Grupos Investigadores

Líneas de Investigación

  • Prevención con dieta mediterránea.
  • Epidemiología nutricional.
  • Dieta y estilos de vida.
  • Consentimiento informado Proyecto Arritmias Recurrentes
  • Afectividad / Fertilidad humana.

Palabras Clave

  • Riesgo cardiovascular
  • Obesidad
  • Nutrición
  • Hipertensión
  • Dieta mediterránea
  • Dieta
  • Diabetes
  • Cáncer de mama
  • Biomedicina y Salud

Publicaciones Científicas desde 2018

  • Autores: Barbería Latasa, María; Gea Sánchez, Alfredo (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez González, Miguel Ángel
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.14 N° 9 2022 págs. 1954
    Resumen
    This review discusses the inconsistent recommendations on alcohol consumption and its association with chronic disease, highlighting the need for an evidence-based consensus. Alcohol is an addictive substance consumed worldwide, especially in European countries. Recommendations on alcohol consumption are controversial. On one hand, many nonrandomized studies defend that moderate consumption has a beneficial cardiovascular effect or a lower risk of all-cause mortality. On the other hand, alcohol is associated with an increased risk of cancer, neurological diseases, or injuries, among others. For years, efforts have been made to answer the question regarding the safe amount of alcohol intake, but controversies remain. Observational studies advocate moderate alcohol consumption following a Mediterranean pattern (red wine with meals avoiding binge drinking) as the best option for current drinkers. However, agencies such as the IARC recommend abstention from alcohol as it is a potent carcinogen. In this context, more randomized trial with larger sample size and hard clinical endpoints should be conducted to clarify the available evidence and provide clinicians with support for their clinical practice.
  • Autores: Martín Calvo, Nerea (Autor de correspondencia); Goñi Mateos, Leticia; Tur, J. A.; et al.
    Revista: OBESITY REVIEWS
    ISSN 1467-7881 Vol.23 N° Supl. 1 2022 págs. e13380
    Resumen
    In recent decades, the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has increased dramatically in children and adolescents, posing a real public health problem. Beyond unhealthy diets and sedentary lifestyles, growing evidence suggests that some perinatal factors, such as low birth weight (LBW), are associated with higher risk of T2D in adulthood. In this regard, it remains unclear whether the increased risk is already present in childhood and adolescence. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the association of LBW or being small for gestational age (SGA) with insulin resistance in childhood and adolescence. The systematic review resulted in 28 individual studies, and those with the same outcome were included within two random-effects meta-analyses. Compared with children or adolescents born with adequate size for gestational age, those SGA had 2.33-fold higher risk of T2D (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-5.17). Furthermore, LBW and being SGA were associated with 0.20 higher mean homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values (95% CI: 0.02-0.38). Given the high prevalence of preterm babies, from a population perspective, these results may be of great importance as they point to the existence of a potentially vulnerable subgroup of children and adolescents that could benefit from screening tests and early preventive strategies.
  • Autores: Babio, N. (Autor de correspondencia); Becerra-Tomás, N.; Nishi, S. K. (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: OBESITY REVIEWS
    ISSN 1467-7881 Vol.23 N° Supl. 1 2022 págs. e13400
    Resumen
    A systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies was conducted to assess the associations between total dairy consumption and its different subtypes with the prevalence and incidence of overweight, obesity, and overweight/obesity in children and adolescents. A literature search was conducted in Medline through PUBMED and Cochrane Library databases until October 18, 2021. Articles reporting the risk estimates as odd ratios (OR), risk ratios (RR), or hazard ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between dairy product consumption and the risk of overweight and/or obesity were included. In the meta-analysis from cross-sectional studies, results showed an inverse association between total dairy consumption and obesity prevalence (OR (95% CI): 0.66 (0.48-0.91). No significant associations were found between milk or yogurt and obesity prevalence risk. Regarding prospective studies, total milk consumption was positively associated with overweight prevalence (OR (95% CI): 1.13 (1.01-1.26)) and incidence (RR (95%CI): 1.17 (1.01-1.35)) risk. Evidence from pooled analysis of cross-sectional studies suggested an inverse association between total dairy consumption and obesity. However, there is limited and no conclusive evidence to confirm an inverse relationship from pooled analysis of prospective studies in children and adolescents.
  • Autores: Montero, J. A. (Autor de correspondencia); Bardají-Pascual, C.; Bronte-Anaut, M. ; et al.
    Revista: WORLD JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS
    ISSN 1708-8569 Vol.18 N° 2 2022 págs. 91 - 99
    Resumen
    Background Despite the radiological and analytical advances of the last decades, there is still a significant rate of diagnostic error in pediatric acute appendicitis. In recent years, multiple biomarkers have emerged as potential diagnostic tools. This study aimed to examine the diagnostic performance of serum interleukin-6 in pediatric acute appendicitis. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature that involved an extensive search in the main databases of medical bibliography (Medline, PubMed, Web of Science and SciELO). Two independent reviewers selected the relevant articles based on the previously defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Methodological quality of the selected article was rated using the QUADAS2 index. Data extraction was performed by two independent reviewers. Results The research in the medical bibliography databases resulted in 68 articles. We removed 26 duplicates. Among the remaining 42 articles, we excluded 33 following the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of the final 9 studies included in this review, 8 provided measured serum interleukin-6 values, and all of them reported significant differences between groups, but inconsistent results regarding sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions The diagnostic performance of interleukine-6 alone for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children is limited. The sensitivity and specificity of interleukine-6 for the diagnosis of non-complicated acute appendicitis in the pediatric population are moderate but increased in complicated appendicitis. There seems to be a direct relationship between serum level of interleukin-6 and the hours of evolution of abdominal pain in children with acute appendicitis. The increasingly widespread use of non-operative management of acute appendicitis warrants further exploration of the classificatory potential of this marker between complicated and uncomplicated appendicitis. We consider that this may be an avenue of research to explore in the future.
  • Autores: Rabassa, M. (Autor de correspondencia); Hernández Ponce, Y.; García-Ribera, S.; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0954-3007 Vol.76 N° 3 2022 págs. 350 - 359
    Resumen
    Background & objectives Food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) have been developed to promote healthy diets and prevent chronic diseases. However, the methodological quality of Spanish FBDGs has not been systematically assessed yet. The objective of this review is to identify and assess the methodological quality of Spanish FBDGs, as well as to describe their food guides and key recommendations. Methods We conducted a systematic search to identify Spanish FBDGs targeted at the general population using multiple sources. Two authors independently screened the references, extracted data, and assessed the quality of the FBDGs using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II and the Recommendation Excellence (AGREE-REX) instruments. We performed a descriptive analysis of the FBDGs. Results We included 19 FBDGs, published between 2007 and 2019. The median scores for each AGREE II domain were: scope and purpose 44% (Q1-Q3: 33-61%); Stakeholder involvement 31% (11-44%), rigor of development 3% (1-14%); clarity of presentation 42% (33-47%), applicability 0% (0-6%); and editorial independence 0% (0-8%). Six FBDGs (32%; 6/19) were categorized as recommended with modifications, and the rest (68%; 13/19) as not recommended. None of the FBDGs scored >= 60% in three or more domains, including the rigor of development domain. FBDGs indexed in literature databases scored significantly higher in overall rating than those not indexed (P = 0.023). The majority of FBDGs (74%; 14/19) used the pyramid as a food guide representation with a larger number of food levels (3-7 levels). The majority of FBDGs recommended a daily intake of cereals and grains, vegetables, fruits, olive oil and dairy products; a weekly intake of vegetable and animal proteins; and the occasional and limited intake of other food groups (e.g., ultraprocessed foods). Conclusions Overall, the methodological quality of FBDGs is poor showing that only 32% of FBDGs are recommended for use with modifications. Our results highlight the need to revise, systematize and improve FBDG development processes in Spain.
  • Autores: Fernández-Lázaro, D. (Autor de correspondencia); Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Seco-Calvo, J.; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH
    ISSN 1660-4601 Vol.19 N° 15 2022 págs. 9533
    Resumen
    Tribulus terrestris L. (TT) is a plant used in traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, and sports nutrition to improve health and performance. However, no conclusive evidence exists about the potential beneficial effects of TT on sport and health biomarkers in physically active adults. Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, and the modified McMaster Critical Review Form for methodological quality assessment, we systematically reviewed studies indexed in Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed, to assess the effects of TT on immunological, hematological, biochemical, renal, lipidic, hormonal behavior, and anti-inflammatory response in physically active adult males. Among 340 records identified in the search, a total of 7 studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Overall, participants supplemented with TT displayed significant improvements in lipid profile. Inflammatory and hematological biomarkers showed moderate beneficial effects with no significant changes on renal biomarkers. No positive effects were observed on the immune system response. Additionally, no TT-induced toxicity was reported. In conclusion, there was no clear evidence of the beneficial effects of TT supplementation on muscle damage markers and hormonal behavior. More studies are needed to confirm the benefits of TT due to the limited number of studies available in the current literature.
  • Autores: Donat-Vargas, C. (Autor de correspondencia); Sandoval-Insausti, H.; Penalvo, J. L.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0261-5614 Vol.41 N° 3 2022 págs. 784 - 785
  • Autores: Henríquez-Sánchez, P. (Autor de correspondencia); Sánchez-Villegas, A.; Ruano-Rodríguez, C.; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 1436-6207 Vol.61 N° 1 2022 págs. 569 - 571
  • Autores: Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio; Zazpe García, Itzíar; Santiago Neri, Susana; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0261-5614 Vol.41 N° 6 2022 págs. 1465
  • Autores: Martín Calvo, Nerea; Santiago Neri, Susana; Segura, G.; et al.
    Revista: PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION
    ISSN 1368-9800 Vol.25 N° 6 2022 págs. 1733
  • Autores: Arredondo Montero, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Bronte Anaut, M.; López-Andrés, N.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS
    ISSN 0022-3476 Vol.242 2022 págs. 256 - 257
  • Autores: Visioli, F. (Autor de correspondencia); Franco, M.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0954-3007 Vol.76 N° 4 2022 págs. 502 - 504
  • Autores: Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Sayon Orea, María del Carmen; Toledo Atucha, Estefanía; et al.
    Revista: BMC MEDICINE
    ISSN 1741-7015 Vol.20 N° 1 2022 págs. 232
    Resumen
    Background The American Heart Association recommends Life's Simple 7 as ideal cardiovascular health (ICVH) to reduce cardiovascular risk. Rate advancement period (RAP), a useful tool to quantify and communicate exposure impact on risks, may enhance communication about the benefits of achieving ICVH. We aimed to examine whether greater adherence to ICVH metrics was associated with reduced incidence of cardiovascular risk in a population-based cohort and estimate its impact on the timing of occurrence using RAP. Methods Prospective analyses of 3826 participants, initially free from cardiovascular disease at baseline, enrolled in the Vascular Risk in Navarra Study (RIVANA), a Mediterranean population-based cohort of Spanish adults. ICVH metrics were defined using participants' baseline information as follows: never-smoker or quitting > 12 months ago, body mass index < 25 kg/m(2), >= 150 min/week of moderate physical activity or equivalent, healthy dietary pattern (>= 9 points on a validated 14-item Mediterranean diet adherence screener), untreated cholesterol < 200 mg/dL, untreated blood pressure < 120/80 mmHg, and untreated fasting blood glucose < 100 mg/dL. Participants were assigned 1 point for each achieved metric and were grouped according to their number of accumulated metrics in <= 2, 3, 4, and >= 5. The primary endpoint was major cardiovascular events (composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes). Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) and RAPs with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) adjusted for potential confounders were calculated. Results During a median follow-up of 12.8 years (interquartile range 12.3-13.1), a total of 194 primary endpoints were identified. Compared to participants with <= 2 ideal metrics, HR (95% CI) for major cardiovascular events among participants meeting >= 5 metrics was 0.32 (0.17-0.60) with RAP (95% CI) of - 14.4 years (- 22.9, - 5.9). Conclusions Greater adherence to ICVH metrics was associated with lower cardiovascular risk among Spanish adults of the RIVANA cohort. Adherence to ideal metrics may substantially delay cardiovascular risk.
  • Autores: Guasch-Ferre, M. (Autor de correspondencia); Li, Y.; Willett, W. C.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY
    ISSN 0735-1097 Vol.79 N° 2 2022 págs. 101 - 112
    Resumen
    BACKGROUND Olive oil consumption has been shown to tower cardiovascular disease risk, but its associations with total and cause-specific mortality are unclear. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether olive oil intake is associated with total and cause-specific mortality in 2 prospective cohorts of U.S. men and women. METHODS The authors used multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional-hazards models to estimate HRs for total and cause-specific mortality among 60,582 women (Nurses' Health Study, 1990-2018) and 31,801 men (Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 1990-2018) who were free of cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline. Diet was assessed by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire every 4 years. RESULTS During 28 years of follow-up, 36,856 deaths occurred. The multivariable-adjusted pooled HR for all-cause mortality among participants who had the highest consumption of olive oil (>0.5 tablespoon/day or >7 g/d) was 0.81 (95% 0: 0.78-0.84) compared with those who never or rarely consumed olive oil. Higher olive oil intake was associated with 19% tower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.75-0.87), 17% tower risk of cancer mortality (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.78-0.89), 29% lower risk of neurodegenerative disease mortality (HR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.64-0.78), and 18% lower risk of respiratory disease mortality (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.72-0.93). In substitution analyses, replacing 10 g/d of margarine, butter, mayonnaise, and dairy fat with the equivalent amount of olive oil was associated with 8%-34% lower risk of total and cause-specific mortality. No significant associations were observed when olive oil was compared with other vegetable oils combined. CONCLUSIONS Higher olive oil intake was associated with tower risk of total and cause-specific mortality. Replacing margarine, butter, mayonnaise, and dairy fat with olive oil was associated with lower risk of mortality. (C) 2022 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
  • Autores: Muralidharan, J.; Papandreou, C.; Soria-Florido, M. T.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 0022-3166 Vol.152 N° 3 2022 págs. 789 - 795
    Resumen
    Background: Cell membrane fatty acid composition has been related to inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Dysregulation of HDL function is also considered a CVD risk factor. Objectives: We aimed to investigate whether the content of cell membrane fatty acids and HDL functionality are linked to each other as well as to inflammation. Methods: This cross-sectional analysis involved 259 participants (mean age: 67.9 y) with overweight/obesity (mean BMI: 29.5 kg/m(2)) from a coronary artery disease case-control study nested within the PREDIMED (PREvencion con Dleta MEDiterranea) trial for which HDL functional parameters [apoA-I, apoA-IV, and apoC-III; cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC); HDL oxidative inflammatory index (HOII); sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P); serum amyloid A (SAA); and complement-3 (C3) protein] were quantified. We also assessed 22 fatty acids in blood cell membranes using GC and inflammatory markers (IFN-gamma and IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) in serum. Associations of HDL-related variables with cell membrane fatty acids and with inflammatory markers were assessed using multivariable linear regression analyses with elastic net penalty. Results: ApoA-I, apoC-III, CEC, HOII, S1P and SAA, but not apoA-IV and C3 protein, were associated with membrane fatty acids. S1P and SAA were directly associated with IL-6, whereas apoA-I and C3 protein showed inverse associations with IL-6. Specific fatty acids including myristic acid (14:0) and long-chain n-6 fatty acids being negatively and positively associated with IL-8, respectively, were also found to be positively associated with SAA. Conclusions: This study suggests interrelations between indicators of inflammation and both blood cell membrane fatty acid composition and HDL structure/functional parameters in a Mediterranean population at high CVD risk.
  • Autores: De la O Pascual, Víctor; Zazpe García, Itzíar; Goñi Mateos, Leticia; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 1436-6207 Vol.61 N° 2 2022 págs. 957 - 971
    Resumen
    Purpose: To assess the association between a score appraising adherence to the PaleoDiet and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a Mediterranean cohort. Methods: We included 18,210 participants from the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort study. The PaleoDiet score comprised six food groups promoted within this diet (fruit, nuts, vegetables, eggs, meat and fish) and five food groups whose consumption is discouraged (cereals and grains, dairy products, legumes, culinary ingredients, and processed/ultra-processed foods). CVD was defined as acute myocardial infarction with or without ST elevation, non-fatal stroke and cardiovascular death. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for potential confounders were fitted to assess the association between the PaleoDiet score and CVD risk, and the PaleoDiet and MedDiet indices to explore differences between both diets. Results: During 12.2 years of follow-up, 165 incident CVD cases were confirmed. A significant inverse association was found between the PaleoDiet score and CVD (HR Q5 vs. Q1: 0.45, 95% CI 0.27-0.76, P for trend = 0.007). A weaker association that became non-significant was observed when the item for low consumption of ultra-processed foods was removed from the score. Joint analysis of PaleoDiet and MedDiet Trichopoulou scores suggested that the inverse association between PaleoDiet and CVD was mainly present when adherence to the MedDiet was also high (HR for high adherence vs low adherence to both diet scores: 0.22, 95% CI 0.08-0.64). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the PaleoDiet may have cardiovascular benefits in participants from a Mediterranean country. Avoidance of ultra-processed foods seems to play a key role in this inverse association.
  • Autores: Vázquez Ruiz, Zenaida; Toledo Atucha, Estefanía; Vitelli-Storelli, F.; et al.
    Revista: ANTIOXIDANTS
    ISSN 2076-3921 Vol.11 N° 4 2022 págs. 783
    Resumen
    The health benefits of plant-based diets have been reported. Plant-based diets found in Spain and other Mediterranean countries differ from typical diets in other countries. In the Mediterranean diet, a high intake of phenolic compounds through olives, olive oil, and red wine may play an important role in cardiovascular prevention. Prospective studies carried out in Mediterranean countries may provide interesting insights. A relatively young Mediterranean cohort of 16,147 Spanish participants free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) was followed (61% women, mean (SD) age 37(12) years at baseline) for a median of 12.2 years. Dietary intake was repeatedly assessed using a 136-item validated food frequency questionnaire, and (poly)phenol intake was obtained using the Phenol-Explorer database. Participants were classified as incident cases of CVD if a medical diagnosis of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death was medically confirmed. Time-dependent Cox regression models were used to assess the relationship between (poly)phenol intake and the incidence of major CVD. A suboptimal intake of phenolic compounds was independently associated with a higher risk of CVD, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for the lowest versus top 4 quintiles: 1.85 (95% CI: 1.09-3.16). A moderate-to-high dietary intake of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, is likely to reduce CVD incidence in the context of a Mediterranean dietary pattern.
  • Autores: Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio; Toledo Atucha, Estefanía; Buil Cosiales, Pilar; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 1436-6207 Vol.61 N° 3 2022 págs. 1457 - 1475
    Resumen
    Purpose Long-term nutrition trials may fail to respond to their original hypotheses if participants do not comply with the intended dietary intervention. We aimed to identify baseline factors associated with successful dietary changes towards an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) in the PREDIMED-Plus randomized trial. Methods Longitudinal analysis of 2985 participants (Spanish overweight/obese older adults with metabolic syndrome) randomized to the active intervention arm of the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Dietary changes were assessed with a 17-item energy-reduced MedDiet questionnaire after 6 and 12 months of follow-up. Successful compliance was defined as dietary changes from baseline of >= 5 points for participants with baseline scores < 13 points or any increase if baseline score was >= 13 points. We conducted crude and adjusted multivariable logistic regression models to identify baseline factors related to compliance. Results Consistent factors independently associated with successful dietary change at both 6 and 12 months were high baseline perceived self-efficacy in modifying diet (OR6-month: 1.51, 95% CI 1.25-1.83; OR12-month: 1.66, 95% CI 1.37-2.01), higher baseline fiber intake (OR6-month: 1.62, 95% CI 1.07-2.46; OR12-month: 1.62, 95% CI 1.07-2.45), having > 3 chronic conditions (OR6-month: 0.65, 95% CI 0.53-0.79; OR12-month: 0.76, 95% CI 0.62-0.93), and suffering depression (OR6-month: 0.80, 95% CI 0.64-0.99; OR12-month: 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.88). Conclusion Our results suggested that recruitment of individuals with high perceived self-efficacy to dietary change, and those who initially follow diets relatively richer in fiber may lead to greater changes in nutritional recommendations. Participants with multiple chronic conditions, specifically depression, should receive specific tailored interventions.
  • Autores: Qi, Q. (Autor de correspondencia); Li, J.; Yu, B.; et al.
    Revista: GUT
    ISSN 0017-5749 Vol.71 N° 6 2022 págs. 1095 - 1105
    Resumen
    Objective Tryptophan can be catabolised to various metabolites through host kynurenine and microbial indole pathways. We aimed to examine relationships of host and microbial tryptophan metabolites with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D), host genetics, diet and gut microbiota. Method We analysed associations between circulating levels of 11 tryptophan metabolites and incident T2D in 9180 participants of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds from five cohorts. We examined host genome-wide variants, dietary intake and gut microbiome associated with these metabolites. Results Tryptophan, four kynurenine-pathway metabolites (kynurenine, kynurenate, xanthurenate and quinolinate) and indolelactate were positively associated with T2D risk, while indolepropionate was inversely associated with T2D risk. We identified multiple host genetic variants, dietary factors, gut bacteria and their potential interplay associated with these T2D-relaetd metabolites. Intakes of fibre-rich foods, but not protein/tryptophan-rich foods, were the dietary factors most strongly associated with tryptophan metabolites. The fibre-indolepropionate association was partially explained by indolepropionate-associated gut bacteria, mostly fibre-using Firmicutes. We identified a novel association between a host functional LCT variant (determining lactase persistence) and serum indolepropionate, which might be related to a host gene-diet interaction on gut Bifidobacterium, a probiotic bacterium significantly associated with indolepropionate independent of other fibre-related bacteria. Higher milk intake was associated with higher levels of gut Bifidobacterium and serum indolepropionate only among genetically lactase non-persistent individuals. Conclusion Higher milk intake among lactase non-persistent individuals, and higher fibre intake were associated with a favourable profile of circulating tryptophan metabolites for T2D, potentially through the host-microbial cross-talk shifting tryptophan metabolism toward gut microbial indolepropionate production.
  • Autores: Álvarez-Mon, M. A. (Autor de correspondencia); Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Llavero-Valero, M.; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH
    ISSN 1660-4601 Vol.19 N° 2 2022 págs. 784
    Resumen
    Background: Media outlets influence social attitudes toward health. Thus, it is important that they share contents which promote healthy habits. The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk. Analysis of tweets has become a tool for understanding perceptions on health issues. Methods: We investigated tweets posted between January 2009 and December 2019 by 25 major US media outlets about MedDiet and its components as well as the retweets and likes generated. In addition, we measured the sentiment analysis of these tweets and their dissemination. Results: In total, 1608 tweets, 123,363 likes and 48,946 retweets about MedDiet or its components were analyzed. Dairy (inversely weighted in MedDiet scores) accounted for 45.0% of the tweets (723/1608), followed by nuts 19.7% (317/1608). MedDiet, as an overall dietary pattern, generated only 9.8% (157/1608) of the total tweets, while olive oil generated the least number of tweets. Twitter users' response was quantitatively related to the number of tweets posted by these US media outlets, except for tweets on olive oil and MedDiet. None of the MedDiet components analyzed was more likely to be liked or retweeted than the MedDiet itself. Conclusions: The US media outlets analyzed showed reduced interest in MedDiet as a whole, while Twitter users showed greater interest in the overall dietary pattern than in its particular components.
  • Autores: García-Blanco, L.; Berasaluce, A.; Romanos Nanclares, Andrea; et al.
    Revista: WORLD JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS
    ISSN 1708-8569 Vol.18 N° 7 2022 págs. 482 - 489
    Resumen
    Background The association between parental perception of child's weight and their attitudes towards his/her dietary habits has not been reported yet. This study aimed to assess the association between parental underestimation of child's weight and parental attitudes towards child's dietary habits. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of SENDO cohort participants recruited between January 2015 and June 2020. All information was collected through online questionnaires completed by parents. We calculated crude and multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for unhealthy attitudes towards child's dietary habits associated with parental underestimation of child's weight. Results Sixteen percent of children in the SENDO project had parents who underestimated their weight. Parents who underestimated their child's weight status were more likely to have unhealthy attitudes toward his/her dietary habits [OR 3.35; 95% CI (1.71-6.53)]. Conclusions Parental underestimation of child's weight was associated with unhealthy attitudes towards child's dietary habits. Pediatricians and public health practitioners should pay attention to the parental perception of child's weight to identify parents who underestimate it as an at-risk group in which to inquire about lifestyle and dietary habits.
  • Autores: Almanza-Aguilera, E.; Hernáez, A.; Corella, D.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITIONAL NEUROSCIENCE
    ISSN 1028-415X Vol.25 N° 2 2022 págs. 256 - 265
    Resumen
    Background: The Traditional Mediterranean Diet (TMD) is known to have beneficial effects on several chronic diseases. However, data concerning the whole transcriptome modulation of the TMD are scarce. Objective: We aimed to explore the effects of the TMD on the whole transcriptome of individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Methods: Thirty-four participants at high cardiovascular risk were randomly assigned to a TMD enriched with extra-virgin olive oil (TMD + VOO), mixed nuts (TMD + Nuts), or a control diet based on low-fat diet recommendations. A microarray analysis in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the participants was conducted before and after 3 months of the intervention. The association of changes in gene expression was modeled into canonical pathways by conducting an untargeted functional analysis with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis(R)(IPA). Effects were considered significant when the absolutez-score values were >= 2.0 and the logarithmP(adjusted by the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure [BH]) values were >= 1.30. Results: According to IPA, interventions with TMD + Nuts, TMD + VOO, and control diet downregulated neuroinflammation, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 , and cholecystokinin/gastrin-mediated signaling pathways, respectively. The gene expression among these pathways included cytokines, T-cell activation receptors, nuclear factor kappa beta/inflammasome components, pro-inflammatory enzymes and cell cycle regulators. Conclusion: The current findings suggest that the TMD enriched with mixed nuts or VOO downregulate transcriptomic pathways, including those related to neuroinflammation, which could influence development of neurodegenerative diseases. Our data should be corroborated in other tissue cells, such as neurons and glial cells.
  • Autores: Álvarez-Mon, M. A. (Autor de correspondencia); Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio; Ortega, M. A.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN PSYCHIATRY
    ISSN 1664-0640 Vol.13 2022 págs. 871113
    Resumen
    BackgroundThe Internet has become the main source of information on health issues, and information now determines the therapeutic preferences of patients. For this reason, it is relevant to analyze online information discussing psychotherapy. ObjectiveTo investigate tweets posted by 25 major US media outlets between 2009 and 2019 concerning psychotherapy. MethodsWe investigated tweets posted by 25 major US media outlets about psychotherapy between January 2009 and December 2019 as well as the likes generated. In addition, we measured the sentiment analysis of these tweets. ResultsMost of the tweets analyzed focused on Mindfulness (5,498), while a low number were related to Psychoanalysis (376) and even less to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (61). Surprisingly, Computer-supported therapy, Psychodynamic therapy, Systemic therapy, Acceptance and commitment therapy, and Dialectical behavior therapy did not generate any tweet. In terms of content, efficacy was the main focus of the posted tweets, receiving Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Mindfulness a positive appraisal. ConclusionsUS media outlets focused their interest on Mindfulness which may have contributed to the growing popularity in the past years of this therapeutic modality.
  • Autores: Gil Conesa, Mario; Amer, F.; Carlos Chillerón, Silvia; et al.
    Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH
    ISSN 0090-0036 Vol.112 N° 4 2022 págs. 570 - 573
    Resumen
    The "Safe Campus Program," implemented in 2020 through 2021 at the University of Navarra (Spain), aimed to guarantee a safe return to university campus and prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreaks, avoiding university-wide lockdown. It included COVID-19 education, campus adaptation, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. We describe the main characteristics of the program and analyze the SARS-CoV-2 cumulative incidence among 14 496 university members. The 14-day cumulative incidence in the university was 415.2 versus 447.7 in the region. The program, sustainable in the long term, achieved low SARS-CoV-2 in-campus rates.
  • Autores: Ruiz-Canela, Miguel (Autor de correspondencia); Guasch-Ferre, M.; Razquin Burillo, Cristina; et al.
    Revista: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE CARDIOLOGÍA (ENGLISH ED.)
    ISSN 1885-5857 Vol.75 N° 8 2022 págs. 649 - 658
    Resumen
    Introduction and objectives: Fatty acid metabolic dysregulation in mitochondria is a common mechanism involved in the development of heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF). We evaluated the association between plasma acylcarnitine levels and the incidence of HF or AF, and whether the mediterranean diet (MedDiet) may attenuate the association between acylcarnitines and HF or AF risk. Methods: Two case-control studies nested within the Prevencion con dieta mediterranea (PREDIMED) trial. High cardiovascular risk participants were recruited in Spain: 326 incident HF and 509 AF cases individually matched to 1 to 3 controls. Plasma acylcarnitines were measured with high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Conditional logistic regression models were fitted to estimate multivariable OR and 95%CI. Additive and multiplicative interactions were assessed by intervention group, obesity (body mass index >= 30 kg/m(2)), and type 2 diabetes. Results: Elevated levels of medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines were associated with increased HF risk (adjusted ORper DE, 1.28; 95%CI, 1.09-1.51 and adjusted ORper DE, 1.21; 95%CI, 1.04-1.42, respectively). A significant association was observed for AF risk with long-chain acylcarnitines: 1.20 (1.06-1.36). Additive interaction of the association between long-chain acylcarnitines and AF by the MediDiet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil (P for additive interaction = .036) and by obesity (P = .022) was observed in an inverse and direct manner, respectively. Conclusions: Among individuals at high cardiovascular risk, elevated long-chain acylcarnitines were associated with a higher risk of incident HF and AF. An intervention with MedDiet + extra-virgin olive oil may reduce AF risk associated with long-chain acylcarnitines.
  • Autores: Arias Colinas, Mónica; Gea Sánchez, Alfredo (Autor de correspondencia); Khattab, A.; et al.
    Revista: APPLIED SCIENCES
    ISSN 2076-3417 Vol.12 N° 7 2022 págs. 3484
    Resumen
    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a known measure of cardiac autonomic function. A cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction (CAD), measured as changes in HRV, is usually presented after an infectious process. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between serum inflammatory markers and CAD. For this purpose, 50 volunteers (13 of them recovering from an infection) were recruited and followed-up for 6 weeks. Their serum inflammatory biomarkers (CRP, IL1, IL4, IL6, IL10, and TNFalpha) were quantified throughout those weeks, along with their HRV resting, in response to the Valsalva maneuver, metronome breathing, standing and sustained handgrip. The correlation of within-subject changes in both HRV and inflammatory biomarkers was assessed to evaluate the concurrent changes. An inverse within-subject correlation was found between CRP and HRV in response to the Valsalva maneuver (rho (95% CI): -0.517 (-0.877 to -0.001); p = 0.032) and HRV standing (rho (95% CI): -0.490 (-0.943 to -0.036); p = 0.034). At the beginning, increased values of CRP are found along with reduced levels of HRV. Then, the CRP was reduced, accompanied by an improvement (increase) in HRV. These results suggest that CRP is a potential marker of CAD. Whether it is the cause, the consequence or a risk indicator non-causally associated is still to be determined.
  • Autores: Camacho-Barcia, L.; García-Gavilán, J.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
    Revista: AGE AND AGEING
    ISSN 0002-0729 Vol.51 N° 2 2022 págs. afab246
    Resumen
    Background In the last years, evidence that dietary vitamin K could have a role in the cognitive domain has increased. However, data from large trials are limited. The objective of this study was to assess the association of 2 year changes in the dietary intake of vitamin K with cognitive function measured through neuropsychological performance tests. Methods In 5,533 participants of the multicentre PREDIMED-Plus study (48.1% women, age 65.1 +/- 4.9 years with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome), we assessed the adjusted odds ratios of cognitive function decline according to 2 year changes in vitamin K intake. Participants answered a battery of cognitive function tests and Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) in order to estimate the vitamin K dietary intake. Results After adjusting for potential cofounders, the highest tertile of change of dietary vitamin K intake (median [IQR]; 194.4 mu g/d [120.9, 373.1]) was inversely associated with a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score <= 24 (OR [95% CI]; 0.53 [0.35, 0.79] P for trend = 0.002) compared with a decrease in the intake of vitamin K (median [IQR]; -97.8 mu g/d [-292.8, -51.5]). A significant positive association between changes in dietary vitamin K intake and the semantic verbal fluency test scores (OR [95% CI]; 0.69 [0.51, 0.94] P for trend = 0.019) was found. Conclusions An increase of the intake of dietary vitamin K was associated with better cognitive function scores, independently of recognised risk factors for cognitive decline, in an older adult Mediterranean population with high cardiovascular risk.
  • Autores: Razquin Burillo, Cristina; Menendez-Acebal, C. ; Cervantes Ibáñez, Sebastián; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITIONAL NEUROSCIENCE
    ISSN 1028-415X Vol.25 N° 3 2022 págs. 612 - 620
    Resumen
    Background:Severe cognitive decline is one of the major public health problems in developed countries. Finding modifiable risk factors could become essential to develop strategies to prevent or delay dementia progression and stop its rising incidence. Objective:Our aim was to investigate the association between hypertension and cognitive function and to assess whether better adherence to the Mediterranean diet may modify this association. Methods:A subsample of 764 participants from the 'Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra' (SUN) cohort older than 55 years was evaluated with the Spanish Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) at two-time points, separated by 6 years. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models were used to prospectively assess the association between hypertension -also according to adherence to the Mediterranean diet- and 6-y changes in cognitive function. Results:The adjusted between-group difference in the 6-year change of the TICS-m score between hypertensive participants and their non-hypertensive counterparts was -0.36 (95% CI -0.70, -0.02). This association was stronger among participants with a lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet [-0.62 (95% CI: -1.09, -0.15)] but the differences between hypertensive and non-hypertensive participants were no longer significant among participants with a higher baseline adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Conclusion:In this Mediterranean cohort, hypertension was inversely associated with cognitive function, but an attenuation of this detrimental association by a moderate/high adherence to the Mediterranean diet was suggested.
  • Autores: García-Gavilán, J. F.; Paz-Graniel, I.; Babio, N.; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 1436-6207 Vol.61 N° 3 2022 págs. 1445 - 1455
    Resumen
    Purpose Inflammation could play a key role in tissue damage and bone metabolism. The modified dietary inflammatory score (M-DIS) is a validated tool to estimate the inflammatory potential of the diet. In the present study, we evaluate the associations between the M-DIS and bone mineral density (BMD) in a senior Mediterranean population with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome. Methods Baseline cross-sectional association between the M-DIS and bone mineral density was assessed in 1134 participants of the multicenter PREDIMED-Plus trial (aged 55-75 with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome). BMD was measured using Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry scans and participants answered a food frequency questionnaire to determine the M-DIS. BMD was categorized as low BMD when T score was equal or lower than -1 and normal BMD in another case. Associations between BMD and M-DIS were evaluated by using linear and logistic regressions adjusted by other co-variates. Results Participants in the top tertile of the M-DIS had a lower BMD at total femur [beta (95% CI) - 0.02 (- 0.04, - 0.01)], trochanter areas [beta (95% CI) - 0.03 (- 0.05, - 0.01)] and lumbar spine area [beta (95% CI) - 0.03 (- 0.07, 0.01)] (but in the last case, measures were less precise and hence not statistically significant) compared to those in the lower M-DIS tertile. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of the total femur and femoral trochanter osteopenia/osteoporosis were higher in participants in the top tertile compared to those in the lowest tertile of M-DIS [OR (95% CI) 1.71 (1.12, 2.64), P for trend 0.015; 2.02 (1.29, 3.21), P for trend 0.002, respectively]. Conclusion A high pro-inflammatory diet, measured by the M-DIS, is associated with lower BMD in a senior Mediterranean population with metabolic syndrome.
  • Autores: Pardavila Belio, Idoia; De la O Pascual, Víctor; Hershey de la Cruz, María Soledad; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION
    ISSN 0899-9007 Vol.103 - 104 2022 págs. 111761
    Resumen
    Objectives: Although low-quality diets and smoking are independently associated with higher mortality risk, a joint analysis of both risk factors in relation to mortality has not been sufficiently studied. The aim of this study was to explore the effect modification between level of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern (MedDiet) and smoking status on all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality.Methods: We conducted a prospective analysis to assess the association between diet and smoking status in the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) cohort study. Deaths were confirmed by review of the National Death Index. Participants were classified into six categories according to the MedDiet (adherence/non-adherence) and their exposure to smoking (never/former/current smoker). Multivariate-adjusted Cox regression models were fitted to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for mortality. During a mean follow-up of 11.5 y (SD 4.5), we observed 18 948 participants (mean age 38.4 y; SD 12.4) and 431 deaths (51.3% cancer deaths). Results: A higher risk for death was found among smokers with a low adherence to the MedDiet (HR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.45-3.34) compared with never smokers with high adherence to the MedDiet. The P value for supra-multiplicative effect modification was not statistically significant, meaning that the effect of both factors is multiplicative. A higher risk for premature death from cancer was found in smokers and in those nonadherent with the MedDiet.Conclusion: Smoking and poor adherence to the MedDiet exerted a multiplicative effect in increasing allcause mortality and cancer-related mortality in a Spanish population of university graduates.(c) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
  • Autores: Sayon Orea, María del Carmen; Carlos Chillerón, Silvia (Autor de correspondencia); Rico-Campa, A.; et al.
    Revista: BMJ OPEN
    ISSN 2044-6055 Vol.12 N° 1 2022 págs. e048498
    Resumen
    Objectives To evaluate the association between cancer screening counselling provided by medical doctors to their patients and each doctor's own anthropometrics, lifestyle, cancer screening practices, and personal and family history of cancer. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Substudy including physicians participating in a Spanish cohort study with open enrolment. Participants Among 22 800 participants in the cohort as of May 2018, there were 2371 physicians who had replied to the cohort baseline questionnaire, had an email account and were younger than 65 years (retirement age in Spain). From this subsample, 890 replied to an online questionnaire focused on their clinical practices related to the counselling provided to their patients and to their prescription practices of preventive medications. Their mean age was 51.7 (SD 9.4) years and 48% were women. Outcome measures Frequency of counselling given to their patients on specific practices of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer screenings. Results Counselling on cancer screening to their patients was provided by 65% of physicians in a scenario of colorectal cancer, 59% for prostate cancer and 58% for breast cancer. More frequent cancer screening counselling was associated with the specialties of family medicine (OR=9.4, 95% CI 5.1 to 17.1) and internal medicine (OR=2.9, 95% CI 1.5 to 5.7) as compared with other specialties. Recommending cancer screening was associated with more frequent counselling on smoking cessation (OR=3.7, 95% CI 2.6 to 5.4), having personally attended colorectal cancer screening (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.7) and prescribing blood pressure medication more often than their colleagues (OR=2.1, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.7). Conclusions Among medical doctors, cancer screening counselling was provided to their patients more frequently for doctors with family medicine or internal medicine specialties and for physicians who regularly offered counselling on certain lifestyle behaviours, and those having personally attended colorectal cancer screening. Doctors' own personal practices and knowledge of healthy lifestyles may help doctors to more frequently provide counselling on cancer screening to their patients.
  • Autores: Oncina-Canovas, A.; Vioque, J. (Autor de correspondencia); González-Palacios, S.; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 1436-6207 Vol.61 N° 1 2022 págs. 357 - 372
    Resumen
    Purpose We explored the cross-sectional association between the adherence to three different provegetarian (PVG) food patterns defined as general (gPVG), healthful (hPVG) and unhealthful (uPVG), and the cardiometabolic risk in adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS) of the PREDIMED-Plus randomized intervention study. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 6439 participants of the PREDIMED-Plus randomized intervention study. The gPVG food pattern was built by positively scoring plant foods (vegetables/fruits/legumes/grains/potatoes/nuts/olive oil) and negatively scoring, animal foods (meat and meat products/animal fats/eggs/fish and seafood/dairy products). The hPVG and uPVG were generated from the gPVG by adding four new food groups (tea and coffee/fruit juices/sugar-sweetened beverages/sweets and desserts), splitting grains and potatoes and scoring them differently. Multivariable-adjusted robust linear regression using MM-type estimator was used to assess the association between PVG food patterns and the standardized Metabolic Syndrome score (MetS z-score), a composed index that has been previously used to ascertain the cardiometabolic risk, adjusting for potential confounders. Results A higher adherence to the gPVG and hPVG was associated with lower cardiometabolic risk in multivariable models. The regression coefficients for 5th vs. 1st quintile were - 0.16 (95% CI: - 0.33 to 0.01) for gPVG (p trend: 0.015), and - 0.23 (95% CI: - 0.41 to - 0.05) for hPVG (p trend: 0.016). In contrast, a higher adherence to the uPVG was associated with higher cardiometabolic risk, 0.21 (95% CI: 0.04 to 0.38) (p trend: 0.019). Conclusion Higher adherence to gPVG and hPVG food patterns was generally associated with lower cardiovascular risk, whereas higher adherence to uPVG was associated to higher cardiovascular risk.
  • Autores: Sánchez Bayona, Rodrigo; Bes Rastrollo, Maira; Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.14 N° 13 2022 págs. 2561
    Resumen
    Obesity is associated with a higher risk of several types of cancer, grouped as obesity-related cancers (ORC). Vitamin D deficiency is more prevalent in obese subjects, and it has been suggested to play a role in the association between obesity and cancer risk. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between vitamin D intake and the subsequent risk of ORC in a prospective Spanish cohort of university graduates. The SUN Project, initiated in 1999, is a prospective dynamic multipurpose cohort. Participants answered a 556-item lifestyle baseline questionnaire that included a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We performed Cox regression models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) of ORC according to quartiles of energy-adjusted vitamin D intake (diet and supplements). We included 18,017 participants (mean age = 38 years, SD = 12 years), with a median follow-up of 12 years. Among 206,783 person-years of follow-up, we identified 225 cases of ORC. We found no significant associations between vitamin D intake and ORC risk after adjusting for potential confounders: HRQ2vsQ1 = 1.19 (95% CI 0.81-1.75), HRQ3vsQ1 = 1.20 (95% CI 0.81-1.78), and HRQ4vsQ1 = 1.02 (95% CI 0.69-1.51). Dietary and supplemented vitamin D do not seem to be associated with ORC prevention in the middle-aged Spanish population.
  • Autores: Hernández-Ruiz, A. (Autor de correspondencia); López-Trigo, J. A.; Muñoz-Ruiz, M. A.; et al.
    Revista: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE NUTRICION HUMANA Y DIETETICA
    ISSN 2173-1292 Vol.26 N° 2 2022 págs. 156 - 161
    Resumen
    Introducción: Los indicadores de calidad de la dieta (Diet Quality Indicators, DQIns) son herramientas para evaluar las características de patrones de dieta basados en el conocimiento de la relación entre los factores dietéticos, los estilos de vida y resultados de salud. El objetivo de este artículo fue proponer un nuevo índice de calidad de la dieta utilizando un enfoque a priori para su aplicación en residencias de ancianos, Quality Index for Nutrition in Nursing Homes, índice QUINN. Metodología: La elección de los componentes se basó en una revisión rápida realizada sobre índices previamente publicados y los principales grupos de alimentos relacionados con la prevención de síndromes geriátricos y de las enfermedades crónicas de alta prevalencia en población geriátrica. El índice QUINN se basó en 15 componentes dietéticos-alimentos, 12 de los cuales se referían a alimentos básicos de una dieta saludable (verduras, frutas, legumbres, aceite de oliva ¿ preferiblemente virgen extra-, cereales, lácteos, pescados blancos y mariscos, carnes blancas y huevos, componentes positivos); otras grasas, carnes rojas y procesadas y dulces, componentes negativos), junto con otros 3 componentes adicionales positivos (variedad de verduras y frutas, pescado azul y cereales integrales). Cada componente se clasificó en 4 categorías (0, 1, 2 o 3 puntos), con un rango final de 0 a 45 puntos. Conclusiones: Desde nuestro conocimiento el índice QUINN es el primer índice de calidad de la dieta a priori desarrollado específicamente para evaluar los menús ofertados en las residencias de ancianos. Esta herramienta proporcionará información sobre la calidad de la dieta para el diseño de los menús. El índice QUINN podría ser un instrumento útil para implementar estrategias de intervención para mejorar de forma sencilla la dieta ofertada en las instituciones y que redunde en una mejora del estado nutricional y de la salud de la población geriátrica institucionalizada.
  • Autores: Fernández Ciriza, Leire; González Hernández, Álvaro; del Pozo León, José Luis; et al.
    Revista: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
    ISSN 2045-2322 Vol.12 N° 1 2022 págs. 15606
    Resumen
    Scarce data have been reported about cellular immunity and longevity for different COVID-19 vaccination schedules. We carried out a prospective study enrolling 709 healthcare workers receiving two doses of mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, ChAdOx1, ChAdOx1/BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 single dose to compare humoral and cellular immunogenicity across 9 months. Higher SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody levels were observed among individuals with hybrid immunity with one dose of any vaccine in comparison to uninfected individuals receiving two doses (mRNA-1273: 20,145 vs 4295 U/mL; BNT162b2: 15,659 vs 1959 U/mL; ChAdOx1: 5344 vs 2230 U/mL), except for ChAdOx1/BNT162b2 heterologous schedule (12,380 U/mL). Naturally infected individuals did not increase substantially the titers after the second dose and showed higher levels throughout the 9 months follow-up. The mean elimination half-life of antibodies among COVID-19 naive participants was 98, 111, 60 and 36 days, for mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, ChAdOx1/ChAdOx1 and ChAdOx1/BNT162b2, respectively. Cellular immunity was preserved in 96%, 98%, 88% and 92% of uninfected individuals who received mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, ChAdOx1/ChAdOx1 and ChAdOx1/BNT162b2 after 6/9 months. Individuals with specific T cells showed robust long lasting protection, especially when m-RNA based vaccines are inoculated. These data may influence the validity of the vaccination passport and the need for booster vaccinations.
  • Autores: Rubín-García, M.; Vitelli-Storelli, F. (Autor de correspondencia); Toledo Atucha, Estefanía; et al.
    Revista: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE CARDIOLOGIA
    ISSN 0300-8932 Vol.75 N° 5 2022 págs. 401 - 411
    Resumen
    Introduction and objectives: Quantification of cardiovascular risk has been based on scores such as Framingham, Framingham-REGICOR, SCORE or Life's Simple 7 (LS7). In vitro, animal, and randomized clinical studies have shown that polyphenols may provide benefits to the vascular system and reduce the inflammatory response. However, some clinical-epidemiological studies have yielded inconsistent results. Our aim was to assess the possible association between intake of the various polyphenol classes and established cardiovascular scores. Methods: This cross-sectional analysis involved 6633 PREDIMED-Plus study participants. Food polyphenol content was estimated by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, adjusted for total energy intake according to the residual method. The association between polyphenol intake and cardiovascular risk was tested using linear regression analyses. Results: Total polyphenol and flavonoid intake were directly and significantly associated only with the LS7 scale. Intake of lignans was directly and significantly associated with SCORE and LS7 scales, stilbene intake with SCORE, and phenolic acid intake with Framingham and Framingham-REGICOR scores. Other polyphenol classes were associated in a protective and significant manner in Framingham, SCORE and LS7 scores. In women, intake of all the polyphenol classes, except phenolic acids, showed a protective trend in the results of the Framingham, Framingham-REGICOR scores and LS7 scale. Conclusions: An inverse association was found between consumption of the 'other polyphenols' class and, especially among women, with estimated cardiovascular risk. The results were similar to those of Framingham, Framingham-REGICOR and LS7 (after eliminating the diet component) and differed from those of SCORE, but the predictors included were limited in the latter case.
  • Autores: Gabaldón-Figueira, J. C. (Autor de correspondencia); Keen, E.; Giménez, G.; et al.
    Revista: ERJ OPEN RESEARCH
    ISSN 2312-0541 Vol.8 N° 2 2022 págs. 053
    Resumen
    Research question Can smartphones be used to detect individual and population-level changes in cough frequency that correlate with the incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other respiratory infections? Methods This was a prospective cohort study carried out in Pamplona (Spain) between 2020 and 2021 using artificial intelligence cough detection software. Changes in cough frequency around the time of medical consultation were evaluated using a randomisation routine; significance was tested by comparing the distribution of cough frequencies to that obtained from a model of no difference. The correlation between changes of cough frequency and COVID-19 incidence was studied using an autoregressive moving average analysis, and its strength determined by calculating its autocorrelation function (ACF). Predictors for the regular use of the system were studied using a linear regression. Overall user experience was evaluated using a satisfaction questionnaire and through focused group discussions. Results We followed-up 616 participants and collected >62 000 coughs. Coughs per hour surged around the time cohort subjects sought medical care (difference +0.77 coughs.h(-1); p=0.00001). There was a weak temporal correlation between aggregated coughs and the incidence of COVID-19 in the local population (ACF 0.43). Technical issues affected uptake and regular use of the system. Interpretation Artificial intelligence systems can detect changes in cough frequency that temporarily correlate with the onset of clinical disease at the individual level. A clearer correlation with population-level COVID-19 incidence, or other respiratory conditions, could be achieved with better penetration and compliance with cough monitoring.
  • Autores: Moreno Montañés, Javier; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, I.; Gándara Rodríguez de Campoamor, Elsa Pilar; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF OPHTHALMOLOGY
    ISSN 1120-6721 Vol.32 N° 2 2022 págs. 999 - 1008
    Resumen
    Purpose: To assess the association between carbohydrates (CH) intake and glaucoma incidence. Methods: 18,247 volunteer participants (183,067 person-years at risk) with 10-year of median follow-up were included in this prospective dynamic cohort. Baseline total CH intake (g/d) was categorised in quartiles and classified in nine different CH food sources. Self-reported diagnosis of glaucoma was collected at baseline and on biennial follow-up questionnaires. CH intake and glaucoma diagnosis were validated in a subsample of participants. We studied potential confounders and effect modificators, including diabetes. The relationship between CH intake and glaucoma incidence was analysed using multivariable Cox proportional hazards ratio (HR) models to adjust for potential confounding factors. Results: During 10 years of median follow-up, a total of 242 new cases of glaucoma were identified. Participants in the highest quartile of baseline CH intake had a significantly higher risk of glaucoma as compared to participants in the lowest quartile [HR 1.50 (95% Confidence interval (CI): 1.01-2.25), p for trend = 0.042]. None of the nine CH food groups was individually related to glaucoma. In stratified analyses, after excluding all cases of diabetes, the HR comparing extreme quartiles of CH intake was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.15-2.74). Conclusions: Our results suggest that a higher intake of total carbohydrates is associated with a higher risk of incident glaucoma. The total amount of CH, rather than the specific food sources of CH, seems to play a major role, and this association does not seem to be confounded or modified by diabetic status.
  • Autores: Casas, R.; Ribó-Coll, M.; Ros, E.; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 1436-6207 Vol.61 N° 3 2022 págs. 1429 - 1444
    Resumen
    Purpose: It is difficult to change dietary habits and maintain them in the long run, particularly in elderly people. We aimed to assess whether adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and cardiovascular risk factor were similar in the middle-aged and oldest participants in the PREDIMED study. Methods: We analyzed participants belonging to the first and fourth quartiles of age (Q1 and Q4, respectively) to compare between-group differences in adherence to the nutritional intervention and cardiovascular risk factor (CRF) control during a 3-year follow-up. All participants underwent yearly clinical, nutritional, and laboratory assessments during the following. Results: A total of 2278 patients were included (1091 and 1187 in Q1 and Q4, respectively). At baseline, mean ages were 59.6 ± 2.1 years in Q1 and 74.2 ± 2.6 years in Q4. In Q4, there were more women, greater prevalence of hypertension and diabetes, and lower obesity and smoking rates than the younger cohort (P ¿ 0.001, all). Adherence to the MedDiet was similar in Q1 and Q4 at baseline (mean 8.7 of 14 points for both) and improved significantly (P < 0.01) and to a similar extent (mean 10.2 and 10.0 points, respectively) during follow-up. Systolic blood pressure, low density-lipoprotein cholesterol, and body weight were similarly reduced at 3 years in Q1 and Q4 participants. Conclusion: The youngest and oldest participants showed improved dietary habits and CRFs to a similar extent after 3 years' intervention. Therefore, it is never too late to improve dietary habits and ameliorate CRF in high-risk individuals, even those of advanced age. Registration: The trial is registered in the London-based Current Controlled Trials Registry (ISRCTN number 35739639).
  • Autores: Marhuenda-Muñoz, M.; Domínguez-López, I.; Langohr, K.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN NUTRITION
    ISSN 2296-861X Vol.9 2022 págs. 967967
    Resumen
    Carotenoid intake has been reported to be associated with improved cardiovascular health, but there is little information on actual plasma concentrations of these compounds as biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk. The objective was to investigate the association between circulating plasma carotenoids and different cardiometabolic risk factors and the plasma fatty acid profile. This is a cross-sectional evaluation of baseline data conducted in a subcohort (106 women and 124 men) of an ongoing multi-factorial lifestyle trial for primary cardiovascular prevention. Plasma concentrations of carotenoids were quantified by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The associations between carotenoid concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors were assessed using regression models adapted for interval-censored variables. Carotenoid concentrations were cross-sectionally inversely associated with serum triglyceride concentrations [-2.79 mg/dl (95% CI: -4.25, -1.34) and -5.15 mg/dl (95% CI: -7.38, -2.93), p-values = 0.0002 and <0.00001 in women and men, respectively], lower levels of plasma saturated fatty acids [-0.09% (95% CI: -0.14, -0.03) and -0.15 % (95% CI: -0.23, -0.08), p-values = 0.001 and 0.0001 in women and men, respectively], and higher levels of plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids [(0.12 % (95% CI: -0.01, 0.25) and 0.39 % (95% CI: 0.19, 0.59), p-values = 0.065 and 0.0001 in women and men, respectively] in the whole population. Plasma carotenoid concentrations were also associated with higher plasma HDL-cholesterol in women [0.47 mg/dl (95% CI: 0.23, 0.72), p-value: 0.0002], and lower fasting plasma glucose in men [-1.35 mg/dl (95% CI: -2.12, -0.59), p-value: 0.001].
  • Autores: Pérez Araluce, Rafael María (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Gea Sánchez, Alfredo; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN NUTRITION
    ISSN 2296-861X Vol.8 2022 págs. 805533
    Resumen
    Adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet has been customarily assessed with the Mediterranean diet score (MDS or Trichopolou Index), with values of 0 or 1 assigned to each of the nine elements, and with the use of the sex-specific median as the cutoff. The value of persons whose consumption of the six beneficial items (ratio of monounsaturated to saturated fatty acids, vegetables, legumes, fruits and nuts, cereal, and fish) is at or above the median and is assigned a value of 1. Otherwise they receive 0 points. For detrimental elements (meats and dairy products) persons whose consumption is below the median are assigned a value of 1. An additional ninth point is assigned to moderate ethanol intake. We assessed the effect of each of the nine components of the MDS (replacing the fats ratio with olive oil, the main source of monounsaturated fats in the Mediterranean diet) on the risk of COVID-19 infection, symptomatic and severe COVID-19. From March to December 2020, 9,699 participants of the "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN) cohort answered a COVID-19 questionnaire. After excluding doctors and nurses, 5,194 participants were included in the main statistical analyses. Among them, we observed 382 cases of COVID-19 based on symptoms and clinical diagnosis; 167 of them with test confirmation. For the two COVID-19 definitions used, we found a significant decrease in risk for a higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.42-0.98, p for trend = 0.040; and OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.22-0.88, p for trend = 0.020, for test-diagnosed cases). A protective effect was also found for symptomatic COVID-19 (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.41-1.00, p for trend = 0.050). Among the different individual food groups, only the consumption of whole dairy products showed a harmful direct association. The Mediterranean diet as a whole seems more important than each of its components in preventing the infection and symptoms of COVID-19.
  • Autores: Goñi Mateos, Leticia; Gil Conesa, Mario; De la O Pascual, Víctor; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.14 N° 6 2022 págs. 1136
    Resumen
    Home cooking and the type of cooking techniques can have an effect on our health. However, as far as we know, there is no questionnaire that measures in depth the frequency and type of cooking techniques used at home. Our aim was to design a new Home Cooking Frequency Questionnaire (HCFQ) and to preliminarily assess its psychometric properties. For this purpose we used a five-phase approach, as follows: Phase 1: item generation based on expert opinion, relevant literature and previous surveys; Phase 2: content validity assessed by experts for relevance and clarity (epidemiologists, dietitians, chefs); Phase 3: face validity and inter-item reliability; Phase 4: criterion validity using a 7-day food and culinary record; and Phase 5: test stability and inter-item reliability. The content validity index for scale and item level values provided evidence of the content validity for relevance and clarity. Criterion validity analysis showed intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.31-0.69. Test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from 0.49-0.92, with ¿ values &gt; 0.44. Overall Cronbach's alpha was 0.90. In conclusion, the HCFQ is a promising tool with sound content and face validity, substantial criterion validity, and adequate reliability. This 174-item HCFQ is the first questionnaire to assess how often people cook and which cooking methods they use at home.
  • Autores: Martínez González, Miguel Ángel (Autor de correspondencia); Barbería Latasa, María; Pérez de Rojas, J.; et al.
    Revista: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 0007-1145 Vol.127 N° 9 2022 págs. 1415 - 1425
    Resumen
    The aim of this study was to assess the association between alcohol intake and premature mortality (younger than 65 years) and to explore the effect of potential alcohol underreporting by heavy drinkers. We followed-up 20 272 university graduates. Four categories of alcohol intake were considered (abstainer, light, moderate and heavy consumption). Repeated measurements of alcohol intake and updated information on confounders were used in time-dependent Cox models. Potential underreporting of alcohol intake by some heavy drinkers (likely misclassified as light or moderate drinkers) was explicitly addressed in an attempt to correct potential underreporting by using indirect information. During 12 center dot 3 years of median follow-up (interquartile range: 6 center dot 8-15 center dot 0), 226 participants died before their 65th birthday. A higher risk of early mortality was found for the highest category of alcohol intake (>= 50 g/d) in comparison with abstention (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2 center dot 82, 95 % CI 1 center dot 38, 5 center dot 79). In analyses of alcohol as a continuous variable, the multivariable-adjusted HR was 1 center dot 17 (95 % CI 1 center dot 08, 1 center dot 26), for each 10 g/d of alcohol. This harmful linear association was present both in uncorrected models and in models corrected for potential underreporting. No significant inverse association between light or moderate alcohol intake and premature mortality was observed, even after correcting for potential misclassification. Alcohol intake exhibited a harmful linear dose-response association with premature mortality (<65 years) in this young and highly educated Mediterranean cohort. Our attempts to correct for potential misclassification did not substantially change these results.
  • Autores: Hernández-Ruiz, A. (Autor de correspondencia); García-Villanova, B.; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; et al.
    Revista: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE NUTRICION HUMANA Y DIETETICA
    ISSN 2173-1292 Vol.26 N° 1 2022 págs. 19 - 29
    Resumen
    Introduction: The aims of the present study were to estimate the vitamin K-1 content of the menu offered in a nursing home and its adequacy to the recommendations, to determine its dietary sources and to classify the dishes on the menu. Methodology: Cross-sectional descriptive study. The dietary intake of vitamin K1 from the dietary menu offered in a public nursing home (Valladolid, Spain) was studied. The dietary study was performed by estimating the theoretical dietary intake of the basal menu offered during 14 consecutive days consumed by 138 elderly individuals. Vitamin Ki intake was estimated using data from the food composition table of Ortega-Anta et al, 2010. Results: The mean vitamin K-1 intake was 224 (standard deviation, 128 mu g/day) with a very similar amount between weeks and a great variation between days (97-586 mu g/day). The main source of this micronutrient was vegetables, especially green leafy vegetables (chard, cabbage, lettuce). The vitamin K-1 content of the menu offered was more than three times higher (320%) than the adequate intake recommended by EFSA and more than double (249-280%) the AESAN dietary intakes. The food groups that contributed most vitamin K-1 to the diet were vegetables (41.7%) and fruits (28.6%). Based on the Nutrition Care Manual classification, dishes were categorised into 4 free of vitamin K-1, 23 with low, 13 with moderate and 4 with a high amount of this micronutrient. Conclusions: In the menu offered in this nursing home, the estimated dietary intake of vitamin K-1 was between two and three times higher than recommended (AESAN and EFSA). In the long term, high intakes of vitamin K-1 could have health benefits associated with age-related diseases.
  • Autores: De Deus Mendonca, R.; Aparecida Mingoti, S.; Gazzinelli Bethony, M. F.; et al.
    Revista: PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION
    ISSN 1368-9800 Vol.25 N° 3 2022 págs. 781 - 793
    Resumen
    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a nutritional intervention to promote fruit and vegetable (FV) intake. Design: A randomised controlled community trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a 7-month nutritional intervention and to promote FV intake, separately and together. All participants attended physical exercise sessions. The intervention was based on the transtheoretical model and Paulo Freire's pedagogy. The interventions included group educational sessions, motivational cards and informational materials. The primary outcome was a change in FV intake (g/d), and secondary outcomes included stages of change, self-efficacy, decisional balance and knowledge on FV. All data were collected face-to-face; and FV intake was assessed using a validated brief questionnaire. Setting: Health promotion services of Brazilian Primary Health Care. Participants: 3414 users of Brazilian Primary Health Care (1931 in the control group and 1483 in the intervention group (IG)). Results: At baseline, the average daily FV intake was 370 center dot 4 g/d (95 % CI 364 center dot 2, 376 center dot 6). The increase in FV intake (23 center dot 4 g/d; 95 % CI 6 center dot 7, 40 center dot 0) and fruit intake (+17 center dot 3 g/d; 95 % CI 5 center dot 1, 29 center dot 4; P = 0 center dot 01) was greater in the IG among participants in the lowest baseline intake. Participants in the IG also showed progression in the stages of change (P < 0 center dot 001), increased self-efficacy (P < 0 center dot 001) and improved knowledge of FV crops (P < 0 center dot 001). Conclusions: The nutritional intervention was effective in increasing FV intake and fruits intake among individuals with a lower intake at baseline and in maintaining FV intake among those who reported consuming FV as recommended (400 g/d).
  • Autores: Hershey de la Cruz, María Soledad; Sánchez-Villegas, A.; Sotos-Prieto, M.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 0022-3166 Vol.152 N° 1 2022 págs. 227 - 234
    Resumen
    Background: Recent evidence has indicated a greater number of protective factors are associated with a greater decreased risk for depression and depressive symptoms compared with individual factors alone. Moreover, adherence to healthy modifiable lifestyle behaviors may lower the risk of depression regardless of underlying genetic risk. Objectives: We longitudinally evaluated the association of the Mediterranean lifestyle (MEDLIFE) with the risk of depression. Methods: We prospectively analyzed data from 15,279 participants (6089 men and 9190 women, mean age 37 y) in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra cohort. The MEDLIFE index is composed of 28 items on food consumption, dietary habits, physical activity, rest, social habits, and conviviality, each of which was assigned 0 or 1 point. Final scores ranged from 0 to 28 points and were categorized into quartiles of MEDLIFE adherence. Cox proportional regression models determined the association of total MEDLIFE adherence, each item, and block with incident depression. Results: After a mean follow-up of 11.7 y, 912 (6%) incident cases of depression were reported. The mean +/- SD final score for MEDLIFE adherence was 11.9 +/- 2.7 points. The multivariable model showed that compared with the first quartile, the second and third quartiles of MEDLIFE adherence were significantly associated with a decreased relative risk for incident depression (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.96 and HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.89, respectively). The fourth quartile did not show a statistically significant association with incident depression (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.73, 1.09). Conclusions: MEDLIFE adherence may decrease the risk of depression in a Spanish cohort of university graduates. Given no clear association was observed among the highest MEDLIFE adherence, future studies are warranted to better understand the nature of this association. Evidence on MEDLIFE, beyond the Mediterranean diet, may contribute toward more effective prevention strategies for depression.
  • Autores: Tresserra-Rimbau, A. (Autor de correspondencia); Castro-Barquero, S.; Becerra-Tomas, N.; et al.
    Revista: ANTIOXIDANTS
    ISSN 2076-3921 Vol.11 N° 2 2022 págs. 316
    Resumen
    Previous studies suggested that dietary polyphenols could reduce the incidence and complications of type-2 diabetes (T2D); although the evidence is still limited and inconsistent. This work analyzes whether changing to a diet with a higher polyphenolic content is associated with an improved glucose profile. At baseline, and at 1 year of follow-up visits, 5921 participants (mean age 65.0 ± 4.9, 48.2% women) who had overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome filled out a validated 143-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), from which polyphenol intakes were calculated. Energy-adjusted total polyphenols and subclasses were categorized in tertiles of changes. Linear mixed-effect models with random intercepts (the recruitment centers) were used to assess associations between changes in polyphenol subclasses intake and 1-year plasma glucose or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Increments in total polyphenol intake and some classes were inversely associated with better glucose levels and HbA1c after one year of follow-up. These associations were modified when the analyses were run considering diabetes status separately. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the relationship between changes in the intake of all polyphenolic groups and T2D-related parameters in a senior population with T2D or at high-risk of developing T2D.
  • Autores: Rubín-García, M.; Vitelli-Storelli, F.; Álvarez-Álvarez, L. (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION. CARDIOVASCULAR AND CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE
    ISSN 2047-9980 Vol.11 N° 20 2022 págs. e026053
    Resumen
    Background Dietary polyphenol intake has been associated with a decreased risk of hyperuricemia, but most of this knowledge comes from preclinical studies. The aim of the present study was to assess the association of the intake of different classes of polyphenols with serum uric acid and hyperuricemia. Methods and Results This cross-sectional analysis involved baseline data of 6332 participants. Food polyphenol content was estimated by a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and from the Phenol-Explorer database. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models with serum uric acid (milligrams per deciliter) as the outcome and polyphenol intake (quintiles) as the main independent variable were fitted. Cox regression models with constant follow-up time (t=1) were performed to estimate the prevalence ratios (PRs) of hyperuricemia (>= 7 mg/dL in men and >= 6 mg/dL in women). An inverse association between the intake of the phenolic acid class (beta coefficient, -0.17 mg/dL for quintile 5 versus quintile 1 [95% CI, -0.27 to -0.06]) and hydroxycinnamic acids (beta coefficient, -0.19 [95% CI, -0.3 to -0.09]), alkylmethoxyphenols (beta coefficient, -0.2 [95% CI, -0.31 to -0.1]), and methoxyphenols (beta coefficient, -0.24 [95% CI, -0.34 to -0.13]) subclasses with serum uric acid levels and hyperuricemia (PR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.71-0.95]; PR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.71-0.95]; PR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.70-0.92]; and PR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.69-0.91]; respectively) was found. The intake of hydroxybenzoic acids was directly and significantly associated with mean serum uric acid levels (beta coefficient, 0.14 for quintile 5 versus quintile 1 [95% CI, 0.02-0.26]) but not with hyperuricemia. Conclusions In individuals with metabolic syndrome, a higher intake of some polyphenol subclasses (hydroxycinnamic acids, alkylmethoxyphenol, and methoxyphenol) was inversely associated with serum uric acid levels and hyperuricemia. Nevertheless, our findings warrant further research.
  • Autores: Ni, J.; Nishi, S. K.; Babio, N.; et al.
    Revista: MOLECULAR NUTRITION AND FOOD RESEARCH
    ISSN 1613-4125 Vol.66 N° 14 2022 págs. e2101058
    Resumen
    Scope Dairy consumption has been suggested to impact cognition; however, evidence is limited and inconsistent. This study aims to longitudinally assess the association between dairy consumption with cognitive changes in an older Spanish population at high cardiovascular disease risk. Methods and results Four thousand six hundred sixty eight participants aged 55-75 years, completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline and a neuropsychological battery of tests at baseline and 2-year follow-up. Multivariable linear regression models are used, scaled by 100 (i.e., the units of beta correspond to 1 SD/100), to assess associations between baseline tertile daily consumption and 2-year changes in cognitive performance. Participants in the highest tertile of total milk and whole-fat milk consumption have a greater decline in global cognitive function (beta: -4.71, 95% CI: -8.74 to -0.69, p-trend = 0.020 and beta: -6.64, 95% CI: -10.81 to -2.47, p-trend = 0.002, respectively) compared to those in the lowest tertile. No associations are observed between low fat milk, yogurt, cheese or fermented dairy consumption, and changes in cognitive performance. Conclusion Results suggest there are no clear prospective associations between consumption of most commonly consumed dairy products and cognition, although there may be an association with a greater rate of cognitive decline over a 2-year period in older adults at high cardiovascular disease risk for whole-fat milk.
  • Autores: Donat-Vargas, C. (Autor de correspondencia); Sandoval-Insausti, H.; Peñalvo, J. L.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0261-5614 Vol.41 N° 1 2022 págs. 122 - 130
    Resumen
    Background & aims: The specific association of olive oil consumption with coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke has not been totally established. Objective: to examine whether olive oil consumption is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, the risk of total cardiovascular disease (CVD), CHD, and stroke. Methods: Three cohorts were included: AWHS (2318 men), SUN Project (18,266 men and women), and EPIC-Spain (39,393 men and women). Olive oil consumption was measured at baseline using validated questionnaires. Results: In the AWHS, 747 participants had a positive coronary artery calcium score (CACS>0), and the OR (95% CI) was 0.89 (0.72, 1.10) in those with virgin olive oil consumption >30 g/day (v. <10 g/day). In the SUN Project (follow-up 10.8 years) 261 total CVD cases occurred, and the HR was 0.57 (0.34, 0.96) for consumptions >30 g/day (v. <10 g/day). In the EPIC-Spain (follow-up 22.8 years) 1300 CHD cases and 938 stroke cases occurred; the HRs for stroke according, 0 to <10 (ref), 10 to <20, 20 to <30, and >30 g/day of olive oil consumption, were 0.84 (0.70, 1.02), 0.80 (0.66, 0.96), 0.89 (0.74, 1.07). A weaker association was observed for CHD. The association was stronger among those consuming virgin olive oil, instead of common (refined). Conclusions: Olive oil is associated with lower risk of CVD and stroke. The maximum benefit could be obtained with a consumption between 20 and 30 g/day. The association could be stronger for virgin olive oil and might operate from the early stages of the disease.
  • Autores: Valle-Hita, C.; Díaz-López, A.; Becerra-Tomás, N. (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 1436-6207 Vol.61 N° 6 2022 págs. 3095 - 3108
    Resumen
    Purpose To assess the association between three different a priori dietary patterns adherence (17-item energy reduced-Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet), Trichopoulou-MedDiet and Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH)), as well as the Protein Diet Score and kidney function decline after one year of follow-up in elderly individuals with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods We prospectively analyzed 5675 participants (55-75 years) from the PREDIMED-Plus study. At baseline and at one year, we evaluated the creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and food-frequency questionnaires-derived dietary scores. Associations between four categories (decrease/maintenance and tertiles of increase) of each dietary pattern and changes in eGFR (ml/min/1.73m(2)) or >= 10% eGFR decline were assessed by fitting multivariable linear or logistic regression models, as appropriate. Results Participants in the highest tertile of increase in 17-item erMedDiet Score showed higher upward changes in eGFR (beta: 1.87 ml/min/1.73m(2); 95% CI: 1.00-2.73) and had lower odds of >= 10% eGFR decline (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.47-0.82) compared to individuals in the decrease/maintenance category, while Trichopoulou-MedDiet and DASH Scores were not associated with any renal outcomes. Those in the highest tertile of increase in Protein Diet Score had greater downward changes in eGFR (beta: - 0.87 ml/min/1.73m(2); 95% CI: - 1.73 to - 0.01) and 32% higher odds of eGFR decline (OR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.00-1.75). Conclusions Among elderly individuals with overweight/obesity and MetS, only higher upward change in the 17-item erMedDiet score adherence was associated with better kidney function after one year. However, increasing Protein Diet Score appeared to have an adverse impact on kidney health. Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN89898870 (Data of registration: 2014).
  • Autores: Pimenta, A. M. (Autor de correspondencia); Mendonca, R. D.; Lahortiga Ramos, Francisca; et al.
    Revista: CADERNOS DE SAUDE PUBLICA
    ISSN 0102-311X Vol.38 N° 2 2022 págs. e00076621
    Resumen
    The study aimed to prospectively examine the association between different sedentary behaviors and the risk of depression. We included 12,691 Spanish university graduates (mean age: 36.7 year; SD: 11.5), participants of the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra cohort (the SUN Project), initially free of depression who were followed-up fir a median of 10.9 years. Based on items presented in our baseline questionnaire, time spent in four sedentary behaviors (hours/day) were evaluated: overall sitting time; TV-viewing; computer use; and driving. Participants were classified as incident cases of depression if they reported a physician diagnosis of depression in at least one of the followup assessments conducted after the first two years offollow-up. Cox regression models were used to assess the relationship between sedentary behaviors and depression. A total of 560 incident cases of depression were identified during follow-up. We found no significant association between overall sitting time, TV-viewing or driving and risk of depression. On the other hand, computer use was directly associated with the risk of developing depression during the follow-up (p-value for trend = 0.020), with the participants in the highest quartile of computer use (3.64 to 10 hours/week) having a higher risk of developing depression (HR = 1.33; 95%CI: 1.05-1.70) than those in the lowest quartile (0 to 0.25 hours/week) after adjusting for potential confounders. Prolonged use of computer was independently associated with an increased risk of developing depression among young middle-aged adult university graduates from a Spanish cohort.
  • Autores: Díez Goñi, María de las Nieves (Autor de correspondencia); García del Barrio, Loreto; Rodríguez Díez, María Cristina; et al.
    Revista: FAMILY MEDICINE
    ISSN 0742-3225 Vol.54 N° 8 2022 págs. 621 - 628
    Resumen
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Empathy is considered a prerequisite for a successful physician-patient relationship. The Jefferson Scale of Patient Perceptions of Physician Empathy (JSPPPE) is a regularly-used, patient-rated measure of physician empathy. The aim of this study is to translate and analyze the reliability and validity of the JSPPPE Spanish (Spain) version (Sp-JSPPPE) in primary care in order to use it with medical trainees. METHODS: After translation and back translation of the JSPPPE, 369 patients from 21 primary care physicians in Pamplona (Navarre, Spain) completed the Sp-JSPPPE, a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Spanish (Spain) Consultation and Relational Empathy Measure (Sp-CARE), and a question about overall satisfaction. We studied internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha and ordinal alpha), homogeneity (corrected item-total correlations), construct validity (confirmatory factor analysis [CFA]) and concurrent validity (Spearman's correlation) of Sp-JSPPPE. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha and ordinal alpha were 0.870 and 0.919, respectively, for the Sp-JSPPPE, and all corrected item-total correlations exceeded the accepted cutoff of 0.30, demonstrating high internal reliability and homogeneity. CFA corroborated the one-factor structure proposed in the original version. The total score for the Sp-JSPPPE was significantly correlated with sp-CARE (Spearman's rho 0.651, P <.001) and with overall patient satisfaction (Spearman's rho 0.504, P <.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results support the reliability and validity of the Sp-JSPPPE in primary care. Sp-JSPPPE could be useful in empathy assessment of medical trainees, both graduate and postgraduate, in the Spanish context.
  • Autores: Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez González, Miguel Ángel
    Revista: CURRENT OPINION IN LIPIDOLOGY
    ISSN 0957-9672 Vol.32 N° 1 2021 págs. 62 - 69
    Resumen
    Purpose of review The aim of this study was to briefly summarize the contribution of the PREDIMED (PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea) trial on cardiovascular evidence and examine in depth its groundbreaking trajectory. PREDIMED was conducted during 2003-2010 and represented the largest primary prevention trial ever testing the effects of changes in a complete food pattern (namely, the Mediterranean diet) on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Major contributions relied on the relevant changes in the food pattern attained by the behavioural intervention and their robust effect in reducing hard clinical end-points. Given some potential concerns, which were appropriately addressed with supporting analyses, this review is timely and relevant. Recent findings PREDIMED has continued contributing to the existing literature with extensive, robust and abundant new evidence on the benefits of the Mediterranean diet, particularly on cardiovascular health, including recent studies using high-throughput metabolomic techniques. After robustly addressing some controversies, the conclusions of the original trial remained unaltered. The Mediterranean diet represents an effective and robust nutritional strategy against CVD in high cardiovascular risk populations. Recent findings from the PREDIMED have identified a metabolic signature of the Mediterranean diet that can objectively determine dietary adherence and predict CVD risk. This metabolomic signature opens up a new era for nutritional epidemiology and personalized nutrition.
  • Autores: Morales, G. (Autor de correspondencia); Ruiz, F.; Bes Rastrollo, Maira; et al.
    Revista: REVISTA CHILENA DE NUTRICION
    ISSN 0717-7518 Vol.48 N° 3 2021 págs. 425 - 436
    Resumen
    Plant-based diets (PBD) are characterized by a high intake of foods of plant origin and the partial or total avoidance of animal products. The objective of the current study was to compile the evidence on types of PBD and its effect on the main modifiable cardio-metabolic risk factors (CMRF). Healthy and unhealthy PBD were found to exist. Some healthy PBDs were: vegetarian, mediterranean and DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension). These promote the intake of healthy plant-based foods (fruits, vegetables, legumes, seeds, nuts, whole grains, avocado, olive oil and / or canola) and a gradual reduction of all foods of animal origin, especially red and processed meats; avoiding less healthy plant-based foods (refined, fried cereals, pastry products, foods with added sugar). Unhealthy PBDs were characterized by a high intake of these less healthy foods, and are associated with greater cardiovascular risk, due to the low contribution of antioxidants, micronutrients, dietary fiber and unsaturated fats. Healthy PBDs can lower the risk of type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, being overweight, and obesity. They have shown greater cardiovascular benefits compared to traditional diets, significantly reducing: HbA1c and fasting glycemia in diabetics; systolic and diastolic blood pressure in hypertensive and prehypertensive patients; body mass index in overweight / obese subjects and improves lipid profile in subjects with dyslipidemia. Healthy PBD patterns, such as vegetarian, Mediterranean, and DASH are recommended to prevent and treat CMRF.
  • Autores: Pano Espínola, Octavio; Martínez-Lapiscina, E. H.; Sayon Orea, María del Carmen; et al.
    Revista: WORLD JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    ISSN 2220-3206 Vol.11 N° 11 2021 págs. 997 - 1016
    Resumen
    Unipolar depressive disorder (UDD) affects more than 264 million people worldwide and was projected well before the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic to be the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years lost in 2030. It is imperative for leading economies to implement preventive strategies targeted towards UDD, given consistent policies are currently lacking. Recently established similarities between the aetiological hypotheses of depression and cardiometabolic diseases are shifting paradigms within this field. It is believed that dietary practices could potentially reduce the incidence of depression; similar to their effects on metabolism. Thus, the aim of this review was to compile current evidence on healthy dietary patterns as suitable contributors towards primary prevention strategies against UDD. Most of the well-known biological mechanisms behind depression have been positively associated with healthful diets and dietary patterns to varying degrees. Interestingly, a common factor of UDD is the production and overall effects of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and C-reactive protein. These compounds have been associated with depressive symptoms, disturbances in neuroendocrine function, leaky gut, monoamine activity and brain function, while also being key factors in the development of cardiometabolic diseases. The Mediterranean diet (MD) in particular, is well supported by first-level evidence regarding its preventive qualities against metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and thus considered a model for healthy eating by various organizations. In one of the few clinical trials investigating these associations, the PREDIMED trial, individuals with diabetes assigned to a MD supplemented with mixed tree nuts experienced a 41% relative risk reduction for developing depression. Lastly, there is a need to include health related quality of life as an indicator of physical and mental well-being, considering its putative associations with depression and suicide risk. Going forward, focusing on clinical trials, using precise nutritional assessments, and identifying nutritional biomarkers which may be related to depression are needed to fully support the implementation of dietary recommendations in the field of psychiatry.
  • Autores: Jani, R. (Autor de correspondencia); Mhaskar, K.; Tsiampalis, T.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
    ISSN 0939-4753 Vol.31 N° 12 2021 págs. 3282 - 3304
    Resumen
    Aims: Circulating vitamin D is linked with the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A meta-analysis has yet to explicitly explore correlation between vitamin D and the risk of CVD incidence and recurrent CVD. This meta-analysis examines the association between 25hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) and the risk of CVD incidence (fatal, non-fatal, fatal and nonfatal combined events) and the risk of recurrent CVD (fatal, recurrent, and fatal and recurrent combined events). PROSPERO registration-CRD42021251483. Data synthesis: A total of 79 studies (46 713 CVD cases in 1 397 831 participants) were included in the meta-analysis, of which 61 studies examined the risk of CVD incidence events, and 18 studies examined risk of recurrent CVD events. The risk of CVD incidence events (RR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.26 1.43, p < 0.001) and recurrent CVD events (RR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.46-2.36, p < 0.001) was higher in the lowest than the highest category of circulating 25(OH)D. Dose-response analysis reported a linear association for every 10 ng/ml increment of 25(OH)D and non-fatal CVD incidence events (RR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.89-0.98, p = 0.005), lower fatal recurrent CVD events (RR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.32-0.62, p < 0.001) and lower combined recurrent CVD events (RR = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.65 0.97, p = 0.023). A non-linear association was observed between higher 25(OH)D and lower fatal CVD incidence events (P-nonlinear<0.001), lower combined CVD incidence events (P nonlinear = 0.001), and lower non-fatal recurrent CVD events (P-nonlinear = 0.044). Conclusions: The lowest category of circulating 25(OH)D was associated with a higher risk of CVD incidence events and recurrent CVD events.
  • Autores: Fernández-Lázaro, D. (Autor de correspondencia); Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Mielgo-Ayuso, J.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY
    ISSN 1664-3224 Vol.12 2021 págs. 698672
    Resumen
    The world is currently experiencing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Its global spread has resulted in millions of confirmed infections and deaths. While the global pandemic continues to grow, the availability of drugs to treat COVID-19 infections remains limited to supportive treatments. Moreover, the current speed of vaccination campaigns in many countries has been slow. Natural substrates with biological immunomodulatory activity, such as glucans, may represent an adjuvant therapeutic agent to treat SARS-CoV-2. AM3, a natural glycophosphopeptical, has previously been shown to effectively slow, with no side effects, the progression of infectious respiratory diseases by regulating effects on innate and adaptive immunity in experimental models. No clinical studies, however, exist on the use of AM3 in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. This review aims to summarize the beneficial effects of AM3 on respiratory diseases, the inflammatory response, modulation of immune response, and attenuation of muscle. It will also discuss its potential effects as an immune system adjuvant for the treatment of COVID-19 infections and adjuvant for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.
  • Autores: Martín Calvo, Nerea (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez González, Miguel Ángel
    Revista: ATENCION PRIMARIA
    ISSN 0212-6567 Vol.53 N° 9 2021 págs. 102148
  • Autores: Navarrete-Muñoz, E. M.; Vioque, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Toledo Atucha, Estefanía; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 1436-6207 Vol.60 N° 2 2021 págs. 1137 - 1139
  • Autores: Gomez Donoso, Clara; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Bes Rastrollo, Maira (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: ANALES DEL SISTEMA SANITARIO DE NAVARRA
    ISSN 1137-6627 Vol.44 N° 1 2021 págs. 5 - 8
  • Autores: Mata Fernández, María Aránzazu; Hershey de la Cruz, María Soledad; Pastrana Delgado, Juan Carlos; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
    ISSN 0939-4753 Vol.31 N° 6 2021 págs. 1728 - 1737
    Resumen
    Background and aims: A healthy lifestyle is essential to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, beyond dietary habits, there is a scarcity of studies comprehensively assessing the typical traditional Mediterranean lifestyle with a multi-dimensional index. We assessed the association between the Mediterranean lifestyle (measured with the MEDLIFE index including diet, physical activity, and other lifestyle factors) and the incidence of CVD. Methods and results: The "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN) project is a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of Spanish university graduates. We calculated a MEDLIFE score, composed of 28 items on food consumption, dietary habits, physical activity, rest, social habits, and conviviality, for 18,631 participants by assigning 1 point for each typical Mediterranean lifestyle factor achieved, for a theoretically possible final score ranging from 0 to 28 points. During an average follow-up of 11.5 years, 172 CVD cases (myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death) were observed. An inverse association between the MEDLIFE score and the risk of primary cardiovascular events was observed, with multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 0.50; (95% confidence interval, 0.31-0.81) for the highest MEDLIFE scores (14-23 points) compared to the lowest scores (0-9 points), p (trend) = 0.004. Conclusion: A higher level of adherence to the Mediterranean lifestyle was significantly associated with a lower risk of CVD in a Spanish cohort. Public health strategies should promote the Mediterranean lifestyle to preserve cardiovascular health. (c) 2021 The Italian Diabetes Society, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Autores: Fernández-Lázaro, D. (Autor de correspondencia); Mielgo-Ayuso, J.; Fernández-Zoppino, D.; et al.
    Revista: ARCHIVOS DE MEDICINA DEL DEPORTE
    ISSN 0212-8799 Vol.38 N° 3 2021 págs. 274 - 281
    Resumen
    Introduction: The possibility of performing intense workouts without falling into states of chronic fatigue stimulates the use of devices that improve muscular and hormonal functionality in athletes. The Elevation Training Mask (Training Mask LLC) (ETM) allows the application of hypoxia during exercise. The ETM is integrated into training routines increasing the physical stimulus to improve performance. Objective: We evaluated the impact of ETM on Workouts of the Day (WODs), muscular and hormonal behavior in Crossfit® athletes. Material and method: Prospective cohort study. During 12 weeks 20 Crossfit® athletes trained 60 minutes 3 days a week were randomly divided into 2 groups, control group (CG) (n=10) and ETM group (EG) (n=10) applying an additional progressive simulated altitude between 914 and 2743 meters. WODs (press, squat, deadlift, total CF and grace), macular markers: lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); creatine kinase (CK); myoglobin (Mb) and hormones: testosterone (T); cortisol (C), were evaluated at 2 time points of the study: day 1 (T1) and day 84 (T2). Results: All WODs and parameters LDH, CK, Mb, T and C showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in the time group interaction. In EG, a substantially lower percentage change (¿) between T1 and T2 was observed in Mb (-16.01±25.82%), CK (6.16±26.05%) and C (-0.18±4.01%) than in CG (Mb: -094±4.39%; CK: 17.98±27.19%; C: 4.56±3.44%). The ¿ T1-T2 in the WODs were similar. Conclusion: After 12 weeks of training under simulated hypoxia conditions with ETM there are no improvements in athletic performance assessed by WODs. However, the greater tendency to decrease Mb, CK and C, after using ETM, could stimulate recovery and indicate a lower muscle catabolism of the Crossfit® athlete in the long term.
  • Autores: Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Aguilera-Buenosvinos, I.; et al.
    Revista: ANTIOXIDANTS
    ISSN 2076-3921 Vol.10 N° 3 2021 págs. 340
    Resumen
    There is growing interest in natural antioxidants and their potential effects on breast cancer (BC). Epidemiological evidence, however, is inconsistent. We prospectively evaluated the association between dietary intake of vitamins A, C, and E, selenium, and zinc and BC among 9983 female participants from the SUN Project, a Mediterranean cohort of university graduates. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire at baseline, and biennial follow-up information about incident BC diagnosis was collected. Cases were ascertained through revision of medical charts and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). During an average follow-up of 11.3 years, 107 incident BC cases were confirmed. The multivariable HRs (95% CI) for BC comparing extreme tertiles of energy-adjusted dietary intakes were 1.07 (0.64-1.77; P-trend = 0.673) for vitamin A, 1.00 (0.58-1.71; P-trend = 0.846) for vitamin C, 0.92 (0.55-1.54; P-trend = 0.728) for vitamin E, 1.37 (0.85-2.20; P-trend = 0.135) for selenium, and 1.01 (0.61-1.69; P-trend = 0.939) for zinc. Stratified analyses showed an inverse association between vitamin E intake and postmenopausal BC (HRT3 vs. T1 = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.14-0.86; P-trend = 0.027). Our results did not suggest significant protective associations between dietary vitamins A, C, and E, selenium, or zinc and BC risk.
  • Autores: Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio; Romanos Nanclares, Andrea; Sánchez Bayona, Rodrigo; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 1436-6207 Vol.60 N° 7 2021 págs. 3783 - 3797
    Resumen
    Purpose Epidemiological evidence concerning the relationship between calcium and vitamin D intake and breast cancer (BC) is inconclusive. Moreover, the association according to menopausal status remains unclear. We aimed to assess whether total intakes from dietary and supplemental sources of calcium and vitamin D were associated with the incidence of BC in a Mediterranean cohort. Methods We prospectively evaluated the association between intakes of calcium and vitamin D and BC risk among 10,812 women in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Project, a Spanish cohort of university graduates. Results During a mean follow-up of 10.7 years, 101 incident BC cases were confirmed. Evidence of a non-linear association between total calcium intake and BC risk was found (Pnon-linearity = 0.011) with risk reductions associated with higher intake up to approximately 1400 mg/day. Moderate intake [Tertile 2 (T2)] of total calcium was associated with lower overall BC risk [HR for T2 vs. Tertile 1 (T1): 0.55; 95% CI 0.33-0.91] and also among postmenopausal women (HRT2 vs. T1 = 0.38; 95% CI 0.16-0.92). Intake of vitamin D was not associated with BC risk. Conclusions Our findings suggest an L-shaped association between total calcium intake and BC incidence. Moderate calcium intake may be associated with lower BC risk among overall and postmenopausal women, but not among premenopausal women. No evidence for any association between vitamin D intake and BC was found. Adherence to current guidelines recommendations for calcium intake may help to reduce BC risk.
  • Autores: Gomez Donoso, Clara (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Bes Rastrollo, Maira
    Revista: METODE (ENGLISH EDITION)
    ISSN 2174-3487 N° 11 2021 págs. 123 - 129
    Resumen
    Over the last centuries, in the context of industrialization, globalization, and urbanization, profound dietary changes have occurred. Ubiquitous access to cheap, readily available and highly palatable unhealthy products, together with aggressive marketing that significantly influences social norms, have led to overconsumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods. This has not only been associated with a higher prevalence of obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases, but also with detrimental effects on the world's natural resources. Broader and braver public health measures favoring the availability and affordability of healthy, minimally processed foods should be implemented in conjunction with educational strategies to re-encourage a healthy and sustainable food consumption.
  • Autores: Gutierrez-Bedmar, M. (Autor de correspondencia); Olmedo, P.; Gil, F.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0261-5614 Vol.40 N° 2 2021 págs. 496 - 504
    Resumen
    Background & aims: Epidemiological data on iron status and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine whether low serum iron (SI) levels are associated with an increased odds of first CVD event in a population at high cardiovascular risk. Methods: Case-control study design nested within the "PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea" (PREDIMED) trial. A total of 207 participants diagnosed with CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death) during follow-up period (2003-2010) were matched by sex, age and intervention group to 436 controls by incidence density sampling. Median time between serum sample collection and subsequent CVD event occurrence was 0.94 years. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis was used to determine SI levels. In-person interviews, medical record reviews, and validated questionnaires were used to assess covariates. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of CVD were calculated with conditional logistic regression. Results: Mean SI levels were higher in men than in women (1224.0 ¿g/L vs. 1093.8 ¿g/L; p < 0.001). Among women, but not in men, the mean SI concentration was lower in cases than in controls (1008.5 ¿g/L vs. 1132.9 ¿g/L; p = 0.030). There was a gradual decrease in the multivariable-adjusted ORs of CVD with increasing SI levels (highest vs. lowest quartile: OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.32-0.93; ptrend = 0.020). This inverse relationship was more pronounced among women (highest vs. lowest quartile: OR = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03-0.69; ptrend = 0.011). Conclusions: The present findings are consistent with previously reported inverse associations between SI and CVD. SI levels as an independent marker of short-term cardiovascular risk may be useful for risk assessment in older populations. Trial registration: www.controlled-trials.com; International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 35,739,639. Registered 5 October 2005. Retrospectively registered.
  • Autores: Etxeberria, U. (Autor de correspondencia); Gayoso, L.; Goñi Mateos, Leticia; et al.
    Revista: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE NUTRICION HUMANA Y DIETETICA
    ISSN 2173-1292 Vol.25 2021 págs. 73 - 74
  • Autores: Bullo, M.; Papandreou, C.; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 0022-3166 Vol.151 N° 1 2021 págs. 50 - 58
    Resumen
    Background: The quality of carbohydrate consumed, assessed by the glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), or carbohydrate quality index (CQI), affects the postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses, which have been implicated in the etiology of several chronic diseases. However, it is unclear whether plasma metabolites involved in different biological pathways could provide functional insights into the role of carbohydrate quality indices in health. Objectives: We aimed to identify plasma metabolomic profiles associated with dietary GI, GL, and CQI. Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional analysis of 1833 participants with overweight/obesity (mean age = 67 y) from 2 case-cohort studies nested within the PREDIMED (Prevencion con Dieta Mediterranea) trial. Data extracted from validated FFQs were used to estimate the GI, GL, and CQI. Plasma concentrations of 385 metabolites were profiled with LC coupled to MS and associations of these metabolites with those indices were assessed with elastic net regression analyses. Results: A total of 58, 18, and 57 metabolites were selected for GI, GL, and CQI, respectively. Choline, cotinine, gamma -butyrobetaine, and 36:3 phosphatidylserine plasmalogen were positively associated with GI and GL, whereas they were negatively associated with CQI. Fructose-glucose-galactose was negatively and positively associated with GI/GL and CQI, respectively. Consistent associations of 21 metabolites with both GI and CQI were found but in opposite directions. Negative associations of kynurenic acid, 22:1 sphingomyelin, and 38:6 phosphatidylethanolamine, as well as positive associations of 32:1 phosphatidylcholine with GI and GL were also observed. Pearson correlation coefficients between GI, GL, and CQI and the metabolomic profiles were 0.30, 0.22, and 0.27, respectively. Conclusions: The GI, GL, and CQI were associated with specific metabolomic profiles in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk. Our findings may help in understanding the role of dietary carbohydrate indices in the development of cardiometabolic disorders. This trial was registered at isrctn.com as ISRCTN35739639. J Nutr 2021;151:50-58. ABSTRACT Background: The quality of carbohydrate consumed, assessed by the glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), or carbohydrate quality index (CQI), affects the postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses, which have been implicated in the etiology of several chronic diseases. However, it is unclear whether plasma metabolites involved in different biological pathways could provide functional insights into the role of carbohydrate quality indices in health. Objectives: We aimed to identify plasma metabolomic profiles associated with dietary GI, GL, and CQI. Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional analysis of 1833 participants with overweight/obesity (mean age = 67 y) from 2 case-cohort studies nested within the PREDIMED (Prevencion con Dieta Mediterranea) trial. Data extracted from validated FFQs were used to estimate the GI, GL, and CQI. Plasma concentrations of 385 metabolites were profiled with LC coupled to MS and associations of these metabolites with those indices were assessed with elastic net regression analyses. Results: A total of 58, 18, and 57 metabolites were selected for GI, GL, and CQI, respectively. Choline, cotinine, gamma -butyrobetaine, and 36:3 phosphatidylserine plasmalogen were positively associated with GI and GL, whereas they were negatively associated with CQI. Fructose-glucose-galactose was negatively and positively associated with GI/GL and CQI, respectively. Consistent associations of 21 metabolites with both GI and CQI were found but in opposite directions. Negative associations of kynurenic acid, 22:1 sphingomyelin, and 38:6 phosphatidylethanolamine, as well as positive associations of 32:1 phosphatidylcholine with GI and GL were also observed. Pearson correlation coefficients between GI, GL, and CQI and the metabolomic profiles were 0.30, 0.22, and 0.27, respectively. Conclusions: The GI, GL, and CQI were associated with specific metabolomic profiles in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk. Our findings may help in understanding the role of dietary carbohydrate indices in the development of cardiometabolic disorders. This trial was registered at isrctn.com as ISRCTN35739639. J Nutr 2021;151:50-58.
  • Autores: Martín Calvo, Nerea; Santiago Neri, Susana; Segura, G.; et al.
    Revista: PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION
    ISSN 1368-9800 Vol.24 N° 13 2021 págs. 4204 - 4211
    Resumen
    Objective: To assess the association between pregestational BMI and offspring's risk of overweight/obesity after accounting for the most important confounders, especially maternal smoking habit. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: The Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) study is a prospective cohort of Spanish graduates with more than 22 000 participants nationwide. Recruitment started in 1999, and it is permanently open. Data on diet, lifestyle and clinical diagnoses are collected at baseline and every 2 years. Participants: Women from the SUN cohort who reported at least one pregnancy during follow-up (n 3496) were invited to this study. Among them, 1527 agreed to participate and completed an additional more detailed online questionnaire on their pregnancy history and their offspring's nutritional status. Results: After excluding 165 children, we analysed data of 2791 participants born to 1485 mothers and observed that each 5 kg/m2 increase in pregestational BMI was associated with a 0·22 (95 % CI 0·15, 0·29) higher z-score in offspring's BMI and higher risk of overweight/obesity (multivariable-adjusted relative risk (RR) 1·57 (95 % CI 1·39, 1·77)) in childhood or adolescence. Furthermore, we observed stronger association in children born to smoker mothers (RR 1·91; 95 % CI 1·48, 2·46) than from non-smoker mothers (RR 1·51; 95 % CI 1·31, 1·73) (Pfor interaction = 0·02). Conclusions: We found a synergistic interaction between pregestational BMI and maternal smoking habit on offspring's z-score of the BMI and in their risk of overweight/obesity. Although further research is needed to analyse dose-response relationships, these findings reinforce the importance of promoting healthy lifestyles in pregnant women in order to prevent childhood obesity. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02669602.
  • Autores: Urpi-Sarda, M.; Casas, R.; Sacanella, E.; et al.
    Revista: BIOMEDICINES
    ISSN 2227-9059 Vol.9 N° 8 2021 págs. 862
    Resumen
    The intervention with the Mediterranean diet (MD) pattern has evidenced short-term anti-inflammatory effects, but little is known about its long-term anti-inflammatory properties at molecular level. This study aims to investigate the 3-year effect of MD interventions compared to low-fat diet (LFD) on changes on inflammatory biomarkers related to atherosclerosis in a free-living population with a high-risk of cardiovascular disease (CD). Participants (n = 285) in the PREDIMED trial were randomly assigned into three intervention groups: MD with extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) or MD-Nuts, and a LFD. Fourteen plasma inflammatory biomarkers were determined by Luminex assays. An additional pilot study of gene expression (GE) was determined by RT-PCR in 35 participants. After 3 years, both MDs showed a significant reduction in the plasma levels of IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, hs-CRP, MCP-1, MIP-1 beta, RANTES, and ENA78 (p < 0.05; all). The decreased levels of IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha after MD significantly differed from those in the LFD (p < 0.05). No significant changes were observed at the gene level after MD interventions, however, the GE of CXCR2 and CXCR3 tended to increase in the control LFD group (p = 0.09). This study supports the implementation of MD as a healthy long-term dietary pattern in the prevention of CD in populations at high cardiovascular risk.
  • Autores: Santiago Neri, Susana; Garayoa Poyo, Roncesvalles; Zazpe García, Itzíar
    Revista: REVISTA IBEROAMERICANA DE APRENDIZAJE SERVICIO
    ISSN 2339-9341 Vol.11 2021 págs. 128 - 138
    Resumen
    El aprendizaje-servicio es una metodología de innovación docente que permite aprender mediante la aproximación a la realidad. En las asignaturas de Educación Nutricional, Restauración Colectiva y Nutrición Comunitaria surge en el marco de la Innovación para la docencia impulsada dentro del Horizonte 2020 y se basa en experiencias previas en el Proyecto ¿Por una Comida sana, tú decides¿ y TANTAKA. Un total de 303 alumnos de la Facultad de Farmacia y Nutrición de la Universidad de Navarra han realizado asesoramiento dietético y actividades formativas en instituciones navarras (España).
  • Autores: Ribo-Coll, M.; Lassale, C.; Sacanella, E.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF HYPERTENSION
    ISSN 0263-6352 Vol.39 N° 6 2021 págs. 1230 - 1237
    Resumen
    Objective: To examine in older individuals at high cardiovascular risk whether following a Mediterranean diet decreased the necessity of antihypertensive drugs and modulated their associated cardiovascular risk. Methods: In the PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea study, we assessed whether volunteers randomly allocated to an intervention with a Mediterranean diet enriched with extra-virgin olive oil or nuts (relative to a low-fat control diet) disclosed differences in the risk of: initiating antihypertensive medication in nonusers at baseline (n = 2188); and escalating therapy in participants using one, two, or three drugs at baseline (n = 2361, n = 1579, and n = 554, respectively). We also assessed whether allocation to Mediterranean diet modified the association between antihypertensive drug use and incident cardiovascular events. Results: Participants allocated to Mediterranean diet interventions were associated with lower risk of initiating antihypertensive therapy [5-year incidence rates: 47.1% in the control diet, 43.0% in MedDiets; hazard ratio = 0.84, 95% CI (0.74--0.97), in a model adjusted for age, sex, and recruitment site]. Volunteers using two drugs at baseline in the Mediterranean diet intervention enriched with extra-virgin olive oil decreased their risk of therapy escalation [5-year incidence rates: 22.9% in the control diet, 20.1% in the MedDiet; hazard ratio = 0.77, 95% CI (0.60--0.99)]. Allocation to Mediterranean diet interventions attenuated the association between antihypertensive therapy at baseline and incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (P interaction = 0.003). Conclusion: In an older population at high cardiovascular risk, following a Mediterranean diet reduced the risk of initiating or escalating antihypertensive medication and attenuated cardiovascular risk in antihypertensive drug users.
  • Autores: Nishi, S. K. (Autor de correspondencia); Babio, N. (Autor de correspondencia); Gómez-Martínez, C.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN AGING NEUROSCIENCE
    ISSN 1663-4365 Vol.13 2021 págs. 782067
    Resumen
    Background and Aims: Plant-forward dietary patterns have been associated with cardiometabolic health benefits, which, in turn, have been related to cognitive performance with inconsistent findings. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between baseline adherence to three a priori dietary patterns (Mediterranean, DASH, and MIND diets) with 2-year changes in cognitive performance in older adults with overweight or obesity and high cardiovascular disease risk.Methods: A prospective cohort analysis was conducted within the PREDIMED-Plus trial, involving 6,647 men and women aged 55-75 years with overweight or obesity and metabolic syndrome. Using a validated, semiquantitative 143-item food frequency questionnaire completed at baseline, the dietary pattern adherence scores were calculated. An extensive neuropsychological test battery was administered at baseline and 2-year follow-up. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models were used to assess associations between 2-year changes in cognitive function z-scores across tertiles of baseline adherence to the a priori dietary patterns.Results: Adherence to the Mediterranean diet at baseline was associated with 2-year changes in the general cognitive screening Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, beta: 0.070; 95% CI: 0.014, 0.175, P-trend = 0.011), and two executive function-related assessments: the Trail Making Tests Part A (TMT-A, beta: -0.054; 95% CI: -0.110, - 0.002, P-trend = 0.047) and Part B (TMT-B, beta: -0.079; 95% CI: -0.134, -0.024, P-trend = 0.004). Adherence to the MIND diet was associated with the backward recall Digit Span Test assessment of working memory (DST-B, beta: 0.058; 95% CI: 0.002, 0.114, P-trend = 0.045). However, higher adherence to the DASH dietary pattern was not associated with better cognitive function over a period of 2 years.Conclusion: In older Spanish individuals with overweight or obesity and at high cardiovascular disease risk, higher baseline adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern may be associated with better cognitive performance than lower adherence over a period of 2 years.
  • Autores: Muñoz-Garach, A.; Cornejo-Pareja, I.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
    Revista: MOLECULAR NUTRITION AND FOOD RESEARCH
    ISSN 1613-4125 Vol.65 N° 7 2021 págs. e2000728
    Resumen
    Scope To examine the association between milk and dairy products intake and the prevalence of cognitive decline among Spanish individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Methods and results Cross-sectional analyses are performed on baseline data from 6744 adults (aged 55-75 years old). Intake of milk and dairy products is estimated using a food frequency questionnaire grouped into quartiles. The risk of developing cognitive impairment is based on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). A higher prevalence of cognitive decline was found in subjects who consumed more grams. Patients with worse MMSE score (10-24) consumed a mean of 395.14 +/- 12.21 g, while patients with better MMSE score (27-30) consumed a mean of 341.23 +/- 2.73 g (p < 0.05). Those subjects with the lower milk consumption (<220 g/day) had a higher MMSE score (28.35 +/- 0.045). Higher intake of fermented dairy products was observed in participants with a lower MMSE score (OR 1.340, p = 0.003). A positive correlation was found between the consumption of whole milk and the MMSE score (r = 0.066, p < 0.001). Conclusions These findings suggest that greater consumption of milk and dairy products could be associated with greater cognitive decline according to MMSE. Conversely, consumption of whole-fat milk could be linked with less cognitive impairment in the cross-sectional study.
  • Autores: Llavero Valero, María; Escalada-San Martín, J.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
    ISSN 0939-4753 Vol.31 N° 2 2021 págs. 411 - 419
    Resumen
    Background and aim: Both physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors have demonstrated independent associations with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the combination of both, has been less explored. We aimed to compare the associations of PA-only versus the simultaneous effect of PA and sedentary behaviors on T2DM in a Mediterranean cohort. Methods and results: Participants (n = 19,524) initially free of T2DM from the SUN Project were followed-up for a median of 10.4 years. Analyses were conducted in 2018. PA and sedentary parameters (TV viewing time and sitting time) were assessed through a validated questionnaire. The amount of each PA was expressed in METs-h/wk. After that, a previously developed 8-item active + sedentary lifestyle score was computed. T2DM was defined according to ADA criteria. To adjust for potential confounders, Cox regression models were adjusted. Among 19,524 participants, 175 cases of new-onset T2DM were observed during follow-up. After multivariable adjustment, higher PA was strongly inversely associated with T2DM, showing highly significant differences between extreme quartiles (HR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.32-0.79 p for trend<0.001). When considering not only PA, but also the more comprehensive active + sedentary lifestyle combined score, even stronger differences were found between the lowest and the highest categories (HR = 0.40; 95%CI 0.20-0.80; p for trend<0.001). Conclusion: Sedentary lifestyles, in addition to PA patterns, should be included in the assessment of T2DM risk. Promoting PA should be coupled with the avoidance of a sedentary lifestyle to lower the risk of T2DM.
  • Autores: Miguel, V.; Tituana, J.; Herrero, J. I.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
    ISSN 0021-9738 Vol.131 N° 5 2021 págs. e140695
    Resumen
    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a major epidemiological, clinical, and biomedical challenge. During CKD, renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) present a persistent inflammatory and profibrotic response. Fatty acid oxidation (FAO), the main source of energy for TECs, is reduced in kidney fibrosis and contributes to its pathogenesis. To determine whether gain of function in FAO (FAO-GOF) could protect from fibrosis, we generated a conditional transgenic mouse model with overexpression of the fatty acid shuttling enzyme carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1A (CPT1A) in TECs. Cpt1a-knockin (CPT1A-KI) mice subjected to 3 models of renal fibrosis (unilateral ureteral obstruction, folic acid nephropathy [FAN], and adenine-induced nephrotoxicity) exhibited decreased expression of fibrotic markers, a blunted proinflammatory response, and reduced epithelial cell damage and macrophage influx. Protection from fibrosis was also observed when Cpt1a overexpression was induced after FAN. FAO-GOF restored oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial number and enhanced bioenergetics, increasing palmitate oxidation and ATP levels, changes that were also recapitulated in TECs exposed to profibrotic stimuli. Studies in patients showed decreased CPT1 levels and increased accumulation of shortand middle chain acylcarnitines, reflecting impaired FAO in human CKD. We propose that strategies based on FAO-GOF may constitute powerful alternatives to combat fibrosis inherent to CKD.
  • Autores: Laguna, J. C. (Autor de correspondencia); Alegret, M.; Cofan, M.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0261-5614 Vol.40 N° 10 2021 págs. 5269 - 5277
    Resumen
    Objective: To examine associations between intake of simple sugars and cancer incidence, cancer mor-tality, and total mortality in a prospective cohort study based on the PREDIMED trial conducted from 2003 to 2010. Methods: Participants were older individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Exposures were total sugar, glucose and fructose from solid or liquid sources, and fructose from fruit and 100% fruit juice. Cancer incidence was the primary outcome; cancer mortality and all-cause mortality were secondary outcomes. Multivariable-adjusted, time-dependent Cox proportional hazard models were used. Results: Of 7447 individuals enrolled, 7056 (94.7%) were included (57.6% women, aged 67.0 +/- 6.2 years). 534 incident cancers with 152 cancer deaths and 409 all-cause deaths were recorded after a median follow-up of 6 years. Intake of simple sugars in solid form was unrelated to outcomes. Higher cancer incidence was found per 5 g/day increase in intake of liquid sugars, with multivariable-adjusted HR of 1.08 (95% CI, 1.03-1.13) for total liquid sugar, 1.19 (95% CI, 1.07-1.31) for liquid glucose, 1.14 (95% CI, 1.05-1.23) for liquid fructose, and 1.39 (95% CI, 1.10-1.74) for fructose from fruit juice. Cancer and all-cause mortality increased to a similar extent with intake of all sugars in liquid form. In categorical models, cancer risk was dose-related for all liquid sugars. Conclusions: Simple sugar intake in drinks and fruit juice was associated with an increased risk of overall cancer incidence and mortality and all-cause mortality. This suggests that sugary beverages are a modifiable risk factor for cancer and all-cause mortality.
  • Autores: Romanos Nanclares, Andrea (Autor de correspondencia); Collins, L. C.; Hu, F. B.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 0022-3166 Vol.151 N° 9 2021 págs. 2768 - 2779
    Resumen
    Background: Whether consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) or artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) is associated with the risk of breast cancer is of public health interest. Objectives: We sought to evaluate associations between consumption of SSBs and ASBs and risks of total and subtype-specific breast cancer. Methods: We followed 82,713 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1980 to 2016) and 93,085 women from the Nurses' Health Study II (1991 to 2017). Cumulatively averaged intakes of SSBs and ASBs from FFQs were tested for associations with incident breast cancer cases and subtypes using Cox regression models. We also evaluated the associations stratified by menopausal status, physical activity, BMI, and alcohol intake. Results: We documented 11,379 breast cancer cases during 4,655,153 person-years of follow-up. Consumption of SSBs or ASBs was not associated with total breast cancer risk: pooled HRs comparing extreme categories (>= 1/day compared with <1/month) were 1.03 (95% CI, 0.95-1.12) and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.91-1.02), respectively. We observed a suggestive interaction by BMI using pooled data (P-interaction = 0.08), where a modestly higher risk of breast cancer with each serving per day increment of SSBs was found in lean women (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.11) but not among overweight or obese women (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.95-1.06). Moreover, in the pooled, fully adjusted analysis, compared to infrequent consumers (<1/month), those who consumed >= 1 serving of ASBs per day had a lower risk of luminal A breast tumors (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.80-1.01; P-trend = 0.02). Conclusions: Although no significant associations were observed overall, consumption of SSBs was associated with a slightly higher risk of breast cancer among lean women. This finding could have occurred by chance and needs confirmation. Our findings also suggest no substantial increase in the risk of breast cancer with consumption of ASBs.
  • Autores: Hershey de la Cruz, María Soledad; Sotos-Prieto, M.; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0261-5614 Vol.40 N° 5 2021 págs. 2494 - 2503
    Resumen
    Background & aims: The Mediterranean lifestyle (MEDLIFE), as an overall lifestyle pattern, may be associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome. We assessed the association of a validated MEDLIFE index with metabolic syndrome and its components in a non-Mediterranean working population. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted at baseline among 249 US career firefighters in Feeding America's Bravest 2016-2018. The MEDLIFE index consisted of 26 items on food consumption, dietary habits, physical activity, rest, and social interactions that scored 0 or 1 point. Thus, total scores could range from 0 to 26 points. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine the associations across tertiles of MEDLIFE adherence with metabolic syndrome and each of its individual components. Multivariable linear models further assessed each component as a continuous outcome. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 17.7%. Participants with higher MEDLIFE adherence (T3: 11-17 points) had 71% lower odds of having metabolic syndrome compared to those with lower MEDLIFE adherence (T1: 2-7 points) (OR = 0.29; 95%CI: 0.10 to 0.90, p for trend = 0.04). Furthermore, significant inverse associations were found for T3 versus T1 on abdominal obesity (OR = 0.42; 95%CI: 0.18 to 0.99, p for trend = 0.07) and hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 0.24; 95%CI: 0.09 to 0.63, p for trend = 0.002). Significant inverse associations for continuous outcomes included total-cholesterol (total-c), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and total-c:high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (p for trend <0.05). Conclusion: Higher adherence to traditional Mediterranean lifestyle habits, as measured by a comprehensive MEDLIFE index, was associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome and a more favorable cardiometabolic profile in a non-Mediterranean working population. Future studies employing the MEDLIFE index in other populations are warranted to support this hypothesis.
  • Autores: Chaccour Diaz, Carlos Javier; Casellas, A.; Blanco Di Matteo, Andrés Enrique; et al.
    Revista: ECLINICALMEDICINE
    ISSN 2589-5370 Vol.32 2021 págs. 100720
    Resumen
    Background: Ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro at concentrations not readily achievable with currently approved doses. There is limited evidence to support its clinical use in COVID-19 patients. We conducted a Pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of a single dose of ivermectin reduce the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 when administered early after disease onset. Methods: Consecutive patients with non-severe COVID-19 and no risk factors for complicated disease attending the emergency room of the Clínica Universidad de Navarra between July 31, 2020 and September 11, 2020 were enrolled. All enrollments occurred within 72 h of onset of fever or cough. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive ivermectin, 400 mcg/kg, single dose (n = 12) or placebo (n = 12). The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients with detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA by PCR from nasopharyngeal swab at day 7 post-treatment. The primary outcome was supported by determination of the viral load and infectivity of each sample. The differences between ivermectin and placebo were calculated using Fisher's exact test and presented as a relative risk ratio. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04390022. Findings: All patients recruited completed the trial (median age, 26 [IQR 19-36 in the ivermectin and 21-44 in the controls] years; 12 [50%] women; 100% had symptoms at recruitment, 70% reported headache, 62% reported fever, 50% reported general malaise and 25% reported cough). At day 7, there was no difference in the proportion of PCR positive patients (RR 0·92, 95% CI: 0·77-1·09, p = 1·0). The ivermectin group had non-statistically significant lower viral loads at day 4 (p = 0·24 for gene E; p = 0·18 for gene N) and day 7 (p = 0·16 for gene E; p = 0·18 for gene N) post treatment as well as lower IgG titers at day 21 post treatment (p = 0·24). Patients in the ivermectin group recovered earlier from hyposmia/anosmia (76 vs 158 patient-days; p < 0.001). Interpretation: Among patients with non-severe COVID-19 and no risk factors for severe disease receiving a single 400 mcg/kg dose of ivermectin within 72 h of fever or cough onset there was no difference in the proportion of PCR positives. There was however a marked reduction of self-reported anosmia/hyposmia, a reduction of cough and a tendency to lower viral loads and lower IgG titers which warrants assessment in larger trials. Funding: ISGlobal, Barcelona Institute for Global Health and Clínica Universidad de Navarra.
  • Autores: Bullo, M.; Papandreou, C.; García-Gavilán, J.; et al.
    Revista: METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
    ISSN 0026-0495 Vol.125 2021
    Resumen
    Background: Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle deregulation may predispose to cardiovascular diseases, but the role of TCA cycle-related metabolites in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) remains unexplored. This study sought to investigate the association of TCA cycle-related metabolites with risk of AF and HF. Methods: We used two nested case-control studies within the PREDIMED study. During a mean follow-up for about 10 years, 512 AF and 334 HF incident cases matched by age (±5 years), sex and recruitment center to 616 controls and 433 controls, respectively, were included in this study. Baseline plasma levels of citrate, aconitate, isocitrate, succinate, malate and d/l-2-hydroxyglutarate were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were fitted to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for metabolites and the risk of AF or HF. Potential confounders included smoking, family history of premature coronary heart disease, physical activity, alcohol intake, body mass index, intervention groups, dyslipidemia, hypertension, type 2 diabetes and medication use. Results: Comparing extreme quartiles of metabolites, elevated levels of succinate, malate, citrate and d/l-2-hydroxyglutarate were associated with a higher risk of AF [ORQ4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 1.80 (1.21-2.67), 2.13 (1.45-3.13), 1.87 (1.25-2.81) and 1.95 (1.31-2.90), respectively]. One SD increase in aconitate was directly associated with AF risk [OR (95% CI): 1.16 (1.01-1.34)]. The corresponding ORs (95% CI) for HF comparing extreme quartiles of malate, aconitate, isocitrate and d/l-2-hydroxyglutarate were 2.15 (1.29-3.56), 2.16 (1.25-3.72), 2.63 (1.56-4.44) and 1.82 (1.10-3.04), respectively. These associations were confirmed in an internal validation, except for aconitate and AF. Conclusion: These findings underscore the potential role of the TCA cycle in the pathogenesis of cardiac outcomes. Keywords: Atrial fibrillation; Heart failure; Hydroxyglutarate; PREDIMED; Tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites.
  • Autores: Santos da Rocha, B. R.; Rico-Campa, A.; Romanos Nanclares, Andrea; et al.
    Revista: PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION
    ISSN 1368-9800 Vol.24 N° 11 2021 págs. 3294 - 3303
    Resumen
    Objective: To assess whether higher adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) was associated with lower consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) and lower free sugar intake. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline information among participants in the SENDO project, a Spanish paediatric cohort. Dietary information was collected through a semi-quantitative FFQ. Food items were classified according to the NOVA classification. Adherence to the MedDiet was evaluated through the KIDMED index. Setting: Spain. Participants: Three hundred eight-six children (52 % boys) with a mean age of 5 center dot 3 years old (sd 1 center dot 0) were included in the analysis. Results: 74 center dot 4 % of the children had moderate adherence to the MedDiet (mean KIDMED score: 5 center dot 9 points; sd 1 center dot 7) and overall, 32 center dot 2 % of the total energy intake came from UPF. Each two additional points in the KIDMED score was associated with 3 center dot 1 % (95 % CI 2 center dot 1, 4 center dot 0) lower energy intake from UPF. Compared to those with low adherence to the MedDiet, children with medium and high adherence reported 5 center dot 0 % (95 % CI 2 center dot 2, 7 center dot 7) and 8 center dot 5 % (95 % CI 5 center dot 2, 11 center dot 9) lower energy intake from UPF, respectively. We also found that 71 center dot 6 % of the variability in free sugar intake was explained by the variability in UPF consumption. Conclusions: Adherence to the traditional MedDiet was inversely associated with energy intake from UPF. Furthermore, most of the variability in free sugar intake was explained by the variability of UPF consumption. Public health strategies are needed to strengthen the adherence to the MedDiet in pre-schoolers while regulating the production, marketing and advertising of UPF.
  • Autores: Alvarez-Mon, M. A. (Autor de correspondencia); Donat Vargas, Carolina Luisa; Llavero Valero, María; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN PUBLIC HEALTH
    ISSN 2296-2565 Vol.9 2021 págs. 644284
    Resumen
    Background: Media outlets influence social attitudes toward health habits. The analysis of tweets has become a tool for health researchers. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of tweets about women's health and the interest generated among Twitter users. Methods: We investigated tweets posted by 25 major U.S. media outlets about pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women's health between January 2009 and December 2019 as well as the retweets generated. In addition, we measured the sentiment analysis of these tweets as well as their potential dissemination. Results: A total of 376 tweets were analyzed. Pre-menopausal women's health accounted for most of the tweets (75.3%). Contraception was the main focus of the tweets, while a very limited number were related to infertility (1.4%). With regard to medical content, the effectiveness of contraceptive methods was the most frequent topic (46.2%). However, tweets related to side effects achieved the highest retweet-to-tweet ratio (70.3). The analysis of sentiments showed negative perceptions on tubal ligation. Conclusions: The U.S. media outlets analyzed are more interested in pre-menopausal than in post-menopausal women health and focused their content on contraception, while Twitter users showed greater interest in side effects.
  • Autores: Monedero Rodríguez, Pablo (Autor de correspondencia); Gea Sánchez, Alfredo; Castro, P.; et al.
    Revista: CRITICAL CARE (PRINT)
    ISSN 1364-8535 Vol.25 N° 1 2021 págs. 2
    Resumen
    BackgroundCritically ill patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) have a high fatality rate likely due to a dysregulated immune response. Corticosteroids could attenuate this inappropriate response, although there are still some concerns regarding its use, timing, and dose.MethodsThis is a nationwide, prospective, multicenter, observational, cohort study in critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 admitted into Intensive Care Units (ICU) in Spain from 12th March to 29th June 2020. Using a multivariable Cox model with inverse probability weighting, we compared relevant outcomes between patients treated with early corticosteroids (before or within the first 48 h of ICU admission) with those who did not receive early corticosteroids (delayed group) or any corticosteroids at all (never group). Primary endpoint was ICU mortality. Secondary endpoints included 7-day mortality, ventilator-free days, and complications.ResultsA total of 691 patients out of 882 (78.3%) received corticosteroid during their hospital stay. Patients treated with early-corticosteroids (n=485) had lower ICU mortality (30.3% vs. never 36.6% and delayed 44.2%) and lower 7-day mortality (7.2% vs. never 15.2%) compared to non-early treated patients. They also had higher number of ventilator-free days, less length of ICU stay, and less secondary infections than delayed treated patients. There were no differences in medical complications between groups. Of note, early use of moderate-to-high doses was associated with better outcomes than low dose regimens.ConclusionEarly use of corticosteroids in critically ill patients with COVID-19 is associated with lower mortality than no or delayed use, and fewer complications than delayed use.
  • Autores: Muralidharan, J.; Moreno-Indias, I. (Autor de correspondencia); Bullo, M. (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0002-9165 Vol.114 N° 3 2021 págs. 1148 - 1158
    Resumen
    Background: The Mediterranean diet is a well-recognized healthy diet that has shown to induce positive changes in gut microbiota. Lifestyle changes such as diet along with physical activity could aid in weight loss and improve cardiovascular risk factors. Objectives: To investigate the effect of an intensive lifestyle weight loss intervention on gut microbiota. Methods: This is a substudy of the PREDIMED-Plus (Prevention con Dieta Mediterrdnea-Plus), a randomized controlled trial conducted in overweight/obese men and women (aged 55-75 y) with metabolic syndrome. The intervention group (IG) underwent an intensive weight loss lifestyle intervention based on an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and physical activity promotion. and the control group ((Xi) underwent a non-energy-restricted MedDiet for 1 y. Anthropometric, biochemical, and gut microbial 16S rRNA sequencing data were analyzed at baseline (n = 362) and 1-y follow-up (n = 343). Results: IG participants had a weight loss of 4.2 (IQR, -6.8, -2.5) kg compared with 0.2 (IQR, -2.1. 1.4) kg in the CG (P < 0.001). Reductions in BMI, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and triglycerides and an increase in HDL cholesterol were greater in IG than inCG participants (P < 0.05). We observed a decrease in Butyricicoccus, Haentophilus. Ruminiclostridium 5, and Eubacterium hall in the IG compared with the CG. Many genera shifted in the same direction within both intervention groups, indicating an overall effect of the MedDiet. Decreases in Themophilus. Coprococcus 3, and few other genera were associated with a decrease in adiposity parameters in both intervention groups. Changes in Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 were positively associated with changes in MedDiet adherence. Conclusions: Weight loss induced by an energy-restricted MedDiet and physical activity induce changes in gut microbiota. The role of MedDiet-induced changes on the host might be via short-chain fatty acid producing bacteria, whereas with energy restriction, these changes might be modulated with other mechanisms, which need to be explored in future studies.
  • Autores: Soldevila-Domenech, N.; Forcano, L.; Vintro-Alcaraz, C.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0261-5614 Vol.40 N° 9 2021 págs. 5221 - 5237
    Resumen
    Background & aims: Some cognitive profiles might facilitate successful weight loss and its maintenance. Also, weight reductions may result in cognitive benefits. However, little work to date has examined the interactions between cognition and weight changes in the context of interventions with the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). We studied the within-subject longitudinal relationships between cognition, body mass index (BMI), physical activity (PA), and quality of life (QoL), in older adults following a MedDiet. Methods: The PREDIMED-Plus is a primary prevention trial testing the effect of a lifestyle intervention program with an energy-restricted MedDiet (er-MedDiet), weight-loss goals and PA promotion on cardiovascular disease. The PREDIMED-Plus-Cognition sub-study included 487 participants (50% women, mean age 65.2 +/- 4.7 years), with overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome and normal cognitive performance at baseline. A comprehensive neurocognitive test battery was administered at baseline and after 1 and 3 years. Results: Baseline higher performance in verbal memory (OR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.0, 2.1), visuoconstructive praxis and attention (OR = 1.5; 95%CI 0.9, 2.3), and inhibition (OR = 1.3; 95%CI 0.9,1.9) were associated with a higher odd of achieving at least 8% weight loss after 3 years follow-up in participants randomized to the intervention group. There were moderate improvements in specific tests of memory and executive functions during follow-up. Higher adherence to the er-MedDiet was associated with greater improvements in memory. Women exhibited lower rates of change in global cognition, PA and QoL. Moreover, improvements in memory correlated with reductions in BMI after 1 year (beta(STD) = -0.14) and with improvements in PA after 3 years (beta(STD) = 0.13). Finally, participants who experienced greater improvements in executive functions and global cognition also experienced greater improvements in their QoL. Conclusions: This study refines the understanding of the determinants and mutual interrelationships between longitudinally-assessed cognitive performance and weight loss, adding further evidence to the cognitive benefits associated with better adherence to a MedDiet. Our results also suggest that weight loss interventions tailored to the cognitive profile and gender of participants are promising avenues for future studies. (C) 2021 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
  • Autores: Martín Calvo, Nerea (Autor de correspondencia); Bes Rastrollo, Maira; Gomez Donoso, Clara; et al.
    Revista: ATENCION PRIMARIA
    ISSN 0212-6567 Vol.53 N° 2 2021 págs. 101950
    Resumen
    Objective: Quantify the impact of reducing the consumption of red/processed meats on cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality of the Spanish adult population based in 5 revisions published. Participants and main measurements: We defined exposure as consumption of >= 3 servings/week of red or processed meats and considered four possible scenarios of exposed population (30%-60%). Based on data from the Spanish National Statistics Institute, we calculated the weighted mortality between 40 and 80 years. Using the relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) published by the referred revisions (RR= 0.88; IC 95%: 0.84-0.93 for all-cause mortality and RR =0.92; IC 95%: 0.90-0.93 for cardiovascular mortality), we calculated the expected mortality rate in both exposed and unexposed categories. By multiplying these rates by the number of exposed individuals, we estimated the attributable number of yearly deaths. Results: If 60% of the population was exposed, with a 95% CI, the number of cardiovascular deaths that could be averted each year if population consumed < 3 servings/week of red or processed meats was between 2.112 and 3.055. If was exposed that 30%, the difference in the yearly number of potentially averted deaths was between 1.079 and 1.577. Conclusions: Even under the most conservative assumption, the benefit, at the population level, of reducing red or processed meats consumption < 3 servings/week on cardiovascular mortality is important. The conclusions of the recently published reviews contradicted their own results and contributed to a state of confusion that can create substantial harm for public health.
  • Autores: Romanos-Nanclares, A.; Gea Sánchez, Alfredo (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0261-5614 Vol.40 N° 1 2021 págs. 137 - 145
    Resumen
    Background & aims: Beyond the quantity of carbohydrate intake, further research is needed on the relevance of carbohydrate quality. Thus, we evaluated the association between an a priori defined carbohydrate quality index (CQI) and the incidence of breast cancer (BC) in a Mediterranean cohort study. Methods: We used a validated semi-quantitative 136-item food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a prospective follow-up study of 10,812 middle-aged women. We evaluated at baseline the CQI following 4 criteria: dietary fiber intake, glycemic index, whole-grain:total-grain carbohydrates ratio and the solid carbohydrate:total carbohydrate ratio. Subjects were classified into quartiles according to the final CQI score. Results: During a median follow-up of 11.8 years, we confirmed 101 incident cases of BC. Our study suggests that a higher quality of carbohydrate intake, as measured by the baseline CQI, was associated with a lower risk of BC [HR Q4 vs. Q1 0.39 (95% CI 0.17, 0.87)]. Particularly, a higher whole-grain:total-grain carbohydrates ratio was associated with lower risk of BC [HR T3 vs. T1 0.56 (0.34, 0.90)]. When we stratified by menopausal status, we found an inverse association between CQI and BC in the comparison of extreme quartiles among premenopausal women. Conclusions: In this Mediterranean cohort, a better quality of dietary carbohydrate intake showed a significant inverse association with the incidence of BC, which suggests that strategies for cancer prevention should highlight the quality of this macronutrient.
  • Autores: Zazpe García, Itzíar; Santiago Neri, Susana; Toledo Atucha, Estefanía; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF THE ACADEMY OF NUTRITION AND DIETETICS
    ISSN 2212-2672 Vol.121 N° 10 2021 págs. 1948 - 1960.e7
    Resumen
    Background: Dietary quality indices (DQI) are widely used in nutritional epidemiology. However, how they might change over time in a Mediterranean population is not well understood. Objective: To evaluate within-participant longitudinal changes in scores for nine a priori¿defined DQIs: Fat Quality Index (FQI), Carbohydrate Quality Index (CQI), Pro-vegetarian Dietary Pattern (PVG), Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS), Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay Diet (MIND), Prime Diet Quality Score (PDQS) and Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010) in the ¿Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra¿ (SUN) cohort, a well-known Mediterranean cohort of university graduates, and to identify baseline predictors of improvement in MEDAS and AHEI-2010 after 10 years of follow-up. Design: In this longitudinal cohort study, DQI scores were calculated based on responses from a validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Participants/setting: Spanish university graduates enrolled in the SUN cohort before March 2008, who completed the 10-year FFQ and reported total dietary intake at baseline and after 10 years of follow-up, included 2,244 men and 3,271 women, whose mean age at baseline was 36.3 years (standard deviation [SD], 10.7). ...
  • Autores: Sánchez Bayona, Rodrigo; Gardeazábal González, Itziar; Romanos Nanclares, Andrea; et al.
    Revista: PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
    ISSN 0091-7435 Vol.148 2021 págs. 106535
    Resumen
    Evidence is still limited on the influence of sedentary lifestyles on breast cancer (BC) risk. Also, prospective information on the combined effects of both sedentariness and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is scarce. We aimed to assess the association of higher sedentary behavior and LTPA (separately and in combination) with the risk of BC in a middle-aged cohort of university graduates. The SUN Project is a follow-up study initiated in 1999 with recruitment permanently open. Baseline assessments included a validated questionnaire on LTPA and sedentary habits. Subsequently, participants completed biennial follow-up questionnaires. Multivariable adjusted Cox models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) for incident BC according to LTPA, TV-watching, the joint classification of both, and a combined 8-item multidimensional active lifestyle score. We included 10,812 women, with 11.8 years of median follow-up of. Among 115,802 women-years of follow-up, we confirmed 101 incident cases of BC. Women in the highest category of LTPA ( 2 points) group. There was no significant supra-multiplicative interaction between TV-watching and LTPA. Both low LTPA and TV-watching 2 h/d may substantially increase BC risk, independently of each other.
  • Autores: Ribo-Coll, M.; Castro-Barquero, S.; Lassale, C.; et al.
    Revista: ANTIOXIDANTS
    ISSN 2076-3921 Vol.10 N° 3 2021 págs. 397
    Resumen
    Our aim was to assess whether long-term adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) were associated with a lower initiation of cardiovascular drug use. We studied the association between cumulative average of MedDiet adherence and LTPA and the risk of cardiovascular drug initiation in older adults at high cardiovascular risk (PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea trial participants) non-medicated at baseline: glucose-lowering drugs (n = 4437), antihypertensives (n = 2145), statins (n = 3977), fibrates (n = 6391), antiplatelets (n = 5760), vitamin K antagonists (n = 6877), antianginal drugs (n = 6837), and cardiac glycosides (n = 6954). One-point increases in MedDiet adherence were linearly associated with a decreased initiation of glucose-lowering (HR: 0.76 [0.71-0.80]), antihypertensive (HR: 0.79 [0.75-0.82]), statin (HR: 0.82 [0.78-0.85]), fibrate (HR: 0.78 [0.68-0.89]), antiplatelet (HR: 0.79 [0.75-0.83]), vitamin K antagonist (HR: 0.83 [0.74; 0.93]), antianginal (HR: 0.84 [0.74-0.96]), and cardiac glycoside therapy (HR: 0.69 [0.56-0.84]). LTPA was non-linearly related to a delayed initiation of glucose-lowering, antihypertensive, statin, fibrate, antiplatelet, antianginal, and cardiac glycoside therapy (minimum risk: 180-360 metabolic equivalents of task-min/day). Both combined were synergistically associated with a decreased onset of glucose-lowering drugs (p-interaction = 0.04), antihypertensive drugs (p-interaction < 0.001), vitamin K antagonists (p-interaction = 0.04), and cardiac glycosides (p-interaction = 0.01). Summarizing, sustained adherence to a MedDiet and LTPA were associated with lower risk of initiating cardiovascular-related medications.
  • Autores: Morales, G. ; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Barbería Latasa, María; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 1436-6207 Vol.60 N° 3 2021 págs. 1489 - 1498
    Resumen
    Purpose The health benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) have been widely studied. However, controversy remains for one of its components: alcohol intake. We aimed to assess the joint effect of adherence to the MedDiet and alcohol-drinking pattern on all-cause mortality. Methods We used data from 20,506 subjects from a prospective cohort of Spanish university graduates, the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort. Adherence to the MedDiet was operationalized using four different dietary indexes and then categorized in low or high adherence, according to the median score. Alcohol-drinking pattern was evaluated with the previously defined the Mediterranean alcohol-drinking pattern (MADP), grouped into three categories of adherence (low, moderate and high adherence) and a fourth category for abstainers. The outcome was all-cause mortality. Results During a median follow-up of 12.1 years, we observed 460 deaths. No statistically significant supra-multiplicative interaction between the two exposures was found. Low adherence to both the MedDiet and MADP was associated with higher all-cause mortality compared to high adherence to both exposures [multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33-3.07]. Similar results were found for cancer mortality and cardiovascular mortality. Conclusions Although the combined effect of the MedDiet and MADP was not significantly higher than the product of their individual effects, a low adherence to both the MedDiet and MADP was associated with higher rates of all-cause mortality. This report also shows the usefulness of the dietary pattern approach applied to alcohol intake and of including the drinking pattern as another component of the MedDiet.
  • Autores: Gallardo-Alfaro, L.; Bibiloni, M. D.; Bouzas, C.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
    ISSN 0939-4753 Vol.31 N° 10 2021 págs. 2870 - 2886
    Resumen
    Background and aims: Modifiable lifestyle factors, such as physical activity (PA) and Mediterranean diet (MD), decrease metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim was to assess 1-year changes of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), sedentary behavior, and diet quality according to MetS severity in older population at high cardiovascular risk. Methods and results: Prospective analysis of 55-75-year-old 4359 overweight/obese participants with MetS (PREDIMED-Plus trial) categorized in tertiles according to 1-year changes of a validated MetS severity score (MetSSS). Anthropometrics, visceral adiposity index, triglycerides and glucose index, dietary nutrient intake, biochemical marker levels, dietary inflammatory index, and depression symptoms were measured. Diet quality was assessed by 17-item MD questionnaire. PAs were self-reported using the Minnesota-REGICOR Short Physical Activity Questionnaire and 30-s chair stand test. Sedentary behaviors were measured using the Spanish version of the Nurses' Health Study questionnaire. After 1-year follow-up, decreasing MetSSS was associated with an anti-inflammatory dietary pattern, high intake of vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, whole grain cereals, white fish, and bluefish and low intake of refined cereals, red and processed meat, cookies/sweets, and snacks/ready-to-eat-meals. It resulted in high intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, protein, fiber, vitamins B1, B6, B9, C, D, potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus and low glycemic index and saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and carbohydrates intake. Regarding PA and sedentary behavior, decreasing MetSSS was associated with increased moderate-to-vigorous LTPA, chair stand test, and decreased sedentary and TV-viewing time. Conclusion: Decreasing MetSSS was associated with an anti-inflammatory dietary pattern, high LTPA, high MD adherence, low sedentary time, and low depression risk. 2021 The Italian Diabetes Society, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University.
  • Autores: Gomez Donoso, Clara; Sacks, G.; Vanderlee, L.; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
    ISSN 1479-5868 Vol.18 N° 1 2021 págs. 78
    Resumen
    Background Food retail environments have an influential role in shaping purchasing behavior and could contribute to improving dietary patterns at a population level. However, little is known about the level of public support for different types of initiatives to encourage healthy food choices in supermarkets, and whether this varies across countries or context. The current study aimed to explore the level of support for three potential supermarket initiatives focused on product placement across five countries, and factors that may influence this support. Methods A total of 22,264 adults from Australia, Canada, Mexico, the United Kingdom and the United States (US) provided information on support for three supermarket initiatives related to product placement (targeting product positioning: 'checkouts with only healthy products', 'fewer end-of-aisle displays containing unhealthy foods or soft drinks' or availability: 'more shelf space for fresh and healthier foods') as part of the online 2018 International Food Policy Study. The proportion of respondents that supported each initiative was assessed across countries, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic factors on support. Results The initiative that received the highest support was 'more shelf space for fresh and healthier foods': 72.0% [95% CI 71.3-72.7], whereas 'checkouts with only healthy products' received the lowest support: 48.6% [95% CI 47.8-49.4]. The level of support differed between countries (p < 0.001 for all initiatives), with the US generally showing the lowest support and Mexico the highest. Noteworthy, in the overall sample, there was not much opposition to any of the initiatives (2.5-14.2%), whereas there was a large proportion of neutral responses (25.5-37.2%). Respondents who were older, female, highly educated, and those who reported having more nutrition knowledge tended to be more supportive, with several differences between countries and initiatives. Conclusions Most people in the assessed five countries showed a generally high level of support for three placement initiatives in supermarkets to encourage healthy food choices. Support varied by type of initiative (i.e., product positioning or availability) and was influenced by several factors related to country context and sociodemographic characteristics. This evidence could prompt and guide retailers and policy makers to take stronger action to promote healthy food choices in stores.
  • Autores: Gribble, A. K.; Sayon Orea, María del Carmen; Bes Rastrollo, Maira; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.13 N° 11 2021 págs. 4182
    Resumen
    Background: Siesta has been associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease but the mechanism remains unclear. New studies into the relationship between siesta and metabolic syndrome have identified siesta length as a crucial differential, suggesting that siesta less than 40 min is associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome, while longer siesta is associated with increased risk. We aimed to investigate the effect of siesta duration on development of metabolic syndrome in a Mediterranean population using a prospective cohort study design. Methods: Our sample consisted of 9161 participants of the SUN cohort without components of metabolic syndrome at baseline. Siesta exposure was assessed at baseline and the development of metabolic syndrome components was assessed after an average 6.8 years of follow-up. We estimated odds ratios and fitted logistic regression models to adjust for potential cofounders including night-time sleep duration and quality, as well as other diet, health, and lifestyle factors. Results: We observed a positive association between average daily siesta > 30 min and development of metabolic syndrome (aOR = 1.39 CI: 1.03-1.88). We found no significant difference in risk of developing metabolic syndrome between the group averaging & LE;30 min of daily siesta and the group not taking siesta (aOR = 1.07 CI: 0.83-1.37). Further analysis suggested that average daily siesta < 15 min may reduce risk of metabolic syndrome. Conclusions: Our study supports the J-curve model of the association between siesta and risk of metabolic syndrome, but suggests the protective effect is limited to a shorter range of siesta length than previously proposed.
  • Autores: Lan, F. Y.; Filler, R.; Mathew, S.; et al.
    Revista: INFECTION CONTROL AND HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGY
    ISSN 0899-823X Vol.42 N° 12 2021 págs. 1473 - 1478
    Resumen
    Objective: To better understand coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission among healthcare workers (HCWs), we investigated occupational and nonoccupational risk factors associated with cumulative COVID-19 incidence among a Massachusetts HCW cohort. Design, setting, and participants: The retrospective cohort study included adult HCWs in a single healthcare system from March 9 to June 3, 2020. Methods: The SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal RT-PCR results and demographics of the study participants were deidentified and extracted from an established occupational health, COVID-19 database at the healthcare system. HCWs from each particular job grouping had been categorized into frontline or nonfrontline workers. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and odds ratios (ORs) were used to compare subgroups after excluding HCWs involved in early infection clusters before universal masking began. A sensitivity analysis was performed comparing jobs with the greatest potential occupational risks with others. Results: Of 5,177 HCWs, 152 (2.94%) were diagnosed with COVID-19. Affected HCWs resided in areas with higher community attack rates (median, 1,755.2 vs 1,412.4 cases per 100,000; P < .001; multivariate-adjusted IRR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.03-3.44 comparing fifth to first quintile of community rates). After multivariate adjustment, African-American and Hispanic HCWs had higher incidence of COVID-19 than non-Hispanic white HCWs (IRR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.78-4.33; and IRR, 2.41, 95% CI, 1.42-4.07, respectively). After adjusting for race and residential rates, frontline HCWs had a higher IRR (1.73, 95% CI, 1.16-2.54) than nonfrontline HCWs overall, but not within specific job categories nor when comparing the highest risk jobs to others. Conclusions: After universal masking was instituted, the strongest risk factors associated with HCW COVID-19 infection were residential community infection rate and race.
  • Autores: Lan, F. Y.; Yiannakou, I.; Scheibler, C.; et al.
    Revista: MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE
    ISSN 0195-9131 Vol.53 N° 4 2021 págs. 740 - 748
    Resumen
    Purpose This study aimed to investigate changes in firefighter recruits' select health and fitness measurements, from academy training to the early probationary firefighter period. Methods Firefighter recruits from two New England fire academies were followed up prospectively from enrollment at the academy to graduation after 15- to 16-wk training programs, and then for an average of 8 months as probationary firefighters. The participants' demographic, lifestyle, and mental health information was collected using a questionnaire. Body mass index, percent body fat, blood pressure, and push-ups were also measured at each time point. Furthermore, the academies tested the recruits on selected fitness measures (push-ups, pull-ups, and 1.5-mile running time) at academy entry, midtraining, and at graduation. Results Ninety-two recruits consented and were included in the analyses. The recruits' percent body fat significantly decreased (median, 21.0%-18.2%) from baseline to graduation, and push-up capacity significantly improved (median, 34-53 per minute) in the same period, along with pull-ups and 1.5-mile running time. However, the recruits' blood pressure, both systolic and diastolic, increased significantly by an average of 3 mm Hg during the training. Those completing probationary follow-up (45/92 recruits) showed that most health/fitness improvements declined after graduation. From academy graduation to probationary follow-up, recruits' physical activity decreased and TV screen time increased significantly, leading to a lower healthy lifestyle score (median, 4-3). After multivariate adjustments, the recruits' diastolic blood pressure increased by 2 mm Hg per measuring time throughout the study period. Conclusions Fire academy training improved recruits' select health and fitness measurements, but the benefits dissipated as probationary firefighters, and blood pressures increased throughout the study period. Further interventions regarding blood pressure and to maintain training benefits after joining fire departments are warranted.
  • Autores: Domínguez-López, I.; Parilli-Moser, I.; Arancibia-Riveros, C.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.13 N° 8 2021 págs. 2883
    Resumen
    Postmenopausal women are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases due to changes in lipid profile and body fat, among others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of urinary tartaric acid, a biomarker of wine consumption, with anthropometric (weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-height ratio), blood pressure, and biochemical variables (blood glucose and lipid profile) that may be affected during the menopausal transition. This sub-study of the PREDIMED (Prevencion con Dieta Mediterranea) trial included a sample of 230 women aged 60-80 years with high cardiovascular risk at baseline. Urine samples were diluted and filtered, and tartaric acid was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Correlations between tartaric acid and the study variables were adjusted for age, education level, smoking status, physical activity, BMI, cholesterol-lowering, antihypertensive, and insulin treatment, total energy intake, and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and raisins. A strong association was observed between wine consumption and urinary tartaric acid (0.01 mu g/mg (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01, 0.01), p-value < 0.001). Total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were inversely correlated with urinary tartaric acid (-3.13 mu g/mg (-5.54, -0.71), p-value = 0.016 and -3.03 mu g/mg (-5.62, -0.42), p-value = 0.027, respectively), whereas other biochemical and anthropometric variables were unrelated. The results suggest that wine consumption may have a positive effect on cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women, underpinning its nutraceutical properties.
  • Autores: Guasch-Ferre, M. (Autor de correspondencia); Hernández-Alonso, P. (Autor de correspondencia); Drouin-Chartier, J. P.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 0022-3166 Vol.151 N° 2 2021 págs. 303 - 311
    Resumen
    Background Walnut consumption is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, it is unknown whether plasma metabolites related to walnut consumption are also associated with lower risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Objectives The study aimed to identify plasma metabolites associated with walnut consumption and evaluate the prospective associations between the identified profile and risk of T2D and CVD. Methods The discovery population included 1833 participants at high cardiovascular risk from the PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea (PREDIMED) study with available metabolomics data at baseline. The study population included 57% women (baseline mean BMI (in kg/m(2)): 29.9; mean age: 67 y). A total of 1522 participants also had available metabolomics data at year 1 and were used as the internal validation population. Plasma metabolomics analyses were performed using LC-MS. Cross-sectional associations between 385 known metabolites and walnut consumption were assessed using elastic net continuous regression analysis. A 10-cross-validation (CV) procedure was used, and Pearson correlation coefficients were assessed between metabolite weighted models and self-reported walnut consumption in each pair of training-validation data sets within the discovery population. We further estimated the prospective associations between the identified metabolite profile and incident T2D and CVD using multivariable Cox regression models. Results A total of 19 metabolites were significantly associated with walnut consumption, including lipids, purines, acylcarnitines, and amino acids. Ten-CV Pearson correlation coefficients between self-reported walnut consumption and the plasma metabolite profile were 0.16 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.20) in the discovery population and 0.15 (95% CI: 0.10, 0.20) in the validation population. The metabolite profile was inversely associated with T2D incidence (HR per 1 SD: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.97; P = 0.02). For CVD incidence, the HR per 1-SD was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.85; P < 0.001). Conclusions A metabolite profile including 19 metabolites was associated with walnut consumption and with a lower risk of incident T2D and CVD in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.
  • Autores: Diaz-Lopez, A.; Becerra-Tomas, N.; Ruiz, V.; et al.
    Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NEPHROLOGY
    ISSN 0250-8095 Vol.52 N° 1 2021 págs. 45 - 58
    Resumen
    Introduction: Large randomized trials testing the effect of a multifactorial weight-loss lifestyle intervention including Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on renal function are lacking. Here, we evaluated the 1-year efficacy of an intensive weight-loss intervention with an energy-reduced MedDiet (erMedDiet) plus increased physical activity (PA) on renal function. Methods: Randomized controlled "PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea-Plus" (PREDIMED-Plus) trial is conducted in 23 Spanish centers comprising 208 primary care clinics. Overweight/obese (n = 6,719) adults aged 55-75 years with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned (1:1) to an intensive weight-loss lifestyle intervention with an erMedDiet, PA promotion, and behavioral support (intervention) or usual-care advice to adhere to an energy-unrestricted MedDiet (control) between September 2013 and December 2016. The primary outcome was 1-year change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Secondary outcomes were changes in urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), incidence of moderately/severely impaired eGFR (<60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and micro- to macroalbuminuria (UACR >= 30 mg/g), and reversion of moderately (45 to <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) to mildly impaired GFR (60 to <90 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) or micro- to macroalbuminuria. Results: After 1 year, eGFR declined by 0.66 and 1.25 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in the intervention and control groups, respectively (mean difference, 0.58 mL/min/1.73 m(2); 95% CI: 0.15-1.02). There were no between-group differences in mean UACR or micro- to macroalbuminuria changes. Moderately/severely impaired eGFR incidence and reversion of moderately to mildly impaired GFR were 40% lower (HR 0.60; 0.44-0.82) and 92% higher (HR 1.92; 1.35-2.73), respectively, in the intervention group. Conclusions: The PREDIMED-Plus lifestyle intervention approach may preserve renal function and delay CKD progression in overweight/obese adults.
  • Autores: García Blanco, Lorena; Martín Calvo, Nerea; Ciriza Barea, E. (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: PEDIATRIA ATENCION PRIMARIA
    ISSN 1139-7632 Vol.23 N° 90 2021 págs. 133 - 142
    Resumen
    Introducción: existe controversia sobre si la lactancia materna (LM) prolongada puede ser un factor de riesgo de caries. La LM se recomienda hasta al menos los dos años y tiene demostrados beneficios sobre la salud, incluida la bucodental. Repasamos la evidencia científica y presentamos los resultados de nuestra cohorte. Métodos: cohorte prospectiva, abierta y multipropósito de niños de 4-5 años, cuyos padres responden a cuestionarios autorreferidos acerca de hábitos nutricionales y estilo de vida. Análisis retrospectivo de prevalencia de caries según duración de LM. Ajustamos por edad, sexo, raza, conocimientos nutricionales y actitudes dietéticas de los padres, adhesión a la dieta mediterránea, ingesta energética total y de azúcar. Resultados: se alcanzó un tamaño muestral de 370 participantes, 50 de los cuales había tenido, al menos una caries. La LM hasta los 12 meses se asociaba con un menor riesgo de caries, pero la LM de más de 12 meses se asociaba con un riesgo mayor (odds ratio [OR]: 2,75; intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC 95]: 1,397 a 5,44; p = 0,003). La ingesta energética total o la de azúcar no resultaron ser confusores importantes para la asociación estudiada. La adhesión a dieta mediterránea puede tener un efecto protector, hace falta más investigación al respecto. Conclusiones: existe una asociación directa estadísticamente significativa entre la LM de más de 12 meses y el riesgo de caries. Sin embargo, la LM hasta los 12 meses es un factor protector. Los resultados obtenidos son consistentes con la literatura médica existente.
  • Autores: Dominguez, L. J. (Autor de correspondencia); Gea Sánchez, Alfredo; Ruiz Estigarribia, Liz; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.13 N° 1 2021 págs. 125
    Resumen
    Hypertension is the strongest independent modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate the association of magnesium intake with incident hypertension in a Mediterranean population, and the potential modification of this association by body mass index (BMI). We assessed 14,057 participants of the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) prospective cohort (67.0% women) initially free of hypertension. At baseline, a validated 136-item food frequency questionnaire was administered. We used Cox models adjusted for multiple socio-demographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle factors, and prevalent conditions present at baseline. Among a mean 9.6 years of follow-up we observed 1406 incident cases of medically diagnosed hypertension. An inverse association in multivariable-adjusted models was observed for progressively higher magnesium intake up to 500 mg/d vs. intake < 200 mg/d, which was greater among those with a BMI > 27 kg/m(2). Lean participants with magnesium intake < 200 mg/d vs. >200 mg/d also had a higher risk of incident hypertension. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet did not modify these associations. In conclusion, dietary magnesium intake < 200 mg/d was independently associated with a higher risk of developing hypertension in a Mediterranean cohort, stronger for overweight/obese participants. Our results emphasize the importance of encouraging the consumption of magnesium-rich foods (vegetables, nuts, whole cereals, legumes) in order to prevent hypertension.
  • Autores: Hernaez, A. (Autor de correspondencia); Lassale, C.; Castro-Barquero, S.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.13 N° 2 2021 págs. 559
    Resumen
    There is little information on the dietary modulation of thrombosis-related risk factors such as platelet count. We aimed to assess the effects of Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on platelet count and related outcomes in an older population at high cardiovascular risk. In participants of the PREDIMED (PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea) study, we assessed whether an intervention with a MedDiet enriched with extra-virgin olive oil or nuts, relative to a low-fat control diet, modulated platelet count (n = 4189), the risk of developing thrombocytosis and thrombocytopenia (n = 3086), and the association between these alterations and all-cause mortality (median follow-up time: 3.0 years). Although platelet count increased over time (+0.98 center dot 10(9) units/L center dot year [95% confidence interval: 0.12; 1.84]), MedDiet interventions moderated this increase, particularly in individuals with near-high baseline count (both MedDiets combined: -3.20 center dot 10(9) units/L center dot year [-5.81; -0.59]). Thrombocytopenia incidence was lower in the MedDiet interventions (incidence rates: 2.23% in control diet, 0.91% in MedDiets combined; hazard ratio: 0.44 [0.23; 0.83]). Finally, thrombocytopenia was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 4.71 [2.69; 8.24]), but this relationship was attenuated in those allocated to MedDiet (p-interaction = 0.018). In brief, MedDiet maintained platelet counts within a healthy range and attenuated platelet-related mortality in older adults at high cardiovascular risk.
  • Autores: Goñi Mateos, Leticia; Fernández Matarrubia, Marta; Romanos Nanclares, Andrea; et al.
    Revista: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 1475-2662 Vol.126 N° 1 2021 págs. 43 - 52
    Resumen
    The global growing rates of cognitive decline and dementia, together with the absence of curative therapies for these conditions, support the interest in researching potential primary prevention interventions, with particular focus on dietary habits. The aim was to assess the association between polyphenol intake and 6-year change in cognitive function in the 'Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra' (SUN) Project, a Spanish prospective cohort study. Changes (final - initial) in cognitive function were evaluated in a subsample of 806 participants (mean age 66 (sd 5) years, 69·7 % male) of the SUN Project using the validated Spanish Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status-modified score. Polyphenol intake was derived from a validated semi-quantitative FFQ and matching food composition data from the Phenol-Explorer database. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between total polyphenol intake, polyphenol subclasses and cognitive changes. No significant association between total polyphenol intake and changes in cognitive function was found. However, a higher intake of lignans (ßQuintile (Q) 5 v. Q1 0·81; 95 % CI 0·12, 1·51; Ptrend = 0·020) and stilbenes (ßQ5 v. Q1 0·82; 95 % CI 0·15, 1·49; Ptrend = 0·028) was associated with more favourable changes in cognitive function over time, particularly with respect to immediate memory and language domains. Olive oil and nuts were the major sources of variability in lignan intake, and wine in stilbene intake. The results suggest that lignan and stilbene intake was associated with improvements in cognitive function.
  • Autores: Fernández, A. I.; Bermejo, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Yotti, R.; et al.
    Revista: TRIALS
    ISSN 1745-6215 Vol.22 N° 1 2021
    Resumen
    Background: Primary prevention trials have demonstrated that the traditional Mediterranean diet is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. However, this benefit has not been proven for secondary prevention after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We hypothesized that a high-intensity Mediterranean diet intervention after an ACS decreases the vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques by complex interactions between anti-inflammatory effects, microbiota changes and modulation of gene expression. Methods: The MEDIMACS project is an academically funded, prospective, randomized, controlled and mechanistic clinical trial designed to address the effects of an active randomized intervention with the Mediterranean diet on atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability, coronary endothelial dysfunction and other mechanistic endpoints. One hundred patients with ACS are randomized 1:1 to a monitored high-intensity Mediterranean diet intervention or to a standard-of-care arm. Adherence to diet is assessed in both arms using food frequency questionnaires and biomarkers of compliance. The primary endpoint is the change (from baseline to 12 months) in the thickness of the fibrous cap of a non-significant atherosclerotic plaque in a non-culprit vessel, as assessed by repeated optical coherence tomography intracoronary imaging. Indices of coronary vascular physiology and changes in gastrointestinal microbiota, immunological status and protein and metabolite profiles will be evaluated as secondary endpoints. Discussion: The results of this trial will address the key effects of dietary habits on atherosclerotic risk and will provide initial data on the complex interplay of immunological, microbiome-, proteome- and metabolome-related mechanisms by which non-pharmacological factors may impact the progression of coronary atherosclerosis after an ACS.
  • Autores: Menéndez-Acebal, C.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Bes Rastrollo, Maira; et al.
    Revista: DRUG AND ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE
    ISSN 0376-8716 Vol.229 2021
    Resumen
    Background: Myopia is a highly prevalent disorder, and one of the first causes of blindness. In turn, alcohol consumption has been shown to be a risk factor for many diseases and a main contributor to the global burden of disease. However, no studies have investigated the relationship between alcohol intake and myopia. Our aim was to prospectively assess the association between alcohol intake and the development or progression of myopia. Methods: In a Spanish dynamic prospective cohort (the SUN Project) we assessed 15,642 university graduates, recruited between 1999 and 2018 and followed up biennially through mailed questionnaires. Alcohol intake was assessed with a validated 136-item food frequency questionnaire. Development or progression of myopia was collected in subsequent questionnaires during follow-up every two years. Results: Alcohol intake was linearly and significantly associated with a higher risk of myopia development or progression: the OR for 10-year incidence/progression of myopia was 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.09 per each 10-grams increase in alcohol intake. Conclusions: Alcohol consumption might lead to the development or progression of myopia, although confirmation is needed for the mechanisms through which this association may occur, thus further research is needed to verify these findings.
  • Autores: Navarro-Font, X.; Kales, S. N.; Vicente-Herrero, M. T.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE
    ISSN 1076-2752 Vol.63 N° 10 2021 págs. 895 - 900
    Resumen
    Objectives: In addition to personal and health related factors, healthcare workers have an increased risk due to their work. We assessed the association of the score of the Occupational Vulnerability Index with the risk of suffering a severe COVID-19 and sequelae. Methods: Retrospective observational study carried out in healthcare workers. Among 119 employees infected, the COVID-19 Occupational Vulnerability Index (composed of 29 items regarding personal health, working conditions, and ability to comply with preventive measures) was calculated and correlated with COVID-19 severity/sequelae. Results: Workers with higher scores (six to seven points) had a significantly increased risk of developing severe disease (OR = 9.73; 95% CI, 1.53 to 35.56) and clinical sequelae (OR = 5.22; 95% CI, 1.80 to 15.16) than those with lower scores (0 to 3). Conclusion: The "COVID-19 Occupational Vulnerability Index" may predict the risk of severe COVID-19 disease and clinical sequelae among healthcare workers.
  • Autores: Paz-Graniel, I.; Becerra-Tomás, N.; Babio, N. (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0261-5614 Vol.40 N° 6 2021 págs. 3982 - 3991
    Resumen
    Background & aims: The association between drinking water consumption and adiposity has been poorly explored. Therefore, we aimed to analyse the associations between the frequency of drinking water consumption and body weight and waist circumference changes in an elderly Mediterranean cohort. Methods: A total of 1832 elderly participants (aged 55-75 years) with metabolic syndrome from the PREDIMED-Plus study with baseline data on drinking water and other beverages assessed by a validated 32-item Spanish fluid-intake questionnaire and with data on body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) at 1-year and 2-year were included in these prospective analyses. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted to assess the b-coefficients and 95% confidence interval (CI) for BW and WC changes in terms of categories of baseline drinking water consumption (tap water and bottled water). The theoretical effect on BW and WC of replacing several beverages with drinking water was assessed using mathematical models. Results: The baseline frequency of drinking water consumption was inversely associated with 1-year and 2 year changes in BW. b-coefficients (95%CI) across categories of water consumption (<2.5, 2.5 to <5, 5 to < 7.5, >7.5 servings/d) expressed in % of weight changes at 2 years of follow-up were 0.0,-0.80 (-1.48,-0.12),-1.36 (-2.18,-0.54), and-1.97 (-3.09,-0.86), respectively. Individuals in the two highest categories of drinking water consumption (5 to < 7, and >7.5 servings/d) also showed a higher decrease in WC (expressed as % of change) after 2 years of follow-up:-1.11 (-1.96,-0.25) and-1.45 (-2.66,-0.24) compared to the reference intake (<2.5 servings/day), after adjustment for potential confounding factors. The theoretical replacement of soups, beers, spirits, hot beverages, dairy beverages, and other beverages group with drinking water was associated with greater reductions in BW at one-and two-years of follow-up. Conclusions: Drinking water consumption was inversely associated with 2-year adiposity changes in an elderly Mediterranean cohort at high cardiovascular risk. Our results also suggest that the consumption of drinking water instead of energy-containing beverages is associated with lower weight gain. The trial registration: ISRCTN89898870. (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • Autores: Papandreou, C. (Autor de correspondencia); Bullo, M.; Hernández-Alonso, P.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
    ISSN 0009-9147 Vol.67 N° 1 2021 págs. 288 - 297
    Resumen
    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the associations of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and its precursors (choline, betaine, dimethylglycine, and L-carnitine) with the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF). This study sought to investigate these associations. METHODS: Prospective associations of these metabolites with incident AF and HF were examined among participants at high cardiovascular risk in the PREDIMED study (PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea) after follow-up for about 10 years. Two nested case-control studies were conducted, including 509 AF incident cases matched to 618 controls and 326 HF incident cases matched to 426 controls. Plasma levels of TMAO and its precursors were semi-quantitatively profiled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Odds ratios were estimated with multivariable conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: After adjustment for classical risk factors and accounting for multiple testing, participants in the highest quartile vs. the lowest quartile of baseline choline and betaine levels had a higher risk of AF [OR (95% CI): 1.85 (1.30-2.63) and 1.57 (1.09-2.24), respectively]. The corresponding OR for AF for extreme quartiles of dimethylglycine was 1.39 (0.99-1.96). One SD increase in log-transformed dimethylglycine was positively associated with AF risk (OR, 1.17; 1.03-1.33). The corresponding ORs for HF for extreme quartiles of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine were 2.51 (1.57-4.03), 1.65 (1.00-2.71) and 1.65 (1.04-2.61), respectively. TMAO and L-carnitine levels were not associated with AF or HF. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the role of the choline metabolic pathway in the pathogenesis of AF and HF.
  • Autores: Aguilera-Buenosvinos, I.; Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio; Romanos Nanclares, Andrea; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.13 N° 2 2021 págs. 687
    Resumen
    Dairy products might influence breast cancer (BC) risk. However, evidence is inconsistent. We sought to examine the association between dairy product consumption-and their subtypes-and incident BC in a Mediterranean cohort. The SUN ("Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra") Project is a Spanish dynamic ongoing cohort of university graduates. Dairy product consumption was estimated through a previously validated 136-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Incident BC was reported in biennial follow-up questionnaires and confirmed with revision of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated with Cox regression models. Among 123,297 women-years of follow-up (10,930 women, median follow-up 12.1 years), we confirmed 119 incident BC cases. We found a nonlinear association between total dairy product consumption and BC incidence (p (nonlinear) = 0.048) and a significant inverse association for women with moderate total dairy product consumption (HRQ2vs.Q1 = 0.49 (95% CI 0.28-0.84); HRQ3vs.Q1 = 0.49 (95% CI 0.29-0.84) p(trend) = 0.623) and with moderate low-fat dairy product consumption (HRQ2vs.Q1 = 0.58 (95% CI 0.35-0.97); HRQ3vs.Q1 = 0.55 (95% CI 0.32-0.92), p (trend) = 0.136). In stratified analyses, we found a significant inverse association between intermediate low-fat dairy product consumption and premenopausal BC and between medium total dairy product consumption and postmenopausal BC. Thus, dairy products, especially low-fat dairy products, may be considered within overall prudent dietary patterns.
  • Autores: Pimenta, A. M. (Autor de correspondencia); Lahortiga Ramos, Francisca; Sayon Orea, María del Carmen; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS
    ISSN 0165-0327 Vol.284 2021 págs. 183 - 189
    Resumen
    Background: Depression is a major public health concern worldwide and its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains unclear. Thus, we prospectively examined the association between depression and the risk of MetS, according to different diagnosis criteria. Methods: This study included 9,237 participants of a Spanish dynamic prospective cohort of adult university graduates [mean (SD) age: 36.7 year (10.7)], initially free of any specific criterion of MetS, who were followed up for a median of 8.3 years. The exposure variables were medical diagnosis of depression at baseline or in the first 2-year follow-up questionnaire. The outcome variable was the incidence of MetS, assessed according to each of three different criteria proposed by: International Diabetes Federation (IDF); National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III); IDF/NCEP-ATP III (updated harmonizing definition). Multivariable-adjusted Relative Risks (RR) of new-onset MetS and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) were estimated, using Poisson regression models. Results: The cumulative incidences of MetS were 475 cases (IDF definition), 288 cases (NCEP-ATP III definition) and 492 cases (update harmonized definition). No association was observed between baseline depression and incidence of MetS, but the presence of depression after 2-years of follow-up was significantly associated with a higher risk of new-onset MetS, according to NCEP-ATP III definition (multivariable-adjusted RR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.06-5.67). Limitations: Diagnosis of depression and MetS were self-reported. Conclusions: In this large prospective cohort of Spanish middle-aged adult university graduates, a direct association between depression and the risk of MetS according to NCEP-ATP III definition was found.
  • Autores: Hernández-Alonso, P.; Canudas, S.; Boughanem, H.; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 1436-6207 Vol.60 N° 8 2021 págs. 4367 - 4378
    Resumen
    Purpose We evaluated whether the intake of dietary vitamin D is associated with the incidence of both colorectal cancer (CRC) and colon cancer in the framework of the PREDIMED cohort of older adults at high cardiovascular risk. Methods We analyzed data from 7216 men and women (55-80 years) without CRC at baseline from the PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea study. Baseline consumption of vitamin D was assessed using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards ratios (HRs) of CRC and colon cancer incidence were estimated for quartiles and per 1-SD of baseline vitamin D intake. Results During a median follow-up of 6 years, we documented 97 incident CRC cases after the exclusion of subjects with no baseline dietary data and/or outliers of energy intake. A non-significant HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of CRC for the comparison of extreme quartiles (4th vs 1st) of vitamin D intake were observed [0.55 (0.30-1.00), P for trend = 0.072], whereas it was significant for colon cancer incidence alone [0.44 (0.22-0.90), P for trend = 0.032]. However, this association became significant in CRC and colon cancer incidence, after excluding 391 subjects consuming baseline vitamin D and/or calcium medication or prescribed supplements [0.52 (0.28-0.96) and 0.41 (0.12-0.85), respectively]. Conclusion A higher dietary intake of vitamin D was significantly associated with a reduced CRC risk in individuals at high cardiovascular risk.
  • Autores: Gabaldón-Figueira, J. C. (Autor de correspondencia); Brew, J.; Dore, D. H.; et al.
    Revista: BMJ OPEN
    ISSN 2044-6055 Vol.11 N° 7 2021 págs. e051278
    Resumen
    Introduction Cough is a common symptom of COVID-19 and other respiratory illnesses. However, objectively measuring its frequency and evolution is hindered by the lack of reliable and scalable monitoring systems. This can be overcome by newly developed artificial intelligence models that exploit the portability of smartphones. In the context of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, cough detection for respiratory disease syndromic surveillance represents a simple means for early outbreak detection and disease surveillance. In this protocol, we evaluate the ability of population-based digital cough surveillance to predict the incidence of respiratory diseases at population level in Navarra, Spain, while assessing individual determinants of uptake of these platforms. Methods and analysis Participants in the Cendea de Cizur, Zizur Mayor or attending the local University of Navarra (Pamplona) will be invited to monitor their night-time cough using the smartphone app Hyfe Cough Tracker. Detected coughs will be aggregated in time and space. Incidence of COVID-19 and other diagnosed respiratory diseases within the participants cohort, and the study area and population will be collected from local health facilities and used to carry out an autoregressive moving average analysis on those independent time series. In a mixed-methods design, we will explore barriers and facilitators of continuous digital cough monitoring by evaluating participation patterns and sociodemographic characteristics. Participants will fill an acceptability questionnaire and a subgroup will participate in focus group discussions. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was obtained from the ethics committee of the Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, Canada and the Medical Research Ethics Committee of Navarre, Spain. Preliminary findings will be shared with civil and health authorities and reported to individual participants. Results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed scientific journals and international conferences.
  • Autores: Galmes-Panades, A. M.; Konieczna, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Varela-Mato, V.; et al.
    Revista: BMC MEDICINE
    ISSN 1741-7015 Vol.19 N° 1 2021 págs. 3
    Resumen
    Background: The optimal distribution between physical activity (PA) levels and sedentary behaviour (SB) for the greatest benefits for body composition among older adults with overweight/obesity and chronic health conditions remains unclear. We aimed to determine the prospective association between changes in PA and in SB with concurrent changes in body composition and to examine whether reallocating inactive time into different physical activity levels was associated with 12-month change to body composition in older adults. Methods: Longitudinal assessment nested in the PREDIMED-Plus trial. A subsample (n = 1564) of men and women (age 55-75 years) with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome from both arms of the PREDIMED-Plus trial was included in the present analysis. Participants were followed up at 6 and 12 months. Physical activity and SB were assessed using validated questionnaires. Out of 1564 participants, 388 wore an accelerometer to objectively measure inactive time and PA over a 7-day period. At each time point, participants' body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Standard covariate-adjusted and isotemporal substitution modelling were applied to linear mixed-effects models. Results: Increasing 30 min of total PA and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was associated with significant reductions in body fat (beta - 0.07% and - 0.08%) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (- 13.9 g, and - 15.6 g) at 12 months (all p values < 0.001). Reallocating 30 min of inactive time to MVPA was associated with reductions in body fat and VAT and with an increase in muscle mass and muscle-to-fat mass ratio (all p values < 0.001). Conclusions: At 12 months, increasing total PA and MVPA and reducing total SB and TV-viewing SB were associated with improved body composition in participants with overweight or obesity, and metabolic syndrome. This was also observed when substituting 30 min of inactive time with total PA, LPA and MVPA, with the greatest benefits observed with MVPA.
  • Autores: Oliver Olid, Asier; Martín López, Laura; Moreno Villares, José Manuel; et al.
    Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
    ISSN 0212-1611 Vol.38 N° 6 2021 págs. 1162 - 1168
    Resumen
    Objective: to analyze the validity of self-reported somatometry data through a self-reported online questionnaire. Method: the SENDO project (Follow-up of Children for Optimal Development) is a prospective, dynamic pediatric cohort. Participants are recruited when they are between 4 and 6 years old, and followed annually through an online questionnaire. In a subsample of 82 participants, we compared the anthropometric information reported in the baseline questionnaire with the direct measurements collected by the investigating staff. To do this, we calculated the intraclass correlation index (ICC) and the Bland-Altman coefficient. Results: the ICC was 0.96 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-0.98 for weight; 0.95 (95 % CI: 0.92-0.96) for height; 0.75 (95 % CI: 0.64-0.86) for waist circumference; and 0.84 (95 % CI: 0.76-0.89) for hip circumference. In relation to the indices calculated from these measurements, we found an ICC of 0.84 (95 % CI: 0.77-0.90) for body mass index; 0.46 (95 % CI: 0.27-0.62) for waist-hip ratio; and 0.59 (95 % CI: 0.43-0.72) for waist-height index. The Bland-Altman index ranged from 3.7 % for weight to 8.5 % for body mass index. Conclusions: we found a high correlation and concordance between the data collected in the physical exam and those reported by the parents. Our results indicate that the anthropometric measures provided by parents, especially those with which they are most familiar, are valid and can be used in epidemiological research.
  • Autores: Cárdenas-Fuentes, G.; Lassale, C.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
    Revista: JOURNALS OF GERONTOLOGY SERIES A -BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND MEDICAL SCIENCES
    ISSN 1079-5006 Vol.76 N° 11 2021 págs. 2021 - 2029
    Resumen
    Background: Mechanisms underlying the associations of high levels of physical activity (PA) and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) with a better inflammatory profile remain unclear. Our objective was to assess the mediating role of changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), as markers of body fat in the association of changes in PA and adherence to the MedDiet, with changes in the inflammatory profile. Method: This study included 489 adults, aged 55-75 years, from the PREDIMED-Plus multicenter lifestyle intervention trial. An inflammatory score was calculated, based on 8 blood biomarkers: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, interleukin 18, monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1, C-peptide, leptin, and regulated on activation, normal T-cell-expressed and secreted chemokine. Biomarkers, levels of PA, score of MedDiet adherence, BMI, and WC were measured at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. Linear regression models were fitted according to the Baron and Kenny framework for mediation analysis. Results: Changes in BMI and WC mediated the association of both changes in PA and changes in the MedDiet adherence with the inflammatory score. Body mass index mediated 26% of the association of changes in total PA with the inflammatory profile, and 27% of the association of changes in the MedDiet, while WC mediated 13% and 12% of these associations, respectively. Conclusion: In older adults at high cardiovascular risk, increasing PA levels and adherence to a MedDiet during 1 year were associated with a lower inflammatory score, which was partly mediated by a reduction in body fat.
  • Autores: Pearce, M. (Autor de correspondencia); Fanidi, A.; Bishop, T. R. P.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 0022-3166 Vol.151 N° 5 2021 págs. 1231 - 1240
    Resumen
    Background: The consumption of legumes is promoted as part of a healthy diet in many countries but associations of total and types of legume consumption with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are not well established. Analyses across diverse populations are lacking despite the availability of unpublished legume consumption data in prospective cohort studies. Objective: To examine the prospective associations of total and types of legume intake with the risk of incident T2D. Methods: Meta-analyses of associations between total legume, pulse, and soy consumption and T2D were conducted using a federated approach without physical data-pooling. Prospective cohorts were included if legume exposure and T2D outcome data were available and the cohort investigators agreed to participate. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and C Is of associations using individual participant data including <42,473 incident cases among 807,785 adults without diabetes in 27 cohorts across the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, and Western Pacific. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to combine effect estimates and estimate heterogeneity. Results: Median total legume intake ranged from 0-140 g/d across cohorts. We observed a weak positive association between total legume consumption and T2D (IRR = 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.04) per 20 g/d higher intake, with moderately high heterogeneity (I-2 = 74%). Analysis by region showed no evidence of associations in the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, and Western Pacific. The positive association in Europe (IRR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.10, I-2 = 82%) was mainly driven by studies from Germany, UK, and Sweden. No evidence of associations was observed for the consumption of pulses or soy. Conclusions: These findings suggest no evidence of an association of legume intakes with T2D in several world regions. The positive association observed in some European studies warrants further investigation relating to overall dietary contexts in which legumes are consumed, including accompanying foods which may be positively associated with T2D.
  • Autores: Moreno Galarraga, Laura; Romanos Nanclares, Andrea; García Blanco, Lorena; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH
    ISSN 1034-4810 Vol.57 N° 6 2021 págs. 819-825
    Resumen
    Aim: The association between caesarean delivery and the risk of overweight/obesity in the offspring has been previously reported using conventional measures of association (relative risks or odds ratios). We aimed at refining the existing evidence by calculating the marginal effect of the exposure and estimating the unmeasured residual confounding. Methods: In the 'SEguimiento del Nino para un Desarrollo Optimo' Project, a dynamic multipurpose paediatric cohort study, we collected information from parents through self-administered online questionnaires. We estimated the offspring's risk of overweight/obesity at age 4-6 years, associated with the type of delivery through marginal effect of the exposure. Unmeasured residual confounding was assessed using the E-value. Results: Among 407 participants (mean-age: 5.0 years (standard deviation: 0.9)), 86 (21.1%) were born by caesarean delivery. Children born by caesarean delivery had higher odds of overweight/obesity than those born vaginally. Subgroup analyses showed similar results. The multivariable adjusted marginal effect showed that caesarean delivery was associated with an 8.0% (95% confidence interval: 0.2-15.7) absolute increase in the prevalence of overweight/obesity. The estimated residual confounding showed an E-value of 4.03, higher than the OR obtained for all the confounding factors we accounted for. Conclusions: Caesarean delivery was associated with an 8% absolute increase in the risk of overweight/obesity that is very unlikely explained by residual confounding.
  • Autores: Moreno Galarraga, Laura; Martin-Álvarez, I.; Fernández Montero, Alejandro; et al.
    Revista: ANALES DE PEDIATRIA
    ISSN 1695-4033 Vol.95 N° 1 2021 págs. 18 - 25
    Resumen
    Introduction: The consumption of ultra-processed products (UP) is associated with many diseases in the adult, such as arterial hypertension, diabetes, or asthma. Objective: To determine whether the consumption of UP in children is associated with wheezing respiratory diseases (asthma or bronchitis/recurrent wheezing). Material and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted within the Follow-up of the Child for Optimal Development ?SENDO? project (an open, multidisciplinary and multiple outcome study of Spanish children). The consumption of UP was calculated using semi-quantitative questionnaires on the frequency of food consumption. The foods were grouped according the NOVA classification, and the daily consumption was estimated along with the percentage of kilocalories from the UP. The exposure was grouped into "high" and "low" from the median consumption. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for wheezing respiratory diseases associated with the high consumption UP, using low consumption as a reference. Crude and multi-adjusted estimators were calculated, and mixed regression models were used to take into account the correlation between siblings. Results: In the 513 children studied (51.8% males, mean age 5.2 years), the mean consumption of UP was 446.76 g/day, representing 39.9% of the total calories ingested. A high consumption of UP was associated with an increase of 87% in the prevalence of wheezing respiratory diseases (OR 1.87; 95% CI 1.01-3.45). It was found that a higher consumption of UP multiplied by 2.12 (95% CI 1.10-4.05) the prevalence of bronchitis/recurrent wheezing. Conclusions: The results of this study show a direct relationship between UP consumption and the prevalence of wheezing diseases in children. (c) 2021 Asociaci & oacute;n Espa & ntilde;ola de Pediatr & iacute;a. Published by Elsevier Espa & ntilde;a, S.L.U. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/ 4.0/).
  • Autores: Arredondo Montero, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Román Moleón, M.; Sarmiento, M. C.; et al.
    Revista: PEDIATRIC DERMATOLOGY
    ISSN 0736-8046 Vol.38 N° 6 2021 págs. 1594 - 1596
    Resumen
    We present a 5-year-old girl who accidentally crushed an insect of the coleoptera family walking barefoot and secondarily developed an exogenous acral pigmentation. The lesions resolved spontaneously within a few weeks. Proper identification of the insect and a detailed physical examination were key to avoiding unnecessary invasive diagnostic tests.
  • Autores: Gómez-Martínez, C.; Babio, N.; Julvez, J.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY
    ISSN 1664-2392 Vol.12 2021 págs. 754347
    Resumen
    Introduction Type 2 diabetes has been linked to greater cognitive decline, but other glycemic parameters such as prediabetes, diabetes control and treatment, and HOMA-IR and HbA(1c) diabetes-related biomarkers have shown inconsistent results. Furthermore, there is limited research assessing these relationships in short-term studies. Thus, we aimed to examine 2-year associations between baseline diabetes/glycemic status and changes in cognitive function in older participants at high risk of cardiovascular disease.</p> Methods We conducted a 2-year prospective cohort study (n=6,874) within the framework of the PREDIMED-Plus study. The participants (with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome; mean age 64.9 years; 48.5% women) completed a battery of 8 cognitive tests, and a global cognitive function Z-score (GCF) was estimated. At baseline, participants were categorized by diabetes status (no-diabetes, prediabetes, and <5 or >= 5-year diabetes duration), and also by diabetes control. Furthermore, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) levels were measured, and antidiabetic medications were recorded. Linear and logistic regression models, adjusted by potential confounders, were fitted to assess associations between glycemic status and changes in cognitive function.</p> Results Prediabetes status was unrelated to cognitive decline. However, compared to participants without diabetes, those with >= 5-year diabetes duration had greater reductions in GCF (beta=-0.11 (95%CI -0.16;-0.06)], as well as in processing speed and executive function measurements. Inverse associations were observed between baseline HOMA-IR and changes in GCF [beta=-0.0094 (95%CI -0.0164;-0.0023)], but also between HbA(1c) levels and changes in GCF [beta=-0.0085 (95%CI -0.0115, -0.0055)], the Mini-Mental State Examination, and other executive function tests. Poor diabetes control was inversely associated with phonologic fluency. The use of insulin treatment was inversely related to cognitive function as measured by the GCF [beta=-0.31 (95%CI -0.44, -0.18)], and other cognitive tests.</p> Conclusions Insulin resistance, diabetes status, longer diabetes duration, poor glycemic control, and insulin treatment were associated with worsening cognitive function changes in the short term in a population at high cardiovascular risk.</p>
  • Autores: Atzeni, A.; Galie, S.; Muralidharan, J.; et al.
    Revista: MICROORGANISMS
    ISSN 2076-2607 Vol.9 N° 2 2021 págs. 346
    Resumen
    Gut microbiota is essential for the development of obesity and related comorbidities. However, studies describing the association between specific bacteria and obesity or weight loss reported discordant results. The present observational study, conducted within the frame of the PREDIMED-Plus clinical trial, aims to assess the association between fecal microbiota, body composition and weight loss, in response to a 12-month lifestyle intervention in a subsample of 372 individuals (age 55-75) with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome. Participants were stratified by tertiles of baseline body mass index (BMI) and changes in body weight after 12-month intervention. General assessments, anthropometry and biochemical measurements, and stool samples were collected. 16S amplicon sequencing was performed on bacterial DNA extracted from stool samples and microbiota analyzed. Differential abundance analysis showed an enrichment of Prevotella 9, Lachnospiraceae UCG-001 and Bacteroides, associated with a higher weight loss after 12-month of follow-up, whereas in the cross-sectional analysis, Prevotella 2 and Bacteroides were enriched in the lowest tertile of baseline BMI. Our findings suggest that fecal microbiota plays an important role in the control of body weight, supporting specific genera as potential target in personalized nutrition for obesity management. A more in-depth taxonomic identification method and the need of metabolic information encourages to further investigation.
  • Autores: Santiago Neri, Susana; Zazpe García, Itzíar; Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.13 N° 3 2021 págs. 972
    Resumen
    No previous study has assessed the relationship between overall macronutrient quality and all-cause mortality. We aimed to prospectively examine the association between a multidimensional macronutrient quality index (MQI) and all-cause mortality in the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) (University of Navarra Follow-Up) study, a Mediterranean cohort of middle-aged adults. Dietary intake information was obtained from a validated 136-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. We calculated the MQI (categorized in quartiles) based on three quality indexes: the carbohydrate quality index (CQI), the fat quality index (FQI), and the healthy plate protein source quality index (HPPQI). Among 19,083 participants (mean age 38.4, 59.9% female), 440 deaths from all causes were observed during a median follow-up of 12.2 years (IQR, 8.3-14.9). No significant association was found between the MQI and mortality risk with multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for the highest vs. the lowest quartile of 0.79 (95% CI, 0.59-1.06; P-trend = 0.199). The CQI was the only component of the MQI associated with mortality showing a significant inverse relationship, with HR between extreme quartiles of 0.64 (95% CI, 0.45-0.90; P-trend = 0.021). In this Mediterranean cohort, a new and multidimensional MQI defined a priori was not associated with all-cause mortality. Among its three sub-indexes, only the CQI showed a significant inverse relationship with the risk of all-cause mortality.
  • Autores: Moreno Galarraga, Laura; Álvarez Zallo, Noelia; Oliver Olid, Asier; et al.
    Revista: GACETA SANITARIA
    ISSN 0213-9111 Vol.35 N° 3 2021 págs. 224 - 229
    Resumen
    Objective: To test the validity of parent-reported birth information obtained through an online, self-administered questionnaire. Method: The SENDO project is a prospective and dynamic paediatric cohort of Spanish children aged 4 to 6 years old at recruitment. Objective data from medical birth records were compared to parent-reported data getting intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) for quantitative variables and weighted Kappa Index for qualitative ones. Percentage of responders and of total agreement was also evaluated. Results: Parental response rate was over 99% for birth weight and gestational age and 76% for birth length. ICC for birth weight was 0.95 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.94-0.96) and 0.78 (95%CI: 0.73-0.83) for birth length, both showing very high correlations. The total agreement percentage for gestational age was 97%, and Kappa weighted index was 0.90 (95%CI: 0.89-0.90), showing a very high agreement as well. Conclusions: We found high correlations and excellent agreement in parent-reported birth data 4 to 6 years after delivery. Our results show parent-reported birth data, especially birth weight, are valid for use in epidemiological research.
  • Autores: Martín Calvo, Nerea; Santiago Neri, Susana; Segura, G.; et al.
    Revista: PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION
    ISSN 1368-9800 Vol.24 N° 13 2021 págs. 4204 - 4211
    Resumen
    Objective: To assess the association between pregestational BMI and offspring's risk of overweight/obesity after accounting for the most important confounders, especially maternal smoking habit. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: The Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) study is a prospective cohort of Spanish graduates with more than 22 000 participants nationwide. Recruitment started in 1999, and it is permanently open. Data on diet, lifestyle and clinical diagnoses are collected at baseline and every 2 years. Participants: Women from the SUN cohort who reported at least one pregnancy during follow-up (n 3496) were invited to this study. Among them, 1527 agreed to participate and completed an additional more detailed online questionnaire on their pregnancy history and their offspring's nutritional status. Results: After excluding 165 children, we analysed data of 2791 participants born to 1485 mothers and observed that each 5 kg/m(2) increase in pregestational BMI was associated with a 0 center dot 22 (95 % CI 0 center dot 15, 0 center dot 29) higher z-score in offspring's BMI and higher risk of overweight/obesity (multivariable-adjusted relative risk (RR) 1 center dot 57 (95 % CI 1 center dot 39, 1 center dot 77)) in childhood or adolescence. Furthermore, we observed stronger association in children born to smoker mothers (RR 1 center dot 91; 95 % CI 1 center dot 48, 2 center dot 46) than from non-smoker mothers (RR 1 center dot 51; 95 % CI 1 center dot 31, 1 center dot 73) (P-for interaction = 0 center dot 02). Conclusions: We found a synergistic interaction between pregestational BMI and maternal smoking habit on offspring's z-score of the BMI and in their risk of overweight/obesity. Although further research is needed to analyse dose-response relationships, these findings reinforce the importance of promoting healthy lifestyles in pregnant women in order to prevent childhood obesity.
  • Autores: Fernández Montero, Alejandro (Autor de correspondencia); Argemí Ballbé, José María; Rodríguez García, José Antonio; et al.
    Revista: ECLINICALMEDICINE
    ISSN 2589-5370 Vol.37 2021 págs. 100954
    Resumen
    Background: Early diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is essential to reduce disease spread. Rapid antigen tests have not been sufficiently evaluated in asymptomatic patients to be used as massive population screening tools. Methods: Head-to-head evaluation of Roche SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antigen Test and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) as SARS-CoV-2 screening tools performed in asymptomatic adults from a semi-closed community in University of Navarra (Spain) from November 2020 to January 2021. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated using RT-PCR as reference method. Findings: Roche SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antigen Test was performed on 2542 asymptomatic adults in a community with a SARS-CoV-2 incidence of 1.93%. It showed a sensitivity of 71.43% (CI 95%: 56.74 -83.42) and a specificity of 99.68% (CI 95%: 99.37 -99.86). Positive Predictive Value was 81.4 (CI 95% 66.6 -91.61) and Negative Predictive Value was 99.44 (CI 95% 99.06 -99.69). Test sensitivity was related to viral load, with higher sensitivity in RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values under 25 (93.75%, CI 95%: 71.96 -98.93), that dropped to 29.41% (CI 95%: 10.31-55.96) in RT-PCR Ct values above 25. Interpretation: This study suggests that rapid antigen tests are less effective in asymptomatic population, when compared with RT-PCR. Further studies are needed to evaluate different options to improve screenings based on rapid antigen test, such as the use of clinical questionnaires to select higher risk-participants, the confirmation of negative results with RT-PCR or the use of repetitive sequential testing. Funding: This research received no external funding. (c) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
  • Autores: Schroder, H. (Autor de correspondencia); Zomeno, M. D.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0261-5614 Vol.40 N° 8 2021 págs. 4971 - 4979
    Resumen
    Background: Short dietary assessment tools can be useful to estimate food intake and diet quality in large-scale epidemiological studies with time constraints. Objective: To determine the concurrent validity of the 17-item energy-restricted Mediterranean Adherence Screener (er-MEDAS) used in the PREDIMED (PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea)-Plus trial and to analyse its capacity to detect 1-year changes in diet and cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: Validation study nested in the PREDIMED-Plus (n = 6760, 55-75 years). Dietary data were collected by the 17-item er-MEDAS and a 143-item validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline and after 1-year intervention. Cardiometabolic risk markers were measured at both time points. A Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) score was derived from both instruments. Concurrent validity was evaluated by Pearson and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland and Altman limits of agreement. Construct validity was evaluated by assessing 1-year changes in FFQ-reported dietary intake and cardiometabolic profile changes in relation to changes in er-MEDAS. Results: A moderate to good correlation between the MedDiet score calculated by both measurement instruments was found: r = 0.61 and ICC = 0.60 (both p < 0.001). Agreement of each of the er-MEDAS items ranged from 55.4% to 85.0% with a moderate mean concordance (kappa = 0.41). Between baseline and 1-year follow-up, energy intake measured by the FFQ decreased by 242 kcal, while Mediterranean food consumption increased in participants with the highest increase in the er-MEDAS MedDiet score. An increase in the er-MEDAS MedDiet score ratings was associated with a decrease in BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, fasting glucose, diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratio (p < 0.001 for all), and with an increase in HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.006). Conclusion: The er-MEDAS shows a modest to good concurrent validity compared with FFQ data. It shows acceptable construct validity, as a greater er-MEDAS score was associated with more favourable dietary and cardiometabolic profiles over time.
  • Autores: Santiago Neri, Susana; Benítez-Borja, A.; Martín Calvo, Nerea (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
    ISSN 0212-1611 Vol.38 N° 5 2021 págs. 961 - 970
    Resumen
    Introduction: the preschool stage is a critical period for teaching and modeling healthy habits to positively influence children's health and wellbeing throughout their lifetime. Objectives: to evaluate the association between parental attitudes towards their offspring's dietary habits in Spanish children aged 4 to 7 years participating in the Follow-up of Children for Optimal Development (SENDO) project. Methods: we defined an index to measure information on parental attitudes towards their offspring's diet (0 to 8 points), and another one to measure children's actual dietary habits (0 to 19 points). A higher score meant healthier attitudes and healthier habits, respectively. Information was collected through an online questionnaire completed by parents. We calculated crude and multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for children's healthy dietary habits associated with parental scores in the parental attitudes index. Generalized estimation equations (GEE) were used to account for intra-cluster correlation between siblings. Results: a total of 423 preschoolers (52.3 % boys, mean age 5.3 years) were included in the analyses. Half of the children (51 %) reported unhealthy dietary habits, whereas 56 % of parents reported high adherence to the healthy eating index. Compared to those in the lowest category, the children whose parents were in the highest category in the parental attitudes index showed significantly higher odds of having healthy dietary habits (OR: 2.91; 95 % CI: 1.30-6.53, p for trend = 0.004). Conclusions: our results support a direct association between parental attitudes and their offspring's dietary habits, suggesting that public health interventions aimed at improving children's dietary habits should shift from the individual- to a family-based approach.
  • Autores: Sotos-Prieto, M. (Autor de correspondencia); Ortola, R.; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; et al.
    Revista: CARDIOVASCULAR DIABETOLOGY
    ISSN 1475-2840 Vol.20 N° 1 2021 págs. 5
    Resumen
    Background Evidence is limited about the joint health effects of the Mediterranean lifestyle on cardiometabolic health and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of the Mediterranean lifestyle with the frequency of the metabolic syndrome (MS) and the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Spain. Methods Data were taken from ENRICA study, a prospective cohort of 11,090 individuals aged 18+ years, representative of the population of Spain, who were free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes at 2008-2010 and were followed-up to 2017. The Mediterranean lifestyle was assessed at baseline with the 27-item MEDLIFE index (with higher score representing better adherence). Results Compared to participants in the lowest quartile of MEDLIFE, those in the highest quartile had a multivariable-adjusted odds ratio 0.73 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.5, 0.93) for MS, 0.63. (0.51, 0.80) for abdominal obesity, and 0.76 (0.63, 0.90) for low HDL-cholesterol. Similarly, a higher MELDIFE score was associated with lower HOMA-IR and highly-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P-trend < 0.001). During a mean follow-up of 8.7 years, 330 total deaths (74 CVD deaths) were ascertained. When comparing those in highest vs. lowest quartile of MEDLIFE, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) was 0.58 (0.37, 0.90) for total mortality and 0.33 (0.11, 1.02) for cardiovascular mortality. Conclusions The Mediterranean lifestyle was associated with lower frequency of MS and reduced all-cause mortality in Spain. Future studies should determine if this also applies to other Mediterranean countries, and also improve cardiovascular health outside the Mediterranean basin.
  • Autores: Gomez Donoso, Clara; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Perez-Cornago, A.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0261-5614 Vol.40 N° 3 2021 págs. 1085 - 1094
    Resumen
    Background & aims: Front-of-pack nutrition labelling is a key public health policy that can be adopted as part of a comprehensive set of measures to promote healthy diets. The Nutri-Score, a five-colour summary label based on a modified version of the British Food Standards Agency Nutrient Profiling System (FSAm-NPS), is being considered for implementation in several European countries including Spain. This study aimed to prospectively assess the association between the FSAm-NPS and mortality rate in a Spanish cohort of university graduates. Methods: Analyses included 20 503 participants (mean [SD] age: 38 [12] years) from the SUN cohort. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline and after 10-years of follow-up with a validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. The FSAm-NPS was calculated for each food/beverage based on their amount of energy, saturated fat, sugar, sodium, fibre, protein, fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, rapeseed, walnut and olive oils per 100 g of product. The FSAm-NPS Dietary Index (DI) was computed as an energy-weighted mean of the FSAm-NPS scores of all foods and beverages consumed by each participant. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality according to baseline and updated FSAm-NPS DI scores. Results: Over a median follow-up of 10.9 years, 407 participants died. A higher baseline FSAm-NPS DI score, reflecting consumption of foods with lower nutritional quality and hence less favourable Nutri-Score rating, was directly associated with all-cause mortality (HR Q4 versus Q1 = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.34 to 2.47; p-trend<0.001) and cancer mortality (HR: 2.44; 95% CI: 1.54 to 3.85; p-trend<0.001). No association was found for cardiovascular mortality. Conclusions: The consumption of food products with a higher FSAm-NPS score (lower nutritional quality) was associated with a higher rate of all-cause and cancer mortality in a large prospective cohort of Spanish, middle-aged university graduates. These findings further support the implementation of Nutri-Score in Euro-Mediterranean countries.
  • Autores: Fernández-Lazaro, C. I.; Zazpe García, Itzíar; Santiago Neri, Susana; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0261-5614 Vol.40 N° 4 2021 págs. 2364 - 2372
    Resumen
    Background & aims: Emerging evidence supports shifting the focus from carbohydrate quantity to carbohydrate quality to obtain greater health benefits. We investigated the association of carbohydrate quality with all-cause mortality using a single, multidimensional carbohydrate quality index (CQI) designed to account for multiple characteristics of carbohydrate quality. Methods: A prospective study was conducted among 19,083 participants in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Project, a Mediterranean cohort of middle-aged university graduates. The CQI was based on four dimensions: high total dietary fiber intake, low glycemic index, high whole-grain carbohydrate: total grain carbohydrate ratio, and high solid carbohydrate: total carbohydrate ratio. Results: During 12.2 years of median follow-up, 440 deaths were identified. We found an inverse association between the CQI and all-cause mortality. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for the highest vs. the lowest tertile of the CQI was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.53-0.93; Ptrend = 0.018). However, each individual dimension of the CQI was not independently associated with lower mortality risk, with HR (95% CI) between extreme tertiles as follows: 0.77 (0.52-1.14; Ptrend = 0.192) for high fiber intake; 0.81 (0.59-1.12; Ptrend = 0.211) for low glycemic index; 0.87 (0.69-1.11; Ptrend = 0.272) for high whole-grain carbohydrate: total-grain carbohydrate ratio; and 0.81 (0.61-1.07; Ptrend = 0.139) for high solid carbohydrate: total carbohydrate ratio. Our analyses remained similar after using repeated measurements of diet with updated nutritional exposures after a ten-year follow-up. Conclusions: The CQI as a whole, but none of its individual dimensions, was associated with lower mortality. The CQI seems to comprehensively capture the combined effects of quality domains.
  • Autores: Sánchez Bayona, Rodrigo; Sayon Orea, María del Carmen; Gardeazábal González, Itziar; et al.
    Revista: PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION
    ISSN 1368-9800 Vol.24 N° 3 2021 págs. 467 - 475
    Resumen
    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess body shape trajectories in childhood and midlife in relation to subsequent risk of breast cancer (BC) in a Mediterranean cohort. Design: The 'Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra' (SUN) Project is a dynamic prospective cohort study of university graduates initiated in 1999. With a group-based modelling approach, we assessed body shape trajectories from age 5 to 40 years. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for BC after the age of 40 years according to the body shape trajectory. Setting: City of Pamplona, in the North of Spain. Participants: 6498 women with a mean age of 40 years (sd 9). Results: We identified four distinct body shape trajectories ('childhood lean-midlife increase' (19 center dot 9 %), 'childhood medium-midlife stable' (53 %), 'childhood heavy-midlife stable' (21 %) and 'childhood heavy-midlife increase' (6 center dot 1 %)). Among 54 978 women-years of follow-up, we confirmed eighty-two incident cases of BC. Women in the 'childhood lean-midlife increase' group showed a higher risk of BC (HR = 1 center dot 84, 95 % CI 1 center dot 11, 3 center dot 04) compared with women in the 'childhood medium-midlife stable' category. This association was stronger for postmenopausal BC (HR = 2 center dot 42, 95 % CI 1 center dot 07, 5 center dot 48). Conclusions: Our results suggest a role for lifetime adiposity in breast carcinogenesis.
  • Autores: Becerra-Tomás, N.; Paz-Graniel, I.; Tresserra-Rimbau, A.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
    ISSN 0939-4753 Vol.31 N° 6 2021 págs. 1702 - 1713
    Resumen
    Background and aims: Total fruit consumption is important for cardiovascular disease prevention, but also the variety and form in which is consumed. The aim of the study was to assess the associations between total fruit, subgroups of fruits based on their color and fruit juices consumption with different cardiometabolic parameters. Methods and results: A total of 6633 elderly participants (aged 55-75 years) with metabolic syndrome from the PREDIMED-Plus study were included in this analysis. Fruit and fruit juice consumption was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Linear regression models were fitted to evaluate the association between exposure variables (total fruit, subgroups based on the color, and fruit juices) and different cardiometabolic risk factors. Individuals in the highest category of total fruit consumption (¿3 servings/d) had lower waist circumference (WC) (ß = -1.04 cm; 95%CI:-1.81, -0.26), fasting glucose levels (ß = -2.41 mg/dL; 95%CI(-4.19, -0.63) and LDL-cholesterol (ß = -4.11 mg/dL; 95%CI:-6.93, -1.36), but, unexpectedly, higher systolic blood pressure (BP) (ß = 1.84 mmHg; 95%CI: 0.37, 3.30) and diastolic BP (ß = 1.69 mmHg; 95%CI:0.83, 2.56) when compared to those in the lowest category of consumption (<1 servings/d). Participants consuming ¿1 serving/day of total fruit juice had lower WC (ß = -0.92 cm; 95%CI:-1.56, -0.27) and glucose levels (ß = -1.59 mg/dL; 95%CI:-2.95, -0.23) than those consuming <1 serving/month. The associations with cardiometabolic risk factors differed according to the color of fruits. Conclusion: Fruit consumption is associated with several cardiometabolic risk factors in Mediterranean elders with metabolic syndrome. The associations regarding BP levels could be attributed, at least partially, to reverse causality bias inherent to the cross-sectional design of the study.
  • Autores: Pastorino, S. (Autor de correspondencia); Bishop, T.; Sharp, S. J.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.13 N° 4 2021 págs. 1223
    Resumen
    The association between fish consumption and new-onset type 2 diabetes is inconsistent and differs according to geographical location. We examined the association between the total and types of fish consumption and type 2 diabetes using individual participant data from 28 prospective cohort studies from the Americas (6), Europe (15), the Western Pacific (6), and the Eastern Mediterranean (1) comprising 956,122 participants and 48,084 cases of incident type 2 diabetes. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for associations of total fish, shellfish, fatty, lean, fried, freshwater, and saltwater fish intake and type 2 diabetes were derived for each study, adjusting for a consistent set of confounders and combined across studies using random-effects meta-analysis. We stratified all analyses by sex due to observed interaction (p = 0.002) on the association between fish and type 2 diabetes. In women, for each 100 g/week higher intake the IRRs (95% CIs) of type 2 diabetes were 1.02 (1.01-1.03, I-2 = 61%) for total fish, 1.04 (1.01-1.07, I-2 = 46%) for fatty fish, and 1.02 (1.00-1.04, I-2 = 33%) for lean fish. In men, all associations were null. In women, we observed variation by geographical location: IRRs for total fish were 1.03 (1.02-1.04, I-2 = 0%) in the Americas and null in other regions. In conclusion, we found evidence of a neutral association between total fish intake and type 2 diabetes in men, but there was a modest positive association among women with heterogeneity across studies, which was partly explained by geographical location and types of fish intake. Future research should investigate the role of cooking methods, accompanying foods and environmental pollutants, but meanwhile, existing dietary regional, national, or international guidelines should continue to guide fish consumption within overall healthy dietary patterns.
  • Autores: Henriquez, L. A. (Autor de correspondencia); Ortiz, A. ; Alvarez, J. ; et al.
    Revista: SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT
    ISSN 0048-9697 Vol.758 2021 págs. 143637
    Resumen
    The population of the Canary Islands has been exposed to high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Bio-monitoring studies are essential to know the temporal trend in residue levels, particularly of substances banned decades ago. The purpose of this study was to analyze the distribution of plasma concentrations of 59 POPs in 175 participants from the PREDIMED-Plus trial (2014-2016), and to compare them with the distribution of these POPs in 343 participants in the PREDIMED trial (2006-2009). All participants had metabolic syndrome. No difference in the distribution of age, gender or BMI was observed between trials. POPs were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Density plots-POP Geoffrey Rose curves-were used to represent the full population distribution of each compound. Three out of 59 POPs were detected and quantified in >= 95% of the samples (p,p'-DDE, median = 694.7 ng/g lipid; HCB, median = 57.0 ng/g lipid; and beta-HCH, median = 75.7 ng/g lipid). PCB congeners 138, 153 and 180 were detected in 64.6, 40.0 and 88.0% of the samples. Females showed highest concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and those subjects who lost (>)5kg showed significant higher plasma concentrations of POPs. In a range of 6-14 years, plasma concentrations of POPs decreased 3.3-21.6 fold, being notable the decrease of 28.7-fold observed for HCB among women. Despite this sharp decline, levels of POPs are still higher than those reported in other regions, since one third of the subjects included in the present report had high concentration of more than three pollutants. Continuous biomonitoring studies are required to know the evolution of the levels of residues and to evaluate the effectiveness of environmental policies. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Autores: Wittenbecher, C. (Autor de correspondencia); Eichelmann, F.; Toledo Atucha, Estefanía; et al.
    Revista: CIRCULATION RESEARCH
    ISSN 0009-7330 Vol.128 N° 3 2021 págs. 309 - 320
    Resumen
    Rationale: Altered lipid metabolism has been implicated in heart failure (HF) development, but no prospective studies have examined comprehensive lipidomics data and subsequent risk of HF. Objective: We aimed to link single lipid metabolites and lipidomics networks to the risk of developing HF. Methods and results: Discovery analyses were based on 216 targeted lipids in a case-control study (331 incident HF cases and 507 controls, matched by age, sex, and study center), nested within the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study. Associations of single lipids were examined in conditional logistic regression models. Furthermore, lipidomics networks were linked to HF risk in a multistep workflow, including machine learning-based identification of the HF-related network clusters, and regression-based discovery of the HF-related lipid patterns within these clusters. If available, significant findings were externally validated in a subsample of the EPIC-Potsdam cohort (2414 at-risk participants, including 87 incident HF cases). After confounder-adjustments, 2 lipids were significantly associated with HF risk in both cohorts: CER (ceramide) 16:0 (relative risk [RR] per SD in PREDIMED, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.13-1.47]) and phosphatidylcholine 32_0 (RR per SD in PREDIMED, 1.23 [95% CI, 1.08-1.41]). Additionally, lipid patterns in several network clusters were associated with HF risk in PREDIMED. Adjusted for standard risk factors, an internally cross-validated score based on the significant HF-related lipids that were identified in the network analysis in PREDIMED was associated with a higher HF risk (20 lipids, RR per SD, 2.33 [95% CI, 1.93%-2.81%). Moreover, a lipid score restricted to the externally available lipids was significantly associated with HF incidence in both cohorts (6 lipids, RRs per SD, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.14-1.47] in PREDIMED, and 1.46 [95% CI, 1.17-1.82] in EPIC-Potsdam). Conclusions: Our study identified and validated 2 lipid metabolites and several lipidomics patterns as potential novel biomarkers of HF risk. Lipid profiling may capture preclinical molecular alterations that predispose for incident HF. Registration: URL: https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN35739639; Unique identifier: ISRCTN35739639.
  • Autores: Fernández de la Puente, M.; Hernández-Alonso, P.; Canudas, S. (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: ANTIOXIDANTS
    ISSN 2076-3921 Vol.10 N° 10 2021 págs. 1596
    Resumen
    Telomere length (TL) has been associated with aging and is determined by lifestyle. However, the mechanisms by which a dietary pattern such as the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) affects TL homeostasis are still unknown. Our aim was to analyse the effect of an energy-restricted MedDiet with physical activity promotion (intervention group) versus an unrestricted-caloric MedDiet with no weight-loss advice (control group) on TL and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) plasma levels. In total, 80 non-diabetic participants with metabolic syndrome were randomly selected from the PREDIMED (PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea)-Plus-Reus study. TL was measured by a hybridisation method and 8-OHdG levels by ELISA at baseline and after one year of intervention. Linear mixed models (LMM)-raw and after adjusting for potential confounders-were used to examine the associations between TL or 8-OHdG plasma levels by intervention group and/or time. A total of 69 subjects with available DNA samples were included in the analyses. A significant beta-coefficient was found for time towards increasing values through the year of follow-up for TL (unadjusted beta of 0.740 (95% CI: 0.529 to 0.951), and multivariable model beta of 0.700 (95% CI: 0.477 to 0.922)). No significant beta s were found, neither for the intervention group nor for the interaction between the intervention group and time. Regarding 8-OHdG plasma levels, no significant beta s were found for the intervention group, time, and its interaction. Our results suggest that MedDiet could have an important role in preventing telomere shortening, but calorie restriction and exercise promotion did not provide an additional advantage concerning telomere length after one year of MedDiet intervention.
  • Autores: Aguilera-Buenosvinos, I.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Romanos Nanclares, Andrea; et al.
    Revista: ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM
    ISSN 0250-6807 Vol.77 N° 6 2021 págs. 370 - 371
  • Autores: Gabaldón, J. C.; Brew, J.; Dore, D.; et al.
    Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE
    ISSN 0002-9637 Vol.105 N° 5 Supl. 5 2021 págs. 157 - 158
  • Autores: Romanos Nanclares, Andrea; Willett, W.; Rosner, B.; et al.
    Revista: CANCER RESEARCH
    ISSN 0008-5472 Vol.81 N° 13 Supl. S 2021
  • Autores: De la O Pascual, Víctor; Zazpe García, Itzíar; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: CURRENT OPINION IN CLINICAL NUTRITION AND METABOLIC CARE
    ISSN 1363-1950 Vol.23 N° 1 2020 págs. 35 - 50
    Resumen
    Purpose of review Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are essential amino acids derived from diet. BCAA supplementation has been recommended in elderly and athletes, but recent studies suggest an association between high dietary BCAAs and blood levels of BCAAs with greater risk of cardiometabolic diseases (CMD). This review aims to integrate current epidemiological evidence analyzing the association between BCAAs and related-CMD risk factors. Recent findings Most epidemiological studies consistently show that dietary BCAAs are associated with higher risk of type-2 diabetes (T2D) whereas there is limited evidence related with other cardiovascular risk factors. Evidence also exists showing an association between higher circulating BCAA levels and risk of T2D and cardiovascular disease, and also probably with metabolic syndrome and overweight/obesity. Several clinical trials suggest beneficial cardiometabolic effect of BCAAs supplementation, although with a small sample size and short follow-up. Studies show a weak correlation between dietary BCAAs and circulating BCAA levels. Protein quality sources and whole dietary pattern are key aspects to improve our understanding of the effect of BCAAs as well as factors associated with higher protein needs, such as age or frailty. Dietary and circulating BCAAs exhibit possible detrimental cardiometabolic effects, but BCAA supplementation may have some positive influence on target groups with nutritional deficiencies.
  • Autores: Fernández-Lázaro, D.; Mielgo-Ayuso, J.; Adams, D. P.; et al.
    Revista: SUSTAINABILITY
    ISSN 2071-1050 Vol.12 N° 21 2020
    Resumen
    Hypoxia causes reduced partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood and induces adaptations in skeletal muscle that may affect individuals' physical performance and muscular health. These muscular changes are detectable and quantifiable by electromyography (EMG), an instrument that assesses electrical activity during active contraction at rest. EMG is a relatively simple and accessible technique for all patients, one that can show the degree of the sensory and motor functions because it provides information about the status of the peripheral nerves and muscles. The main goal of this review is to evaluate the scientific evidence of EMG as an instrument for monitoring different responses of skeletal muscles subjected to external stimuli such as hypoxia and physical activity. A structured search was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines in Medline/PubMed, Scielo, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library Plus. The search included articles published in the last 25 years until May 2020 and was restricted to English- and Spanish-language publications. As such, investigators identified nine articles that met the search criteria. The results determined that EMG was able to detect muscle fatigue from changes in the frequency spectrum. When a muscle was fatigued, high frequency components decreased and low frequency components increased. In other studies, EMG determined muscle activation increased during exercise by recruiting motor units and by increasing the intensity of muscle contractions. Finally, it was also possible to calculate the mean quadriceps quadratic activity used to obtain an image of muscle activation. In conclusion, EMG offers a suitable tool for monitoring the different skeletal muscle responses and has sufficient sensitivity to detect hypoxia-induced muscle changes produced by hypoxic stimuli. Moreover, EMG enhances an extension of physical examination and tests motor-system integrity.
  • Autores: Fernández-Lázaro, D. (Autor de correspondencia); Mielgo-Ayuso, J.; Calvo-Seco, J.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.12 N° 2 2020 págs. 501
    Resumen
    Physical activity, particularly high-intensity eccentric muscle contractions, produces exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). The breakdown of muscle fibers and the consequent inflammatory responses derived from EIMD affect exercise performance. Curcumin, a natural polyphenol extracted from turmeric, has been shown to have mainly antioxidant and also anti-inflammatory properties. This effect of curcumin could improve EIMD and exercise performance. The main objective of this systematic review was to critically evaluate the effectiveness of curcumin supplementation on EIMD and inflammatory and oxidative markers in a physically active population. A structured search was carried out following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines in the databases SCOPUS, Web of Science (WOS), and Medline (PubMed) from inception to October 2019. The search included original articles with randomized controlled crossover or parallel design in which the intake of curcumin administered before and/or after exercise was compared with an identical placebo situation. No filters were applied to the type of physical exercise performed, the sex or the age of the participants. Of the 301 articles identified in the search, 11 met the established criteria and were included in this systematic review. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the McMaster Critical Review Form. The use of curcumin reduces the subjective perception of the intensity of muscle pain; reduces muscle damage through the decrease of creatine kinase (CK); increases muscle performance; has an anti-inflammatory effect by modulating the pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8; and may have a slight antioxidant effect. In summary, the administration of curcumin at a dose between 150-1500 mg/day before and during exercise, and up until 72 h' post-exercise, improved performance by reducing EIMD and modulating the inflammation caused by physical activity. In addition, humans appear to be able to tolerate high doses of curcumin without significant side-effects.
  • Autores: Fernandez-Lazaro, D. (Autor de correspondencia); Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio; Mielgo-Ayuso, J. ; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.12 N° 6 2020 págs. 1790
    Resumen
    Exercise overproduces oxygen reactive species (ROS) and eventually exceeds the body's antioxidant capacity to neutralize them. The ROS produce damaging effects on the cell membrane and contribute to skeletal muscle damage. Selenium (Se), a natural mineral trace element, is an essential component of selenoproteins that plays an important role in antioxidant defense. The activity of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx), a highly-efficient antioxidant enzyme, is closely dependent on the presence of Se. These properties of Se may be potentially applicable to improve athletic performance and training recovery. We systematically searched for published studies to evaluate the effectiveness of Se supplementation on antioxidant defense system, muscle performance, hormone response, and athletic performance among physically active individuals. We used the Preferred Reporting Elements for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines and searched in SCOPUS, Web of Science (WOS), and PubMed databases to identify published studies until March 2020. The systematic review incorporated original studies with randomized controlled crossover or parallel design in which intake of Se administered once a day was compared with the same placebo conditions. No exclusions were applied for the type of physical exercise performed, the sex, nor the age of the participants. Among 150 articles identified in the search, 6 met the criteria and were included in the systematic review. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated using the McMaster Critical Review Form. Oral Se supplementation with 180 mu g/day or 240 mu g/day (selenomethionine) and 200 mu g/day (Sodium Selenite), significantly decreased lipid hydroperoxide levels and increased GPx in plasma, erythrocyte, and muscle. No significant effects were observed on athletic performance, testosterone hormone levels, creatine kinase activity, and exercise training-induced adaptations on oxidative enzyme activities or on muscle fiber type myosin heavy chain expression. In addition, Se supplementation showed to have a dampening effect on the mitochondria changes in chronic and acute exercise. In summary, the use of Se supplementation has no benefits on aerobic or anaerobic athletic performance but it may prevent Se deficiencies among athletes with high-intensity and high-volume training. Optimal Se plasma levels may be important to minimize chronic exercise-induced oxidative effects and modulate the exercise effect on mitochondrial changes.
  • Autores: Fernández Montero, Alejandro (Autor de correspondencia); Moreno Galarraga, Laura; Sánchez-Villegas, A.; et al.
    Revista: BMC PSYCHIATRY
    ISSN 1471-244X Vol.20 N° 1 2020 págs. 132
    Resumen
    After publication of our article [1] we have been notified that Table 2 was incorrectly formatted.
  • Autores: Martínez González, Miguel Ángel (Autor de correspondencia); Trichopoulou, A.
    Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH PROMOTION
    ISSN 0890-1171 Vol.34 N° 8 2020 págs. 948 - 950
  • Autores: Martínez González, Miguel Ángel (Autor de correspondencia); Bastarrika Alemañ, Gorka
    Revista: HEPATOBILIARY SURGERY AND NUTRITION
    ISSN 2304-3881 Vol.9 N° 3 2020 págs. 379 - 381
  • Autores: Martini, D.; Bes Rastrollo, Maira
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCES AND NUTRITION
    ISSN 0963-7486 Vol.71 N° 4 2020 págs. 395 - 396
  • Autores: Rueda-Garrido, J. C.; Vicente-Herrero, M. T.; Del Campo, M. T.; et al.
    Revista: OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE-OXFORD
    ISSN 0962-7480 Vol.70 N° 5 2020 págs. 300 - 305
  • Autores: Ferrando, C. (Autor de correspondencia); Mellado-Artigas, R.; Gea Sánchez, Alfredo; et al.
    Revista: CRITICAL CARE
    ISSN 1466-609X Vol.24 N° 1 2020
    Resumen
    BackgroundAwake prone positioning (awake-PP) in non-intubated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients could avoid endotracheal intubation, reduce the use of critical care resources, and improve survival. We aimed to examine whether the combination of high-flow nasal oxygen therapy (HFNO) with awake-PP prevents the need for intubation when compared to HFNO alone.MethodsProspective, multicenter, adjusted observational cohort study in consecutive COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) receiving respiratory support with HFNO from 12 March to 9 June 2020. Patients were classified as HFNO with or without awake-PP. Logistic models were fitted to predict treatment at baseline using the following variables: age, sex, obesity, non-respiratory Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, APACHE-II, C-reactive protein, days from symptoms onset to HFNO initiation, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxyhemoglobin saturation. We compared data on demographics, vital signs, laboratory markers, need for invasive mechanical ventilation, days to intubation, ICU length of stay, and ICU mortality between HFNO patients with and without awake-PP.ResultsA total of 1076 patients with COVID-19 ARF were admitted, of which 199 patients received HFNO and were analyzed. Fifty-five (27.6%) were pronated during HFNO; 60 (41%) and 22 (40%) patients from the HFNO and HFNO + awake-PP groups were intubated. The use of awake-PP as an adjunctive therapy to HFNO did not reduce the risk of intubation [RR 0.87 (95% CI 0.53-1.43), p=0.60]. Patients treated with HFNO + awake-PP showed a trend for delay in intubation compared to HFNO alone [median 1 (interquartile range, IQR 1.0-2.5) vs 2 IQR 1.0-3.0] days (p=0.055), but awake-PP did not affect 28-day mortality [RR 1.04 (95% CI 0.40-2.72), p=0.92].ConclusionIn patients with COVID-19 ARF treated with HFNO, the use of awake-PP did not reduce the need for intubation or affect mortality.
  • Autores: Lan, F. Y. ; Filler, R.; Mathew, S. ; et al.
    Revista: PLOS ONE
    ISSN 1932-6203 Vol.15 N° 6 2020 págs. e0235460
    Resumen
    Background Coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) is caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2, transmissible both person-to-person and from contaminated surfaces. Early COVID-19 detection among healthcare workers (HCWs) is crucial for protecting patients and the healthcare workforce. Because of limited testing capacity, symptom-based screening may prioritize testing and increase diagnostic accuracy. Methods and findings We performed a retrospective study of HCWs undergoing both COVID-19 telephonic symptom screening and nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 assays during the period, March 9-April 15, 2020. HCWs with negative assays but progressive symptoms were re-tested for SARS-CoV-2. Among 592 HCWs tested, 83 (14%) had an initial positive SARS-CoV-2 assay. Fifty-nine of 61 HCWs (97%) who were asymptomatic or reported only sore throat/nasal congestion had negative SARS-CoV-2 assays (P = 0.006). HCWs reporting three or more symptoms had an increased multivariate-adjusted odds of having positive assays, 1.95 (95% CI: 1.10-3.64), which increased to 2.61 (95% CI: 1.50-4.45) for six or more symptoms. The multivariate-adjusted odds of a positive assay were also increased for HCWs reporting fever and a measured temperature >= 37.5 degrees C (3.49 (95% CI: 1.95-6.21)), and those with myalgias (1.83 (95% CI: 1.04-3.23)). Anosmia/ageusia (i.e. loss of smell/loss of taste) was reported less frequently (16%) than other symptoms by HCWs with positive assays, but was associated with more than a seven-fold multivariate-adjusted odds of a positive test: OR = 7.21 (95% CI: 2.95-17.67). Of 509 HCWs with initial negative SARS-CoV-2 assays, nine had symptom progression and positive re-tests, yielding an estimated negative predictive value of 98.2% (95% CI: 96.8-99.0%) for the exclusion of clinically relevant COVID-19. Conclusions Symptom and temperature reports are useful screening tools for predicting SARS-CoV-2 assay results in HCWs. Anosmia/ageusia, fever, and myalgia were the strongest independent predictors of positive assays. The absence of symptoms or symptoms limited to nasal congestion/sore throat were associated with negative assays.
  • Autores: Marcos-Delgado, A.; López-García, E.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
    Revista: SEMERGEN
    ISSN 1138-3593 Vol.46 N° 8 2020 págs. 524 - 537
    Resumen
    Introduction and objectives: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of various cardiovascular risk factors with a major impact on morbidity and premature mortality. However, the impact of MetS on self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is unknown. This study evaluated the HRQoL in a Spanish adult population aged 55 years and older with MetS. Method: A cross-sectional analysis was performed with baseline data from the PREDIMED-Plus multicentre randomized trial. The participants were 6430 men and women aged 55-75 years with overweight/obesity (body mass index >= 27 and <= 40 kg/m(2)) and MetS. The SF-36 questionnaire was used as a tool to measure HRQoL. Scores were calculated on each scale of the SF-36 by gender and age. Results: Participants showed higher scores in the social function (mean 85.9, 95% CI; 85.4-86.4) and emotional role scales (mean 86.8, 95% CI; 86.0-87.5). By contrast, the worst scores were obtained in the aggregated physical dimensions. In addition, men obtained higher scores than women on all scales. Among men, the worst score was obtained in general health (mean 65.6, 95% CI; 65.0-66.2), and among women, in body pain (mean 54.3, 95%Cl; 53.4-55.2). A significant decrease was found in the aggregated physical dimensions score among participants 70-75 years old, but an increased one in the aggregated mental dimensions, compared to younger participants. Conclusions: Our results reflect that the MetS may negatively affect HRQoL in the aggregated physical dimensions, body pain in women, and general health in men. However, this adverse association was absent for the psychological dimensions of HRQoL, which were less affected.
  • Autores: Fernández Montero, Alejandro (Autor de correspondencia); Moreno Galarraga, Laura; Sánchez-Villegas, A.; et al.
    Revista: BMC PSYCHIATRY
    ISSN 1471-244X Vol.20 N° 1 2020 págs. 98
    Resumen
    BackgroundAn inverse association between total leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and depression has been previously documented in the scientific literature. Our objective was to prospectively assess the association of LTPA with the risk of depression, focusing on several dimensions of LTPA (intensity, duration and type).MethodsThe SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) project is a prospective cohort study formed by Spanish university graduates. A total of 15,488 adults (40.2% men, mean age 3712years) initially free of depression were assessed. A report of a validated medical diagnosis of depression or the habitual use of antidepressants (any of both) were considered as incident cases of depression. LTPA was estimated through previously validated self-reported questionnaires. Participants were classified following Physical Activity recommendations from the World Health Organization, and according to the intensity, duration and type of LTPA. Cox proportional hazards regression models were run, adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors, to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of depression and 95% confidence intervals (CI).ResultsDuring 163,059 person-years of follow-up we registered 870 incident cases of depression. Participants with higher total LTPA (METs-h/wk) and higher duration of LTPA (hours/wk) exhibited a lower risk of depression HR=0.84 (95% CI: 0.72-0.99) and HR=0.83 (0.70-0.99) respectively, whereas intensity of LTPA (MET) did not show any association with depression.Conclusion p id=Par Participants with higher LTPA had a lower risk of depression. The inverse association was stronger for total LPTA time than for its intensity. Higher duration of LTPA should be encouraged to prevent depression.
  • Autores: Cano-Ibanez, N. (Autor de correspondencia); Bueno-Cavanillas, A. ; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 1436-6207 Vol.59 N° 6 2020 págs. 2395 - 2409
    Resumen
    Background The prevalence of overweight/obesity and related manifestations such as metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing worldwide. High energy density diets, usually with low nutrient density, are among the main causes. Some high-quality dietary patterns like the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) have been linked to the prevention and better control of MetS. However, it is needed to show that nutritional interventions promoting the MedDiet are able to improve nutrient intake. Objective To assess the effect of improving MedDiet adherence on nutrient density after 1 year of follow-up at the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Methods We assessed 5777 men (55-75 years) and women (60-75 years) with overweight or obesity and MetS at baseline from the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Dietary changes and MedDiet adherence were evaluated at baseline and after 1 year. The primary outcome was the change in nutrient density (measured as nutrient intake per 1000 kcal). Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models were fitted to analyse longitudinal changes in adherence to the MedDiet and concurrent changes in nutrient density. Results During 1-year follow-up, participants showed improvements in nutrient density for all micronutrients assessed. The density of carbohydrates (- 9.0%), saturated fatty acids (- 10.4%) and total energy intake (- 6.3%) decreased. These changes were more pronounced in the subset of participants with higher improvements in MedDiet adherence. Conclusions The PREDIMED-Plus dietary intervention, based on MedDiet recommendations for older adults, maybe a feasible strategy to improve nutrient density in Spanish population at high risk of cardiovascular disease with overweight or obesity.
  • Autores: Guasch-Ferré, M.; Santos, J. L.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
    Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0002-9165 Vol.111 N° 4 2020 págs. 835 - 844
    Resumen
    Background: Glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the associations of these metabolites with T2D incidence and the potential effect of dietary interventions remain unclear. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the association of baseline and 1-y changes in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and TCA cycle metabolites with insulin resistance and T2D incidence, and the potential modifying effect of Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) interventions. Methods: We included 251 incident T2D cases and 638 noncases in a nested case-cohort study within the PREDIMED Study during median follow-up of 3.8 y. Participants were allocated to MedDiet + extra-virgin olive oil. MedDiet + nuts, or control diet. Plasma metabolites were measured using a targeted approach by LC-tandem MS. We tested the associations of baseline and 1-y changes in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and TCA cycle metabolites with subsequent T2D risk using weighted Cox regression models and adjusting for potential confounders. We designed a weighted score combining all these metabolites and applying the leave-oneout cross-validation approach. Results: Baseline circulating concentrations of hexose monophosphate. pyruvate, lactate, alanine, glycerol-3 phosphate, and isocitrate were significantly associated with higher T21) risk (17-44% higher risk for each 1-SD increment). The weighted score including all metabolites was associated with a 30% (95% CI: 1.12, 1.51) higher relative risk of T2D for each 1-SD increment. Baseline lactate and alanine were associated with baseline and 1-y changes of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. One-year increases in most metabolites and in the weighted score were associated with higher relative risk of T2D after 1-y of follow-up. Lower risks were observed in the MedDiet groups than in the control group although no significant interactions were found after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Conclusions: We identified a panel of glycolysis/gluconeogenesisrelated metabolites that was significantly associated with T2D risk in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk. A MedDiet could counteract the detrimental effects of these metabolites.
  • Autores: Diez-Espino, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Buil-Cosiales, P. ; Babio, N.; et al.
    Revista: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE CARDIOLOGIA
    ISSN 0300-8932 Vol.73 N° 3 2020 págs. 205 - 211
    Resumen
    Introduction and objectives: The Life's Simple 7 strategy of the American Heart Association proposes 7 metrics of ideal cardiovascular health: body mass index (BMI) <25mg/m2, not smoking, healthy diet, moderate physical activity ¿ 150min/wk, total blood cholesterol <200mg/dL, systolic and diastolic blood pressures <120 and <80mmHg, respectively, and fasting blood glucose <100mg/dL. It is important to assess the combined effect of these 7 metrics in the Spanish population. We prospectively analyzed the impact of baseline Life's Simple 7 metrics on the incidence of major cardiovascular events in the PREDIMED cohort (57.5% women, average baseline age, 67 years). Methods: The healthy diet metric was defined as attaining ¿ 9 points on a validated 14-item Mediterranean diet adherence screener. An incident major cardiovascular event was defined as a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death. Cox regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for successive categories of health metrics. Results: After a median follow-up of 4.8 years in 7447 participants, there were 288 major cardiovascular events. After adjustment for age, sex, center, and intervention group, HRs (95%CI) were 0.73 (0.54-0.99), 0.57 (0.41-0.78), and 0.34 (0.21-0.53) for participants with 2, 3, and ¿ 4 metrics, respectively, compared with participants with only 0 to 1 metrics. Conclusions: In an elderly Spanish population at high cardiovascular risk, better adherence to Life's Simple 7 metrics was progressively associated with a substantially lower rate of major cardiovascular events.
  • Autores: Konieczna, J.; Yañez, A.; Monino, M. ; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0261-5614 Vol.39 N° 3 2020 págs. 966 - 975
    Resumen
    Background & aims: Little is known about the impact of specific dietary patterns on the development of obesity phenotypes. We aimed to determine the association of longitudinal changes in adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) with the transition between different obesity phenotypes. Methods: Data of 5801 older men and women at high cardiovascular risk from PREDIMED trial were used. Adherence to MedDiet was measured with the validated 14p-Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS). Using the simultaneous combination of metabolic health- and body size-related parameters participants were categorized into one of four phenotypes: metabolically healthy and abnormal obese (MHO and MAO), metabolically healthy and abnormal non-obese (MHNO and MANO). Cox regression models with yearly repeated measures during 5-year of follow-up were built with use of Markov chain assumption. Results: Each 2-point increase in MEDAS was associated with the following transitions: in MAO participants, with a 16% (95% CI 3-31%) greater likelihood of becoming MHO; in MHO participants with a 14% (3-23%) lower risk of becoming MAO; in MHNO participants with a 18% (5-30%) lower risk of becoming MHO. In MANO women, but not in men, MEDAS was associated with 20% (5-38%) greater likely of becoming MHNO (p for interaction by gender 0.014). No other significant associations were observed. Conclusions: Better adherence to the traditional MedDiet is associated with transitions to healthier phenotypes, promoting metabolic health improvement in MAO, MANO (only in women), and MHO, as well as protecting against obesity incidence in MHNO subjects. Keywords: Mediterranean diet; Metabolically abnormal non-obese; Metabolically healthy obese; Obesity phenotypes; The PREDIMED trial; Transition probabilities.
  • Autores: Julibert, A.; Bibiloni, M. D. ; Gallardo-Alfaro, L. ; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 0022-3166 Vol.150 N° 12 2020 págs. 3161 - 3170
    Resumen
    Background: High nut consumption has been previously associated with decreased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) regardless of race and dietary patterns. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess whether changes in nut consumption over a 1-y follow-up are associated with changes in features of MetS in a middle-aged and older Spanish population at high cardiovascular disease risk. Methods: This prospective 1-y follow-up cohort study, conducted in the framework of the PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea (PREDIMED)-Plus randomized trial, included 5800 men and women (55-75 y old) with overweight/obesity [BMI (in kg/m(2)) >= 27 and <40] and MetS. Nut consumption (almonds, pistachios, walnuts, and other nuts) was assessed using data from a validated FFQ. The primary outcome was the change from baseline to 1 y in features of MetS [waist circumference (WC), glycemia, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure] and excess weight (bodyweight and BMI) according to tertiles of change in nut consumption. Secondary outcomes included changes in dietary and lifestyle characteristics. A generalized linear model was used to compare 1-y changes in features of MetS, weight, dietary intakes, and lifestyle characteristics across tertiles of change in nut consumption. Results: As nut consumption increased, between each tertile there was a significant decrease in WC, TG, systolic blood pressure, weight, and BMI (P < 0.05), and a significant increase in HDL cholesterol (only in women, P = 0.044). The interaction effect between time and group was significant for total energy intake (P < 0.001), adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) (P < 0.001), and nut consumption (P < 0.001). Across tertiles of increasing nut consumption there was a significant increase in extra virgin olive oil intake and adherence to the MedDiet; change in energy intake, on the other hand, was inversely related to consumption of nuts. Conclusions: Features of MetS and excess weight were inversely associated with nut consumption after a 1-y follow-up in the PREDIMED-Plus study cohort.
  • Autores: Balasubramanian, R. (Autor de correspondencia); Demler, O.; Guasch-Ferré, M.; et al.
    Revista: CIRCULATION-GENOMIC AND PRECISION MEDICINE
    ISSN 2574-8300 Vol.13 N° 6 2020 págs. e002977
    Resumen
    Background: In the WHI-HT trials (Women's Health Initiative Hormone Therapy), treatment with oral conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE+MPA) resulted in increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), whereas oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) did not. Methods: Four hundred eighty-one metabolites were measured at baseline and at 1-year in 503 and 431 participants in the WHI CEE and CEE+MPA trials, respectively. The effects of randomized HT on the metabolite profiles at 1-year was evaluated in linear models adjusting for baseline metabolite levels, age, body mass index, race, incident CHD, prevalent hypertension, and diabetes. Metabolites with discordant effects by HT type were evaluated for association with incident CHD in 944 participants (472 CHD cases) in the WHI-OS (Women's Health Initiative Observational Study), with replication in an independent cohort of 980 men and women at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Results: HT effects on the metabolome were profound; 62% of metabolites significantly changed with randomized CEE and 52% with CEE+MPA (false discovery rate-adjusted P value<0.05) in multivariable models. Concerted increases in abundance were seen within various metabolite classes including triacylglycerols, phosphatidylethanolamines, and phosphatidylcholines; decreases in abundance was observed for acylcarnitines, lysophosphatidylcholines, quaternary amines, and cholesteryl/cholesteryl esters. Twelve metabolites had discordant effects by HT type and were associated with incident CHD in the WHI-OS; a metabolite score estimated in a Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator regression was associated with CHD risk with an odds ratio of 1.47 per SD increase (95% CI, 1.27-1.70, P<10(-6)). All twelve metabolites were altered in the CHD protective direction by CEE treatment. One metabolite (lysine) was significantly altered in the direction of increased CHD risk by CEE+MPA; the remaining 11 metabolites were not significantly changed by CEE+MPA. The CHD associations of a subset of 4 metabolites including C58:11 triacylglycerol, C54:9 triacylglycerol, C36:1 phosphatidylcholine and sucrose replicated in an independent dataset of 980 participants in the PREDIMED trial (Prevencion con Dieta Mediterranea). Conclusions: Randomized treatment with oral HT resulted in large metabolome shifts that generally favored CEE alone over CEE+MPA in term of CHD risk. Discordant metabolite effects between HT regimens may partially mediate the differences in CHD risk between the 2 WHI-HT trials.
  • Autores: Guasch-Ferre, M. (Autor de correspondencia); Liu, G.; Li, Y. P. ; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY
    ISSN 0735-1097 Vol.75 N° 15 2020 págs. 1729 - 1739
    Resumen
    Background: Olive oil intake has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Mediterranean populations, but little is known about these associations in the U.S population. Objectives: This study sought to examine whether olive oil intake is associated with total CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), and stroke risk. Methods: This study included 61,181 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1990 to 2014) and 31,797 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1990 to 2014) who were free of cancer, heart disease, and stroke at baseline. Diet was assessed using food frequency questionnaires at baseline and then every 4 years. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: During 24 years of follow-up, this study documented 9,797 incident cases of CVD, including 6,034 CHD cases and 3,802 stroke cases. After adjusting for major diet and lifestyle factors, compared with nonconsumers, those with higher olive oil intake (>0.5 tablespoon/day or >7 g/day) had 14% lower risk of CVD (pooled HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.79 to 0.94) and 18% lower risk of CHD (pooled HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.73 to 0.91). No significant associations were observed for total or ischemic stroke. Replacing 5 g/day of margarine, butter, mayonnaise, or dairy fat with the equivalent amount of olive oil was associated with 5% to 7% lower risk of total CVD and CHD. No significant associations were observed when olive oil was compared with other plant oils combined. In a subset of participants, higher olive oil intake was associated with lower levels of circulating inflammatory biomarkers and a better lipid profile. Conclusions: Higher olive oil intake was associated with lower risk of CHD and total CVD in 2 large prospective cohorts of U.S. men and women. The substitution of margarine, butter, mayonnaise, and dairy fat with olive oil could lead to lower risk of CHD and CVD.
  • Autores: Hershey de la Cruz, María Soledad; Fernández Montero, Alejandro; Sotos-Prieto, M. ; et al.
    Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
    ISSN 0749-3797 Vol.59 N° 6 2020 págs. E238 - E247
    Resumen
    Introduction: Overall lifestyle patterns rather than individual factors may exert greater reductions on chronic disease risk and mortality. The objective is to study the association between a Mediterranean lifestyle index and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Methods: Investigators analyzed data from 20,494 participants in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra cohort in 2019. The Mediterranean lifestyle index is composed of 28 items on food consumption, dietary habits, physical activity, rest, and social interactions that score 0 or 1 point; scores theoretically could range from 0 to 28 points. Results: After a median follow-up of 12.1 years, 407 deaths were observed. In the multivariable-adjusted model, high adherence (14 points) to the Mediterranean lifestyle was associated with a 41% relative reduction in all-cause mortality (hazard ratio=0.59, 95% CI=0.42, 0.83) compared with low adherence (3-10 points, p<0.001 for trend). For each additional point, the multivariable hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 0.95 (95% CI=0.89, 1.02) for food consumption; 1.00 (95% CI=0.92, 1.08) for dietary habits; and 0.73 (95% CI=0.66, 0.80) for physical activity, rest, social habits, and conviviality. Significant interaction with age at last contact (p<0.001) suggested a lower risk for each additional point among participants aged >= 50 years (hazard ratio=0.50, 95% CI=0.34, 0.74), whereas no association was found for participants aged <50 years (hazard ratio=1.15, 95% CI=0.54, 2.44). Conclusions: Adherence to a Mediterranean lifestyle may reduce the risk of mortality in a Spanish cohort of university graduates. Inverse associations were found for the overall Mediterranean lifestyle score and lifestyle block, whereas no associations were observed for the dietary blocks. Future research should consider the Mediterranean lifestyle beyond the Mediterranean diet in different populations for the promotion of healthy longevity. Trial registration: This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02669602. (c) 2020 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Autores: Zazpe García, Itzíar; Santiago Neri, Susana; De la O, V.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
    ISSN 0212-1611 Vol.37 N° 4 2020 págs. 672 - 684
    Resumen
    Introduction: currently, it is important to determine whether food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) are valid tools to collect information on usual diet in children. Objective: we evaluated the reproducibility and validity of the semi-quantitative FFQ used in a Spanish cohort of children aged 4-7 years. Methods: to explore its reproducibility, parents filled a 138-item FFQ at baseline (FFQ-0) and then one year later (FFQ-1). To explore its validity, the FFQ-1 was compared with four weighed 3-day dietary records (DRs) that were used as standard of reference. To estimate associations we calculated deattenuated Pearson's correlation coefficients to correct for season-to-season variability, and the Bland-Altman index. We also calculated the weighted kappa index and assessed participant's gross misclassification across quintiles. We analyzed data from 67 (for reproducibility) and 37 (for validity) children aged 4-7 years old, recruited by the pilot study of the SENDO project. Results: regarding reproducibility, we found mean Bland-Altman indexes of 0-10.45 % for nutrients and 1.49 %-10.45 % for foods. The adjusted r ranged between 0.29 and 0.71, and between 0.27 and 0.74 for nutrients and foods, respectively. Regarding validity, we found mean Bland-Altman indexes of 0 %-16.22 % and 0 %-10.81 % for nutrients and for food groups, respectively. The deattenuated r ranged between 0.38 and 0.81 for nutrients, and between 0.53 and 0.68 for foods. The weighted kappa index for agreement across quintiles ranged from 54.1 to 85.1 for nutrients, and from 55.4 to 78.4 for food groups. Conclusions: our results showed acceptable levels of both reproducibility and validity, and that the ad-hoc developed FFQ is a valid tool for assessing usual diet in Spanish preschoolers.
  • Autores: Ojeda Rodríguez, Ana; Zazpe García, Itzíar (Autor de correspondencia); Alonso Pedrero, Lucia; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0261-5614 Vol.39 N° 8 2020 págs. 2487 - 2494
    Resumen
    Background: Shorter telomeres are associated with several age-related diseases, and lifestyle factors could influence this relationship. The aim of this study was to examine associations between salivary telomere length (TL) and diet quality using 5 evidence-based dietary indexes in an elderly (>55 years old) Spanish population of the SUN project (n = 886). Method: TL was measured using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Age-adjusted TL variable through residuals methods was used for all analysis. Diet quality was assessed by the Prime Diet Quality Score (PDQS), Fat Quality Index (FQI), Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) index and the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010). Results: TL did differ according to sex, smoking status, and dyslipidemia in elderly subjects of the SUN study. In addition, subjects with dyslipidemia (compared to absence of dyslipidemia) had a significantly higher risk (27% vs. 18%, p = 0.015) of short telomeres (<percentile 20th). Interestingly, a lower risk of having short telomeres was observed among participants in the top tertiles of the following diet quality score PDQS, MEDAS and DASH compared to the bottom tertiles in crude and adjusted models. Moreover, FQI and AHEI-2010 scores showed an inverse association with the risk of having short telomeres after adjustment for potential confounders (model adjusted for dyslipidemia interaction, p for trend = 0.025 and 0.021, respectively; and model additionally adjusted for sex and smoking status, p for trend = 0.033 and 0.029, respectively). Conclusion: Adherence to high quality diet is associated to longer salivary TL in our elderly Spanish population of the SUN study.
  • Autores: Martínez González, Miguel Ángel (Autor de correspondencia); Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio; Toledo Atucha, Estefanía; et al.
    Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0002-9165 Vol.111 N° 2 2020 págs. 291 - 306
    Resumen
    Background: Overall quality of dietary carbohydrate intake rather than total carbohydrate intake may determine the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objective: We examined 6- and 12-mo changes in carbohydrate quality index (CQI) and concurrent changes in several CVD risk factors in a multicenter, randomized, primary-prevention trial (PREDIMED-Plus) based on an intensive weight-loss lifestyle intervention program. Methods: Prospective analysis of 5373 overweight/obese Spanish adults (aged 55-75 y) with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Dietary intake information obtained from a validated 143-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire was used to calculate 6- and 12-mo changes in CQI (categorized in quintiles), based on 4 criteria (total dietary fiber intake, glycemic index, whole grain/total grain ratio, and solid carbohydrate/total carbohydrate ratio). The outcomes were changes in intermediate markers of CVD. Results: During the 12-mo follow-up, the majority of participants improved their CQI by increasing their consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, fish, and nuts and decreasing their consumption of refined cereals, added sugars, and sugar-sweetened beverages. After 6 mo, body weight, waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride levels, triglycerides and glucose (TyG) index, and TyG-WC decreased across successive quintiles of improvement in the CQI. After 12 mo, improvements were additionally observed for HDL cholesterol and for the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol. Favorable improvements (expressed in common units of SD and 95% CI) for quintile 5 compared with quintile 1 of CQI change were observed for most risk factors, including TyG-WC (SD -0.20; 95% CI -0.26, -0.15), HbA1c (SD -0.16; 95% CI -0.23, -0.10), weight (SD -0.12; 95% CI -0.14, -0.09), systolic BP (SD -0.11; 95% CI -0.19, -0.02) and diastolic BP (SD -0.11; 95% CI -0.19, -0.04). Conclusions: Improvements in CQI were strongly associated with concurrent favorable CVD risk factor changes maintained over time in overweight/obese adults with MetS. This trial was registered as ISRCTN 89898870.
  • Autores: Grosso, G. (Autor de correspondencia); Fresán, U.; Bes Rastrollo, Maira; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH
    ISSN 1660-4601 Vol.17 N° 5 2020 págs. 1468
    Resumen
    Background: Current scientific literature suggests healthy dietary patterns may have less environmental impact than current consumption patterns, but most of the studies rely on theoretical modeling. The aim of this study was to assess the impact on resources (land, water, and energy) use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of healthy dietary patterns in a sample of Italian adults. Methods: Participants (n = 1806) were recruited through random sampling in the city of Catania, southern Italy. Dietary consumption was assessed through a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ); dietary patterns were calculated through dietary scores. The specific environmental footprints of food item production/processing were obtained from various available life-cycle assessments; a sustainability score was created based on the impact of the four environmental components calculated. Results: The contribution of major food groups to the environmental footprint showed that animal products (dairy, egg, meat, and fish) represented more than half of the impact on GHG emissions and energy requirements; meat products were the stronger contributors to GHG emissions and water use, while dairy products to energy use, and cereals to land use. All patterns investigated, with the exception of the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH), were linearly associated with the sustainability score. Among the components, higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet and Alternate Diet Quality Index (AHEI) was associated with lower GHG emissions, dietary quality index-international (DQI-I) with land use, while Nordic diet with land and water use. Conclusions: In conclusion, the adoption of healthy dietary patterns involves less use of natural resources and GHG emissions, representing eco-friendlier options in Italian adults.
  • Autores: Hernaez, A. (Autor de correspondencia); Castaner, O. ; Tresserra-Rimbau, A.; et al.
    Revista: MOLECULAR NUTRITION AND FOOD RESEARCH
    ISSN 1613-4125 Vol.64 N° 20 2020 págs. e2000350
    Resumen
    Scope To assess whether following a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) improves atherothrombosis biomarkers in high cardiovascular risk individuals. Methods and results In 358 random volunteers from the PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea trial, the 1-year effects on atherothrombosis markers of an intervention with MedDiet, enriched with virgin olive oil (MedDiet-VOO;n= 120) or nuts (MedDiet-Nuts;n= 119) versus a low-fat control diet (n= 119), and whether large increments in MedDiet adherence (>= 3 score points, versus compliance decreases) and intake changes in key food items are associated with 1-year differences in biomarkers. Differences are observed between 1-year changes in the MedDiet-VOO intervention and control diet on the activity of platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) (+7.5% [95% confidence interval: 0.17; 14.8]) and HDL-bound alpha(1)-antitrypsin levels (-6.1% [-11.8; -0.29]), and between the MedDiet-Nuts intervention and the control arm on non-esterified fatty acid concentrations (-9.3% [-18.1; -0.53]). Large MedDiet adherence increments are associated with less fibrinogen (-9.5% [-18.3; -0.60]) and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations (-16.7% [-31.7; -1.74]). Increases in nut, fruit, vegetable, and fatty fish consumption, and decreases in processed meat intake are linked to enhancements in biomarkers. Conclusion MedDiet improves atherothrombosis biomarkers in high cardiovascular risk individuals.
  • Autores: Fresán Salvo, Ujué (Autor de correspondencia); Craig, W. J.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.12 N° 8 2020
    Resumen
    Current dietary patterns are negatively affecting both the environment and people's health. Healthy diets are generally more environmentally friendly. However, few studies have focused on the health consequences of diets with low environmental impact. We analyzed differences in the dietary composition (types of food, macro- and micro-nutrients) of those diets with high and low environmental impact, according to greenhouse gas emission and resources use (water, land and energy) using data from a Spanish cohort (17,387 participants), collected by means of a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cox analyses were used to assess the association of dietary environmental impact with total mortality risk. At a given level of energy intake, diets with lower environmental impact contained higher amounts of plant-based foods and lower levels of animal-derived products. Less polluting diets involved higher amounts of polyunsaturated fats and dietary fiber and lower amounts of saturated fats and sodium. However, diets associated with less environmental damage also contained more added sugars, but lower levels of vitamin B12, zinc and calcium. We did not detect any association between dietary environmental impact and risk of mortality. Diets should not only produce minimal environmental impact, but the maximum overall benefits for all key dimensions encompassed in sustainable diets.
  • Autores: Daimiel, L. (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Corella, D.; et al.
    Revista: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
    ISSN 2045-2322 Vol.10 N° 1 2020 págs. 3472
    Resumen
    Physical activity (PA) has been hypothesized to be effective to maintaining cognitive function and delay cognitive decline in the elderly, but physical fitness (PF) could be a better predictor of cognitive function. We aimed to study the association between PA and PF with cognitive function and quality of life using cross-sectional data from 6874 participants of the PREDIMED-Plus trial (64.9 +/- 4.9 years, 48.5% female). PF and PA were measured with a Chair Stand Test, the REGICOR and Rapid Assessment Physical Activity questionnaires. Cognitive function was measured with Mini-mental State Examination, Control Oral Word Association Test, Trail Making Test and Digit Span tests; whereas health-related quality of life was assessed with the SF36-HRQL test. Cognitive and quality of life scores were compared among PF quartiles and PA levels (low, moderate and high) with ANCOVA and with Chair Stand repetitions and energy expenditure from total PA with multivariable linear regression adjusted for confounding factors. PF associated with higher scores in phonemic and semantic verbal fluency tests and with lower TMT A time. However, PA was not associated with the neurocognitive parameters evaluated. Both PF and PA levels were strongly associated with a better quality of life. We concluded that PF, but not PA, is associated with a better cognitive function.
  • Autores: Cebolla, A.; Botella, C.; Galiana, L. ; et al.
    Revista: EATING AND WEIGHT DISORDERS-STUDIES ON ANOREXIA BULIMIA AND OBESITY
    ISSN 1124-4909 Vol.25 N° 6 2020 págs. 1533 - 1542
    Resumen
    Introduction The Multidimensional Weight Locus of Control Scale (MWLCS) measures a person's beliefs regarding the locus of control or lack of locus of control over his/her body weight. Purpose We aim to evaluate the factorial structure and psychometric properties of the MWLCS with Spanish normal weight, overweight and obese samples. Methods The research was carried out in two different studies. The first included a sample of 140 normal weight participants, selected out of a 274 sample recruited with an online survey. Study 2 was carried out in a sample of 633 participants recruited from the PREDIMED-Plus study. Out of them, 558 participants fulfilled the weight criteria and were categorized into: overweight (BMI 25 - < 29.99; N = 170), obese class I (BMI 30 - < 34.99; N = 266), and obese class II (BMI 35 - < 39.99; N = 122). Exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory (CFA) factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure of the MWLCS, and reliabilities and Spearman's correlations were estimated. Invariance measurement was tested across the three subgroups of weight in Study 2. Results A three-factor structure indicating weight locus of control factors (internal, chance, and powerful others) was supported, both via EFA in the normal weight sample and CFA in the overweight and obese samples. In the normal weight sample, the powerful others dimension was positively related to BMI and the dimensions of the Dutch Eating Behaviors Questionnaire. Additionally, the scale showed evidence of scalar invariance across the groups with different weight conditions. Conclusions This scale seems to be a psychometrically appropriate instrument and its use is highly recommended when designing interventions for overweight or obese individuals.
  • Autores: Castaner, O. ; Pinto, X; Subirana, I. ; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY
    ISSN 0735-1097 Vol.76 N° 23 2020 págs. 2712 - 2724
    Resumen
    BACKGROUND Genetic, observational, and clinical intervention studies indicate that circulating levels of triglycerides and cholesterol transported in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (remnant cholesterol) can predict cardiovascular events. OBJECTIVES This study evaluated the association of triglycerides and remnant cholesterol (remnant-C) with major cardiovascular events in a cohort of older individuals at high cardiovascular risk. METHODS This study determined the baseline lipid profile and searched for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in the high-risk primary prevention PREDIMED (Prevencion con Dieta Mediterranea) trial population (mean age: 67 years; body mass index: 30 kg/m(2); 43% men; 48% with diabetes) after a median follow-up of 4.8 years. Unadjusted and adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the association between lipid concentrations (either as continuous or categorical variables) and incident MACEs (N = 6,901; n cases = 263). RESULTS In multivariable-adjusted analyses, triglycerides (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02 to 1.06, per 10 mg/dl [0.11 mmol/l]; p < 0.001), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (HR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.10, per 10 mg/dl [0.26 mmol/l]; p = 0.026), and remnant-C (HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.33, per 10 mg/dl [0.26 mmol/l]; p 0.001), but not low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or HDL-C, were associated with MACEs. Atherogenic dyslipidemia (triglycerides 150 mg/dl [1.69 mmol/l] and HDL-C <40 mg/dl [1.03 mmol/l] in men or <50 mg/dl [1.29 mmol/l] in women) was also associated with MACEs (HR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.04 to 2.00; p = 0.030). Remnant-C >= 30 mg/dl (0.78 mmol/l) differentiated subjects at a higher risk of MACEs compared with those at lower concentrations, regardless of whether LDL-C levels were on target at <= 100 mg/dl (2.59 mmol/l). CONCLUSIONS In overweight or obese subjects at high cardiovascular risk, levels of triglycerides and remnant-C, but not LDL-C, were associated with cardiovascular outcomes independent of other risk factors. (C) 2020 Published by Elsevier on behalf of the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
  • Autores: Fresán Salvo, Ujué (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Segovia-Siapco, G.; et al.
    Revista: PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
    ISSN 0091-7435 Vol.137 2020 págs. 106124
    Resumen
    Several healthy diet indices have been associated with mortality risk. However, the ideal diet should not only be healthy but also environmentally friendly and affordable. The study aimed to determine if a new Sustainable Diet Index (SDI), which takes into account the nutritional quality, environmental impacts and market price of diets, was associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Using data from the "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" Project, a prospective cohort study of Spanish university graduates, the study included 15,492 participants who were recruited between December 1999 and March 2014 and followed-up for a median of 10 years. Cox regression was used to determine the relationship of SDI and its components with all-cause and cause-specific mortality risk. Hazard ratios with adjustment for several confounders were calculated. The weights for the foods contributing to the SDI were assessed with multiple regression analyses and variability with nested regression analyses. The highest quartile of the SDI scores was associated with a 59% relative reduction in all-cause mortality (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.23-0.75; P-trend < 0.001) and 79% reduction in cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.21, 95% CI 0.05-0.85; P-trend < 0.001). SDI was positively correlated with beans and potato consumption but negatively correlated with red meat intake. Red and processed meats, fatty dairy products and fish consumption accounted for most of the variability in the SDI. Altogether, dietary patterns accounting not only for nutritional quality of the food but also the impact on the environment and affordability could still provide health benefits.
  • Autores: Fernandez-Garcia, J. C. ; Munoz-Garach, A. ; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
    Revista: OBESITY
    ISSN 1930-7381 Vol.28 N° 3 2020 págs. 537 - 543
    Resumen
    Objective The hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype is characterized by abdominal obesity and high levels of triglycerides. In a cross-sectional assessment of PREDIMED-Plus trial participants at baseline, HTGW phenotype prevalence was evaluated, associated risk factors were analyzed, and the lifestyle of individuals with metabolic syndrome and HTGW was examined. Methods A total of 6,874 individuals aged 55 to 75 with BMI >= 27 and < 40 kg/m(2) were included and classified by presence (HTGW(+)) or absence (HTGW(-)) of HTGW (waist circumference: men >= 102 cm, women >= 88 cm; fasting plasma triglycerides >= 150 mg/dL). Analytical parameters and lifestyle (energy intake and expenditure) were analyzed. Results A total of 38.2% of the sample met HTGW(+) criteria. HTGW(+) individuals tended to be younger, have a greater degree of obesity, be sedentary, and be tobacco users. They had higher peripheral glucose, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels; had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels; and had increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) adherence and physical activity were greater in HTGW(-) patients. Age, BMI, tobacco use, total energy expenditure, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and MedDiet adherence were associated with HTGW(+). Conclusions HTGW is a highly prevalent phenotype in this population associated with younger age, higher BMI, tobacco use, and decreased MedDiet adherence. HTGW(-) individuals were more physically active with greater total physical activity, and fewer had hypertension.
  • Autores: Ferrando, C. (Autor de correspondencia); Suarez-Sipmann, F.; Mellado-Artigas, R.; et al.
    Revista: INTENSIVE CARE MEDICINE
    ISSN 0342-4642 Vol.46 N° 12 2020 págs. 2200 - 2211
    Resumen
    Purpose The main characteristics of mechanically ventilated ARDS patients affected with COVID-19, and the adherence to lung-protective ventilation strategies are not well known. We describe characteristics and outcomes of confirmed ARDS in COVID-19 patients managed with invasive mechanical ventilation (MV). Methods This is a multicenter, prospective, observational study in consecutive, mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS (as defined by the Berlin criteria) affected with with COVID-19 (confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in nasal or pharyngeal swab specimens), admitted to a network of 36 Spanish and Andorran intensive care units (ICUs) between March 12 and June 1, 2020. We examined the clinical features, ventilatory management, and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 ARDS patients, and compared some results with other relevant studies in non-COVID-19 ARDS patients. Results A total of 742 patients were analysed with complete 28-day outcome data: 128 (17.1%) with mild, 331 (44.6%) with moderate, and 283 (38.1%) with severe ARDS. At baseline, defined as the first day on invasive MV, median (IQR) values were: tidal volume 6.9 (6.3-7.8) ml/kg predicted body weight, positive end-expiratory pressure 12 (11-14) cmH(2)O. Values of respiratory system compliance 35 (27-45) ml/cmH(2)O, plateau pressure 25 (22-29) cmH(2)O, and driving pressure 12 (10-16) cmH(2)O were similar cto values from non-COVID-19 ARDS observed in other studies. Recruitment maneuvers, prone position and neuromuscular blocking agents were used in 79%, 76% and 72% of patients, respectively. The risk of 28-day mortality was lower in mild ARDS [hazard ratio (RR) 0.56 (95% CI 0.33-0.93),p = 0.026] and moderate ARDS [hazard ratio (RR) 0.69 (95% CI 0.47-0.97),p = 0.035] when compared to severe ARDS. The 28-day mortality was similar to other observational studies in non-COVID-19 ARDS patients. Conclusions In this large series, COVID-19 ARDS patients have features similar to other causes of ARDS, compliance with lung-protective ventilation was high, and the risk of 28-day mortality increased with the degree of ARDS severity.
  • Autores: Bugallo Delgado, Ricardo José; Marlin Rodriguez, Elías; Baltanás Bordonaba, Ana; et al.
    Revista: CELL DEATH AND DISEASE
    ISSN 2041-4889 Vol.11 N° 5 2020 págs. 397
    Resumen
    Loss of protein folding homeostasis features many of the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders. As coping mechanism to folding stress within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the unfolded protein response (UPR) comprises a set of signaling mechanisms that initiate a gene expression program to restore proteostasis, or when stress is chronic or overwhelming promote neuronal death. This fate-defining capacity of the UPR has been proposed to play a key role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the several genetic or pharmacological attempts to explore the therapeutic potential of UPR modulation have produced conflicting observations. In order to establish the precise relationship between UPR signaling and neuronal death in ALS, we have developed a neuronal model where the toxicity of a familial ALS-causing allele (mutant G93A SOD1) and UPR activation can be longitudinally monitored in single neurons over the process of neurodegeneration by automated microscopy. Using fluorescent UPR reporters we established the temporal and causal relationship between UPR and neuronal death by Cox regression models. Pharmacological inhibition of discrete UPR processes allowed us to establish the contribution of PERK (PKR-like ER kinase) and IRE1 (inositol-requiring enzyme-1) mechanisms to neuronal fate. Importantly, inhibition of PERK signaling with its downstream inhibitor ISRIB, but not with the direct PERK kinase inhibitor GSK2606414, significantly enhanced the survival of G93A SOD1-expressing neurons. Characterization of the inhibitory properties of both drugs under ER stress revealed that in neurons (but not in glial cells) ISRIB overruled only part of the translational program imposed by PERK, relieving the general inhibition of translation, but maintaining the privileged translation of ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4) messenger RNA. Surprisingly, the fine-tuning of the PERK output in G93A SOD1-expressing neurons led to a reduction of IRE1-dependent signaling. Together, our findings identify ISRIB-mediated translational reprogramming as a new potential ALS therapy.
  • Autores: Papandreou, C. (Autor de correspondencia); Bullo, M.; Diaz-Lopez, A.; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY
    ISSN 0307-0565 Vol.44 N° 2 2020 págs. 330 - 339
    Resumen
    Background Whether short sleep duration or high sleep variability may predict less weight loss and reduction in measures of adiposity in response to lifestyle interventions is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the 12-month changes in weight and adiposity measures between those participants with short or adequate sleep duration and those with low or high sleep variability (intra-subject standard deviation of the sleep duration) in PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea (PREDIMED)-Plus, a primary prevention trial based on lifestyle intervention programs. Methods Prospective analysis of 1986 community-dwelling subjects (mean age 65 years, 47% females) with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome from the PREDIMED-Plus trial was conducted. Accelerometry-derived sleep duration and sleep variability and changes in average weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) attained after 12-month interventions were analyzed. Results The adjusted difference in 12-month changes in weight and BMI in participants in the third tertile of sleep variability was 0.5 kg (95% CI 0.1 to 0.9; p = 0.021) and 0.2 kg/m(2) (0.04 to 0.4; p = 0.015), respectively, as compared with participants in the first tertile. The adjusted difference in 12-month changes from baseline in WC was -0.8 cm (-1.5 to -0.01; p = 0.048) in participants sleeping <6 h, compared with those sleeping between 7 and 9 h. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the less variability in sleep duration or an adequate sleep duration the greater the success of the lifestyle interventions in adiposity.
  • Autores: Bullon Vela, Maria Vanessa; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Tur, J. A.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION
    ISSN 0899-9007 Vol.71 2020 págs. 110620
    Resumen
    Objective: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver morbidity. This condition often is accompanied by obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the connection between lifestyle factors and NAFLD in individuals with MetS. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 328 participants (55-75 y of age) diagnosed with MetS participating in the PREDIMED-Plus trial was conducted. NAFLD status was evaluated using the non-invasive hepatic steatosis index (HSI). Sociodemographic, clinical, and dietary data were collected. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (mainly assessed by the consumption of olive oil, nuts, legumes, whole grain foods, fish, vegetables, fruits, and red wine) and physical activity were assessed using validated questionnaires. Results: Linear regression analyses revealed that HSI values tended to be lower with increasing physical activity tertiles (T2, ß = -1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.73 to -0.20; T3, ß = -1.93; 95% CI, -3.22 to -0.65 versus T1, Ptrend = 0.001) and adherence to the Mediterranean diet was inversely associated with HSI values: (moderate adherence ß = -0.70; 95% CI, -1.92 to 0.53; high adherence ß = -1.57; 95% CI, -3.01 to -0.13 versus lower, Ptrend = 0.041). Higher tertiles of legume consumption were inversely associated with the highest tertile of HSI (T2, relative risk ratio [RRR], 0.45; 95% CI, 0.22-0.92; P = 0.028; T3, RRR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.24-0.97; P = 0.
  • Autores: San-Juan-Rodriguez, A. ; Bes Rastrollo, Maira; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY
    ISSN 0307-0565 Vol.44 N° 2 2020 págs. 320 - 329
    Resumen
    BACKGROUND: The use of oral contraceptives (OC) has been suggested to represent a potential risk factor for the development of obesity. However, the available literature assessing the relationship between OC use and the development of obesity is still scarce and characterised by controversial heterogeneity. We prospectively evaluated the association between the use of OC and the development of obesity in female participants of a middle-aged and free-living cohort. METHODS: The study population included 4920 female Spanish university graduates, initially nonobese women, with mean age (standard deviation) 28.2 (5.4) years. The study population was followed up for a mean of 8.6 (3.7) years. Self-reported use of OC and body mass index were assessed at baseline and biennially during follow-up. We used generalized estimating equation models to evaluate the association between exposure to OC and the development of obesity. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential confounders, baseline OC use was associated with higher odds of new-onset obesity during the full follow-up period (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio [OR]¿=¿1.78; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.01-3.15). The continued use of OC for periods of time longer than 2 years was significantly associated with a higher risk of developing obesity (OR¿=¿2.82, 95% CI: 1.17-6.82). CONCLUSIONS: According to our prospective cohort study, OC use is significantly associated with higher odds of obesity development, especially when the use of OC is steady and extends over periods of more than 2 years.
  • Autores: Barrios-Rodriguez, R.; Toledo Atucha, Estefanía (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.12 N° 7 2020 págs. 2076
    Resumen
    A proportion of breast cancer cases are attributable to combined modifiable risk factors. The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) has recently updated the recommendations for cancer prevention and a standard scoring system has been published. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between compliance with the 2018 WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations (Third Expert Report) and the risk of breast cancer in the SUN ("Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra") prospective cohort. Spanish female university graduates, initially free of breast cancer, were included (n = 10,930). An 8-item score to measure compliance to the recommendations was built: body fat, physical activity, consumption of wholegrains/vegetables/fruit/beans, "fast foods", red/processed meat consumption, sugar-sweetened drinks consumption, alcohol intake, and breastfeeding. A stratified analysis was conducted according to menopausal status. A non-significant inverse association was observed for overall breast cancer. The inverse association became statistically significant for post-menopausal breast cancer after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio for > 5 vs. <= 3 points = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.93). The results suggested that the possible inverse association with breast cancer was attributable to the combined effects of the different nutritional and lifestyle components.
  • Autores: Rubín-García, M.; Vitelli-Storelli, F. (Autor de correspondencia); Molina, A. J.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.12 N° 11 2020 págs. 3281
    Resumen
    Several anticancer properties have been largely attributed to phenolics in in vivo and in vitro studies, but epidemiologic evidence is still scarce. Furthermore, some classes have not been studied in relation to gastric cancer (GC). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the intake of phenolic acids, stilbenes, and other phenolics and the risk of developing GC and its anatomical and histological subtypes. We used data from a multi-case-control study (MCC-Spain) obtained from different regions of Spain. We included 2700 controls and 329 GC cases. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using mixed effects logistic regression considering quartiles of phenolic intake. Our results showed an inverse association between stilbene and lignan intake and GC risk (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.32-0.69 and ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.36-0.77, respectively). We found no overall association between total phenolic acid and other polyphenol class intake and GC risk. However, hydroxybenzaldehydes (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.28-0.61), hydroxycoumarins (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.34-0.71), and tyrosols (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.39-0.80) were inversely associated with GC risk. No differences were found in the analysis by anatomical or histological subtypes. In conclusion, a diet high in stilbenes, lignans, hydroxybenzaldehydes, hydroxycoumarins, and tyrosols was associated with a lower GC risk. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our results.
  • Autores: Rico-Campa, A.; Sayon Orea, María del Carmen; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
    Revista: MEDICINA CLINICA
    ISSN 0025-7753 Vol.155 N° 1 2020 págs. 9 - 17
    Resumen
    Background and objectives: Cured ham is one of the most characteristic foods in the Spanish diet. Because it is a red processed meat and due to its nutritional composition, including high sodium content, a potential association between cured ham consumption and a higher risk of hypertension could be expected. However, epidemiological studies evaluating this association are scarce. We prospectively assessed the association between cured ham consumption and the incidence of hypertension. Methods: The "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN) study is a cohort of Spanish middle-aged adult university graduates (average age: 38 (SD: 12) years, 60% women). We included 13,900 participants of the SUN cohort free of hypertension at baseline. One serving of cured ham is 50g. They were classified into 4 categories of cured ham consumption: <1; 1; 2-4 and ¿5servs/week. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models were fitted to assess the association between cured ham consumption and subsequent hypertension risk using the category of lowest consumption as the reference. Results: After a median follow-up of 10.9 years, 1465 incident self-reported cases of hypertension were identified. After adjusting for potential confounders, including dietary confounders, a high consumption of cured ham (¿5servs/week vs. <1serv/week) was not significantly associated with hypertension risk in this prospective cohort (HR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.70-1.10, p linear trend=0.40). Conclusions: Our results showed that cured ham consumption was not associated with a significantly higher or lower risk of hypertension in a prospective cohort of Spanish middle-aged adult university graduates. Further longitudinal and experimental studies are needed to disentangle the association between cured ham consumption and the risk of hypertension.
  • Autores: Castro-Barquero, S. ; Ribo-Coll, M. ; Lassale, C. ; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.12 N° 12 2020
    Resumen
    Our aim is to assess whether following a Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) decreases the risk of initiating antithrombotic therapies and the cardiovascular risk associated with its use in older individuals at high cardiovascular risk. We evaluate whether participants of the PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea (PREDIMED) study allocated to a MedDiet enriched in extra-virgin olive oil or nuts (versus a low-fat control intervention) disclose differences in the risk of initiation of: (1) vitamin K epoxide reductase inhibitors (acenocumarol/warfarin; n = 6772); (2) acetylsalicylic acid as antiplatelet agent (n = 5662); and (3) other antiplatelet drugs (cilostazol/clopidogrel/dipyridamole/ditazol/ticlopidine/triflusal; n = 6768). We also assess whether MedDiet modifies the association between the antithrombotic drug baseline use and incident cardiovascular events. The MedDiet intervention enriched with extra-virgin olive oil decreased the risk of initiating the use of vitamin K epoxide reductase inhibitors relative to control diet (HR: 0.68 [0.46-0.998]). Their use was also more strongly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in participants not allocated to MedDiet interventions (HRcontrol diet: 4.22 [1.92-9.30], HRMedDiets: 1.71 [0.83-3.52], p-interaction = 0.052). In conclusion, in an older population at high cardiovascular risk, following a MedDiet decreases the initiation of antithrombotic therapies and the risk of suffering major cardiovascular events among users of vitamin K epoxide reductase inhibitors.
  • Autores: Gardeazábal González, Itziar; Romanos Nanclares, Andrea; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
    Revista: PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION
    ISSN 1368-9800 Vol.23 N° 17 2020 págs. 3148 - 3159
    Resumen
    Objective: Due to the growing interest in the role of dietary patterns (DPs) on chronic diseases, we assessed the association between a posteriori identified DPs in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Project - a prospective cohort study in a Mediterranean country - and breast cancer (BC) risk. Design: DPs were ascertained through a principal component analysis based on 31 predefined food groups. BC cases were initially identified through self-report or, if deceased, from death certificates or by notification by the next kin. Women reporting BC were asked to provide a copy of their medical report and diagnoses for confirmation purposes. We fitted Cox regression models to assess the association between adherence to the identified DPs and BC risk. Setting: Spanish university graduates. Participants: We included 10 713 young and middle-aged - mainly premenopausal - women. Results: After a median follow-up of 10 center dot 3 years, we identified 100 confirmed and 168 probable incident BC cases. We described two major DPs: 'Western dietary pattern' (WDP) and 'Mediterranean dietary pattern' (MDP). A higher adherence to a WDP was associated with an increased risk of overall BC (multivariable-adjusted HR for confirmed BC Q4 v. Q1 1 center dot 70; 95 % CI 0 center dot 93, 3 center dot 12; P for trend = 0 center dot 045). Contrarily, adherence to a MDP was inversely associated with premenopausal BC (multivariable-adjusted HR Q4 v. Q1 0 center dot 33; 95 % CI 0 center dot 12, 0 center dot 91). No significant associations were observed for postmenopausal BC. Conclusions: Whereas a higher adherence to the WDP may increase the risk of BC, a higher adherence to the MDP may decrease the risk of premenopausal BC.
  • Autores: Sotos-Prieto, M. (Autor de correspondencia); Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Song, YQ. ; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.12 N° 12 2020 págs. 3610
    Resumen
    Metabolomics is improving the understanding of the mechanisms of the health effects of diet. Previous research has identified several metabolites associated with the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet), but knowledge about longitudinal changes in metabolic biomarkers after a MedDiet intervention is scarce. A subsample of 48 firefighters from a cluster-randomized trial at Indianapolis fire stations was randomly selected for the metabolomics study at 12 months of follow up (time point 1), where Group 1 (n = 24) continued for another 6 months in a self-sustained MedDiet intervention, and Group 2 (n = 24), the control group at that time, started with an active MedDiet intervention for 6 months (time point 2). A total of 225 metabolites were assessed at the two time points by using a targeted NMR platform. The MedDiet score improved slightly but changes were non-significant (intervention: 24.2 vs. 26.0 points and control group: 26.1 vs. 26.5 points). The MedDiet intervention led to favorable changes in biomarkers related to lipid metabolism, including lower LDL-C, ApoB/ApoA1 ratio, remnant cholesterol, M-VLDL-CE; and higher HDL-C, and better lipoprotein composition. This MedDiet intervention induces only modest changes in adherence to the MedDiet and consequently in metabolic biomarkers. Further research should confirm these results based on larger study samples in workplace interventions with powerful study designs.
  • Autores: Chavarro, J. E. (Autor de correspondencia); Martín Calvo, Nerea; Yuan, C. Z.; et al.
    Revista: JAMA NETWORK OPEN
    ISSN 2574-3805 Vol.3 N° 4 2020 págs. e202605
    Resumen
    Importance Cesarean delivery is associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity in offspring. However, whether this increased risk also includes obesity-associated conditions remains unclear. Objective To evaluate the association of birth by cesarean delivery with offspring's risks of obesity and type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Design, Setting, and Participants This prospective cohort study compared the incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes between birth by cesarean delivery and vaginal delivery among 33 226 women participating in the Nurses' Health Study II who were born between 1946 and 1964, with follow-up through the end of the 2013-2015 follow-up cycle. Participants' mothers provided information on mode of delivery and pregnancy characteristics. Participants provided information every 2 years on weight and diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Relative risks of obesity and type 2 diabetes were estimated using log-binomial and proportional hazards regression accounting for maternal body mass index and other confounding factors. Statistical analysis was performed from June 2017 to December 2019. Exposure Birth by cesarean delivery compared with birth by vaginal delivery. Main Outcomes and Measures Risk of obesity and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Results At baseline, the participants' mean (SD) age was 33.8 (4.6) years (range, 24.0-44.0 years). A total of 1089 of the 33 226 participants (3.3%) were born by cesarean delivery. After 1 913 978 person-years of follow-up, 12 156 (36.6%) women were obese and 2014 (6.1%) had received a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Women born by cesarean delivery were more likely to be classified as obese and to have received a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes during follow-up. The multivariable-adjusted relative risk of obesity among women born by cesarean vs vaginal delivery was 1.11 (95% CI, 1.03-1.19). The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for type 2 diabetes among women born by cesarean vs vaginal delivery was 1.46 (95% CI, 1.18-1.81); this association remained significant after additional adjustment for participant's own body mass index (relative risk, 1.34 [95% CI, 1.08-1.67]). These associations persisted when analyses were restricted to women at low risk of cesarean delivery based on maternal characteristics. Conclusions and Relevance This study suggests that women born by cesarean delivery may have a higher risk than women born by vaginal delivery of being obese and developing type 2 diabetes during adult life.
  • Autores: Sánchez Bayona, Rodrigo; Gea Sánchez, Alfredo (Autor de correspondencia); Gardeazábal González, Itziar; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.12 N° 3 2020 págs. 731
    Resumen
    Alcohol intake is associated with the risk of breast cancer. Different patterns of alcohol-drinking may have different effects on breast cancer even when keeping constant the total amount of alcohol consumed. We aimed to assess the association between binge drinking and breast cancer risk. The SUN Project is a Spanish dynamic prospective cohort of university graduates initiated in 1999. In the 556-item lifestyle baseline questionnaire a validated food-frequency questionnaire was embedded. Participants completed biennial follow-up questionnaires. Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for breast cancer associated with the exposure to binge drinking. A stratified analysis was performed according to menopausal status. We included 9577 women (mean age = 34 years, SD = 10 years), with a median follow-up of 11.8 years. Among 104,932 women-years of follow-up, we confirmed 88 incident cases of breast cancer. Women in the binge drinking group showed a higher risk of breast cancer (HR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.03-2.99) compared to women in the non-binge drinking category. In the stratified analysis, a 2-fold higher risk for premenopausal breast cancer was associated with binge drinking habit (HR = 2.06; 95% CI: 1.11-3.82). This study adds new evidence on the association of binge drinking with breast cancer risk.
  • Autores: Sanchez-Quesada, C.; Romanos Nanclares, Andrea; Navarro, A. M.; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 1436-6207 Vol.59 N° 8 2020 págs. 3461 - 3471
    Resumen
    Introduction Breast cancer prevalence is growing worldwide. Many factors, such as diet and lifestyle could be determinants of the incidence of breast cancer. Coffee has been extensively studied in relation to several chronic diseases because of its multiple effects in health maintenance and its elevated consumption. We studied the relationship between coffee intake and breast cancer risk in the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) prospective cohort. Materials and methods We evaluated 10,812 middle-aged, Spanish female university graduates from the SUN Project, initially free of breast cancer. Coffee consumption was assessed with a 136-item validated food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Incident breast cancer cases were confirmed by a trained oncologist using medical records and by consultation of the National Death Index. We fitted Cox regression models to assess the relationship between baseline categories of coffee consumption and the incidence of breast cancer during follow-up. We stratified the analysis by menopausal status. Results During 115,802 person-years of follow-up, 101 new cases of breast cancer were confirmed. Among postmenopausal women, more than 1 cup of coffee per day was associated with a lower incidence of breast cancer (HR 0.44; 95% confidence interval: 0.21, 0.92) in the fully adjusted model, compared to women who consumed one cup of coffee or less per day. We observed no significant differences in regard to premenopausal women. Conclusion Even though the number of cases was low, slight indications of an inverse association between coffee consumption and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women were observed. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to confirm this finding.
  • Autores: Cano-Ibáñez, N. ; Gea Sánchez, Alfredo; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN 0261-5614 Vol.39 N° 4 2020 págs. 1161 - 1173
    Resumen
    Background: Socioeconomic disparities and lifestyle factors are likely to determine the overall quality of the diet. In addition, overeating is compatible with inadequate micronutrient intake and it can lead to adverse health outcomes. Objective: To assess adequacy of dietary nutrient intake and to investigate the influence of socioeconomic and lifestyle factors on nutrient density in a large primary cardiovascular prevention trial conducted in healthy participants with metabolic syndrome (MetS) to assess the cardiovascular effects of an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet (PREDIMED-Plus). Methods: Baseline cross-sectional analysis of the PREDIMED-Plus trial with 6646 Spanish participants (aged 55-75 years in men and 60-75 years in women) with overweight/obesity and MetS. Energy and nutrient intake (for 10 nutrients) were calculated using a validated 143-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and nutrient density was estimated dividing the absolute nutrient intake by total energy intake. The prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated according to dietary reference intakes. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted to examine associations between socioeconomic status or lifestyle factors and nutrient density. Results: A considerable proportion of the screened participants showed a deficient intake of vitamins A, D, E, B9, calcium, magnesium and dietary fibre. Inadequate intake of four or more of the ten nutrients considered was present in 17% of participants. A higher nutrient density was directly and significantly associated with female sex, higher educational level and a better adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Lifestyle factors such as non-smoking and avoidance of sedentary lifestyles were also independently associated with better nutrient density. Conclusions: Patients with MetS, despite being overweight, exhibited suboptimal nutrient intake, especially among men. Low nutrient density diet can be largely explained by differences in socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. These results highlight the importance of focussing on nutritional education in vulnerable populations, taking into account nutrient requirements.
  • Autores: Papandreou, C.; Hernandez-Alonso, P.; Bullo, M.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 0022-3166 Vol.150 N° 11 2020 págs. 2882 - 2889
    Resumen
    Background: Although the association between glutamate and glutamine in relation to cardiometabolic disorders has been evaluated, the role of these metabolites in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) remains unknown. Objectives: We examined associations of glutamate, glutamine, and the glutamine-to-glutamate ratio with AF and HF incidence in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Methods: The present study used 2 nested case-control studies within the PREDIMED (Prevencion con Dieta Mediterranea) study. During similar to 10 y of follow-up, there were 509 AF incident cases matched to 618 controls and 326 HF incident cases matched to 426 controls. Plasma concentrations of glutamate and glutamine were semiquantitatively profiled with LC-tandem MS. ORs were estimated with multivariable conditional logistic regression models. Results: In fully adjusted models, per 1-SD increment, glutamate was associated with a 29% (95% CI: 1.08, 1.54) increased risk of HF and glutamine-to-glutamate ratio with a 20% (95% CI: 0.67, 0.94) decreased risk. Glutamine-to-glutamate ratio was also inversely associated with HF risk (OR per 1-SD increment: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.94) when comparing extreme quartiles. Higher glutamate concentrations were associated with a worse cardiometabolic risk profile, whereas a higher glutamine-to-glutamate ratio was associated with a better cardiometabolic risk profile. No associations between the concentrations of these metabolites and AF were observed. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that high plasma glutamate concentrations possibly resulting from alterations in the glutamate-glutamine cycle may contribute to the development of HF in Mediterranean individuals at high CVD risk.
  • Autores: Gomez Donoso, Clara; Sánchez Villegas, María Almudena; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN 1436-6207 Vol.59 N° 3 2020 págs. 1093 - 1103
    Resumen
    Purpose A growing body of evidence shows that consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) is associated with a higher risk of cardiometabolic diseases, which, in turn, have been linked to depression. This suggests that UPF might also be associated with depression, which is among the global leading causes of disability and disease. We prospectively evaluated the relationship between UPF consumption and the risk of depression in a Mediterranean cohort. Methods We included 14,907 Spanish university graduates [mean (SD) age: 36.7 year (11.7)] initially free of depression who were followed up for a median of 10.3 years. Consumption of UPF (industrial formulations made mostly or entirely from substances derived from foods and additives, with little, if any, intact food), as defined by the NOVA food classification system, was assessed at baseline through a validated semi-quantitative 136-item food-frequency questionnaire. Participants were classified as incident cases of depression if they reported a medical diagnosis of depression or the habitual use of antidepressant medication in at least one of the follow-up assessments conducted after the first 2 years of follow-up. Cox regression models were used to assess the relationship between UPF consumption and depression incidence. Results A total of 774 incident cases of depression were identified during follow-up. Participants in the highest quartile of UPF consumption had a higher risk of developing depression [HR (95% CI) 1.33 (1.07-1.64); p trend = 0.004] than those in the lowest quartile after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusions In a prospective cohort of Spanish university graduates, we found a positive association between UPF consumption and the risk of depression that was strongest among participants with low levels of physical activity.
  • Autores: Barrubes, L.; Babio, N. ; Hernández-Alonso, P.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE
    ISSN 2077-0383 Vol.9 N° 4 2020 págs. 1215
    Resumen
    Limited longitudinal studies have been conducted to evaluate colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence based on the updated 2018 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) recommendations or other global lifestyle indices, and none in aged populations at high cardiovascular risk. We aimed to assess the association between CRC incidence and adherence to two emerging lifestyles indices (2018 WCRF/AICR score and another low-risk lifestyle (LRL) score comprising smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, diet, and body mass index) in the Spanish PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea (PREDIMED) cohort. We studied 7216 elderly men and women at high cardiovascular risk. The 2018 WCRF/AICR and LRL scores were calculated. Multivariable Cox proportional regression models were fitted to estimate the HRs (hazard ratios) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident CRC events. During a median interquartile range (IQR) follow-up of 6.0 (4.4-7.3) years, 97 CRC events were considered. A significant linear association was observed between each 1-point increment in the WCRF/AICR score (score range from 0 to 7) and CRC risk (HR (95% CI) = 0.79 (0.63-0.99)). Similarly, each 1-point increment in the LRL score (score range from 0 to 5) was associated with a 22% reduction in CRC risk (0.78 (0.64-0.96)). Adhering to emergent lifestyle scores might substantially reduce CRC incidence in elderly individuals. Further longitudinal studies, which take different lifestyle indexes into account, are warranted in the future.
  • Autores: Martín Calvo, Nerea (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Segura, G. ; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY AND COMMUNITY HEALTH
    ISSN 0143-005X Vol.74 N° 7 2020 págs. 586 - 591
    Resumen
    Background Most studies assessing the association between caesarean delivery (CD) and childhood overweight/obesity have failed to account for important confounders, such as maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) or the indication of the CD. Furthermore, within-family analyses have reported contradictory results. We aimed at evaluating the association between CD and offspring's risk of overweight/obesity while adjusting for important confounders and accounting for correlations between siblings. Methods Women in the 'Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra' cohort provided structured information regarding their pregnancy history and their children's health through online cross-sectional questionnaires. We calculated adjusted differences in BMI z-score and risk ratios (RR) for offspring's overweight/obesity associated with CD, with hierarchical models to account for correlations between siblings. We also performed a within-family analysis in 341 siblings who were discordant in delivery mode, using conditional multivariable logistic regression. Results Among the 2791 children analysed, those born by CD had higher average BMI z-scores (difference: 0.17; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.27) and higher risk of overweight/obesity (RR: 1.32, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.65) than children born vaginally. The association did not differ by maternal characteristics or offspring's age strata, and the results were consistent in sensitivity analyses. Furthermore, within-family analysis showed that children born by CD had 2.67-fold higher risk of overweight/obesity (95% CI 1.10 to 5.12) than their peers born vaginally. Conclusion Children born by CD have higher average BMI z-scores and higher risk of overweight/obesity than children born vaginally. The consistency of these findings across multiple approaches to address potential residual confounding likely suggests a true biological effect.
  • Autores: Castro-Barquero, S.; Tresserra-Rimbau, A.; Vitelli-Storelli, F. ; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN 2072-6643 Vol.12 N° 3 2020 págs. 689
    Resumen
    Dietary polyphenol intake is associated with improvement of metabolic disturbances. The aims of the present study are to describe dietary polyphenol intake in a population with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to examine the association between polyphenol intake and the components of MetS. This cross-sectional analysis involved 6633 men and women included in the PREDIMED (PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea-Plus) study. The polyphenol content of foods was estimated from the Phenol-Explorer 3.6 database. The mean of total polyphenol intake was 846 +/- 318 mg/day. Except for stilbenes, women had higher polyphenol intake than men. Total polyphenol intake was higher in older participants (>70 years of age) compared to their younger counterparts. Participants with body mass index (BMI) >35 kg/m(2) reported lower total polyphenol, flavonoid, and stilbene intake than those with lower BMI. Total polyphenol intake was not associated with a better profile concerning MetS components, except for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), although stilbenes, lignans, and other polyphenols showed an inverse association with blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and triglycerides. A direct association with HDL-c was found for all subclasses except lignans and phenolic acids. To conclude, in participants with MetS, higher intake of several polyphenol subclasses was associated with a better profile of MetS components, especially HDL-c.
  • Autores: Soria-Florido, M. T.; Castaner, O.; Lassale, C.; et al.
    Revista: CIRCULATION
    ISSN 0009-7322 Vol.141 N° 6 2020 págs. 444 - 453
    Resumen
    Background: Studies have failed to establish a clear link between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and cardiovascular disease, leading to the hypothesis that the atheroprotective role of HDL lies in its biological activity rather than in its cholesterol content. However, to date, the association between HDL functional characteristics and acute coronary syndrome has not been investigated comprehensively. Methods: We conducted a case-control study nested within the PREDIMED (Prevencion con Dieta Mediterranea) cohort, originally a randomized trial in which participants followed a Mediterranean or low-fat diet. Incident acute coronary syndrome c