids and variables related to glucose metabolism and hepatic status in adults with overweight/obesity and NAFLD. Methods One hundred and twelve individuals from the Fatty Liver in Obesity (FLiO) study were evaluated. Liver assessment was carried out by ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and analysis of biochemical parameters. Dietary amino acid intake (aromatic amino acids (AAA); branched-chain amino acids (BCAA); sulfur amino acids (SAA)) was estimated by means of a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. Results Higher consumption of these amino acids was associated with worse hepatic health. Multiple adjusted regression models confirmed that dietary AAA, BCAA and SAA were positively associated with liver fat content. AAA and BCAA were positively associated with liver iron concentration. Regarding ferritin levels, a positive association was found with BCAA. Dietary intake of these amino acids was positively correlated with glucose metabolism (glycated hemoglobin, triglyceride and glucose index) although the significance disappeared when potential confounders were included in the model.
  • Autores: Abbate, M.; Mascaró, C. M.; Montemayor, S.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE
    ISSN: 2077-0383 Vol.10 N° 8 2021 págs. 1717
    Resumen
    Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is early marked by kidney glomerular hyperfiltration. However, the association of NAFLD with kidney glomerular hyperfiltration has not been tested so far in adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Aims: To assess the relationship between NAFLD and kidney glomerular hyperfiltration in adults with MetS. Methods: The study included 154 participants aged 40-60 years with MetS and NAFLD diagnosed by ultrasound. NAFLD was confirmed by MRI in 109 subjects. Participants underwent anthropometric measurements, and biochemistry testing. Estimated GFR (eGFR) was calculated using the CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) formula; hyperfiltration was defined as eGFR >= 120 mL/min. Results: Participants with MRI-proven NAFLD showed a worse metabolic profile and higher levels of eGFR than those with no NAFLD. Presence of NAFLD and increased weight were independently associated with an increased probability of presenting hyperfiltration. Conclusions: The present study shows an association between kidney glomerular hyperfiltration and NAFLD in adults with MetS. Establishing an association between NAFLD and kidney glomerular hyperfiltration would help to earlier identify those patients at increased risk of CKD, who would benefit from an early intervention.
  • Autores: Lostao Crespo, María del Pilar; Loo, D. D.; Hernell, O.; et al.
    Revista: FUNCTION (OXFORD)
    ISSN: 2633-8823 Vol.2 N° 5 2021 págs. zqab040
    Resumen
    Glucose-galactose malabsorption (GGM) is due to mutations in the gene coding for the intestinal sodium glucose cotransporter SGLT1 (SLC5A1). Here we identify the rare variant Gln457Arg (Q457R) in a large pedigree of patients in the Vasterbotten County in Northern Sweden with the clinical phenotype of GGM. The functional effect of the Q457R mutation was determined in protein expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using biophysical and biochemical methods. The mutant failed to transport the specific SGLT1 sugar analog alpha-methyl-D-glucopyranoside (alphaMDG). Q457R SGLT1 was synthesized in amounts comparable to the wild-type (WT) transporter. SGLT1 charge measurements and freeze-fracture electron microscopy demonstrated that the mutant protein was inserted into the plasma membrane. Electrophysiological experiments, both steady-state and presteady-state, demonstrated that the mutant bound sugar with an affinity lower than the WT transporter. Together with our previous studies on Q457C and Q457E mutants, we established that the positive charge on Q457R prevented the translocation of sugar from the outward-facing to inward-facing conformation. This is contrary to other GGM cases where missense mutations caused defects in trafficking SGLT1 to the plasma membrane. Thirteen GGM patients are now added to the pedigree traced back to the late 17th century. The frequency of the Q457R variant in Vasterbotten County genomes, 0.0067, is higher than in the general Swedish population, 0.0015...
  • Autores: Pérez Díaz Del Campo, Nuria; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Marin-Alejandre, B. A.; et al.
    Revista: DIAGNOSTICS
    ISSN: 2075-4418 Vol.11 N° 6 2021 págs. 1083
    Resumen
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 25% of the global population. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex; available data reveal that genetics and ascribed interactions with environmental factors may play an important role in the development of this morbid condition. The purpose of this investigation was to assess genetic and non-genetic determinants putatively involved in the onset and progression of NAFLD after a 6-month weight loss nutritional treatment. A group of 86 overweight/obese subjects with NAFLD from the Fatty Liver in Obesity (FLiO) study were enrolled and metabolically evaluated at baseline and after 6 months. A pre-designed panel of 95 genetic variants related to obesity and weight loss was applied and analyzed. Three genetic risk scores (GRS) concerning the improvement on hepatic health evaluated by minimally invasive methods such as the fatty liver index (FLI) (GRS(FLI)), lipidomic-OWLiver(R)-test (GRS(OWL)) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (GRS(MRI)), were derived by adding the risk alleles genotypes. Body composition, liver injury-related markers and dietary intake were also monitored. Overall, 23 SNPs were independently associated with the change in FLI, 16 SNPs with OWLiver(R)-test and 8 SNPs with MRI, which were specific for every diagnosis tool. After adjusting for gender, age and other related predictors (insulin resistance, inflammatory biomarkers and dietary intake at baseline) the calculated GRS(FLI), GRS(OWL) and GRS(MRI) were major contributors of the improvement in hepatic status(.) Thus, fitted linear regression models showed a variance of 53% (adj. R-2 = 0.53) in hepatic functionality (FLI), 16% (adj. R-2 = 0.16) in lipidomic metabolism (OWLiver(R)-test) and 34% (adj. R-2 = 0.34) in liver fat content (MRI). These results demonstrate that three different genetic scores can be useful for the personalized management of NAFLD, whose treatment must rely on specific dietary recommendations guided by the measurement of specific genetic biomarkers.
  • Autores: Navas Carretero, Santiago (Autor de correspondencia); San Cristóbal Blanco, Rodrigo (Autor de correspondencia); Vestentoft, P. S.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN NUTRITION
    ISSN: 2296-861X Vol.8 2021 págs. 733697
    Resumen
    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of thromboembolism. We investigate the efficacy and safety of oral anticoagulation (OAC) therapy and explored the number needed to treat for net effect (NNTnet) of OAC in the Spanish cohort of the EURObservational Research Programme-AF (EORP-AF) Long-term General Registry. Methods The EORP-AF General Registry is a prospective, multicentre registry conducted in ESC countries, including consecutive AF patients. For the present analysis, we used the Spanish cohort, and the primary outcome was any thromboembolism (TE)/acute coronary syndrome (ACS)/cardiovascular death during the first year of follow-up. Results 729 AF patients were included (57.1% male, median age 75 [IQR 67-81] years, median CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc and HAS-BLED of 3 [IQR 2-5] and 2 [IQR 1-2], respectively). 548 (75.2%) patients received OAC alone (318 [43.6%] on VKAs and 230 [31.6%] on DOACs). After 1 year, the use of OAC alone showed lower rates of any TE/ACS/cardiovascular death (3.0%/year; p < 0.001) compared to other regimens, and non-use of OAC alone (HR 4.18, 95% CI 2.12-8.27) was independently associated with any TE/ACS/cardiovascular death. Balancing the effects of treatment, the NNTnet to provide an overall benefit of OAC therapy was 24. The proportion of patients on OAC increased at 1 year (87% to 88.1%), particularly on DOACs (33.6% to 39.9%) (p = 0.015), with low discontinuation rates. Conclusions In this contemporary cohort of AF patients, OAC therapy was associated with better clinical outcomes at 1 year and positive NNTnet. OAC use slightly increased during the follow-up, with low discontinuation rates and higher prescription of DOACs.
  • Autores: Konieczna, J.; Morey, M.; Abete Goñi, Itziar; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0261-5614 Vol.40 N° 6 2021 págs. 4290 - 4300
    Resumen
    Background & aims: Ultra-processed food and drink products (UPF) consumption has been associated with obesity and its-related comorbidities. Excess of visceral fat, which appears with increasing age, has been considered as the culprit contributing to adiposity-associated adverse health outcomes. However, none of previous studies elucidated the link between UPF and directly quantified adiposity and its distribution. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association between concurrent changes in UPF consumption and objectively assessed adiposity distribution. Methods: A subsample of 1485 PREDIMED-Plus participants (Spanish men and women aged 55-75 years with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome) underwent body composition measurements. Consumption of UPF at baseline, 6 and 12 months was evaluated using a validated 143-item semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. Food items (g/day) were categorized according to their degree of processing using NOVA system. Regional adiposity (visceral fat (in g) and android-to-gynoid fat & nbsp; ratio) and total fat mass (in g) at three time points were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorpti-ometry (DXA) and were normalized using sex-specific z-scores. The association of changes in UPF consumption, expressed as the percentage of total daily intake (daily g of UPF/total daily g of food and beverage intake*10 0), with adiposity changes was evaluated using linear mixed-effects models. Results: On average, the consumption of UPF accounted for 8.11% (SD 7.41%) of total daily intake (in grams) at baseline. In multivariable-adjusted model, 10% daily increment in consumption of UPF was associated with significantly (all p-values <0.05) greater accumulation of visceral fat (b 0.09 z-scores, 95% CI 0.05; 0.13), android-to-gynoid fat ratio (0.05, 0.00; 0.09) and total fat (0.09, 0.06; 0.13). Conclusion: A higher consumption of UPF was associated with greater age-related visceral and overall adiposity accumulation. Further studies are warranted to confirm these results in other populations and settings. Trial registration: The trial was registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial (ISRCTN: http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN89898870) with number 89898870 and registration date of 24 July 2014, retrospectively registered . (c) 2021 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved. ratio) and total fat mass (in g) at three time points were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and were normalized using sex-specific z-scores. The association of changes in UPF consumption, expressed as the percentage of total daily intake (daily g of UPF/total daily g of food and beverage intake*10 0), with adiposity changes was evaluated using linear mixed-effects models. Results: On average, the consumption of UPF accounted for 8.11% (SD 7.41%) of total daily intake (in grams) at baseline. In multivariable-adjusted model, 10% daily increment in consumption of UPF was associated with significantly (all p-values <0.05) greater accumulation of visceral fat (b 0.09 z-scores, 95% CI 0.05; 0.13), android-to-gynoid fat ratio (0.05, 0.00; 0.09) and total fat (0.09, 0.06; 0.13). Conclusion: A higher consumption of UPF was associated with greater age-related visceral and overall adiposity accumulation. Further studies are warranted to confirm these results in other populations and settings. Trial registration: The trial was registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Autores: Dorenbos, E.; Drummen, M.; Adam, T. ; et al.
    Revista: PEDIATRIC OBESITY
    ISSN: 2047-6310 Vol.16 2021 págs. e12702
    Resumen
    Background Pubertal insulin resistance (IR) is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus development in adolescents with overweight/obesity. Objectives The PREVIEW study was a randomized parallel trial assessing the change in IR, analyzed by Homeostatic Model Assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), at 2 years after randomization to a high protein vs a moderate protein diet in adolescents with overweight/obesity. It was hypothesized that a high protein/low glycaemic index diet would be superior in reducing IR compared to a medium protein/medium GI diet, in insulin resistant adolescents with overweight or obesity. Methods Adolescents with overweight/obesity and IR from the Netherlands, United Kingdom and Spain were randomized into a moderate protein/moderate GI (15/55/30En% protein/carbohydrate/fat, GI >= 56) or high protein/low GI (25/45/30En% protein/carbohydrate/fat, GI < 50) diet. Anthropometric and cardiometabolic parameters, puberty, dietary intake and physical activity (PA) were measured and effects on HOMA-IR were analyzed. Results 126 adolescents were included in this study (13.6 +/- 2.2 years, BMI z-score 3.04 +/- 0.66, HOMA-IR 3.48 +/- 2.28, HP n = 68, MP n = 58). At 2 years, changes in protein intake were not significantly different between timepoints or intervention groups and no effects of the intervention on IR were observed. The retention rate was 39%, while no compliance to the diets was observed. Conclusions The PREVIEW study observed no effect of a high protein/low GI diet on IR in adolescents with overweight/obesity and IR because of lack of feasibility, due to insufficient retention and dietary compliance after 2 years.
  • Autores: Abbate, M.; Mascaro, C. M. ; Montemayor, S.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.13 N° 2 2021 págs. 629
    Resumen
    To assess the efficacy of three lifestyle interventions on the reduction of liver fat content and metabolic syndrome (MetS), and whether such reductions would influence renal outcomes, we conducted a randomized controlled trial on 128 participants with MetS and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as well as available data on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin-to-creatine ratio (UACR). Patients were randomized in 1:1:1 ratio to either Conventional Diet, Mediterranean diet (MD)-high meal frequency, and MD-physical activity groups. Each intervention aimed at reducing caloric intake by 25%-30% of baseline intake and increase energy expenditure by 400 kcal/70 kg. Patients attended regular visits and were followed-up for 6 months. Increased albuminuria was present in 13.3% of patients, while 32.8% showed hyperfiltration. UACR reduction was associated with higher levels of UACR at baseline but not with changes in liver fat. eGFR decreased in patients presenting hyperfiltration at baseline and was associated with reduction in liver fat and insulin resistance, as well as with increase in energy expenditure (R-2 = 0.248, p = 0.006). No significant differences were observed between the three treatment groups. In patients with NAFLD and MetS, energy expenditure significantly reduced hepatic fat accumulation and insulin resistance, which reduced glomerular hyperfiltration. Increased albuminuria was reduced, but it was not associated with reduced liver fat.
  • Autores: Garcia-Ibanez, P.; Roses, C.; Agudelo, A.; et al.
    Revista: FOODS
    ISSN: 2304-8158 Vol.10 N° 5 2021 págs. 1038
    Resumen
    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the red cabbage extracts on the bioaccessibility of their isothiocyanates, and their effect on the intestinal microbiota using a dynamic model of human digestion treated with the gut microbiome of obese adults. The elicitation of red cabbage plants with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) duplicated the content of glucosinolates (GSLs) in the plant organs used for elaborating the encapsulated formula. The use of plasma membrane vesicles, according to a proper methodology and technology, showed a high retention of sulforaphane (SFN) and indol-3-carbinol (I3C) over the course of the 14-day digestion study. The microbiome was scarcely affected by the treatments in terms of microbiota composition or the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, but a 3 to 4-fold increase was observed in the production of butyric acid with the encapsulated extract treatment. Based on our pilot red cabbage extract study, the consumption of this extract, mainly encapsulated, may play a potential role in the management of obesity in adults.
  • Autores: Raben, A. ; Siig Vestentoft, P.; Brand-Miller, J. ; et al.
    Revista: DIABETES OBESITY AND METABOLISM
    ISSN: 1462-8902 Vol.23 N° 2 2021 págs. 324 - 337
    Resumen
    Aim: To compare the impact of two long-term weight-maintenance diets, a high protein (HP) and low glycaemic index (GI) diet versus a moderate protein (MP) and moderate GI diet, combined with either high intensity (HI) or moderate intensity physical activity (PA), on the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) after rapid weight loss. Materials and methods: A 3-year multicentre randomized trial in eight countries using a 2 x 2 diet-by-PA factorial design was conducted. Eight-week weight reduction was followed by a 3-year randomized weight-maintenance phase. In total, 2326 adults (age 25-70 years, body mass index ¿ 25 kg/m2 ) with prediabetes were enrolled. The primary endpoint was 3-year incidence of T2D analysed by diet treatment. Secondary outcomes included glucose, insulin, HbA1c and body weight. Results: The total number of T2D cases was 62 and the cumulative incidence rate was 3.1%, with no significant differences between the two diets, PA or their combination. T2D incidence was similar across intervention centres, irrespective of attrition. Significantly fewer participants achieved normoglycaemia in the HP compared with the MP group (P < .0001). At 3 years, normoglycaemia was lowest in HP-HI (11.9%) compared with the other three groups (20.0%-21.0%, P < .05). There were no group differences in body weight change (-11% after 8-week weight reduction; -5% after 3-year weight maintenance) or in other secondary outcomes. Conclusions: Three-year incidence of T2D was much lower than predicted and did not differ between diets, PA or their combination. Maintaining the target intakes of protein and GI over 3 years was difficult, but the overall protocol combining weight loss, healthy eating and PA was successful in markedly reducing the risk of T2D. This is an important clinically relevant outcome.
  • Autores: Zhu, R. X.; Fogelholm, M.; Larsen, T. M.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN NUTRITION
    ISSN: 2296-861X Vol.8 N° 685648 2021
    Resumen
    Abstract Background: Previous studies have shown an increase in hunger during weight-loss maintenance (WLM) after diet-induced weight loss. Whether a combination of a higher protein, lower glycemic index (GI) diet and physical activity (PA) can counteract this change remains unclear. Aim: To compare the long-term effects of two diets [high protein (HP)-low GI vs. moderate protein (MP)-moderate GI] and two PA programs [high intensity (HI) vs. moderate intensity (MI)] on subjective appetite sensations during WLM after ¿8% weight loss (WL). Methods: Data derived from the 3-years PREVIEW randomized intervention study. An 8-weeks WL phase using a low-energy diet was followed by a 148-weeks randomized WLM phase. For the WLM phase, participants were assigned to one of the four groups: HP-MI, HP-HI, MP-MI, and MP-HI. Available data from 2,223 participants with overweight or obesity (68% women; BMI ¿ 25 kg/m2). Appetite sensations including satiety, hunger, desire to eat, and desire to eat something sweet during the two phases (at 0, 8 weeks and 26, 52, 104, and 156 weeks) were assessed based on the recall of feelings during the previous week using visual analogue scales. Differences in changes in appetite sensations from baseline between the groups were determined using linear mixed models with repeated measures. Results: There was no significant diet × PA interaction. From 52 weeks onwards, decreases in hunger were significantly greater in HP-low GI than MP-moderate GI (P time × diet = 0.018, P dietgroup = 0.021). Although there was no difference in weight regain between the diet groups (P time × diet = 0.630), hunger and satiety ratings correlated with changes in body weight at most timepoints. There were no significant differences in appetite sensations between the two PA groups. Decreases in hunger ratings were greater at 52 and 104 weeks in HP-HI vs. MP-HI, and greater at 104 and 156 weeks in HP-HI vs. MP-MI. Conclusions: This is the first long-term, large-scale randomized intervention to report that a HP-low GI diet was superior in preventing an increase in hunger, but not weight regain, during 3-years WLM compared with a MP-moderate GI diet. Similarly, HP-HI outperformed MP-HI in suppressing hunger. The role of exercise intensity requires further investigation. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT01777893.
  • Autores: Marzo, F.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Barreneche Huici, Jayone; et al.
    Revista: FOODS
    ISSN: 2304-8158 Vol.10 N° 4 2021
    Resumen
    Obesity is considered a risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer. In rodents, high-fat (HF) diets are able to increase the formation of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced polyps. Polyphenol-rich apple extracts have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and may induce an amelioration of the manifestations of colorectal cancer. Twenty-seven male Crl:CD-1 mice received AOM during four weeks and were subsequently divided into three groups fed a HF diet (n = 9 each group): a non-supplemented group, a second group supplemented with apple extract at 1%, and a third group supplemented with the same apple extract at 1.5%. Energy metabolism and the respiratory quotient were not affected by the supplementation with the apple extract. Although body weight was not affected by the treatment, the mice supplemented with the apple extract showed less signs of cachexia than the non-treated mice. In the intestine, the mice supplemented with the apple extract showed lower sucrase, dipeptidyl-peptidase IV, and aminopeptidase N activities, and less intestinal lesions (aberrant crypt foci and polyps). Administration of a polyphenol-rich apple extract reduces the number of neoplastic lesions in mice with AOM-induced colorectal cancer and contributes to preserve adipose tissue mass.
  • Autores: Marsetti, P. S.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0899-9007 Vol.83 2021
    Resumen
    Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the expression pattern of microRNAs (miRNAs) in white blood cells (WBC) in response to two different energy-restricted diets in patients with metabolic syndrome in the Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra-Spain (RESMENA) study. Methods: A subsample of 24 patients with metabolic syndrome features from the randomized, prospective, parallel-designed RESMENA study was selected for this analysis. The RESMENA study consisted of two dietary strategies with a 30% energy restriction: RESMENA (high meal frequency and high adherence to the Mediterranean diet) and control (based on recommendations from the American Heart Association) groups. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters as well as miRNA expression in WBC by miRNA-seq were measured before and after 8 wk of intervention. Results: A total of 49 miRNAs were differentially expressed after 8 wk of dietary intervention, 35 from the American Heart Association and 14 from the RESMENA diet. MiR-410, miR-637, miR-214, and miR-190 evidenced the most significant expression changes due to the weight loss intervention (P < 0.01). MiR-2115, -587, and -96 showed differential expressions between the two dietary strategies after 8 wk of intervention. The expression of several miRNAs was significantly associYated with anthropometric and biochemical parameters: miR-410 levels positively correlated with circulating leptin and body mass index (BMI), and miR-587 expression was associated with vascular cell adhesion protein 1. Conclusions: Different dietary patterns induce specific changes in miRNA expression in WBC. The associations of specific miRNAs with biochemical and anthropometric parameters suggest that these miRNAs might be directly or indirectly involved in the effects of weight-loss diets with different foods and macronutrient composition, and participate in the regulation of metabolic diseases. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Autores: Fresquet Arnau, Vicente José; García Barchino, María José; Larráyoz Ilundáin, María José; et al.
    Revista: CANCER DISCOVERY
    ISSN: 2159-8274 Vol.11 N° 5 2021 págs. 1268 - 1285
    Resumen
    For millions of years, endogenous retroelements have remained transcriptionally silent within mammalian genomes by epigenetic mechanisms. Modern anticancer therapies targeting the epigenetic machinery awaken retroelement expression, inducing antiviral responses that eliminate tumors through mechanisms not completely understood. Here, we find that massive binding of epigenetically activated retroelements by RIG-I and MDA5 viral sensors promotes ATP hydrolysis and depletes intracellular energy, driving tumor killing independently of immune signaling. Energy depletion boosts compensatory ATP production by switching glycolysis to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, thereby reversing the Warburg effect. However, hyperfunctional succinate dehydrogenase in mitochondrial electron transport chain generates excessive oxidative stress that unleashes RIP1-mediated necroptosis. To maintain ATP generation, hyperactive mitochondrial membrane blocks intrinsic apoptosis by increasing BCL2 dependency. Accordingly, drugs targeting BCL2 family proteins and epigenetic inhibitors yield synergistic responses in multiple cancer types. Thus, epigenetic therapy kills cancer cells by rewiring mitochondrial metabolism upon retroelement activation, which primes mitochondria to apoptosis by BH3-mimetics. SIGNIFICANCE: The state of viral mimicry induced by epigenetic therapies in cancer cells remodels mitochondrial metabolism and drives caspase-independent tumor cell death, which sensitizes to BCL2...
  • Autores: Huttunen-Lenz, M. (Autor de correspondencia); Hansen, S. ; Vestentoft, P. S.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
    ISSN: 1359-1053 Vol.26 N° 14 2021 págs. 2743 - 2755
    Resumen
    Participants with prediabetes were supported to achieve and maintain weight loss with a stage-based behavior change group program named PREview behavior Modification Intervention Toolbox (PREMIT). The tendency to engage in a process of goal adjustment was examined in relation to PREMIT attendance. Analyses were based on 1857 participants who had achieved > 8percent weight loss. Tendency to engage in a process of goal adjustment appeared not to be influenced by PREMIT attendance. Instead, results suggested that when unsure about reaching an intervention goal, participants were more likely to engage in a process of goal adjustment, possibly lessening distress due to potentially unachievable goals, either weight loss or maintenance.
  • Autores: Roses, C.; Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; Quintana, S.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.13 N° 2 2021
    Resumen
    The MD (Mediterranean diet) is recognized as one of the healthiest diets worldwide and is associated with the prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Dietary habits are considered one of the strongest modulators of gut microbiota, which seem to play a significant role in health status of the host. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate interactive associations between gut microbiota composition and habitual dietary intake in 360 Spanish adults from the Obekit cohort (normal weight, overweight, and obese participants). Dietary intake and adherence to the MD tests were administered and fecal samples were collected from each participant. Fecal 16S rRNA (ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid) gene sequencing was performed and checked against the dietary habits. MetagenomeSeq was the statistical tool applied to analyze data at the species taxonomic level. Results from this study identified several beneficial bacteria that were more abundant in the individuals with higher adherence to the MD. Bifidobacterium animalis was the species with the strongest association with the MD. Some SCFA (Short Chain Fatty Acids) -producing bacteria were also associated with MD. In conclusion, this study showed that MD, fiber, legumes, vegetable, fruit, and nut intake are associated with an increase in butyrate-producing taxa such as Roseburia faecis, Ruminococcus bromii, and Oscillospira (Flavonifractor) plautii.
  • Autores: Solares, I. ; Izquierdo Sánchez, L. ; Morales Conejo, M.; et al.
    Revista: BIOMEDICINES
    ISSN: 2227-9059 Vol.9 N° 3 2021 págs. 255
    Resumen
    Acute porphyria attacks are associated with the strong up-regulation of hepatic heme synthesis and over-production of neurotoxic heme precursors. First-line therapy is based on carbohydrate loading. However, altered glucose homeostasis could affect its efficacy. Our first aim was to investigate the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) in an observational case-control study including 44 Spanish patients with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) and 55 age-, gender- and BMI-matched control volunteers. Eight patients (18.2%) and one control (2.3%, p = 0.01) showed a high HOMA-IR index (cut-off ¿ 3.4). Patients with IR and hyperinsulinemia showed clinically stable disease. Thus, the second aim was to evaluate the effect of the co-administration of glucose and a fast-acting or new liver-targeted insulin (the fusion protein of insulin and apolipoprotein A-I, Ins-ApoAI) in AIP mice. The combination of glucose and the Ins-ApoAI promoted partial but sustained protection against hepatic heme synthesis up-regulation compared with glucose alone or co-injected with fast-acting insulin. In a prevention study, Ins-ApoAI improved symptoms associated with a phenobarbital-induced attack but maintained high porphyrin precursor excretion, probably due to the induction of hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis mediated by apolipoprotein A-I. In conclusion, a high prevalence of IR and hyperinsulinemia was observed in patients with AIP. The experimental data provide proof-of-concept for liver-targeted insulin as a way of enhancing glucose therapy for AIP.
  • Autores: Glenn, A. J.; Hernández-Alonso, P.; Kendall, C. W. C.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0261-5614 Vol.40 N° 5 2021 págs. 2825 - 2836
    Resumen
    Background & aims: The Portfolio and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets have been shown to lower cardiometabolic risk factors in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, the Portfolio diet has only been assessed in RCTs of hyperlipidemic patients. Therefore, to assess the Portfolio diet in a population with metabolic syndrome (MetS), we conducted a longitudinal analysis of one-year data of changes in the Portfolio and DASH diet scores and their association with cardiometabolic risk factors in Prevencion con Dieta Mediterranea (PREDIMED)-Plus trial. Methods: PREDIMED-Plus is an ongoing clinical trial (Trial registration: ISRCTN89898) conducted in Spain that includes 6874 older participants (mean age 65 y, 48% women) with overweight/obesity fulfilling at least three criteria for MetS. Data for this analysis were collected at baseline, six months and one year. Adherence to the Portfolio and DASH diet scores were derived from a validated 143-item food frequency questionnaire. We used linear mixed models to examine the associations of 1-SD increase and quartile changes in the diet scores with concomitant changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. Results: After adjusting for several potential confounders, a 1-SD increase in the Portfolio diet score was significantly associated with lower HbA1c (beta [95% CI]:- 0.02% [-0.02,-0.01], P < 0.001), fasting glucose (-0.47 mg/dL [-0.83,-0.11], P = 0.01), triglycerides (-1.29 mg/dL [-2.31,-0.28], P = 0.01), waist circumference (WC) (-0.51 cm [-0.59,-0.43], P < 0.001), and body mass index (BMI) (-0.17 kg/m(2) [-0.19,-0.15], P < 0.001). A 1-SD increase in the DASH diet score was significantly associated with lower HbA1c (-0.03% [-0.04,-0.02], P < 0.001), glucose (-0.84 mg/dL [-1.18,-0.51], P < 0.001), triglycerides (-3.38 mg/dL [-4.37,-2.38], P < 0.001), non-HDL-cholesterol (-0.47 mg/dL [-0.91,-0.04], P = 0.03), WC (-0.69 cm [-0.76,-0.60 cm], P < 0.001), BMI (-0.25 kg/m(2) [-0.28,-0.26 kg/m(2)], P < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (-0.57 mmHg [-0.81,-0.32 mmHg], P < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (-0.15 mmHg [-0.29,-0.01 mmHg], P = 0.03), and with higher HDL-cholesterol (0.21 mg/dL [0.09, 0.34 mg/dL, P = 0.001]). Similar associations were seen when both diet scores were assessed as quartiles, comparing extreme categories of adherence. Conclusions: Among older adults at high cardiovascular risk with MetS, greater adherence to the Portfolio and DASH diets showed significant favourable prospective associations with several clinically relevant cardiometabolic risk factors. Both diets are likely beneficial for cardiometabolic risk reduction. (C) 2021 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
  • Autores: De Cuevillas García, Begoña; Alvarez Alvarez, Ismael; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
    ISSN: 2045-2322 Vol.11 N° 1 2021 págs. 21859
    Resumen
    Rates of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular events and cancer, continue to rise worldwide, which require objective instruments for preventive and management actions. Diverse anthropometric and biochemical markers have been used to qualitatively evaluate degrees of disease, metabolic traits and evolution of nutritional status. The aim of this study was to integrate and assess the interactions between an anthropometric measurement, such as waist circumference (WC), and biochemical data, such as the triglyceride glucose index (TyG), in order to individually characterize metabolic syndrome (MetS) features considering the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype as a marker. An ancillary cross-sectional study was conducted using anthropometric measurements, such as weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, as well as fasting biochemical data of 314 participants. Different indices based on WC (WC, WC*TG and WC*TyG) were estimated to compute MetS components and accompanying comorbidities. ROC curves were fitted to define the strength of the analyses and the validity of the relationships. Associations were confirmed between anthropometric, biochemical and combined indices with some chronic disease manifestations, including hyperglycemia, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Both WC*TG and WC*TyG indices showed similar performance in diagnosing MetS (area under the ROC curve = 0.81). Interestingly, when participants were categorized according to a reference value of the WC*TyG index (842.7 cm*mg/dl), our results evidenced that subjects classified over this limit presented statistically higher prevalence of MetS and accompanying individual components with clinical relevance for interventions. These results revealed that WC*TyG mirrors the hypertriglyceridemic phenotype, which suggests may serve as a good indicator to define the metabolic syndrome phenotype and a suitable, sensitive, and simple proxy to complement others. A reference point was proposed with a good clinical performance and maximized sensitivity and specificity values.
  • Autores: González Casado, Sandra; Martínez Virto, Lucía; Azcona Martínez, Amaia; et al.
    Revista: TECNIFOOD
    ISSN: 1138-9028 N° 136 2021 págs. 83 - 84
  • Autores: Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
    Revista: FEBS OPEN BIO
    ISSN: 2211-5463 Vol.11 2021 págs. 137 - 137
  • Autores: Radziejewska, A.; Muzsik, A.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: LIFESTYLE GENOMICS
    ISSN: 2504-3161 Vol.13 N° 2 2020 págs. 53 - 63
    Resumen
    The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide. Its etiology includes nutritional, genetic, and lifestyle factors. Several mechanisms may link one-carbon metabolism - the associated metabolic pathways of folate, methionine, and choline - to the onset of NAFLD. In this review, we attempted to assess how choline, folate, methionine, and betaine affect NAFLD development, mainly through their role in the secretion of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) from the liver. We also reviewed recent articles that have described the relation between microbiota metabolism and NAFLD progression. Moreover, we describe the effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes related to one-carbon metabolism and disease prevalence. We additionally seek SNP identified by genome-wide associations that may increase the risk of this disease. Even though the evidence available is not entirely consistent, it seems that the concentrations of choline, methionine, folate, and betaine may affect the progression of NAFLD. Since there is no effective therapy for NAFLD, further investigations into the link between nutrition, gut microbiota, genetic factors, and NAFLD are still necessary, with a particular emphasis on methyl donors.
  • Autores: Meneguelli, T. S.; Hinkelmann, J. V.; Hermsdorff, H. H. M. (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCES AND NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0963-7486 Vol.71 N° 6 2020 págs. 678 - 692
    Resumen
    Processed and ultra-processed foods (UPF) consumption has been associated with development of noncommunicable chronic diseases (NCD). This systematic review aims to summarise and discuss evidence of the relationship between food consumption according to degree of food processing and cardiometabolic risk. Data search was conducted in databases as PubMed, Bireme and Science Direct until July 2018. Studies have shown a positive association of UPF consumption with excess body weight, hypertension, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome features. However, disparities found in the studies analysed regarding dietary assessment, confounding factors and differences in food classifications makes comparisons between studies difficult. In conclusion, current evidences indicate the need to monitor UPF intake in global population. However, more studies are necessary to interpret better these associations with similar methodologies used in the studies. As well as longitudinal analyses can help to improve comparisons between outcomes and establish cause-effect relationship between UPF intake and cardiometabolic risk.
  • Autores: Amoutzopoulos, B. (Autor de correspondencia); Page, P.; Roberts, C.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION REVIEWS
    ISSN: 0029-6643 Vol.78 N° 11 2020 págs. 885 - 900
    Resumen
    Context: Overestimation or underestimation of portion size leads to measurement error during dietary assessment. Objective: To identify portion size estimation elements (PSEEs) and evaluate their relative efficacy in relation to dietary assessment, and assess the quality of studies validating PSEEs. Data Selection and Extraction: Electronic databases, internet sites, and cross-references of published records were searched, generating 16 801 initial records, from which 334 records were reviewed and 542 PSEEs were identified, comprising 5% 1-dimensional took (eg, food guides), 46% 2-dimensional took (eg, photographic atlases), and 49% 3-dimensional took (eg, household utensils). Out of 334 studies, 21 validated a PSEE (compared PSEE to actual food amounts) and 13 compared PSEEs with other PSEEs. Conclusion: Quality assessment showed that only a few validation studies were of high quality. According to the findings of validation and comparison studies, food image-based PSEEs were more accurate than food models and household utensils. Key factors to consider when selecting a PSEE include efficiency of the PSEE and its applicability to targeted settings and populations.
  • Autores: Tratwal, J.; Labella, R; Bravenboer, N; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY
    ISSN: 1664-2392 Vol.11 2020 págs. 65
    Resumen
    The interest in bone marrow adiposity (BMA) has increased over the last decade due to its association with, and potential role, in a range of diseases (osteoporosis, diabetes, anorexia, cancer) as well as treatments (corticosteroid, radiation, chemotherapy, thiazolidinediones). However, to advance the field of BMA research, standardization of methods is desirable to increase comparability of study outcomes and foster collaboration. Therefore, at the 2017 annual BMA meeting, the International Bone Marrow Adiposity Society (BMAS) founded a working group to evaluate methodologies in BMA research. All BMAS members could volunteer to participate. The working group members, who are all active preclinical or clinical BMA researchers, searched the literature for articles investigating BMA and discussed the results during personal and telephone conferences. According to the consensus opinion, both based on the review of the literature and on expert opinion, we describe existing methodologies and discuss the challenges and future directions for (1) histomorphometry of bone marrow adipocytes, (2) ex vivo BMA imaging, (3) in vivo BMA imaging, (4) cell isolation, culture, differentiation and in vitro modulation of primary bone marrow adipocytes and bone marrow stromal cell precursors, (5) lineage tracing and in vivo BMA modulation, and (6) BMA biobanking. We identify as accepted standards in BMA research: manual histomorphometry and osmium tetroxide 3D contrast-enhanced mu CT for ex vivo quantification, specific MRI sequences (WFI and H-MRS) for in vivo studies, and RT-qPCR with a minimal four gene panel or lipid-based assays for in vitro quantification of bone marrow adipogenesis. Emerging techniques are described which may soon come to complement or substitute these gold standards. Known confounding factors and minimal reporting standards are presented, and their use is encouraged to facilitate comparison across studies. In conclusion, specific BMA methodologies have been developed. However, important challenges remain. In particular, we advocate for the harmonization of methodologies, the precise reporting of known confounding factors, and the identification of methods to modulate BMA independently from other tissues. Wider use of existing animal models with impaired BMA production (e.g., Pfrt(-/-), Kit(W/W-v)) and development of specific BMA deletion models would be highly desirable for this purpose.
  • Autores: Almirón Roig, Eva (Autor de correspondencia); Forde, C. G.; Hollands, G. J.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION REVIEWS
    ISSN: 0029-6643 Vol.78 N° 2 2020 págs. 91 - 114
    Resumen
    Although there is considerable evidence for the portion-size effect and its potential impact on health, much of this has not been successfully applied to help consumers reduce portion sizes. The objective of this review is to provide an update on the strength of evidence supporting strategies with potential to reduce portion sizes across individuals and eating contexts. Three levels of action are considered: food-level strategies (targeting commercial snack and meal portion sizes, packaging, food labels, tableware, and food sensory properties), individual-level strategies (targeting eating rate and bite size, portion norms, plate-cleaning tendencies, and cognitive processes), and population approaches (targeting the physical, social, and economic environment and health policy). Food- and individual-level strategies are associated with small to moderate effects; however, in isolation, none seem to have sufficient impact on food intake to reverse the portion-size effect and its consequences. Wider changes to the portion-size environment will be necessary to support individual- and food-level strategies leading to portion control.
  • Autores: San Cristóbal Blanco, Rodrigo; Navas Carretero, Santiago (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
    Revista: NATURE REVIEWS ENDOCRINOLOGY
    ISSN: 1759-5029 Vol.16 N° 6 2020 págs. 305 - 320
    Resumen
    The specific metabolic contribution of consuming different energy-yielding macronutrients (namely, carbohydrates, protein and lipids) to obesity is a matter of active debate. In this Review, we summarize the current research concerning associations between the intake of different macronutrients and weight gain and adiposity. We discuss insights into possible differential mechanistic pathways where macronutrients might act on either appetite or adipogenesis to cause weight gain. We also explore the role of dietary macronutrient distribution on thermogenesis or energy expenditure for weight loss and maintenance. On the basis of the data discussed, we describe a novel way to manage excessive body weight; namely, prescribing personalized diets with different macronutrient compositions according to the individual's genotype and/or enterotype. In this context, the interplay of macronutrient consumption with obesity incidence involves mechanisms that affect appetite, thermogenesis and metabolism, and the outcomes of these mechanisms are altered by an individual's genotype and microbiota. Indeed, the interactions of the genetic make-up and/or microbiota features of a person with specific macronutrient intakes or dietary pattern consumption help to explain individualized responses to macronutrients and food patterns, which might represent key factors for comprehensive precision nutrition recommendations and personalized obesity management.
  • Autores: Banaszczak, M.; Maciejewska, D.; Drozd, A.; et al.
    Revista: MEDICINA-LITHUANIA
    ISSN: 1010-660X Vol.56 N° 2 2020 págs. 58
    Resumen
    Background: It was previously shown that a bodyweight reduction among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) was connected to the lower concentration of arachidonic and linoleic acid derivatives in their blood. We hypothesized that the concentration of these lipids was correlated with the extent of their body mass reduction and, thus, liver steatosis. Methods: We analyzed 68 individuals who completed the dietary intervention. Patients were divided into two groups depending on their body mass reduction (more or less than 7%). Before and after the dietary intervention, all patients had the following measurements recorded: body mass, waist circumference, stage of steatosis, fatty liver index, liver enzymes, lipid parameters, insulin and glucose. Concentrations of lipoxins A4 (LTX A4), hydroxyeicosatetraenoic fatty acids (5(S)-HETE, 12(S)-HETE and 16(S)-HETE), hydroxyoctadecaenoic acids (9(S)-HODE and 13(S)-HODE) and 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE) were measured in serum samples collected before and after the dietetic intervention using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: Patients who reduced their body mass by more than 7% revealed a significant improvement in their steatosis stage, waist circumference, fatty liver index, triglycerides and cholesterol. Conclusion: A reduction in body mass by more than 7% but not by less than 7% revealed a significant improvement in steatosis stage; waist circumference; fatty liver index; and levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, 5-oxo-ETE and LTXA-4.
  • Autores: Becerra-Tomas, N. ; Mena-Sanchez, G. ; Diaz-Lopez, A. ; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN: 1436-6207 Vol.59 N° 5 2020 págs. 2195 - 2206
    Resumen
    Purpose: To assess the association between the consumption of non-soy legumes and different subtypes of non-soy legumes and serum uric acid (SUA) or hyperuricemia in elderly individuals with overweight or obesity and metabolic syndrome. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in the framework of the PREDIMED-Plus study. We included 6329 participants with information on non-soy legume consumption and SUA levels. Non-soy legume consumption was estimated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Linear regression models and Cox regression models were used to assess the associations between tertiles of non-soy legume consumption, different subtypes of non-soy legume consumption and SUA levels or hyperuricemia prevalence, respectively. Results: Individuals in the highest tertile (T3) of total non-soy legume, lentil and pea consumption, had 0.14 mg/dL, 0.19 mg/dL and 0.12 mg/dL lower SUA levels, respectively, compared to those in the lowest tertile (T1), which was considered the reference one. Chickpea and dry bean consumption showed no association. In multivariable models, participants located in the top tertile of total non-soy legumes [prevalence ratio (PR): 0.89; 95% CI 0.82-0.97; p trend = 0.01, lentils (PR: 0.89; 95% CI 0.82-0.97; p trend = 0.01), dry beans (PR: 0.91; 95% C: 0.84-0.99; p trend = 0.03) and peas (PR: 0.89; 95% CI 0.82-0.97; p trend = 0.01)] presented a lower prevalence of hyperuricemia (vs. the bottom tertile). Chickpea consumption was not associated with hyperuricemia prevalence. Conclusions: In this study of elderly subjects with metabolic syndrome, we observed that despite being a purine-rich food, non-soy legumes were inversely associated with SUA levels and hyperuricemia prevalence.
  • Autores: Echiburu, B.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; Crisosto, N.; et al.
    Revista: EPIGENETICS
    ISSN: 1559-2294 Vol.15 N° 11 2020 págs. 1178 - 1194
    Resumen
    Clinical and experimental evidences indicate that epigenetic modifications induced by the prenatal environment are related to metabolic and reproductive derangements in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Alterations in the leptin and adiponectin systems, androgen signalling and antimullerian hormone (AMH) levels have been observed in PCOS women and in their offspring. Using a targeted Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), we studied DNA methylation in promoter regions of the leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR), adiponectin (ADIPOQ), adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2), AMH and androgen receptor (AR) genes in 24 sons and daughters of women with PCOS (12 treated with metformin during pregnancy) and 24 children born to non-PCOS women during early infancy (2-3 months of age). Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood, bisulphite converted and sequenced by NGS. Girls showed differences between groups in 1 CpG site of LEPR, 2 of LEP, 1 of ADIPOR2 and 2 of AR. Boys showed differences in 5 CpG sites of LEP, 3 of AMH and 9 of AR. Maternal metformin treatment prevented some of these changes in LEP, ADIPOR2 and partially in AR in girls, and in LEP and AMH in boys. Maternal BMI at early pregnancy was inversely correlated with the methylation levels of the ChrX-67544981 site in the whole group of girls (r = -0.530, p = 0.008) and with the global Z-score in all boys (r = -0.539, p = 0.007). These data indicate that the intrauterine PCOS environment predisposes the offspring to acquire certain sex-dependent DNA methylation patterns in the promoter regions of metabolic and reproductive genes.
  • Autores: León, I. C.; Quesada Vázquez, S.; Sáinz Amillo, Neira; et al.
    Revista: MICROORGANISMS
    ISSN: 2076-2607 Vol.8 N° 8 2020 págs. E-1156
    Resumen
    The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of Maresin 1 (MaR1), a DHA-derived pro-resolving lipid mediator, on obesity-related colonic inflammation and gut dysbiosis in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. In colonic mucosa of DIO mice, the MaR1 treatment decreased the expression of inflammatory genes, such asTnf-alpha andIl-1 beta. As expected, the DIO mice exhibited significant changes in gut microbiota composition at the phylum, genus, and species levels, with a trend to a higher Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. Deferribacteres and Synergistetes also increased in the DIO animals. In contrast, these animals exhibited a significant decrease in the content of Cyanobacteria and Actinobacteria. Treatment with MaR1 was not able to reverse the dysbiosis caused by obesity on the most abundant phyla. However, the MaR1 treatment increased the content ofP. xylanivorans, which have been considered to be a promising probiotic with healthy effects on gut inflammation. Finally, a positive association was found between the Deferribacteres andIl-1 beta expression, suggesting that the increase in Deferribacteres observed in obesity could contribute to the overexpression of inflammatory cytokines in the colonic mucosa. In conclusion, MaR1 administration ameliorates the inflammatory state in the colonic mucosa and partially compensates changes on gut microbiota caused by obesity.
  • Autores: Bullon Vela, Maria Vanessa; Abete Goñi, Itziar (Autor de correspondencia); Tur, J. A.; et al.
    Revista: THERAPEUTIC ADVANCES IN ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM
    ISSN: 2042-0188 Vol.11 2020
  • Autores: Graham, C. A. M. (Autor de correspondencia); Pedlar, C. R.; Hearne, G.; et al.
    Revista: LIFESTYLE GENOMICS
    ISSN: 2504-3161 Vol.13 N° 2 2020 págs. 99 - 106
    Resumen
    Introduction: In the UK, the number of comorbidities seen in children has increased along with the worsening obesity rate. These comorbidities worsen into adulthood. Genome-wide association studies have highlighted single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the weight status of adults and offspring individually. To date, in the UK, parental genetic, lifestyle, and social determinants of health have not been investigated alongside one another as influencers of offspring weight status. A comprehensive obesity prevention scheme would commence prior to conception and involve parental intervention including all known risk factors. This current study aims to identify the proportion of overweight that can be explained by known parental risk factors, including genetic, lifestyle, and social determinants of health with offspring weight status in the UK. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 123 parents. Parental and offspring anthropometric data and parental lifestyle and social determinants of health data were self-reported. Parental genetic data were collected by use of GeneFiX saliva collection vials and genotype were assessed for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene rs6265, melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene rs17782313, transmembrane protein 18 (TMEM18) gene rs2867125, and serine/threonine-protein kinase (TNN13K) gene rs1514175. Associations were assessed between parental data and the weight status of offspring. Results: Maternal body mass index modestly predicted child weight status (p < 0.015; R-2 = 0.15). More mothers of overweight children carried the MC4R rs17782313 risk allele (77.8%; p = 0.007) compared to mothers of normal-weight children. Additionally, fathers who were not Caucasian and parents who slept for <7 h/night had a larger percentage of overweight children when compared to their counterparts (p = 0.039; p = 0.014, respectively). Conclusion: Associations exist between the weight status of offspring based solely on parental genetic, lifestyle, and social determinants of health data. Further research is required to appropriately address future interventions based on genetic and lifestyle risk groups on a pre-parent cohort.
  • Autores: Paz-Graniel, I. ; Babio, N. ; Becerra¿Tomás, N. ; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN: 1436-6207 Vol.60 N° 5 2020 págs. 2381 - 2396
    Resumen
    Purpose Coffee is rich in compounds such as polyphenols, caffeine, diterpenes, melanoidins and trigonelline, which can stimulate brain activity. Therefore, the possible association of coffee consumption with cognition is of considerable research interest. In this paper, we assess the association of coffee consumption and total dietary caffeine intake with the risk of poor cognitive functioning in a population of elderly overweight/obese adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods PREDIMED-plus study participants who completed the Mini-Mental State Examination test (MMSE) (n = 6427; mean age = 65 +/- 5 years) or a battery of neuropsychological tests were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Coffee consumption and total dietary caffeine intake were assessed at baseline using a food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the association between total, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption or total dietary caffeine intake and cognitive impairment. Results Total coffee consumers and caffeinated coffee consumers had better cognitive functioning than non-consumers when measured by the MMSE and after adjusting for potential confounders (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.44-0.90 and OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.38-0.83, respectively). Results were similar when cognitive performance was measured using the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) and Trail Making Test B (TMT-B). These associations were not observed for decaffeinated coffee consumption. Participants in the highest tertile of total dietary caffeine intake had lower odds of poor cognitive functioning than those in the reference tertile when screened by the MMSE (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.47-0.87) or other neurophysiological tests evaluating a variety of cognitive domains (i.e., CDT and TMT-A). Conclusions Coffee consumption and total dietary caffeine intake were associated with better cognitive functioning as measured by various neuropsychological tests in a Mediterranean cohort of elderly individuals with MetS.
  • Autores: Mena-Sánchez, G.; Babió, N.; Becerra-Tomás, N.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
    ISSN: 0939-4753 Vol.30 N° 2 2020 págs. 214 - 222
    Resumen
    Background and aims: The prevalence of hyperuricemia has increased substantially in recent decades. It has been suggested that it is an independent risk factor for weight gain, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and cardiovascular disease. Results from epidemiological studies conducted in different study populations have suggested that high consumption of dairy products is associated with a lower risk of developing hyperuricemia. However, this association is still unclear. The aim of the present study is to explore the association of the consumption of total dairy products and their subtypes with the risk of hyperuricemia in an elderly Mediterranean population with MetS. Methods and results: Baseline cross-sectional analyses were conducted on 6329 men/women (mean age 65 years) with overweight/obesity and MetS from the PREDIMED-Plus cohort. Dairy consumption was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regressions were fitted to analyze the association of quartiles of consumption of total dairy products and their subtypes with the prevalence of hyperuricemia. Participants in the upper quartile of the consumption of total dairy products (multiadjusted prevalence ratio (PR) = 0.84; 95% CI: 0.75-0.94; P-trend 0.02), low-fat dairy products (PR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.70-0.89; P-trend <0.001), total milk (PR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.73-0.90; P-trend<0.001), low-fat milk (PR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.72-0.89; P-trend<0.001, respectively), low-fat yogurt (PR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.80-0.98; P-trend 0.051), and cheese (PR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.77-0.96; P-trend 0.003) presented a lower prevalence of hyperuricemia. Whole-fat dairy, fermented dairy, and yogurt consumption were not associated with hyperuricemia. Conclusions: High consumption of total dairy products, total milk, low-fat dairy products, low-fat milk, low-fat yogurt, and cheese is associated with a lower risk of hyperuricemia.
  • Autores: Assmann, T. S.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE
    ISSN: 1582-1838 Vol.24 N° 5 2020 págs. 2956 - 2967
    Resumen
    Recent studies have revealed the critical role of several microRNAs (miRNAs) in energy homeostasis and metabolic processes and suggest that circulating miRNAs can be used as early predictors of weight loss in the design of precision nutrition. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate circulating adiposity-related miRNAs as biomarkers of the response to two specific weight loss dietary treatments. The expression of 86 miRNAs was investigated in plasma of 78 subjects with obesity randomized to two different diets [moderately high-protein diet (n = 38) and low-fat diet (n = 40)] and in 25 eutrophic controls (BMI <= 25 kg/m(2)). Bioinformatic analyses were performed to explore the target genes and biological pathways regulated by the dysregulated miRNAs. As results, 26 miRNAs were found differently expressed in eutrophic and volunteers with obesity. Moreover, 7 miRNAs (miR-130a-3p, miR-142-5p, miR-144-5p, miR-15a-5p, miR-22-3p, miR-221-3p and miR-29c-3p) were differentially expressed between responders and non-responders to a low-fat diet. Furthermore, after adjustment for basal glucose levels, 1-SD increase in miR-22-3p expression was associated with reduction in the risk of non-response to low-fat diet [OR = 0.181, 95% CI (0.084-0.947), P = .043]. Bioinformatic analyses evidenced that these 7 miRNAs regulate the expression of genes participating in important metabolic pathways. Conclusively, 7 circulating miRNAs related to adiposity could be used for predicting the response to a low-fat diet intervention prescribed to lose weight.
  • Autores: Assmann, T. S.; Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; Salas-Perez, F. ; et al.
    Revista: CHRONOBIOLOGY INTERNATIONAL
    ISSN: 0742-0528 Vol.37 N° 7 2020 págs. 1048-1058
    Resumen
    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are valuable biomarkers that may provide important insight into the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Moreover, there is an association between chronotypical characteristics and MetS predisposition. Considering that expression of some miRNAs is circadian-rhythm-dependent, the aim of this study was to investigate the circulating miRNA profile in subjects with and without MetS in association with chronotype. The expression of 86 metabolic syndrome-related miRNAs was investigated in the plasma of 21 subjects with MetS and in 82 subjects without MetS using miRCURY LNA miRNA PCR System technology. Chronotype was assessed using the Horne and ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Bioinformatic analyses were performed to explore the target genes and biological pathways regulated by the selected miRNAs. Subjects with MetS were more often evening chronotype compared to non-MetS controls. Additionally, four miRNAs (miR-140-3p, miR-150-5p, miR-375, and miR-29 c-3p) demonstrated interaction with MetS and chronotype. Interestingly, the target genes of these four miRNAs participate in pathways related to the circadian clock. In conclusion, we identified four circulating miRNAs whose circulating levels could interact with MetS and chronotype.
  • Autores: Ramos-Lopez, O. ; Cuervo Zapatel, Marta; Goñi Mateos, Leticia; et al.
    Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0002-9165 Vol.111 N° 2 2020 págs. 459 - 470
    Resumen
    Background: Interindividual variability in weight loss and metabolic responses depends upon interactions between genetic, phenotypic, and environmental factors. Objective: We aimed to model an integrative (nutri) prototype based on genetic, phenotypic, and environmental information for the personalized prescription of energy-restricted diets with different macronutrient distribution. Methods: A 4-mo nutritional intervention was conducted in 305 overweight/obese volunteers involving 2 energy-restricted diets (30% restriction) with different macronutrient distribution: a moderately high-protein (MHP) diet (30% proteins, 30% lipids, and 40% carbohydrates) and a low-fat (LF) diet (22% lipids, 18% proteins, and 60% carbohydrates). A total of 201 subjects with good dietary adherence were genotyped for 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to energy homeostasis. Genotyping was performed by targeted next-generation sequencing. Two weighted genetic risk scores for the MHP (wGRS1) and LF (wGRS2) diets were computed using statistically relevant SNPs. Multiple linear regression models were performed to estimate percentage BMI decrease depending on the dietary macronutrient composition. Results: After energy restriction, both the MHP and LF diets induced similar significant decreases in adiposity, body composition, and blood pressure, and improved the lipid profile. Furthermore, statistically relevant differences in anthropometric and biochemical markers depending on sex and age were found. BMI decrease in the MHP diet was best predicted at similar to 28% (optimism-corrected adjusted R-2 = 0.279) by wGRS1 and age, whereas wGRS2 and baseline energy intake explained similar to 29% (optimism-corrected adjusted R-2 = 0.287) of BMI decrease variability in the LF diet. The incorporation of these predictive models into a decision algorithm allowed the personalized prescription of the MHP and LF diets. Conclusions: Different genetic, phenotypic, and exogenous factors predict BMI decreases depending on the administration of a hypocaloric MHP diet or an LF diet. This holistic approach may help to personalize dietary advice for the management of excessive body weight using precision nutrition variables. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02737267.
  • Autores: Moreno Aliaga, María Jesús; Villarroya, F.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
    ISSN: 1138-7548 Vol.76 N° 2 2020 págs. 181-184
  • Autores: Monserrat-Mesquida, M.; Quetglas-Llabres, M.; Abbate, M.; et al.
    Revista: ANTIOXIDANTS
    ISSN: 2076-3921 Vol.9 N° 8 2020 págs. 759
    Resumen
    Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excessive fat accumulation, especially triglycerides, in hepatocytes. If the pathology is not properly treated, it can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and continue to fibrosis, cirrhosis or hepatocarcinoma. Objective: The aim of the current research was to identify the plasma biomarkers of liver damage, oxidative stress and inflammation that facilitate the early diagnosis of the disease and control its progression. Methods: Antioxidant and inflammatory biomarkers were measured in the plasma of patients diagnosed with NAFLD (n= 100 adults; 40-60 years old) living in the Balearic Islands, Spain. Patients were classified according to the intrahepatic fat content (IFC) measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: Circulating glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were higher in patients with an IFC >= 2 of NAFLD in comparison to patients with an IFC of 0 and 1. The plasma levels of catalase, irisin, interleukin-6, malondialdehyde, and cytokeratin 18 were higher in stage >= 2 subjects, whereas the resolvin D1 levels were lower. No differences were observed in xanthine oxidase, myeloperoxidase, protein carbonyl and fibroblast growth factor 21 depending on liver status. Conclusion: The current available data show that the severity of NAFLD is associated with an increase in oxidative stress and proinflammatory status. It may be also useful as diagnostic purpose in clinical practice.
  • Autores: Marcos-Delgado, A.; Fernández-Villa, T. (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH
    ISSN: 1660-4601 Vol.17 N° 10 2020
  • Autores: Sáinz Amillo, Neira; Fernández Galilea, Marta; Vasconcelos Costa, Andre Gustavo; et al.
    Revista: FOOD & FUNCTION
    ISSN: 2042-6496 Vol.11 N° 10 2020 págs. 9057 - 9066
    Resumen
    Chemerin is a pro-inflammatory adipokine that is increased in obesity and associated with obesity-related comorbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA and DHA), on basal and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced chemerin production in 3T3-L1 and human subcutaneous cultured adipocytes. The potential involvement of G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120), as well as the actions of DHA-derived specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPMs), resolvin D1 and D2 (RvD1 and RvD2) and maresin 1 (MaR1), were also evaluated. DHA significantly lowered both basal and TNF-alpha-stimulated chemerin production in 3T3-L1 and human adipocytes. EPA did not modify basal chemerin production, while it attenuated the induction of chemerin by TNF-alpha. Silencing of GPR120 using siRNA blocked the ability of DHA and EPA to reduce TNF-alpha-induced chemerin secretion. Interestingly, treatment with the DHA-derived SPMs RvD1, RvD2 and MaR1 also reversed the stimulatory effect of TNF-alpha on chemerin production in human adipocytes.
  • Autores: Aranaz Oroz, Paula; Zabala Navó, María; Romo Hualde, Ana; et al.
    Revista: FOOD & FUNCTION
    ISSN: 2042-6496 Vol.11 N° 5 2020 págs. 4512 - 4524
    Resumen
    The metabolic properties of omega-6 fatty acid consumption are being increasingly accepted. We had previously observed that supplementation with a borage seed oil (BSO), as a source of linoleic (18:2n-6; LA) and gamma-linolenic (18:3n-6; GLA) acids, reduces body weight and visceral adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity in a diet-induced obesity model of Wistar rats. Here, it was investigated whether the anti-obesogenic properties of BSO could be maintained in a pre-obese model of rats, and if these effects are enhanced by a combination with low doses of quercetin, together with its potential role in the regulation of the adipocyte biology. The combination of BSO and quercetin during 8 weeks was able to ameliorate glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, and to improve liver steatosis. Although no effects were observed on body weight, animals supplemented with this combination exhibited a lower proportion of visceral adiposity. In addition, in vitro differentiation of epididymal adipose-precursor cells of the BSO-treated animals exhibited a down-regulation of Fasn, Glut4, Pparg and Srebp1 genes, in comparison with the control group. Finally, in vitro evaluation of the components of BSO demonstrated that the anti-adipogenic activity of quercetin was significantly potentiated by the combination with both LA and GLA through the down-regulation of different adipogenesis-key genes in 3T3-L1 cells. All these data suggest that omega-6 fatty acids LA and GLA, and their natural sources such as BSO, could be combined with quercetin to potentiate their effects in the prevention of the excess of adiposity and the insulin resistance.
  • Autores: Ferreira Todendi, P.; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; Reuter, C. P.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0899-9007 Vol.71 2020 págs. UNSP 110645
    Resumen
    Objectives: Lifestyle, obesity, and eating habits are emerging as determinants for the instability of telomeres. The increase in childhood and adolescent obesity and the association of biochemical profiles and dietary components with telomere length (TL) makes it an important issue in nutritional research. The aim of the present study was to investigate TL and its association with ethnic background, adiposity, clinical and biochemical parameters, and dietary patterns among Brazilian children and adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study encompassing 981 children and adolescents between 7 and 17 y of age was performed. Dietary intake habits, anthropometry, and clinical data were collected. TL analysis was performed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: Children presented significantly longer TL than adolescents (P = 0.046). Participants who self-declared as black, mulatto, or brown (P < 0.001) also showed longer TL than those who were white. Regarding biochemical parameters, individuals with altered glucose levels had shorter TL than normoglycemic participants in the total sample (P = 0.014). Such difference remained statistically significant in adolescents (P = 0.019). Participants who reported eating fruits and vegetables regularly had longer TL than those who did not (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The results suggested that both biochemical parameters and the intake of antioxidant-rich food, such as fruits and vegetables, are associated with the stability of telomere biology among young Brazilians.
  • Autores: Chase, A.; Score, J.; Lin, F.; et al.
    Revista: LEUKEMIA
    ISSN: 0887-6924 Vol.34 N° 12 2020 págs. 3206 - 3214
    Resumen
    EZH2, a component of the polycomb repressive complex 2, catalyses the trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27, a chromatin mark associated with transcriptional repression. EZH2 loss-of-function mutations are seen in myeloid neoplasms and are associated with an adverse prognosis. Missense mutations in the SET/CXC domain abrogate catalytic activity as assessed by in vitro histone methylation assays, but missense mutations clustering in the conserved DI and DII regions retain activity. To understand the role of DI and DII mutations, we initially developed a cell-based histone methylation assay to test activity in a cellular context. Murine induced pluripotent stem cells lacking EZH2 were transiently transfected with wild type or mutant EZH2 (n = 15) and any resulting histone methylation was measured by flow cytometry. All DI mutations (n = 5) resulted in complete or partial loss of methylation activity whilst 5/6 DII mutations retained activity. Next, we assessed the possibility of splicing abnormalities induced by exon 8 mutations (encoding DII) using RT-PCR from primary patient samples and mini-gene assays. Exon 8 mutations resulted in skipping of exon 8 and an out-of-frame transcript. We have therefore shown that mutations within regions encoding EZH2 domains DI and DII are pathogenic by loss of function and exon skipping, respectively.
  • Autores: Sánchez-Quesada, C.; Toledo Atucha, Estefanía; González-Mata, G.; et al.
    Revista: ATHEROSCLEROSIS
    ISSN: 0021-9150 Vol.314 2020 págs. 48 - 57
  • Autores: Bullon Vela, Maria Vanessa; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE ENFERMEDADES DIGESTIVAS
    ISSN: 1130-0108 Vol.112 N° 2 2020 págs. 94 - 100
  • Autores: Bullon Vela, Maria Vanessa; Abete Goñi, Itziar (Autor de correspondencia); Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; et al.
    Revista: MOLECULES
    ISSN: 1420-3049 Vol.25 N° 18 2020
  • Autores: Brotons Cantó, Ana (Autor de correspondencia); González Navarro, Carlos Javier; Gurrea, Javier; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF DRUG DELIVERY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
    ISSN: 1773-2247 Vol.57 2020 págs. 101704
  • Autores: Assmann, T. S. ; Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
    ISSN: 1422-0067 Vol.21 N° 24 2020
    Resumen
    Background: The determinants that mediate the interactions between microRNAs and the gut microbiome impacting on obesity are scarcely understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate possible interactions between circulating microRNAs and gut microbiota composition in obesity. Method: The sample comprised 78 subjects with obesity (cases, body mass index (BMI): 30-40 kg/m(2)) and 25 eutrophic individuals (controls, BMI <= 25 kg/m(2)). The expression of 96 microRNAs was investigated in plasma of all individuals using miRCURY LNA miRNA Custom PCR Panels. Bacterial DNA sequencing was performed following the Illumina 16S protocol. The FDR correction was used for multiple comparison analyses. Results: A total of 26 circulating microRNAs and 12 bacterial species were found differentially expressed between cases and controls. Interestingly, an interaction among three miRNAs (miR-130b-3p, miR-185-5p and miR-21-5p) with Bacteroides eggerthi and BMI levels was evidenced (r(2) = 0.148, p = 0.004). Moreover, these microRNAs regulate genes that participate in metabolism-related pathways, including fatty acid degradation, insulin signaling and glycerolipid metabolism. Conclusions: This study characterized an interaction between the abundance of 4 bacterial species and 14 circulating microRNAs in relation to obesity. Moreover, the current study also suggests that miRNAs may serve as a communication mechanism between the gut microbiome and human hosts.
  • Autores: González Ferrero, C.; Irache Garreta, Juan Manuel; Marín Calvo, B.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF MICROENCAPSULATION
    ISSN: 0265-2048 Vol.37 N° 3 2020 págs. 242 - 253
    Resumen
    The influence on the stability of Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 220 (25 C/60% relative humidity) of microencapsulation by simple coacervation followed by spray-drying using different Ca2þ-tosoybean protein isolate ratios was evaluated. After optimisation, the selected soybean protein concentrate (SPC) microparticles were used to evaluate the tolerance of L. plantarum under acidic conditions (lactic acid, pH¿4; and HCl, pH¿3) and heat stress (80 C for 1 min) in contrast to free cells. Moreover, after the heat treatment, the influence of the simulated gastric fluid was evaluated. Additionally, different foods were formulated using either microencapsulated or freeze-dried L. plantarum, and the stability of cells during the shelf-life of the formulated foods was studied. Results show that encapsulation with SPC enhanced significantly the stability of the Lactic Acid Bacteria all along the probiotic food value chain, from production to the end of the food shelf-life.
  • Autores: Aranaz Oroz, Paula; Navarro Herrera, D.; Zabala Navó, María; et al.
    Revista: PHARMACEUTICALS
    ISSN: 1424-8247 Vol.13 N° 11 2020 págs. 355
    Resumen
    Supplementation with bioactive compounds capable of regulating energy homeostasis is a promising strategy to manage obesity. Here, we have screened the ability of different phenolic compounds (myricetin, kaempferol, naringin, hesperidin, apigenin, luteolin, resveratrol, curcumin and epicatechin), and phenolic acids (p-coumaric, ellagic, ferulic, gallic and vanillic acids) regulating C. elegans fat accumulation. Resveratrol exhibited the strongest lipid-reducing activity, which was accompanied by the improvement of lifespan, oxidative stress and ageing, without affecting worm development. Whole-genome expression microarrays demonstrated that resveratrol affected fat mobilization, fatty acid metabolism, and unfolded protein response of the endoplasmic reticulum (UPRER), mimicking the response to calorie restriction. Apigenin induced the oxidative stress response and lipid mobilization, while vanillic acid affected the unfolded-protein response in ER. In summary, our data demonstrates that phenolic compounds exert a lipid-reducing activity in C. elegans through different biological processes and signaling pathways, including those related with lipid mobilization and fatty acid metabolism, oxidative stress, ageing and UPR-ER response. These findings open the door to the possibility of combining them in order to achieve complementary activity against obesity-related disorders.
  • Autores: Pérez Díaz Del Campo, Nuria; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Cantero González, Irene; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.12 N° 5 2020 págs. 1260
    Resumen
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of liver disease worldwide. Some genetic variants might be involved in the progression of this disease. The study hypothesized that individuals with the rs7359397 T allele have a higher risk of developing severe stages of NAFLD compared with non-carriers where dietary intake according to genotypes could have a key role on the pathogenesis of the disease. SH2B1 genetic variant was genotyped in 110 overweight/obese subjects with NAFLD. Imaging techniques, lipidomic analysis and blood liver biomarkers were performed. Body composition, general biochemical and dietary variables were also determined. The SH2B1 risk genotype was associated with higher HOMA-IR p = 0.001; and Fatty Liver Index (FLI) p = 0.032. Higher protein consumption (p = 0.028), less mono-unsaturated fatty acid and fiber intake (p = 0.045 and p = 0.049, respectively), was also referred to in risk allele genotype. Lipidomic analysis showed that T allele carriers presented a higher frequency of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (69.1% vs. 44.4%; p = 0.006). In the genotype risk group, adjusted logistic regression models indicated a higher risk of developing an advanced stage of NAFLD measured by FLI (OR 2.91) and ultrasonography (OR 4.15). Multinomial logistic regression models showed that risk allele carriers had higher liver fat accumulation risk (RRR 3.93) and an increased risk of NASH (RRR 7.88). Consequently, subjects carrying the T allele were associated with a higher risk of developing a severe stage of NAFLD. These results support the importance of considering genetic predisposition in combination with a healthy dietary pattern in the personalized evaluation and management of NAFLD.
  • Autores: Gil Iturbe, Eva; Félix Soriano, Elisa; Sáinz Amillo, Neira; et al.
    Revista: APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY NUTRITION AND METABOLISM- PHYSIOLOGIE APPLIQUEE NUTRITION ET METABOLISME
    ISSN: 1715-5312 Vol.45 N° 9 2020 págs. 957 - 967
    Resumen
    Obesity is characterized by excessive fat accumulation and inflammation. Aging has also been characterized as an inflammatory condition, frequently accompanied by accumulation of visceral fat. Beneficial effects of exercise and 11-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in metabolic disorders have been described. Glucose transporter 12 (GLUT12) is one of the less investigated members of the GLUT family. Glucose, insulin, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) induce GLUT12 translocation to the membrane in muscle, adipose tissue, and intestine. We aimed to investigate GLUT12 expression in obesity and aging, and under diet supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) alone or in combination with physical exercise in mice. Aging increased GLUT12 expression in intestine, kidney, and adipose tissue, whereas obesity reduced it. No changes on the transporter occurred in skeletal muscle. In obese 18-month-old mice, DHA further decreased GLUT12 in the 4 organs. Aerobic exercise alone did not modify GLUT12, but the changes triggered by exercise were able to prevent the DHA-diminishing effect, and almost restored GLUT12 basal levels. In conclusion, the downregulation of metabolism in aging would be a stimulus to upregulate GLUT12 expression. Contrary, obesity, an excessive energy condition, would induce GLUT12 downregulation. The combination of exercise and DHA would contribute to restore basal function of GLUT12.
  • Autores: Ramos-López, O.; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.12 N° 1 2020 págs. 33
    Resumen
    This study aimed to nutrigenetically screen gene-diet and gene-metabolic interactions influencing insulin resistance (IR) phenotypes. A total of 232 obese or overweight adults were categorized by IR status: non-IR (HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment - insulin resistance) index <= 2.5) and IR (HOMA-IR index > 2.5). A weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) was constructed using 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms related to energy homeostasis, which were genotyped by a next generation sequencing system. Body composition, the metabolic profile and lifestyle variables were evaluated, where individuals with IR showed worse metabolic outcomes. Overall, 16 obesity-predisposing genetic variants were associated with IR (p < 0.10 in the multivariate model). The wGRS strongly associated with the HOMA-IR index (adj. R squared = 0.2705, p < 0.0001). Moreover, the wGRS positively interacted with dietary intake of cholesterol (P int. = 0.002), and with serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (P int. = 0.008) regarding IR status, whereas a negative interaction was found regarding adiponectin blood levels (P int. = 0.006). In conclusion, this study suggests that interactions between an adiposity-based wGRS with nutritional and metabolic/endocrine features influence IR phenotypes, which could facilitate the prescription of personalized nutrition recommendations for precision prevention and management of IR and diabetes.
  • Autores: Fernández Galilea, Marta; Félix Soriano, Elisa; Colón Mesa, Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
    ISSN: 1138-7548 Vol.76 N° 2 2020 págs. 251-267
  • Autores: Santos, J. L. (Autor de correspondencia); Krause, B. J. ; Cataldo, L. R.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.12 N° 9 2020 págs. 2790
    Resumen
    Methylation in CpG sites of the PPARGC1A gene (encoding PGC1-alpha) has been associated with adiposity, insulin secretion/sensitivity indexes and type 2 diabetes. We assessed the association between the methylation profile of the PPARGC1A gene promoter gene in leukocytes with insulin secretion/sensitivity indexes in normoglycemic women. A standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and an abbreviated version of the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) were carried out in n = 57 Chilean nondiabetic women with measurements of plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide. Bisulfite-treated DNA from leukocytes was evaluated for methylation levels in six CpG sites of the proximal promoter of the PPARGC1A gene by pyrosequencing (positions -816, -783, -652, -617, -521 and -515). A strong correlation between the DNA methylation percentage of different CpG sites of the PPARGC1A promoter in leukocytes was found, suggesting an integrated epigenetic control of this region. We found a positive association between the methylation levels of the CpG site -783 with the insulin sensitivity Matsuda composite index (rho = 0.31; p = 0.02) derived from the OGTT. The CpG hypomethylation in the promoter position -783 of the PPARGC1A gene in leukocytes may represent a biomarker of reduced insulin sensitivity after the ingestion of glucose.
  • Autores: Carneros, D. ; Medina-Gomez, G. ; Giralt, M.; et al.
    Revista: FASEB JOURNAL
    ISSN: 0892-6638 Vol.34 N° 12 2020 págs. 15875-15887
    Resumen
    It is becoming clear that several human pathologies are caused by altered metabolic adaptations. During liver development, there are physiological changes, from the predominant utilization of glucose (fetal life) to the use of lipids (postnatal life). Fasting is another physiological stress that elicits well-known metabolic adjustments. We have reported the metabolic properties of cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), a member of the interleukin-6 family of cytokines. Here, we aimed at analyzing the role of CT-1 in response to these metabolic changes. We used different in vivo models. Furthermore, a differential study was carried out with wild-type and CT-1 null mice in fed (ad libitum) and food-restricted conditions. We demonstrated thatCt-1is a metabolic gene induced in the liver via PPAR alpha in response to lipids in mice (neonates- and food-restricted adults). We found thatCt-1mRNA expression in white adipose tissue directly involved PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma. Finally, the physiological role of CT-1 in fasting is confirmed by the impaired food restriction-induced adipose tissue lipid mobilization in CT-1 null mice. Our findings support a previously unrecognized physiological role of CT-1 in metabolic adaptations, through the regulation of lipid metabolism and contributes to fasting-induced free fatty acid mobilization.
  • Autores: Swindell, N. (Autor de correspondencia); Rees, P.; Fogelholm, M.; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
    ISSN: 1479-5868 Vol.17 N° 1 2020 págs. 29
    Resumen
    Background Physical activity, sedentary time and sleep have been shown to be associated with cardio-metabolic health. However, these associations are typically studied in isolation or without accounting for the effect of all movement behaviours and the constrained nature of data that comprise a finite whole such as a 24 h day. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the composition of daily movement behaviours (including sleep, sedentary time (ST), light intensity physical activity (LIPA) and moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA)) and cardio-metabolic health, in a cross-sectional analysis of adults with pre-diabetes. Further, we quantified the predicted differences following reallocation of time between behaviours. Methods Accelerometers were used to quantify daily movement behaviours in 1462 adults from eight countries with a body mass index (BMI) >= 25 kg center dot m(- 2), impaired fasting glucose (IFG; 5.6-6.9 mmol center dot l(- 1)) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; 7.8-11.0 mmol center dot l(- 1) 2 h following oral glucose tolerance test, OGTT). Compositional isotemporal substitution was used to estimate the association of reallocating time between behaviours. Results Replacing MVPA with any other behaviour around the mean composition was associated with a poorer cardio-metabolic risk profile. Conversely, when MVPA was increased, the relationships with cardiometabolic risk markers was favourable but with smaller predicted changes than when MVPA was replaced. Further, substituting ST with LIPA predicted improvements in cardio-metabolic risk markers, most notably insulin and HOMA-IR. Conclusions This is the first study to use compositional analysis of the 24 h movement composition in adults with overweight/obesity and pre-diabetes. These findings build on previous literature that suggest replacing ST with LIPA may produce metabolic benefits that contribute to the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, the asymmetry in the predicted change in risk markers following the reallocation of time to/from MVPA highlights the importance of maintaining existing levels of MVPA.
  • Autores: Ovalle-Marin, A.; Reyes-Farias, M.; Vasquez, K. ; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF BERRY RESEARCH
    ISSN: 1878-5093 Vol.10 N° 3 2020 págs. 531 - 545
    Resumen
    BACKGROUND: Obesity occurs due to a positive energy imbalance, leading to the expansion of adipose tissue. This phenomenon triggers a chronic low-grade inflammatory state, which is associated with comorbidities development. It is, therefore, of great interest to investigate new counteracting nutritional strategies. In this regard, polyphenol-rich Chilean native fruits, Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui) and Berberis microphylla (Calafate), and also the non-Chilean Vaccinium corymbosum (Blueberry), have been associated with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory features. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate Maqui, Calafate, and Blueberry aqueous extracts treatments on the pathogenic response of human activated macrophages and visceral adipocytes. METHODS: THP-1 monocyte human cell line and differentiated human visceral preadipocytes were activated (with lipopolysaccharide and TNF-a, for 48 and 24 h, respectively), and treated with the aqueous extracts. Inflammation and oxidative stress markers were assessed. RESULTS: Lower NO and IL-6 secretion, and inhibited apoptosis in activated macrophages, were observed. Also, decreased gene expression of MCP-1 and secretion of IL-6, inhibited apoptosis, and increased levels of GSH in activated adipocytes were detected. CONCLUSIONS: Maqui, Calafate, and Blueberry extracts showed anti-inflammatory and antioxidant responses in human macrophages and adipocytes.
  • Autores: Cuevas Sierra, Amanda; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Guruceaga Martínez, Elisabet; et al.
    Revista: MICROORGANISMS
    ISSN: 2076-2607 Vol.8 N° 6 2020 págs. 938
    Resumen
    The gut microbiome has been recognized as a tool for understanding adiposity accumulation and for providing personalized nutrition advice for the management of obesity and accompanying metabolic complications. The genetic background is also involved in human energy homeostasis. In order to increase the value of nutrigenetic dietary advice, the interplay between genetics and microbiota must be investigated. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate interactive associations between gut microbiota composition and 95 obesity-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) searched in the literature. Oral mucosa and fecal samples from 360 normal weight, overweight and obese subjects were collected. Next generation genotyping of these 95 SNPs and fecal 16S rRNA sequencing were performed. A genetic risk score (GRS) was constructed with 10 SNPs statistically or marginally associated with body mass index (BMI). Several microbiome statistical analyses at family taxonomic level were applied (LEfSe, Canonical Correspondence Analysis, MetagenomeSeq and Random Forest), and Prevotellaceae family was found in all of them as one of the most important bacterial families associated with BMI and GRS. Thus, in this family it was further analyzed the interactive association between BMI and GRS with linear regression models. Interestingly, women with higher abundance of Prevotellaceae and higher GRS were more obese, compared to women with higher GRS and lower abundance of Prevotellaceae. These findings suggest relevant interrelationships between Prevotellaceae and the genetic background that may determine interindividual BMI differences in women, which opens the way to new precision nutrition-based treatments for obesity.
  • Autores: Landecho Acha, Manuel Fortún (Autor de correspondencia); Alegría-Murillo, L.; López Fidalgo, Jesús Fernando; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
    ISSN: 0014-2972 Vol.50 N° 11 2020 págs. e13307
    Resumen
    Background: Obesity is a major public health problem, which continues to be diagnosed and classified by BMI, excluding the most elemental concepts of the precision medicine approach. Obesity does not equally affect males and females, even with the same BMI. Microalbuminuria is a risk marker of cardiovascular disease closely related to obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gender-dependent differences in the development of early obesity-related disease, focusing on pathologic microalbuminuria (PMA). Material and methods: We developed a single-centre cross-sectional study including 1068 consecutive adults from May 2016 to January 2018, divided into two groups: one including the first 787 patients attended, evaluated as a description population; the second group included 281 subjects analysed as an external validation population. Collected data included medical history, anthropometric measures, abdominal bioimpedance and routine laboratory tests. Results: First, we confirmed the lack of accuracy of classic obesity measures in predicting microalbuminuria. Second, we tested the utility of a tailored evaluation to predict PMA, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.78 for females and 0.82 for males. We also confirmed the different physiology of visceral adiposity for males when compared to females, in which small variations of fat mass entail major changes in the clinical repercussion. Third, we performed an external validation of our results, achieving a 77% accuracy rate. Conclusions: Our findings support that there is an individual threshold of fat amount necessary to develop obesity-dependent PMA and that gender plays a major role in the interplay between PMA and adiposity.
  • Autores: Palla, L. (Autor de correspondencia); Chapman, A. ; Beh, E. ; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.12 N° 8 2020 págs. 2235
    Resumen
    This study investigates the relationship between the consumption of foods and eating locations (home, school/work and others) in British adolescents, using data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Program (2008-2012 and 2013-2016). A cross-sectional analysis of 62,523 food diary entries from this nationally representative sample was carried out for foods contributing up to 80% total energy to the daily adolescent's diet. Correspondence analysis (CA) was used to generate food-location relationship hypotheses followed by logistic regression (LR) to quantify the evidence in terms of odds ratios and formally test those hypotheses. The less-healthy foods that emerged from CA were chips, soft drinks, chocolate and meat pies. Adjusted odds ratios (99% CI) for consuming specific foods at a location "other" than home (H) or school/work (S) in the 2008-2012 survey sample were: for soft drinks, 2.8 (2.1 to 3.8) vs. H and 2.0 (1.4 to 2.8) vs. S; for chips, 2.8 (2.2 to 3.7) vs. H and 3.4 (2.1 to 5.5) vs. S; for chocolates, 2.6 (1.9 to 3.5) vs. H and 1.9 (1.2 to 2.9) vs. S; and for meat pies, 2.7 (1.5 to 5.1) vs. H and 1.3 (0.5 to 3.1) vs. S. These trends were confirmed in the 2013-2016 survey sample. Interactions between location and BMI were not significant in either sample. In conclusion, public health policies to discourage less-healthy food choices in locations away from home and school/work are warranted for adolescents, irrespective of their BMI.
  • Autores: Bouzas, C.; Bibiloni, M. D. M.; Garcia, S. ; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.12 N° 10 2020
    Resumen
    One-year dietary quality change according to the preceding maximum weight in a lifestyle intervention program (PREDIMED-Plus trial, 55-75-year-old overweight or obese adults; n = 5695) was assessed. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake. A total of 3 groups were made according to the difference between baseline measured weight and lifetime maximum reported weight: (a) participants entering the study at their maximum weight, (b) moderate weight loss maintainers (WLM), and (c) large WLM. Data were analyzed by General Linear Model. All participants improved average lifestyle. Participants entering the study at their maximum weight were the most susceptible to improve significantly their dietary quality, assessed by adherence to Mediterranean diet, DII and both healthful and unhealthful provegetarian patterns. People at maximum weight are the most benefitted in the short term by a weight management program. Long term weight loss efforts may also reduce the effect of a weight management program.
  • Autores: Marin-Alejandre, B. A.; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Monreal Marquiegui, José Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL LIPIDOLOGY
    ISSN: 1933-2874 2020
  • Autores: Livingstone, K. M.; Celis-Morales, C.; Navas Carretero, Santiago; et al.
    Revista: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0007-1145 Vol.123 N° 12 2020 págs. 1396 - 1405
    Resumen
    Little is known about who would benefit from Internet-based personalised nutrition (PN) interventions. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of participants who achieved greatest improvements (i.e. benefit) in diet, adiposity and biomarkers following an Internet-based PN intervention. Adults (n 1607) from seven European countries were recruited into a 6-month, randomised controlled trial (Food4Me) and randomised to receive conventional dietary advice (control) or PN advice. Information on dietary intake, adiposity, physical activity (PA), blood biomarkers and participant characteristics was collected at baseline and month 6. Benefit from the intervention was defined as >= 5 % change in the primary outcome (Healthy Eating Index) and secondary outcomes (waist circumference and BMI, PA, sedentary time and plasma concentrations of cholesterol, carotenoids and omega-3 index) at month 6. For our primary outcome, benefit from the intervention was greater in older participants, women and participants with lower HEI scores at baseline. Benefit was greater for individuals reporting greater self-efficacy for 'sticking to healthful foods' and who 'felt weird if [they] didn't eat healthily'. Participants benefited more if they reported wanting to improve their health and well-being. The characteristics of individuals benefiting did not differ by other demographic, health-related, anthropometric or genotypic characteristics. Findings were similar for secondary outcomes. These findings have implications for the design of more effective future PN intervention studies and for tailored nutritional advice in public health and clinical settings.
  • Autores: Castilla Madrigal, Rosa María; Gil Iturbe, Eva; de Calle, M. L. ; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY
    ISSN: 0955-2863 Vol.76 2020 págs. 108264
    Resumen
    Tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-alpha) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine highly-involved in intestinal inflammation. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFAs) show anti-inflammatory actions. We previously demonstrated that the n3-PUFA EPA prevents TNF-alpha inhibition of sugar uptake in Caco-2 cells. Here, we investigated whether the n3-PUFA DHA and its derived specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs) MaR1, RvD1 and RvD2, could block TNF-alpha inhibition of intestinal sugar and glutamine uptake. DHA blocked TNF-alpha-induced inhibition of alpha-methyl-D-glucose (alpha MG) uptake and SGLT1 expression in the apical membrane of Caco-2 cells, through a pathway independent of GPR120. SPMs showed the same preventive effect but acting at concentrations 1000 times lower. In diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, oral gavage of MaR1 reversed the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines found in intestinal mucosa of these mice. However, MaR1 treatment was not able to counteract the reduced intestinal transport of alpha MG and SGLT1 expression in the DIO mice. In Caco-2 cells, TNF-alpha also inhibited glutamine uptake being this inhibition prevented by EPA, DHA and the DHA-derived SPMs. Interestingly, TNF-alpha increased the expression in the apical membrane of the glutamine transporter B(0)AT1. This increase was partially blocked by the n-3 PUFAs. These data reveal DHA and its SPMs as promising biomolecules to restore intestinal nutrients transport during intestinal inflammation. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Autores: Galarregui Miquelarena, Cristina; Marín-Alejandre, B. A.; Pérez Díaz Del Campo, Nuria; et al.
    Revista: DIAGNOSTICS
    ISSN: 2075-4418 Vol.10 N° 11 2020
  • Autores: Bullon Vela, Maria Vanessa; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; et al.
    Revista: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY
    ISSN: 0029-6651 Vol.79 N° OCE2 2020 págs. E378 - E378
  • Autores: Arpon Miranda, Ana; Riezu Boj, José Ignacio; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY
    ISSN: 0029-6651 Vol.79 N° OCE2 2020 págs. E398 - E398
  • Autores: Marin-Alejandre, B. A.; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Cantero González, Irene; et al.
    Revista: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY
    ISSN: 0029-6651 Vol.79 N° OCE2 2020 págs. E373
  • Autores: Marin-Alejandre, B. A.; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Pérez Díaz Del Campo, Nuria; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
    ISSN: 0250-6807 Vol.76 N° Supl. 4 2020 págs. 57 - 58
  • Autores: Galarregui Miquelarena, Cristina; Marin-Alejandre, B. A. ; Pérez Díaz Del Campo, Nuria; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
    ISSN: 0250-6807 Vol.76 N° Supl. 4 2020 págs. 55
  • Autores: Galarregui Miquelarena, Cristina; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; Marin-Alejandre, B. A.; et al.
    Revista: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY
    ISSN: 0029-6651 Vol.79 N° OCE2 2020 págs. E96
  • Autores: Lorente Cebrián, Silvia; Herrera, K.; Milagro Yoldi, Fermín Ignacio; et al.