Grupos Investigadores

Líneas de Investigación

  • Afectividad / Fertilidad humana.
  • Consentimiento informado Proyecto Arritmias Recurrentes
  • Dieta y estilos de vida.
  • Epidemiología nutricional.
  • Prevención con dieta mediterránea.
  • Prevención primaria basada en estilos de vida de cáncer de mama y otros cánceres
  • Prevención terciaria basada en estilos de vida de cáncer de mama

Palabras Clave

  • Biomedicina y Salud
  • Cáncer de mama
  • Diabetes
  • Dieta
  • Dieta mediterránea
  • Hipertensión
  • Nutrición
  • Obesidad
  • Riesgo cardiovascular

Publicaciones Científicas desde 2018

  • Autores: Martínez González, Miguel Ángel (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0002-9165 Vol.119 N° 2 2024 págs. 262 - 270
    Resumen
    Moderate alcohol intake (or, more specifically, red wine) represents one of the postulated beneficial components of the traditional Mediterranean diet. Many well-conducted nonrandomized studies have reported that light-to-moderate alcohol intake is not only associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, but also of all-cause mortality. Nonetheless, alcohol is an addictive substance imposing huge threats for public health. Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risks of cancer, neurological harms, injuries, and other adverse outcomes. Both the Global Burden of Disease (2016) and Mendelian randomization studies recently supported that the healthiest level of alcohol intake should be 0. Therefore, despite findings of conventional observational epidemiologic studies supporting a potential beneficial role of wine in the context of a healthy Mediterranean dietary pattern, a strong controversy remains on this issue. Age, sex, and drinking patterns are likely to be strong effect modifiers. In this context, a new 4-y noninferiority pragmatic trial in Spain (University of Navarra Alumni Trialist Initiative or UNATI), publicly funded by the European Research Council, will randomly assign >10,000 current drinkers (males, 50-70 y; females, 55-75 y) to repeatedly receive advice on either abstention or moderation in alcohol consumption. The recruitment will begin in mid-2024. The primary endpoint is a composite of the main clinical outcomes potentially related to alcohol intake including all-cause mortality.
  • Autores: Talavera-Rodriguez, I.; Banegas, J. R. ; de la Cruz, J. J.; et al.
    Revista: GEROSCIENCE
    ISSN: 2509-2715 Vol.46 N° 1 2024 págs. 1357 - 1369
    Resumen
    Specific foods, nutrients, dietary patterns, and physical activity are associated with lower blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), but little is known about the joint effect of lifestyle factors captured in a multidimensional score. We assessed the association of a validated Mediterranean-lifestyle (MEDLIFE) index with 24-h-ambulatory BP and HR in everyday life among community-living older adults. Data were taken from 2,184 individuals (51% females, mean age: 71.4 years) from the Seniors-ENRICA-2 cohort. The MEDLIFE index consisted of 29 items arranged in three blocks: 1) Food consumption; 2) Dietary habits; and 3) Physical activity, rest, and conviviality. A higher MEDLIFE score (0-29 points) represented a better Mediterranean lifestyle adherence. 24-h-ambulatory BP and HR were obtained with validated oscillometric devices. Analyses were performed with linear regression adjusted for the main confounders. The MEDLIFE-highest quintile (vs Q1) was associated with lower nighttime systolic BP (SBP) (-3.17 mmHg [95% CI: -5.25, -1.08]; p-trend = 0.011), greater nocturnal-SBP fall (1.67% [0.51, 2.83]; p-trend = 0.052), and lower HR (-2.04 bpm [daytime], -2.33 bpm [nighttime], and -1.93 bpm [24-h]; all p-trend < 0.001). Results were similar for each of the three blocks of MEDLIFE and by hypertension status (yes/no). Among older adults, higher adherence to MEDLIFE was associated with lower nighttime SBP, greater nocturnal-SBP fall, and lower HR in their everyday life. These results suggest a synergistic BP-related protection from the components of the Mediterranean lifestyle. Future studies should determine whether these results replicate in older adults from other Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean countries.
  • Autores: Semnani-Azad, Z. (Autor de correspondencia); Toledo Atucha, Estefanía; Babio, N.; et al.
    Revista: METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
    ISSN: 0026-0495 Vol.151 2024
    Resumen
    Background: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a progressive pathophysiological state defined by a cluster of cardiometabolic traits. However, little is known about metabolites that may be predictors of MetS incidence or reversion. Our objective was to identify plasma metabolites associated with MetS incidence or MetS reversion.Methods: The study included 1468 participants without cardiovascular disease (CVD) but at high CVD risk at enrollment from two case-cohort studies nested within the PREvenci & oacute;n con DIeta MEDiterr & aacute;nea (PREDIMED) study with baseline metabolomics data. MetS was defined in accordance with the harmonized International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria, which include meeting 3 or more thresholds for waist circumference, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose. MetS incidence was defined by not having MetS at baseline but meeting the MetS criteria at a follow-up visit. MetS reversion was defined by MetS at baseline but not meeting MetS criteria at a follow-up visit. Plasma metabolome was profiled by LC-MS. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models and elastic net regularized regressions were used to assess the association of 385 annotated metabolites with MetS incidence and MetS reversion after adjusting for potential risk factors.Results: Of the 603 participants without baseline MetS, 298 developed MetS over the median 4.8-year follow-up. Of the 865 participants with baseline MetS, 285 experienced MetS reversion. A total of 103 and 88 individual metabolites were associated with MetS incidence and MetS reversion, respectively, after adjusting for confounders and false discovery rate correction. A metabolomic signature comprised of 77 metabolites was robustly associated with MetS incidence (HR: 1.56 (95 % CI: 1.33-1.83)), and a metabolomic signature of 83 metabolites associated with MetS reversion (HR: 1.44 (95 % CI: 1.25-1.67)), both p < 0.001. The MetS incidence and reversion signatures included several lipids (mainly glycerolipids and glycerophospholipids) and branched-chain amino acids.Conclusion: We identified unique metabolomic signatures, primarily comprised of lipids (including glycolipids and glycerophospholipids) and branched-chain amino acids robustly associated with MetS incidence; and several amino acids and glycerophospholipids associated with MetS reversion. These signatures provide novel insights on potential distinct mechanisms underlying the conditions leading to the incidence or reversion of MetS.
  • Autores: Margara-Escudero, H. J.; Paz-Graniel, I.; García-Gavilán, J. (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: CARDIOVASCULAR DIABETOLOGY
    ISSN: 1475-2840 Vol.23 N° 38 2024
    Resumen
    BackgroundLegume consumption has been linked to a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), while the potential association between plasma metabolites associated with legume consumption and the risk of cardiometabolic diseases has never been explored. Therefore, we aimed to identify a metabolite signature of legume consumption, and subsequently investigate its potential association with the incidence of T2D and CVD.MethodsThe current cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis was conducted in 1833 PREDIMED study participants (mean age 67 years, 57.6% women) with available baseline metabolomic data. A subset of these participants with 1-year follow-up metabolomics data (n = 1522) was used for internal validation. Plasma metabolites were assessed through liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Cross-sectional associations between 382 different known metabolites and legume consumption were performed using elastic net regression. Associations between the identified metabolite profile and incident T2D and CVD were estimated using multivariable Cox regression models.ResultsSpecific metabolic signatures of legume consumption were identified, these included amino acids, cortisol, and various classes of lipid metabolites including diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols, plasmalogens, sphingomyelins and other metabolites. Among these identified metabolites, 22 were negatively and 18 were positively associated with legume consumption. After adjustment for recognized risk factors and legume consumption, the identified legume metabolite profile was inversely associated with T2D incidence (hazard ratio (HR) per 1 SD: 0.75, 95% CI 0.61-0.94; p = 0.017), but not with CVD incidence risk (1.01, 95% CI 0.86-1.19; p = 0.817) over the follow-up period.ConclusionsThis study identified a set of 40 metabolites associated with legume consumption and with a reduced risk of T2D development in a Mediterranean population at high risk of cardiovascular disease.Trial registration: ISRCTN35739639.ConclusionsThis study identified a set of 40 metabolites associated with legume consumption and with a reduced risk of T2D development in a Mediterranean population at high risk of cardiovascular disease.Trial registration: ISRCTN35739639.
  • Autores: Dominguez-López, I.; Kovatcheva, M.; Casas, R.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE
    ISSN: 0022-5142 Vol.104 N° 2 2024 págs. 875 - 882
    Resumen
    BACKGROUND: Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient that is involved in numerous physiological processes, and its deficiency can lead to various complications, including neurological and haematological disorders. Some studies have suggested that vitamin B12 may have anti-inflammatory effects, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are not yet fully understood. We investigated the relationship between circulating vitamin B12 and inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP). The association of peripheral levels of vitamin B12 with IL-6 and CRP was assessed in 136 human samples from a high cardiovascular risk population. To corroborate the results from the human trial, the analysis was replicated in naturally aged mice. RESULTS: Individuals with higher serum levels of vitamin B12 showed lower concentrations of IL-6 and CRP after adjustment for potential confounders, and an inverse association was also found between serumIL-6 and vitamin B12 levels in naturally agedmice. CONCLUSION: Circulating vitamin B12 was inversely associated with IL-6 and CRP in humans and with IL-6 in mice, suggesting that it may exert an anti-inflammatory effect through modulation of these pro-inflammatory molecules. (c) 2023 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.
  • Autores: Dominguez-Lopez, I.; Galkina, P.; Parilli-Moser, I.; et al.
    Revista: MOLECULAR NUTRITION AND FOOD RESEARCH
    ISSN: 1613-4125 Vol.68 N° 2 2024 págs. e2300183
    Resumen
    ScopeDiets rich in polyphenols has been associated with better cognitive performance. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between microbial phenolic metabolites (MPM) in urine and cognition in the context of an older population at high cardiovascular risk.Methods and resultsA cross-sectional analysis is conducted in 400 individuals of the PREDIMED-Plus study. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry is used to identify urinary MPM. Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) adherence is estimated with a 17-item questionnaire and cognitive function is evaluated with a battery of neuropsychological tests. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models are fitted to assess the relationship of urinary MPM with the MedDiet and cognitive tests. Protocatechuic acid and enterolactone glucuronide are associated with higher adherence to the MedDiet. Regarding cognitive function, protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid glucuronide, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, enterodiol glucuronide, and enterolactone glucuronide are directly associated with a global composite score of all the cognitive tests. Furthermore, protocatechuic acid and enterolactone glucuronide are associated with higher scores in the Mini-Mental State Examination, whereas enterodiol glucuronide is associated with improved Clock Drawing Test scores.ConclusionsThese results suggest that the MedDiet is linked to MPM associated with better cognitive performance in an older population. A cross-sectional analysis is conducted in 400 individuals to assess the relationship between microbial phenolic metabolites and cognition in the context of a Mediterranean diet. Microbial phenolic metabolites are related to better global cognition, and protocatechuic acid and enterolactone glucuronide are associated with Mediterranean diet. This suggests that Mediterranean diet may promote microbial phenolic metabolites associated with better cognitive performance.image
  • Autores: Arredondo Montero, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Rico Jiménez, M.; Martín Calvo, Nerea
    Revista: PEDIATRIC SURGERY INTERNATIONAL
    ISSN: 0179-0358 Vol.39 N° 1 2023 págs. 64
    Resumen
    This study aimed to examine the ability of serum total bilirubin (STB) to discriminate between complicated and uncomplicated paediatric acute appendicitis (PAA). We conducted a systematic review of the literature that involved an extensive search in the main databases of medical bibliography (Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, OVID, Scopus, Cochrane Library). Two independent reviewers selected the relevant articles based on the previously defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Methodological quality of the selected articles was assessed using the QUADAS2 index. Data extraction was performed by two independent reviewers. A synthesis of the results, a standardization of the metrics and a random-effect meta-analysis were performed. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed in subgroup analysis by study design. In addition, a diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) meta-analysis was performed. This review included 8 studies with data from 3634 participants aged between 0 and 18 years (2230 with uncomplicated PAA and 1404 with complicated PAA). The random-effects meta-analysis showed significantly higher mean STB in the complicated PAA group than in the uncomplicated PAA group (difference = 0.27; 95% CI 0.06-0.48) and high heterogeneity (I2 = 96%). In subgroup analyses by study design, the difference remained significant in prospective studies. The DTA meta-analysis resulted in an AUC of 0.83 (95% CI 0.79-0.86) and pooled sensitivity and specificity of 68.53% (95% CI 48.35%-83.51%) and 81.12% (95% CI 67.76%-89.78%), respectively. Mean values of STB are higher in children with complicated than uncomplicated acute appendicitis, and the diagnostic yield of STB seems to be high. Due to the high heterogeneity between studies, these results must be interpreted with caution.
  • Autores: Gomez Afonso, A.; Fernandez-Lazaro, D. (Autor de correspondencia); Adams, D. P.; et al.
    Revista: CURRENT NUTRITION REPORTS
    ISSN: 2161-3311 Vol.12 N° 3 2023 págs. 465 - 477
    Resumen
    Purpose of ReviewWithania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Ws) is a common herb plant that has been used for centuries to treat a wide range of conditions, particularly certain chronic diseases due to its antidiabetic, cardioprotective, antistress, and chondroprotective effects, among many others. No conclusive evidence, however, exists about the potential health effects of Ws in adults without chronic conditions. We aimed to evaluate the current evidence on the health benefits of Ws supplementation in healthy adults.Recent FindingsBased on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we systematically reviewed studies indexed in Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed to assess the effects of Ws on hematological and biochemical markers, hormonal behavior, and oxidant response in healthy adults. Original articles published up to March 5, 2022, with a controlled trial design or pre-post intervention design, in which supplementation of Ws was compared to a control group or data prior to intervention were included. Among 2,421 records identified in the search, 10 studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall, most of the studies reported beneficial effects of the Ws supplementation, and no serious adverse events were reported. Participants supplemented with Ws displayed reduced levels of oxidative stress and inflammation, and counterbalanced hormone levels. No evidence of the beneficial effects of Ws supplementation on hematological markers was reported.Ws supplementation appears to be safe, may regulate hormone levels, and has potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the relevance of its application.
  • Autores: Arredondo Montero, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Pérez Riveros, B. P.; Bueso Asfura, O. E.; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS
    ISSN: 0340-6199 Vol.182 N° 7 2023 págs. 3033 - 3044
    Resumen
    The aim of this study was to analyze the diagnostic performance of Leucine-Rich Alpha-2-Glycoprotein (LRG1) in pediatric acute appendicitis (PAA). We conducted a systematic review of the literature in the main databases of medical bibliography. Two independent reviewers selected the articles and extracted relevant data. Methodological quality was assessed using the QUADAS2 index. A synthesis of the results, standardization of the metrics and 4 random-effect meta-analyses were performed. Eight studies with data from 712 participants (305 patients with confirmed diagnosis of PAA and 407 controls) were included in this review. The random-effect meta-analysis of serum LRG1 (PAA vs control) resulted in a significant mean difference (95% CI) of 46.76 ¿g/mL (29.26-64.26). The random-effect meta-analysis for unadjusted urinary LRG1 (PAA vs control) resulted in a significant mean difference (95% CI) of 0.61 ¿g/mL (0.30-0.93). The random-effect meta-analysis (PAA vs control) for urinary LRG1 adjusted for urinary creatinine resulted in a significant mean difference (95% CI) of 0.89 g/mol (0.11-1.66). Conlusion: Urinary LRG1 emerges as a potential non-invasive biomarker for the diagnosis of PAA. On the other hand, due to the high between-study heterogeneity, the results on serum LRG1 should be interpreted with caution. The only study that analyzed salivary LRG1 showed promising results. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. What is Known: ¿ Pediatric acute appendicitis continues to be a pathology with a high rate of diagnostic error. ¿ Invasive tests, although useful, are a source of stress for patients and their parents. What is New: ¿ LRG1 emerges as a promising urinary and salivary biomarker for the noninvasive diagnosis of pediatric acute appendicitis.
  • Autores: Arredondo Montero, J.; Bardaji Pascual, C.; Antona, G.; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF TRAUMA AND EMERGENCY SURGERY
    ISSN: 1863-9933 Vol.49 N° 2 2023 págs. 763 - 773
    Resumen
    Background Pediatric acute appendicitis (AA) is a challenging pathology to diagnose. In the last decades, multiple biomarkers have been evaluated in different human biological samples to improve diagnostic performance. This study aimed to examine the diagnostic performance of serum, fecal and urinary calprotectin as well as the role of the APPY-1 biomarker panel in pediatric acute appendicitis. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature that involved an extensive search in the main databases of medical bibliography (Medline, PubMed, Web of Science and SciELO). Two independent reviewers selected the relevant articles based on the previously defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Methodological quality of the selected article was rated using the QUADAS2 index. Data extraction was performed by two independent reviewers. A synthesis of the results, a standardization of the metrics and two random-effect meta-analyses, one for serum calprotectin and one for APPY-1, were performed. Results The research resulted in 173 articles. Thirty-eight duplicates were removed. Among the remaining 135 articles, we excluded 125 following the inclusion and exclusion criteria, resulting in the 10 studies included in this review. This systematic review included data from of 3901 participants (1276 patients with confirmed diagnosis of AA and 2625 controls). The age of the participants ranged from 0 to 21 years. Four of the studies compared serum calprotectin values and reported significant differences between groups, but inconsistent results regarding cutoff points, sensitivity and specificity. Two publications compared urinary values of calprotectin and presented inconsistent results regarding sensitivity and specificity as well. One publication evaluated the diagnostic performance of fecal calprotectin, but it did not provide data on measured values. Four studies evaluated the diagnostic performance of APPY-1 test in pediatric acute appendicitis. The calculated pooled sensitivity and specificity of those studies were 97.37 (95% CI 95.60-98.44) and 36.74 (95% CI 32.28-41.44), respectively, and the calculated pooled NLR, 0.0714 (95% CI 0.041-0.115). Conclusion Serum calprotectin has limited diagnostic yield in pediatric acute appendicitis. Its performance seems to increase with the hours of clinical evolution and in advanced AA, although the evidence is limited. There is not enough evidence on the usefulness of urinary or fecal calprotectin in the diagnosis of pediatric acute appendicitis. On the other hand, the APPY-1 is a reliable test to exclude the diagnosis of AA in patients at low or moderate risk according to PAS and Alvarado Score.
  • Autores: Arredondo Montero, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Perez Riveros, B. P.; Martín Calvo, Nerea
    Revista: SURGICAL INFECTIONS
    ISSN: 1096-2964 Vol.24 N° 4 2023 págs. 311 - 321
    Resumen
    Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the diagnostic performance of total platelet count (PC), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) in pediatric acute appendicitis (PAA).Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature in the main databases of medical bibliography. Two independent reviewers selected the articles and extracted relevant data. Methodological quality was assessed using the QUADAS2 index. A synthesis of the results, a standardization of the metrics, and four random effect meta-analyses were performed.Results: Thirteen studies including data from 4,373 participants (2,767 patients with confirmed diagnosis of PAA and 1,606 controls) were included. Five studies compared PC, and the meta-analysis including three of them showed a non-significant mean difference of -34.47 platelets/1 x 10(9)/L (95% confidence interval [CI], -88.10 to 19.16). Seven publications compared PLR and the meta-analysis of those studies showed significant mean differences between patients with PAA and controls (dif: 49.84; 95% CI, 25.82-73.85) as well as between patients with complicated and uncomplicated PAA (dif: 49.42; 95% CI, 25.47-73.37). Four studies compared MLR and the meta-analysis including all of them showed a non-significant mean difference of -1.30 (95% CI, -3.52 to 0.92).Conclusions: Although existing evidence is heterogeneous and limited, PLR appears to be a promising molecule for the diagnosis of PAA and for the discrimination between complicated and uncomplicated PAA. Our results do not support the use of PC or MLR as biomarkers in PAA.
  • Autores: Domínguez, L. J. (Autor de correspondencia); Donat Vargas, Carolina Luisa; Sayon Orea, María del Carmen; et al.
    Revista: EXPERIMENTAL GERONTOLOGY
    ISSN: 0531-5565 Vol.177 2023 págs. 112180
    Resumen
    Frailty is a geriatric syndrome whose frequency is increasing in parallel with population aging and is of great interest due to its dire consequences: increased disability, hospitalizations, falls and fractures, institutionalization, and mortality. Frailty is multifactorial but nutritional factors, which are modifiable, play a crucial role in its pathogenesis. Epidemiologic evidence supports that high-quality dietary patterns can prevent, delay or even reverse the occurrence of frailty. In order to add new knowledge bridging the gap as the main purpose of the present article we performed a comprehensive review of the rationale behind the association of MedDiet with frailty and a systematic review and meta-analysis updating the latest ones published in 2018 specifically examining the relationship of Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and incident frailty. Adding the updated information, our results confirmed a robust association of a higher adherence to MedDiet with reduced incident frailty. Key components of the MedDiet, i.e., abundant consumption of vegetables and fruit as well as the use of olive oil as the main source of fat, all of which have been associated with a lower incidence of frailty, may help explain the observed benefit. Future well-designed and sufficiently large intervention studies are needed to confirm the encouraging findings of the current observational evidence. Meanwhile, based on the existing evidence, the promotion of MedDiet, a high-quality dietary pattern, adapted to the conditions and traditions of each region, and considering lifelong and person-tailored strategies, is an open opportunity to reduced incident frailty. This could also help counteract the worrying trend towards the spread of unhealthy eating and lifestyle models such as those of Western diets that greatly contribute to the genesis of chronic non-communicable diseases and disability.
  • Autores: Henn, Matthias Christoph; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0261-5614 Vol.42 N° 10 2023 págs. 2093 - 2094
  • Autores: Thomas-Odenthal, F.; Molero Santos, Patricio; Molendijk, M. (Autor de correspondencia)
    Revista: PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE
    ISSN: 0033-2917 Vol.53 N° 12 2023 págs. 5882 - 5883
  • Autores: Martínez-Urbistondo, D. (Autor de correspondencia); San-Cristóbal, R.; Villares, P.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY
    ISSN: 1664-2392 Vol.13 2023 págs. 1113532
  • Autores: Arredondo Montero, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Pérez Riveros, B. P.; Bueso Asfura, O. E.; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS
    ISSN: 0340-6199 Vol.182 N° 7 2023 págs. 3045 - 3047
  • Autores: Arredondo Montero, J.; Bardaji Pascual, C.; Antona, G.; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF TRAUMA AND EMERGENCY SURGERY
    ISSN: 1863-9933 Vol.49 N° 2 2023 págs. 775
  • Autores: Arredondo-Montero, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Antona, G.; Bronte-Anaut, M.; et al.
    Revista: PEDIATRIC SURGERY INTERNATIONAL
    ISSN: 0179-0358 Vol.39 N° 1 2023 págs. 49
  • Autores: Royo-Bordonada, M. Á. (Autor de correspondencia); Bes Rastrollo, Maira
    Revista: GACETA SANITARIA
    ISSN: 0213-9111 Vol.37 2023 págs. 102270
  • Autores: Amer, F.; Gil Conesa, Mario; Carlos Chillerón, Silvia; et al.
    Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY
    ISSN: 0002-9262 Vol.192 N° 9 2023 págs. 1463 - 1474
    Resumen
    The aim of this study was to analyze the life habits and personal factors associated with increased severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) risk in a university environment with in-person lectures during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To our knowledge, there are no previous longitudinal studies that have analyzed associations of behavioral and personal factors with the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection on an entire university population. A cohort study was conducted in the 3 campuses of the University of Navarra between August 24, 2020, and May 30, 2021, including 14,496 students and employees; the final sample included 10,959. Descriptive and multivariate-adjusted models were fitted using Cox regression. A total of 1,032 (9.4%) participants were diagnosed with COVID-19 (879 students and 153 employees), almost 50% living with their families. COVID-19 was associated with living in college or residence (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.45, 2.64), motor transportation (HR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.61), South American origin (HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.20, 1.72), and belonging to Madrid's campus (HR = 3.11, 95% CI: 2.47, 3.92). International students, especially from Latin America, mostly lived in university apartments or shared flats and cohabited with 4-11 people. Living in a big city (Madrid), was a significant risk factor.
  • Autores: Hershey, M. S.; Chang, C. R.; Sotos-Prieto, M.; et al.
    Revista: JAMA NETWORK OPEN
    ISSN: 2574-3805 Vol.6 N° 8 2023 págs. e2329147
    Resumen
    Importance: US firefighters are a working population at risk of chronic diseases, including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. This risk may be mitigated by a healthy diet. Objective: To evaluate the effect of a Mediterranean nutrition intervention using a behavioral/environmental approach (firefighter/fire station/home) at the individual participant level. Design, setting, and participants: This 12-month cluster randomized clinical trial included US career firefighters from fire stations and homes within 2 Indiana fire departments. Participants were randomized by fire station to either Mediterranean diet or control (usual care). The study was conducted from October 2016 to December 2019, and data were analyzed in November 2022. Intervention: For the first 12 months of the study, firefighters located at fire stations randomized to the intervention group were provided with access to supermarket discounts and free samples of Mediterranean diet foods, online nutrition education platforms, email announcements and reminders, family and peer education and support, and chef demonstrations. Firefighters in fire stations allocated to the control group received no intervention and were instructed to follow their usual diet. Main outcomes and measures: Change in dietary habits at 12 months as measured by a modified Mediterranean diet score (range, 0 to 51 points) at baseline and 6-month and 12-month follow-up. Cardiometabolic parameters were secondary outcomes. Results: Of 485 included firefighters, 458 (94.4%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 47 (7.5) years. A total of 241 firefighters (27 fire stations) were randomized to the Mediterranean nutrition intervention, and 244 (25 fire stations) were randomized to usual diet. Outcomes were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models for modified Mediterranean diet score at 6 months (n = 336) and 12 months (n = 260), adjusting for baseline age, sex, race and ethnicity, fire department, physical activity, and waist circumference. In the intervention group compared with the control group, the modified Mediterranean diet score significantly increased by 2.01 points (95% CI, 0.62-3.40; P = .005) at 6 months and by 2.67 points (95% CI, 1.14-4.20; P = .001) at 12 months. Among secondary outcomes, changes in cardiometabolic risk factors were not statistically significant at 1 year. Results from analyses with multilevel multiple imputation for missingness were similar. Conclusions and relevance: In this Mediterranean nutrition intervention of multicomponent behavioral/environmental changes, career firefighters had increased adherence to a Mediterranean diet. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02941757.
  • Autores: Paz-Graniel, I.; Babio, N.; Nishi, S. K.; et al.
    Revista: DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY
    ISSN: 1091-4269 Vol.2023 2023 págs. 6765950
    Resumen
    Background and Aims. To control the COVID-19 spread, in March 2020, a forced home lockdown was established in Spain. In the present study, we aimed to assess the effect of mobility and social COVID-19-established restrictions on depressive symptomatology in older adults with metabolic syndrome. We hypothesize that severe restrictions might have resulted in detrimental changes in depressive symptomatology. Methods. 2,312 PREDIMED-Plus study participants (men = 53:9%; mean age = 64:9 +/- 4:8 years) who completed a COVID-19 lockdown questionnaire to assess the severity of restrictions/lockdown and the validated Spanish version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) during the three established phases concerning the COVID-19 lockdown in Spain (prelockdown, lockdown, and postlockdown) were included in this longitudinal analysis. Participants were categorized according to high or low lockdown severity. Analyses of covariance were performed to assess changes in depressive symptomatology across lockdown phases. Results. No significant differences in participant depression symptomatology changes were observed between lockdown severity categories (low/high) at the studied phases. During the lockdown phase, participants showed a decrease in BDI-II score compared to the prelockdown phase (mean (95% CI), -0.48 (-0.24, -0.72), P < 0:001); a nonsignificantly larger decrease was observed in participants allocated in the low-lockdown category (low: -0.59 (-0.95, -0.23), high: -0.43 (-0.67, -0.19)). Similar decreases in depression symptomatology were found for the physical environment dimension. The post- and prelockdown phase BDI-II scores were roughly similar. Conclusions. The COVID-19 pandemic lockdown was associated with a decrease in depressive symptomatology that returned to prelockdown levels after the lockdown. The degree of lockdown was not associated with depressive symptomatology. The potential preventive role of the physical environment and social interactions on mental disorders during forced home lockdown should be further studied. This trial is registered with ISRCTN89898870. Retrospectively registered on 24 July 2014.
  • Autores: Castro-Barquero, S.; Casas, R.; Rimm, E. B.; et al.
    Revista: MOLECULAR NUTRITION AND FOOD RESEARCH
    ISSN: 1613-4125 Vol.67 N° 4 2023 págs. e2200264
    Resumen
    ScopeExcessive visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with higher secretion of pro-inflammatory molecules, contributing to systemic inflammation and obesity-related metabolic disturbances. Methods and resultsThis prospective analysis includes 117 overweight/obese adults (55-75 years) from the PREDIMED-Plus study. Fourteen inflammatory markers and adipokines are measured using a Bio-Plex assay with multiplex technology: insulin, glucagon, IL-6, visfatin, ghrelin, GLP-1, TNF-alpha, MCP-1, PAI-1, resistin, C-peptide, leptin, adipsin, and adiponectin. Participants are categorized into tertiles according to changes in VAT after 1-year of follow-up, determined by dual-energy X-Ray absorptiometry. Participants allocate in tertile 3, which represent an increase of VAT content after 1-year of follow-up compared to tertile 1, show significant differences in insulin (T3 vs T1, fully adjusted model: p = 0.037, p for trend 0.042), PAI-1 (fully adjusted model: p = 0.05, p for trend 0.06), c-peptide (fully adjusted model: p = 0.037, p for trend 0.042), and TNF-alpha (fully adjusted model p = 0.037, p for trend 0.042). ConclusionThe results evidence that a reduction in VAT is associated with clinical improvements in several inflammatory and adiposity markers, mainly in insulin, c-peptide, and PAI-1 levels, and these improvements may contribute to a reduction in cardiometabolic disturbances observe in obesity.
  • Autores: García-Gavilán, J. F. (Autor de correspondencia); Babio, N.; Toledo Atucha, Estefanía; et al.
    Revista: CARDIOVASCULAR DIABETOLOGY
    ISSN: 1475-2840 Vol.22 N° 1 2023 págs. 340
    Resumen
    BackgroundOlive oil consumption has been inversely associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the impact of olive oil consumption on plasma metabolites remains poorly understood. This study aims to identify plasma metabolites related to total and specific types of olive oil consumption, and to assess the prospective associations of the identified multi-metabolite profiles with the risk of T2D and CVD.MethodsThe discovery population included 1837 participants at high cardiovascular risk from the PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea (PREDIMED) trial with available metabolomics data at baseline. Olive oil consumption was determined through food-frequency questionnaires (FFQ) and adjusted for total energy. A total of 1522 participants also had available metabolomics data at year 1 and were used as the internal validation sample. Plasma metabolomics analyses were performed using LC-MS. Cross-sectional associations between 385 known candidate metabolites and olive oil consumption were assessed using elastic net regression analysis. A 10-cross-validation (CV) procedure was used, and Pearson correlation coefficients were assessed between metabolite-weighted models and FFQ-derived olive oil consumption in each pair of training-validation data sets within the discovery sample. We further estimated the prospective associations of the identified plasma multi-metabolite profile with incident T2D and CVD using multivariable Cox regression models.ResultsWe identified a metabolomic signature for the consumption of total olive oil (with 74 metabolites), VOO (with 78 metabolites), and COO (with 17 metabolites), including several lipids, acylcarnitines, and amino acids. 10-CV Pearson correlation coefficients between total olive oil consumption derived from FFQs and the multi-metabolite profile were 0.40 (95% CI 0.37, 0.44) and 0.27 (95% CI 0.22, 0.31) for the discovery and validation sample, respectively. We identified several overlapping and distinct metabolites according to the type of olive oil consumed. The baseline metabolite profiles of total and extra virgin olive oil were inversely associated with CVD incidence (HR per 1SD: 0.79; 95% CI 0.67, 0.92 for total olive oil and 0.70; 0.59, 0.83 for extra virgin olive oil) after adjustment for confounders. However, no significant associations were observed between these metabolite profiles and T2D incidence.ConclusionsThis study reveals a panel of plasma metabolites linked to the consumption of total and specific types of olive oil. The metabolite profiles of total olive oil consumption and extra virgin olive oil were associated with a decreased risk of incident CVD in a high cardiovascular-risk Mediterranean population, though no associations were observed with T2D incidence.Trial registration: The PREDIMED trial was registered at ISRCTN (http://www.isrctn.com/, ISRCTN35739639).ConclusionsThis study reveals a panel of plasma metabolites linked to the consumption of total and specific types of olive oil. The metabolite profiles of total olive oil consumption and extra virgin olive oil were associated with a decreased risk of incident CVD in a high cardiovascular-risk Mediterranean population, though no associations were observed with T2D incidence.Trial registration: The PREDIMED trial was registered at ISRCTN (http://www.isrctn.com/, ISRCTN35739639).
  • Autores: Rognoni Trueba, María Teresa; Fernández Matarrubia, Marta; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF ALZHEIMERS DISEASE
    ISSN: 1387-2877 Vol.95 N° 3 2023 págs. 887 - 899
    Resumen
    Background: It has been proposed that physical activity (PA) could prevent cognitive decline. Objective: To evaluate the association between changes in PA and changes in cognitive function in a cohort of adults with metabolic syndrome. Methods: Longitudinal observational study including 5,500 adults (mean age 65 years, SD = 5; women = 49.3%) with metabolic syndrome. Participants underwent physical activity measurements and cognitive evaluation at baseline and at two-years of follow-up. PA was quantified using the Minnesota questionnaire-shortened version. Cognitive function was evaluated using a battery of tests: Mini-Mental Test Examination, Clock Drawing Test, Trail Making Test A and B, Verbal Fluency Test, and Digit Span. The primary outcome was two-year change in cognition, measured through the Global Composite Score (GCS) of all neuropsychological tests. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models were fitted with baseline PA and their changes as the main exposures and changes in cognitive function as the outcome. Results: No significant association was found between PA levels (or their changes) in the GCS of cognitive function. A greater increase in PA levels was associated with a more favorable two-year change in the Trail Making Test A (Q4 versus Q1: b = -2.24s, 95% CI -4.36 to -0.12s; p-trend = 0.020). No significant association was found for other neuropsychological test. Conclusion: Our results do not support an association between increases in PA and the evolution of the global cognitive function at two-year in an intervention trial which included PA promotion in one of its two randomized arms, but they suggested a possible beneficial effect of PA on attentional function in older adults.
  • Autores: Arredondo-Montero, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Bronte-Anaut, M.; Bardaji-Pascual, C.; et al.
    Revista: PEDIATRIC SURGERY INTERNATIONAL
    ISSN: 0179-0358 Vol.39 N° 1 2023 págs. 44
    Resumen
    Introduction The diagnostic performance of capillary ketonemia (CK) has been previously evaluated in context of pediatric acute gastroenteritis. To our knowledge, there is no literature on its performance in the setting of pediatric acute appendicitis (PAA).Materials and methods In this study, 151 patients were prospectively included and divided into two groups: (1) patients with non-surgical abdominal pain in whom the diagnosis of PAA was excluded (n = 53) and (2) patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PAA (n = 98). In 80 patients (Group 1, n = 23 and group 2, n = 57) a CK was measured at the time of diagnosis. The PAA group was further classified into complicated (n = 18) and uncomplicated PAA (n = 39). Quantitative variables were compared between groups using the Mann-Whitney U test. Diagnostic performance of CK was evaluated with ROC curves.Results CK values were 0.3 [0.1-0.9] mmol/L in group 1 and 0.7 [0.4-1.4] mmol/L in group 2 (p = 0.01). Regarding the type of PAA, CK values were 0.6 [0.4-0.9] mmol/L in uncomplicated PAA and 1.2 [0.8-1.4] mmol/L in complicated PAA (p = 0.02). The AUC for the discrimination between groups 1 and 2 was 0.68 (95% IC 0.53-0.82) (p = 0.24) and the AUC for the discrimination between uncomplicated PAA and complicated PAA was 0.69 (95% IC 0.54-0.85) (p = 0.04). The best cut-off point (group 1 vs group 2) resulted in 0.4 mmol/L, with a sensitivity of 80.7% and a specificity of 52.2%. The best cut-off point (non-complicated vs complicated PAA) resulted in 1.1 mmol/L, with a sensitivity of 61.1% and a specificity of 76.9%.Conclusions This study found significantly higher levels of CK in patients with PAA than in those with NSAP. Similarly, significantly higher levels were observed in patients with complicated than in those with uncomplicated PAA. Nevertheless, the diagnostic performance of CK was only moderate in the two settings analyzed. The potential usefulness of CK determination as a tool to guide the preoperative rehydration regimen of patients with PAA to prevent postoperative hyporexia and vomiting is a promising line of research and should be evaluated in future studies.
  • Autores: Konieczna, J.; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Galmes-Panades, A. M.; et al.
    Revista: JAMA NETWORK OPEN
    ISSN: 2574-3805 Vol.6 N° 10 2023 págs. e2337994
    Resumen
    Importance Strategies targeting body composition may help prevent chronic diseases in persons with excess weight, but randomized clinical trials evaluating lifestyle interventions have rarely reported effects on directly quantified body composition.Objective To evaluate the effects of a lifestyle weight-loss intervention on changes in overall and regional body composition.Design, Setting, and Participants The ongoing Prevencion con Dieta Mediterranea-Plus (PREDIMED-Plus) randomized clinical trial is designed to test the effect of the intervention on cardiovascular disease prevention after 8 years of follow-up. The trial is being conducted in 23 Spanish research centers and includes men and women (age 55-75 years) with body mass index between 27 and 40 and metabolic syndrome. The trial reported herein is an interim subgroup analysis of the intermediate outcome body composition after 3-year follow-up, and data analysis was conducted from February 1 to November 30, 2022. Of 6874 total PREDIMED-Plus participants, a subsample of 1521 individuals, coming from centers with access to a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry device, underwent body composition measurements at 3 time points.Intervention Participants were randomly allocated to a multifactorial intervention based on an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and increased physical activity (PA) or to a control group based on usual care, with advice to follow an ad libitum MedDiet, but no physical activity promotion.Main Outcomes and Measures The outcomes (continuous) were 3-year changes in total fat and lean mass (expressed as percentages of body mass) and visceral fat (in grams), tested using multivariable linear mixed-effects models. Clinical relevance of changes in body components (dichotomous) was assessed based on 5% or more improvements in baseline values, using logistic regression. Main analyses were performed in the evaluable population (completers only) and in sensitivity analyses, multiple imputation was performed to include data of participants lost to follow-up (intention-to-treat analyses).Results A total of 1521 individuals were included (mean [SD] age, 65.3 [5.0] years; 52.1% men). In comparison with the control group (n=761), participants in the intervention arm (n=760) showed greater reductions in the percentage of total fat (between group differences after 1-year, -0.94% [95% CI, -1.19 to -0.69]; 3 years, -0.38% [95% CI, -0.64 to -0.12] and visceral fat storage after 1 year, -126 g [95% CI, -179 to -73.3 g]; 3 years, -70.4 g [95% CI, -126 to -15.2 g] and greater increases in the percentage of total lean mass at 1 year, 0.88% [95% CI, 0.63%-1.12%]; 3-years 0.34% [95% CI, 0.09%-0.60%]). The intervention group was more likely to show improvements of 5% or more in baseline body components (absolute risk reduction after 1 year, 13% for total fat mass, 11% for total lean mass, and 14% for visceral fat mass; after 3-years: 6% for total fat mass, 6% for total lean mass, and 8% for visceral fat mass). The number of participants needed to treat was between 12 and 17 to attain at least 1 individual with possibly clinically meaningful improvements in body composition.Conclusions and Relevance The findings of this trial suggest a weight-loss lifestyle intervention based on an energy-reduced MedDiet and physical activity significantly reduced total and visceral fat and attenuated age-related losses of lean mass in older adults with overweight or obesity and metabolic syndrome. Continued follow-up is warranted to confirm the long-term consequences of these changes on cardiovascular clinical end points.Trial Registrationisrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN89898870
  • Autores: Talavera Rodríguez, Irene; Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio; Hernández-Ruiz, Á.; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN: 1436-6207 Vol.62 N° 4 2023 págs. 1667 - 1680
    Resumen
    Purpose We aimed to prospectively investigate the association of an overall oxidative balance score (OBS) with all-cause death and cause-specific mortality among participants in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Study, a Mediterranean cohort of Spanish graduates. Methods Using baseline information on 12 a priori selected dietary and non-dietary lifestyle pro- and antioxidants exposures-vitamins C and E, beta-carotenes, selenium, zinc, heme iron, polyphenols, total antioxidant capacity, body mass index, alcohol, smoking, and physical activity-we constructed an equally weighted OBS categorized into quartiles, with higher scores representing greater antioxidant balance. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to evaluate the association between the OBS and mortality. Results A total of 18,561 participants (mean [SD] age, 38.5 [12.4] years; 40.8% males) were included in the analysis. During a median follow-up of 12.2 years (interquartile range 8.3-14.9), 421 deaths were identified, including 80 deaths from cardiovascular disease (CVD), 215 from cancer, and 126 from other causes. After adjustment for potential confounders, the hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval (CIs) between the highest quartile (predominance of antioxidants) vs. the lowest quartile (reference category) were 0.35 (95% CI 0.22-0.54, P-trend < 0.001) for all-cause mortality, 0.18 (95% CI 0.06-0.51, P-trend = 0.001) for CVD mortality, 0.35 (95% CI 0.19-0.65, P-trend = 0.002) for cancer mortality, and 0.45 (95% CI 0.20-1.02, P-trend = 0.054) for other-cause mortality. Conclusion Our findings suggest a strong inverse association between the OBS and all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality. Individuals exposed to both antioxidant dietary and lifestyle factors may potentially experience the lowest mortality risk.
  • Autores: Pérez Araluce, Rafael María; Bes Rastrollo, Maira (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.15 N° 5 2023 págs. 1072
    Resumen
    Background: Binge-drinking is one of the alcohol drinking patterns with the worst health consequences. Nonetheless, binge-drinking is highly prevalent. The perceived benefits that motivate it are ultimately related to subjective well-being. In this context, we analyzed the relationship between binge-drinking and quality of life. Methods: We evaluated 8992 participants of the SUN cohort. We classified as binge-drinkers those who reported consuming six or more drinks on at least one occasion the year before recruitment (n = 3075). We fitted multivariable logistic regression models to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) of a worse physical and mental quality of life, measured with the validated SF-36 questionnaire at 8 years of follow-up (cut-off point = P75 or highest score). Results: Binge-drinking was associated with greater odds of having a worse mental quality of life, even adjusting for quality of life at 4 years of follow-up, used as an approximation to a baseline measure (OR = 1.22 (1.07-1.38)). This value was mainly due to the effects on vitality (OR = 1.17 (1.01-1.34)) and mental health (OR = 1.22 (1.07-1.39)). Conclusions: Binge-drinking may lead to poorer mental quality of life; therefore, binge-drinking for enhancement purposes does not seem to be justified by this effect.
  • Autores: Razquin Burillo, Cristina; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Wernitz, A.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
    ISSN: 0009-9147 Vol.69 N° 3 2023 págs. 283 -294
    Resumen
    Background Plasma fatty acids (FAs) have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Diet and endogenous metabolism influence the FA profile of the plasma phospholipid (PL) fraction. In the PREDIMED trial, we examined 1-year changes in the FA profile of plasma PL according to a nutritional intervention with Mediterranean diets, either supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil (MedDiet + EVOO) or mixed nuts (MedDiet + nuts), in a high cardiovascular risk population. We also analyzed if 1-year changes in PL FAs were associated with subsequent cardiovascular risk. Methods We included 779 participants in our case-cohort study: 185 incident cases and 594 participants in the subcohort (including 31 overlapping cases). The end point was the incidence of CVD. We measured the FAs of plasma PL at baseline and after 1 year of intervention. Results MedDiet + EVOO increased C17:0 and C20:3n9 in linear regression models [beta coefficient(perSD) : 0.215 (95% CI, 0.032-0.399) and 0.271 (0.107-0.434), respectively] and decreased 16:1n7 and C22:4n6 [beta(perSD): -0.239 (95% CI, -0.416 to -0.061) and -0.287 (95% CI, -0.460 to -0.113), respectively] vs the control group. MedDiet + nuts increased C18:3n3 [beta(perSD): 0.382 (95% CI, 0.225 - 0.539)], C18:2n6 [beta(per SD): 0.250 (95% CI, 0.073 - 0.428)], C18:0 [beta(perSD): 0.268 (95% CI, 0.085-0.452)], and C22:0 [beta(per SD): 0.216 (95% CI, 0.031-0.402)]; and decreased the sum of six n6 FAs [beta(per SD): -0.147 (95% CI, -0.268 to -0.027)] vs the control group. The 1-year increase in C18:2n6 was inversely associated with the subsequent CVD risk (HRperSD: 0.64 (95% CI, 0.44-0.92)). Conclusions MedDiet interventions changed n6 FAs and C16:1n7c; other changes were specific for each group: MedDiet + EVOO increased C17:0 and C20:3n9, and MedDiet + Nuts C18:3n3, C18:2n6, C18:0, and C22:0 FAs.
  • Autores: Valer-Martínez, A.; Sayon Orea, María del Carmen (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; et al.
    Revista: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0007-1145 Vol.130 N° 10 2023 págs. 1814 - 1822
    Resumen
    Vitamin D is an essential nutrient to be consumed in the habitual dietary intake, whose deficiency is associated with various disturbances. This study represents a validation of vitamin D status estimation using a semi-quantitative FFQ, together with data from additional physical activity and lifestyle questionnaires. This information was combined to forecast the serum vitamin D status. Different statistical methods were applied to estimate the vitamin D status using predictors based on diet and lifestyle. Serum vitamin D was predicted using linear regression (with leave-one-out cross-validation) and random forest models. Intraclass correlation coefficients, Lin's agreement coefficients, Bland-Altman plots and other methods were used to assess the accuracy of the predicted v. observed serum values. Data were collected in Spain. A total of 220 healthy volunteers aged between 18 and 78 years were included in this study. They completed validated questionnaires and agreed to provide blood samples to measure serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels. The common final predictors in both models were age, sex, sunlight exposure, vitamin D dietary intake (as assessed by the FFQ), BMI, time spent walking, physical activity and skin reaction after sun exposure. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the prediction was 0 center dot 60 (95 % CI: 0 center dot 52, 0 center dot 67; P < 0 center dot 001) using the random forest model. The magnitude of the correlation was moderate, which means that our estimation could be useful in future epidemiological studies to establish a link between the predicted 25(OH)D values and the occurrence of several clinical outcomes in larger cohorts.
  • Autores: García Blanco, Lorena; De la O Pascual, Víctor; Berasaluce, A.; et al.
    Revista: PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION
    ISSN: 1368-9800 Vol.26 N° 2 2023 págs. 437 - 445
    Resumen
    Background: Ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption is increasing exponentially, becoming a matter of concern for Public Health, given its adverse health effects. Objective: To identify individual and faGmily factors predicting UPF consumption in childhood. Design: The SENDO project is an ongoing prospective dynamic cohort of Spanish children. In this study, we used baseline information of participants recruited between January 2015 and June 2021. Dietary information was collected with a validated semi-quantitative FFQ, and food items were classified using the NOVA classification. Individual and family factors associated with UPF consumption (P < 0 center dot 20) in univariate analyses were introduced in a model of generalised estimating equations which accounted for intra-cluster correlations between siblings. Setting: The SENDO project (Spain), 2015-2021. Participants: Spanish children are recruited at the age of 4-5 years and followed yearly through online questionnaires completed by parents. Results: In this sample of 806 participants (49 % girls; mean age 5 years (sd: 0 center dot 90)), the mean UPF consumption was 37 center dot 64 % of total energy intake (sd: 9 center dot 59). Large family size and longer exposure to screens predicted higher consumption of UPF. On the other hand, better knowledge of children's dietary recommendations, healthy dietary attitudes towards child's eating habits and longer breastfeeding were associated with lower consumption of UPF. All these factors accounted for approximately 16 % of the variability on the consumption of UPF in childhood. Conclusion: Since most of the factors identified in this study are modifiable, they should be considered in public health strategies aimed at promoting healthy dietary habits in early life.
  • Autores: Arredondo-Montero, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Rivero-Marcotegui, A.; Bardaji-Pascual, C.; et al.
    Revista: SURGICAL INFECTIONS
    ISSN: 1096-2964 Vol.24 N° 7 2023 págs. 619 - 324
    Resumen
    Background: Pediatric acute appendicitis (PAA) involves a substantial consumption of health and economic resources. The identification of serum biomarkers that may help predict the post-surgical evolution of these patients is a field of great interest.Patients and Methods: This was a prospective, observational substudy within the Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Appendicitis in Pediatrics (BIDIAP) cohort aimed at evaluating the association between post-surgical increase in serum IL-6 and different outcomes related to the clinical evolution of children operated on for PAA. Sixty-nine children with a confirmed diagnosis of acute appendicitis and both pre-operative and post-operative serum IL-6 were included in the study. Three multivariable-adjusted linear regression models were fitted to analyze the association between an increase of >10% in post-operative serum IL-6 level with the length of stay, the number of post-operative emetic episodes, and the onset of oral feeding. Two multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the association of the same exposure with the indication of antibiotherapy at discharge and with positivity in peritoneal fluid culture.Results: Thirteen children showed an increase of >10% in the post-operative serum IL-6 value (group 1) whereas 56 showed only a minor increase, or no change (group 2). After accounting for potential confounders, children in group 1 had a mean of three-day longer hospital stay (difference, 3.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-6.09) and higher odds of a positive result in peritoneal fluid culture (odds ratio [OR], 37.43; 95% CI, 1.02-1361.28) than children in group 2.Conclusions: An increase of >10% in post-operative serum IL-6 value could predict longer hospital stay and higher odds of positive peritoneal fluid culture. Future prospective studies are needed to replicate these findings and to broaden the range of biomarkers that could predict the post-operative evolution of children operated on for PAA.
  • Autores: Pano, O.; Sayon Orea, María del Carmen (Autor de correspondencia); Hershey, M. S.; et al.
    Revista: PUBLIC HEALTH
    ISSN: 0033-3506 Vol.220 2023 págs. 165 - 171
    Resumen
    Objectives: Novel findings indicate links between unhealthy lifestyles and depression based on active inflammatory processes. Thus, identifying participants with poor habits could reveal differences in trends of incident depression. This study aimed to examine the association between an objective lifestyle assessment, as measured by the Lifestyle and Well-Being Index (LWB-I), and incident depression in healthy participants of a Spanish cohort. Study design: This was a longitudinal analysis of a subsample of 10,063 participants from the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra cohort study. Methods: Group comparisons and Cox proportional hazard models were conducted using the LWB-I, which categorizes the sample into groups with healthy and unhealthy lifestyles and well-being. The main outcome was incident depression as well as secondary outcomes. Results: Those classified to the transition category of LWB-I were associated with a hazard ratio of 0.67 (95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.87), and those in the excellent category showed a hazard ratio of 0.44 (95% confidence interval: 0.33-0.58), which in both groups reflects a significantly lower risk of incident depression compared with the group including those classified in the poor LWB-I level. Moreover, the available sensitivity analyses concerning time of depression diagnosis or antidepressant treatment further supported the role of nutrition and physical activity on incident depression. Interestingly, throughout the follow-up, incident depression was inversely related to healthier daily habits as measured by the LWB-I. Conclusions: A global assessment of lifestyles such as the LWB-I provides valuable insight into the complex relationship between lifestyle factors and their link to depression risk.
  • Autores: Martínez González, Miguel Ángel (Autor de correspondencia); Montero, P.; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; et al.
    Revista: CARDIOVASCULAR DIABETOLOGY
    ISSN: 1475-2840 Vol.22 N° 1 2023 págs. 262
    Resumen
    Background Several large observational prospective studies have reported a protection by the traditional Mediterranean diet against type 2 diabetes, but none of them used yearly repeated measures of dietary intake. Repeated measurements of dietary intake are able to improve subject classification and to increase the quality of the assessed relationships in nutritional epidemiology. Beyond observational studies, randomized trials provide stronger causal evidence. In the context of a randomized trial of primary cardiovascular prevention, we assessed type 2 diabetes incidence according to yearly repeated measures of compliance with a nutritional intervention based on the traditional Mediterranean diet.Methods PREDIMED (''PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea'') was a Spanish trial including 7447 men and women at high cardiovascular risk. We assessed 3541 participants initially free of diabetes and originally randomized to 1 of 3 diets: low-fat diet (n = 1147, control group), Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra virgin olive (n = 1154) or Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts (n = 1240). As exposure we used actual adherence to Mediterranean diet (cumulative average), yearly assessed with the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (scoring 0 to 14 points), and repeated up to 8 times (baseline and 7 consecutive follow-up years). This score was categorized into four groups: < 8, 8-< 10, 10- < 12, and 12-14 points. The outcome was new-onset type 2 diabetes.Results Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios from time-varying Cox models were 0.80 (95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.92) per + 2 points in Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (linear trend p = .001), and 0.46 (0.25-0.83) for the highest (12-14 points) versus the lowest (< 8) adherence. This inverse association was maintained after additionally adjusting for the randomized arm. Age- and sex-adjusted analysis of a validated plasma metabolomic signature of the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (constituted of 67 metabolites) in a subset of 889 participants also supported these results.Conclusions Dietary intervention trials should quantify actual dietary adherence throughout the trial period to enhance the benefits and to assist results interpretation. A rapid dietary assessment tool, yearly repeated as a screener, was able to capture a strong inverse linear relationship between Mediterranean diet and type 2 diabetes.
  • Autores: Atzeni, A. (Autor de correspondencia); Nishi, S. K.; Babio, N.; et al.
    Revista: GUT MICROBES
    ISSN: 1949-0976 Vol.15 N° 2 2023 págs. 2246185
    Resumen
    The impact of carbohydrate quality, measured by the carbohydrate quality index (CQI), on gut microbiota and health has been scarcely investigated. The aim of this study was to cross-sectionally and longitudinally explore the relationships between CQI, fecal microbiota, and cardiometabolic risk factors in an elderly Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. At baseline and 1-year, CQI was assessed from food frequency questionnaires data, cardiometabolic risk factors were measured, and fecal microbiota profiled from 16S sequencing. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models were fitted to assess the associations between tertiles of baseline CQI, fecal microbiota, and cardiometabolic risk factors at baseline, and between tertiles of 1-year change in CQI, 1-year change in fecal microbiota and cardiometabolic risk factors. Cross-sectionally, higher CQI was positively associated with Shannon alpha diversity index, and abundance of genera Faecalibacterium and Christensenellaceae R7 group, and negatively associated with the abundance of Odoribacter, and uncultured Rhodospirillales genera. Some of these genera were associated with higher glycated hemoglobin and lower body mass index. In addition, we observed a positive association between CQI, and some pathways related with the metabolism of butyrate precursors and plants-origin molecules. Longitudinally, 1-year improvement in CQI was associated with a concurrent increase in the abundance of genera Butyrivibrio. Increased abundance of this genera was associated with 1-year improvement in insulin status. These observations suggest that a better quality of carbohydrate intake is associated with improved metabolic health, and this improvement could be modulated by greater alpha diversity and abundance of specific genera linked to beneficial metabolic outcomes.
  • Autores: Santos Martín, José Luis; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel (Autor de correspondencia); Razquin Burillo, Cristina; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
    ISSN: 0939-4753 Vol.33 N° 4 2023 págs. 835 - 843
    Resumen
    Background and aim: Plasma citric acid cycle (CAC) metabolites might be likely related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, studies assessing the longitudinal associations between circulating CAC-related metabolites and CVD risk are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of baseline and 1-year levels of plasma CAC-related metabolites with CVD incidence (a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death), and their interaction with Mediterranean diet interventions. Methods and results: Case-cohort study from the PREDIMED trial involving participants aged 55-80 years at high cardiovascular risk, allocated to MedDiets or control diet. A subcohort of 791 participants was selected at baseline, and a total of 231 cases were identified after a median follow-up of 4.8 years. Nine plasma CAC-related metabolites (pyruvate, lactate, citrate, aconitate, isocitrate, 2-hydroxyglutarate, fumarate, malate and succinate) were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Weighted Cox multiple regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs). Baseline fasting plasma levels of 3 metabolites were associated with higher CVD risk, with HRs (for each standard deviation, 1-SD) of 1.46 (95%CI:1.20-1.78) for 2-hydroxyglutarate, 1.33 (95%CI:1.12-1.58) for fumarate and 1.47 (95%CI:1.21-1.78) for malate (p of linear trend <0.001 for all). A higher risk of CVD was also found for a 1-SD increment of a combined score of these 3 metabolites (HR = 1.60; 95%CI: 1.32-1.94, p trend <0.001). This result was replicated using plasma measurements after one-year. No interactions were detected with the nutritional intervention. Conclusion: Plasma 2-hydroxyglutarate, fumarate and malate levels were prospectively associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Clinical trial number: ISRCTN35739639.
  • Autores: Bouzas, C.; Pastor, R.; García, S.; et al.
    Revista: BIOMEDICINE AND PHARMACOTHERAPY
    ISSN: 0753-3322 Vol.161 2023 págs. 114561
    Resumen
    Aims: To assess the comparative effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA), 4-dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitors (DPP-4I), and metformin treatment during one year on metabolic syndrome (MetS) com-ponents and severity in MetS patients. Methods: Prospective study (n = 6165 adults) within the frame of PREDIMED-Plus trial. The major end-point was changes on MetS components and severity after one-year treatment of GLP-1RA, DPP-4I, and metformin. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height and waist circumference), body mass index (BM), and blood pressure were registered. Blood samples were collected after overnight fasting. Plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), plasma triglycerides and cholesterol were measured. Dietary intakes as well as physical activity were assessed through validated questionnaires.Results: MetS parameters improved through time. The treated groups improved glycaemia compared with un-treated (glycaemia Delta untreated:-1.7 mg/dL(+/- 13.5); Delta metformin: -2.5(+/- 23.9) mg/dL; Delta DPP-4I: -4.5(+/- 42.6); mg/dL Delta GLP-1RA: -4.3(+/- 50.9) mg/dL; and HbA1c: Delta untreated: 0.0(+/- 0.3) %; Delta metformin: -0.1(+/- 0.7) %; Delta DPP-4I: -0.1(+/- 1.0) %; Delta GLP-1RA: -0.2(+/- 1.2) %. Participants decreased BMI and waist circumference. GLP-1RA and DPP-4I participants registered the lowest decrease in BMI (Delta untreated:-0.8(+/- 1.6) kg/m2; Delta metformin: -0.8(+/- 1.5) kg/m2; Delta DPP-4I: -0.6(+/- 1.3) kg/m2; Delta GLP-1RA: -0.5(+/- 1.2) kg/m2. and their waist circumference (Delta untreated:-2.8(+/- 5.2) cm; Delta metformin: -2.6(+/- 15.2) cm; Delta DPP-4I: -2.1(+/- 4.8) cm; Delta GLP-1RA: -2.4(+/- 4.1) cm.Conclusion: In patients with MetS and healthy lifestyle intervention, those treated with GLP-1RA and DPP-4I obtained better glycemic profile. Anthropometric improvements were modest.
  • Autores: Paz-Graniel, I.; Fito, M.; Ros, E.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN NUTRITION
    ISSN: 2296-861X Vol.9 2023 págs. 1098269
    Resumen
    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the implementation of most ongoing clinical trials worldwide including the PREDIMED-Plus study. The PREDIMED-Plus is an ongoing, multicenter, controlled intervention trial, aimed at weight-loss and cardiovascular disease prevention, in which participants were randomized (1:1 ratio) to an intervention group (energy-reduced Mediterranean diet, promotion of physical activity, and behavioral support) or to a control group (Mediterranean diet with usual care advice). When the pandemic began, the trial was in the midst of the planned intervention. The objective of this report was to examine the effects of the pandemic on the delivery of the intervention and to describe the strategies established to mitigate the possible adverse effects of the pandemic lockdown on data collection and adiposity. Methods: We assessed the integrity of the PREDIMED-Plus trial during 5 identified periods of the COVID-19 pandemic determined according to restrictions dictated by the Spanish government authorities. A standardized questionnaire was delivered to each of the 23 PREDIMED-Plus recruiting centers to collected data regarding the trial integrity. The effect of the restrictions on intervention components (diet, physical activity) was evaluated with data obtained in the three identified lockdown phases: pre lockdown, lockdown proper, and post lockdown. Results: During the lockdown (March/2020-June/2021), 4,612 participants (48% women, mean age 65y) attended pre-specified yearly follow-up visits to receive lifestyle recommendations and obtain adiposity measures. The overall mean (SD) of the proportions reported by each center showed that 40.4% (25.4) participants had in-person visits, 39.8% (18.2) participants were contacted by telephone and 35% (26.3) by electronic means. Participants' follow-up and data collection rates increased across lockdown periods (from approximate to 10% at onset to approximate to 80% at the end). Compared to pre-lockdown, waist circumference increased during (0.75 cm [95% CI: 0.60-0.91]) and after (0.72 cm [95% CI: 0.56-0.89]) lockdown. Body weight did not change during lockdown (0.01 kg [95% CI: -0.10 to 0.13) and decreased after lockdown (-0.17 kg [95% CI: -0.30 to -0.04]). Conclusion: Mitigating strategies to enforce the intervention and patient's follow-up during lockdown have been successful in preserving the integrity of the trial and ensuring its continuation, with minor effects on adiposity.
  • Autores: Arancibia-Riveros, C.; Dominguez-López, I.; Tresserra-Rimbau, A.; et al.
    Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0002-9165 Vol.117 N° 4 2023 págs. 814 - 822
    Resumen
    Background: Chronic inflammation is associated with noncommunicable diseases, including obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and CVDs. The Mediterranean diet has been shown to have strong anti-inflammatory effects, attributed in part to the polyphenol richness of many of its components. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the value of polyphenols as a urinary biomarker of an anti-inflammatory diet and their influence on MetS status. Methods: A longitudinal analysis was performed in Spain considering 543 participants with high CVD risk in a PREDIMED study. Approximately 52% of the participants were women and 48% were men with a mean age of 67.5 (5.9) y. Total polyphenol excretion (TPE) in urine was determined at baseline and 5 y of intervention using a validated Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric method, and the dietary inflammatory index (DII) was calculated from a validated 137-item food-frequency questionnaire. Three categories were built according to tertiles of change in the DII score. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to assess the association of changes in TPE with changes in the DII scores and with MetS status at 5 y. Results: Tertiles 2 and 3 compared with tertile 1 presented a lower anti-inflammatory potential of the diet and were inversely associated with TPE in women [-0.30 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g creatinine; 95% CI: -0.46, -0.15; P value = 0.006 and -0.29 mg GAE/g creatinine; 95% CI: -0.43, -0.15; P value = 0.005], respectively. The mean changes in TPE were 7.9 (56.1) mg GAE/g creatinine in women and 7.7 (48.2) mg GAE/g creatinine in men. In addition, TPE was inversely associated with changes in MetS status [-0.06 (-0.09; -0.02), P value = 0.009] in both men and women. Conclusions: Urinary polyphenols may be a potential biomarker of anti-inflammatory diet consumption in women and are prospectively associated with improvement in MetS.
  • Autores: Domínguez-López, I.; Arancibia-Riveros, C.; Marhuenda-Muñoz, M.; et al.
    Revista: FOOD RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL
    ISSN: 0963-9969 Vol.165 2023 págs. 112499
    Resumen
    Background and aims: The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is rich in polyphenols, phytochemicals that are bene-ficial for cardiovascular health. Phenolic compounds have poor bioavailability but they are extensively metab-olized by the gut microbiota. Therefore, we aimed to assess the association of microbial phenolic metabolites (MPM) with adherence to the MedDiet, and their relationship with ideal cardiovascular health (ICVH) and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods and results: This cross-sectional substudy within the PREDIMED trial included 200 participants from the Barcelona-Clinic recruitment center. Five MPM were identified and quantified using a novel method based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry: protocatechuic acid (PCA), enterodiol glucuronide (EDG), enterolactone glucuronide (ELG), vanillic acid glucuronide (VAG) and urolithin B glucuronide (UBG). Multivariable-adjusted regressions were used to evaluate the associations between MPM and MedDiet adherence, ICVH score, biochemical parameters, and blood pressure. Additionally, an MPM score was calculated as the weighted sum of MedDiet adherence and ICVH and found to be directly associated. Among individual poly-phenols, UBG was inversely associated with LDL-cholesterol. Conclusions: A score of urinary MPM was associated with higher adherence to the MedDiet and ICVH, and in-dividual MPM were related to better cardiovascular health. These findings suggest that the MedDiet may affect gut microbiota, whose metabolites are linked with cardiovascular health.
  • Autores: Aguilera-Buenosvinos, I.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Zazpe García, Itzíar; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0899-9007 Vol.109 2023 págs. 111967
    Resumen
    Objectives: Dietary patterns may have a greater influence on human health than individual foods or nutrients, and they are also of substantial interest in the field of breast cancer prevention. Beyond the adequate balance of macronutrients, evidence indicates that the quality of macronutrient sources may play an important role in health outcomes. We sought to examine the relationship between healthful and unhealthful low-fat dietary patterns in relation to breast cancer. Methods: We used observational data from a Mediterranean cohort study (the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra project). We prospectively followed 10 930 middle-aged women initially free of breast cancer during a median follow-up of 12.1 y. We calculated an overall, an unhealthful, and a healthful low-fat diet score, based on a previously validated 136-item food frequency questionnaire and grouped participants into ter -tiles. Incident breast cancer-overall and stratified by menopausal status-was the primary outcome. It was self-reported by participants and confirmed based on medical reports or consultation of the National Death Index. We used multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Results: During 123 297 person-years of follow-up, 150 cases of incident breast cancer were confirmed. No signifi-cant associations were observed for overall or premenopausal breast cancer. For postmenopausal women, we observed a significant association for moderate adherence to the unhealthful low-fat dietary score and postmeno-pausal breast cancer (comparing tertile 2 to tertile 1; hazard ratio = 2.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-4.13). Conclusions: In conclusion, no clear associations were observed, although more research is needed to address the association between an unhealthful dietary pattern and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. (c) 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
  • Autores: Martinez-Steele, E.; Khandpur, N.; Batis, C.; et al.
    Revista: NATURE FOOD
    ISSN: 2662-1355 Vol.4 N° 6 2023 págs. 445 - 448
    Resumen
    The assignment of foods to one of four categories proposed by the Nova framework may be challenging in the absence of information on how these foods were prepared and their specific composition. A three-step iterative approach can make the categorization process more efficient and transparent, thereby increasing the accuracy of Nova estimates.
  • Autores: Arredondo-Montero, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Bardaji-Pascual, C.; Bronte-Anaut, M.; et al.
    Revista: SURGICAL INFECTIONS
    ISSN: 1096-2964 Vol.24 N° 4 2023 págs. 335 - 343
    Resumen
    Background: The literature regarding alterations in the coagulation profile in pediatric acute appendicitis (PAA) is scarce and mainly limited to retrospective studies. Evidence on the diagnostic yield of coagulation parameters is limited to fibrinogen.Patients and Methods: This is a prospective study with 151 patients divided into two groups: patients with nonsurgical abdominal pain (NSAP) in whom the diagnosis of PAA was excluded (n = 53) and patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PAA (n = 98). In 93 patients (62%), a coagulation study was obtained at the time of diagnosis and international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), d-dimer, platelets, mean platelet volume, and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio were analyzed. The PAA group was further classified into complicated (n = 19) and non-complicated PAA (n = 40). Quantitative variables were compared between groups using the Mann-Whitney U test. Diagnostic performance of the coagulation profile was evaluated with the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: Patients with NSAP had lower median levels of INR, fibrinogen and d-dimer than those with PAA. Moreover, patients with complicated PAA had higher median values of INR and fibrinogen. None of the patients needed specific treatment for the correction of coagulopathy. Fibrinogen was the parameter with the highest diagnostic yield for distinguishing between NSAP and PAA (area under the curve [AUC], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65-0.85), as well as between complicated versus non-complicated PAA (AUC, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.57-0.86).Conclusions: This study found a moderate extrinsic pathway coagulopathy in patients with PAA, especially in complicated PAA. Fibrinogen is a parameter with moderate diagnostic yield for the diagnosis of PAA.
  • Autores: Arredondo-Montero, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Antona, G.; Bronte-Anaut, M.; et al.
    Revista: PEDIATRIC SURGERY INTERNATIONAL
    ISSN: 0179-0358 Vol.39 N° 1 2023 págs. 27
    Resumen
    Introduction Pediatric acute appendicitis (PAA) is a pathology with a high rate of diagnostic error. The search for new diagnostic tools is justified by the high morbidity and healthcare costs associated with diagnostic error. Methods We designed a prospective study to validate serum pentraxin-3 (PTX3) as a diagnostic tool in PAA. Participants were divided into three groups: (1) patients with no underlying pathology (2) patients with non-surgical abdominal pain and (3) patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PAA. For further analyses, patients in group 3 were divided into complicated or uncomplicated PAA. Quantitative variables were expressed as medians and interquartile ranges and categorical variables as percentages. Quantitative variables were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U test. Diagnostic performance was evaluated with ROC curves. Results This study included 215 patients divided into group 1 (n = 63), group 2 (n = 53) and group 3 (n = 99). Median serum PTX3 values were 2.54 (1.70-2.95) ng/mL, 3.29 (2.19-7.64) ng/mL and 8.94 (6.16-14.05) in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively (p = 0.001). Patients with complicated PAA showed significantly higher values than patients with uncomplicated PAA (p = 0.04). The AUC (group 2 vs. 3) was 0.77 (95% CI 0.69-0.85) and the best cut-off point was at 7.28 ng/mL, with a sensitivity of 61.3% and a specificity of 73.1%. The AUC (complicated vs. uncomplicated PAA) was 0.65 (95% CI 0.54-0.77) and the best cut-off point was 12.33 ng/mL, with a sensitivity of 51.72% and a specificity of 72.73%. Conclusions The diagnostic ability of serum PTX3 in PAA is only moderate and therefore it cannot be considered a definitive diagnostic test. The discriminatory ability of PTX3 between complicated and uncomplicated PAA is poor. These findings, which contrast with those reported to date, should be validated with future properly designed prospective studies.
  • Autores: Bullon Vela, Maria Vanessa (Autor de correspondencia); Xu, Y.F.; Razquin Burillo, Cristina; et al.
    Revista: FOOD & FUNCTION
    ISSN: 2042-6496 Vol.14 N° 2 2023 págs. 1011 - 1023
    Resumen
    Background: Dietary flavonoid intake is associated with a reduced risk of some cardiometabolic disorders, attributed in part to their claimed anti-inflammatory activity. Our aim was to investigate the potential association between specific urine flavonoid metabolites, liver enzymes, and inflammatory status in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, clinical and dietary data from 267 participants, aged 55 to 75 years, participating in the PREDIMED Plus study (PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea) were analyzed. At the baseline, spot urine samples were collected and seven urinary flavonoid metabolites were quantified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-q-Q MS). Liver enzymes, inflammatory scores, and urinary flavonoid concentrations were inverse normally transformed. Results: Adjusted linear regression models showed an inverse association between urinary citrus flavanone concentrations and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) (all p-values <0.05). Naringenin 7 '-GlcUA was significantly associated with a lower aggregate index of systemic inflammation (AISI) (B-per 1SD = -0.14; 95% CI: -0.27 to -0.02; p-value = 0.025) and systemic inflammation index (SII) (B-per 1SD = -0.14; 95% CI: -0.27 to -0.02; p-value = 0.028). To investigate the relationship between flavanone subclasses and GGT levels, we fitted a score of citrus-flavanones, and subjects were stratified into quartiles. The highest values of the citrus-flavanone score (per 1-SD increase) were associated with lower GGT levels (B-per 1SD = -0.41; 95% CI: -0.74 to -0.07), exhibiting a linear trend across quartiles (p-trend = 0.015). Conclusion: This cross-sectional study showed that higher urinary excretion of citrus-flavanone metabolites was associated with lower GGT levels in subjects diagnosed with MetS and obesity.
  • Autores: Olid, A. O.; Fabios Dusseau, Elise; García-Blanco, L.; et al.
    Revista: PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION
    ISSN: 1368-9800 Vol.27 N° 1 2023 págs. e8 - *
    Resumen
    Objective:To assess whether the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is associated with lower micronutrients inadequacy in a sample of Spanish preschoolers.Design:We conducted a cross-sectional study with 4-5-year-old children participating in the SENDO project. Information was gathered through an online questionnaire completed by parents. Dietary information was collected with a previously validated semi-quantitative FFQ. The estimated average requirements or adequate intake levels as proposed by the Institute of Medicine were used as cut-off point to define inadequate intake.Statistical analyses:Crude and multivariable adjusted estimates were calculated with generalised estimated equations to account for intra-cluster correlation between siblings.Participants:We used baseline information of 1153 participants enrolled in the SENDO project between January 2015 and June 2022.Main outcomes measures:OR and 95 % CI of presenting an inadequate intake of >= 3 micronutrients associated with the MedDiet.Results:The adjusted proportion of children with inadequate intake of >= 3 micronutrients was 27 center dot 2 %, 13 center dot 5 % and 8 center dot 1 % in the categories of low, medium and high adherence to the MedDiet, respectively. After adjusting for all potential confounders, children who had a low adherence to the MedDiet showed a significant lower odds of inadequate intake of >= 3 micronutrients compared to those with a high adherence (OR 9 center dot 85; 95 % CI 3 center dot 33, 29 center dot 09).Conclusion:Lower adherence to the MedDiet is associated with higher odds of nutritional inadequacy.
  • Autores: González-Palacios, S.; Oncina-Cánovas, A.; García-de-la-Hera, M.; et al.
    Revista: ATHEROSCLEROSIS
    ISSN: 0021-9150 Vol.377 2023 págs. 12 - 23
    Resumen
    Background and aims: The association between changes in ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption and car-diometabolic risk (CMR) factors remains understudied. We evaluated the association between changes in UPF consumption over 12 months of follow-up and changes in CMR factors in adults diagnosed with metabolic syndrome.Methods: We analysed data from 5373 adults (aged 55-75 years) participating in the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Diet was evaluated at baseline, 6-and 12-month visits using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and UPF consumption (in grams/day and percentage of total daily dietary intake in grams) was categorized based on NOVA classification. We used mixed-effects linear models with repeated measurements at baseline, 6 and 12 months of follow-up to assess the associations between changes in UPF consumption and changes in CMR factors adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyles variables.Results: In multivariable-adjusted models, when comparing the highest versus the lowest quartile of UPF con-sumption, positive associations were found for several CMR factors: weight (kg, & beta; = 1.09; 95% confidence in-terval 0.91 to 1.26); BMI (kg/m2, & beta; = 0.39; 0.33 to 0.46); waist circumference (cm, & beta; = 1.03; 0.81 to 1.26); diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg, & beta; = 0.67; 0.29 to 1.06); fasting blood glucose (mg/dl, & beta; = 1.66; 0.61 to 2.70); HbA1c (%, & beta; = 0.04; 0.01 to 0.07); triglycerides (mg/dl, & beta; = 6.79; 3.66 to 9.91) and triglycerides and glucose index (& beta; = 0.06; 0.04 to 0.08).Conclusions: Higher UPF consumption was associated with adverse evolution in objectively measured CMR factors after 12 months of follow-up in adults with metabolic syndrome. Further research is needed to explore whether these changes persist for longer periods.
  • Autores: Pérez-Vega, K.A.; Castaner, O.; Sanllorente, A.; et al.
    Revista: MOLECULAR NUTRITION AND FOOD RESEARCH
    ISSN: 1613-4125 Vol.67 N° 1 2023 págs. 2200338
    Resumen
    ScopeSome very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL) properties may render them more pro-atherogenic. We aimed to assess whether a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) or an energy-reduced MedDiet with increased physical activity improves them. Methods and resultsIn a sample of the PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea (PREDIMED) study, a 1-year intervention with MedDiet with extra-virgin olive oil (n = 89) or nuts (MedDiet-Nuts; n = 79) is compared with a low-fat diet (n = 90). In the PREDIMED-Plus study, a 1-year intervention with energy-reduced MedDiet and physical activity (n = 103) is compared with an ad libitum MedDiet (n = 101). VLDL levels of apolipoprotein C-I, C-III, triglycerides, and cholesterol; the apolipoprotein E-/C-I ratio; and VLDL ex-vivo triglyceride transfer are measured. In PREDIMED participants in both MedDiet groups combined, VLDL apolipoprotein C-III levels are nominally reduced (-0.023 SD units, 95% CI -0.44 to -0.014, p = 0.037). VLDL triglyceride transfer is nominally increased in the MedDiet-Nuts group (+0.39 SD units, 95% CI 0.012-0.78, p = 0.045). In PREDIMED-Plus, no inter-group differences are detected. ConclusionsIn older adults at high cardiovascular risk, MedDiet is associated with lower VLDL atherogenicity versus a low-fat diet. No differences are seen after an energy-reduced MedDiet with physical activity.
  • Autores: Toledo Atucha, Estefanía (Autor de correspondencia); Wittenbecher, C.; Razquin Burillo, Cristina; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
    ISSN: 1138-7548 Vol.79 N° 2 2023 págs. 355 - 364
    Resumen
    The potential role of the lipidome in atrial fibrillation (AF) development is still widely unknown. We aimed to assess the association between lipidome profiles of the Prevencion con Dieta Mediterranea (PREDIMED) trial participants and incidence of AF. We conducted a nested case-control study (512 incident centrally adjudicated AF cases and 735 controls matched by age, sex, and center). Baseline plasma lipids were profiled using a Nexera X2 U-HPLC system coupled to an Exactive Plus orbitrap mass spectrometer. We estimated the association between 216 individual lipids and AF using multivariable conditional logistic regression and adjusted the p values for multiple testing. We also examined the joint association of lipid clusters with AF incidence. Hitherto, we estimated the lipidomics network, used machine learning to select important network-clusters and AF-predictive lipid patterns, and summarized the joint association of these lipid patterns weighted scores. Finally, we addressed the possible interaction by the randomized dietary intervention.Forty-one individual lipids were associated with AF at the nominal level (p < 0.05), but no longer after adjustment for multiple-testing. However, the network-based score identified with a robust data-driven lipid network showed a multivariable-adjusted ORper+1SD of 1.32 (95% confidence interval: 1.16-1.51; p < 0.001). The score included PC plasmalogens and PE plasmalogens, palmitoyl-EA, cholesterol, CE 16:0, PC 36:4;O, and TG 53:3. No interaction with the dietary intervention was found. A multilipid score, primarily made up of plasmalogens, was associated with an increased risk of AF. Future studies are needed to get further insights into the lipidome role on AF.Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN35739639.
  • Autores: Domínguez-López, I.; Lozano-Castellón, J.; Vallverdú-Queralt, A.; et al.
    Revista: BIOMEDICINE AND PHARMACOTHERAPY
    ISSN: 0753-3322 Vol.162 2023 págs. 114703
    Resumen
    Background: Phenolic compounds have been associated with protective effects against type-2 diabetes (T2D). We used a metabolomics approach to determine urinary phenolic metabolites associated with T2D and fasting plasma glucose.Methods: This case-control study within the PREDIMED trial included 200 participants at high cardiovascular risk, 102 of whom were diagnosed with T2D. A panel of urinary phenolic compounds were analysed using a novel method based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistics and adjusted logistic regressions were applied to determine the most discriminant compounds and their association with T2D. The relationship between the discriminant phenolic compounds and plasma glucose was assessed using multi - variable linear regressions.Results: A total of 41 phenolic compounds were modeled in the orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis, and after applying adjusted logistic regressions two were selected as discriminant: dihy- drocaffeic acid (OR=0.22 (CI 95 %: 0.09; 0.52) per 1-SD, p-value=0.021) and genistein diglucuronide (OR=0.72 (CI 95%: 0.59; 0.88) per 1-SD, p-value=0.021). Both metabolites were associated with a lower risk of suffering from T2D, but only dihydrocaffeic acid was inversely associated with plasma glucose (beta=-17.12 (95 % CI:-29.92;-4.32) mg/dL per 1-SD, p-value=0.009). Conclusions: A novel method using a metabolomics approach was developed to analyse a panel of urinary phenolic compounds for potential associations with T2D, and two metabolites, dihydrocaffeic acid and genistein diglucuronide, were found to be associated with a lower risk of this condition.
  • Autores: Diaz-Gutierrez, J.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Alonso, A.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
    ISSN: 0939-4753 Vol.33 N° 6 2023 págs. 1144 - 1148
    Resumen
    Background and aims: The American Heart Association proposed 7 ideal cardiovascular health metrics (Life's Simple 7 [LS7]) namely, not smoking, body mass index <25 kg/m2, healthy diet, moderate physical activity & GE;150 min/week, total blood cholesterol <200 mg/dL, blood pressure <120/80 mmHg and fasting blood glucose <100 mg/dL. Our objective was to assess the association between these LS7 metrics and the incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF).Methods and results: A total of 6,479 participants of the PREDIMED study were included. We calculated the participants' baseline LS7 index ranging 0-7 points to categorize them according to their adherence to these LS7 health metrics. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate Hazard Ratios (HR) and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI). After a median followup of 4.8 years, we identified 250 incident cases of AF. After adjusting for potential confounders, adherence to LS7 index was not associated with the incidence of AF (adjusted HR 0.90 [95% CI: health metric individually associated with a lower risk of AF (HR 0.36 [95% CI: 0.16-0.78]).Conclusions: In a high cardiovascular risk Spanish population, adherence to American Heart As-sociation's LS7 metrics was not associated with the risk of incident AF. Clinical Trials number: ISRCTN35739639.& COPY; 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of The Italian Diabetes Society, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • Autores: Amer, F.; López, T.; Gil Conesa, Mario; et al.
    Revista: ARCHIVES OF PUBLIC HEALTH
    ISSN: 0778-7367 Vol.81 N° 1 2023 págs. 213
    Resumen
    BackgroundSARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of COVID-19 identified in December 2019, an acute infectious respiratory disease that can cause persistent neurological and musculoskeletal symptoms such as headache, fatigue, myalgias difficulty concentrating, among others including acute cerebrovascular disease with a prevalence of 1-35%. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 in undergraduate students on their academic performance as an indicator of their intellectual ability and performance in a university that maintained 100% face-to-face teaching during the 2020-2021 academic year.MethodsA total of 7,039 undergraduate students were analyzed in a prospective cohort study at the University of Navarra. A questionnaire including sociodemographic and behavioral questions was sent. PCRs were performed throughout the academic year for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and students' academic results were provided by the academic center, adjusted descriptive and multivariate models were performed to assess the association.ResultsA total of 658 (9.3%) participants were diagnosed with COVID-19, almost 4.0% of them achieved outstanding academic results, while uninfected students did so in 7.3%. SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with a significant decrease in having outstanding academic results (OR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.38-0.86).ConclusionHaving COVID-19 disease, decreased academic performance in undergraduate students. Therefore, it is necessary to prevent infection even in the youngest sections of the population.
  • Autores: García, S.; Bouzas, C.; Mateos, D.; et al.
    Revista: ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
    ISSN: 1476-069X Vol.22 N° 1 2023 págs. 1
    Resumen
    Background Research related to sustainable diets is is highly relevant to provide better understanding of the impact of dietary intake on the health and the environment. Aim To assess the association between the adherence to an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet and the amount of CO2 emitted in an older adult population. Design and population Using a cross-sectional design, the association between the adherence to an energy-reduced Mediterranean Diet (erMedDiet) score and dietary CO2 emissions in 6646 participants was assessed. Methods Food intake and adherence to the erMedDiet was assessed using validated food frequency questionnaire and 17-item Mediterranean questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics were documented. Environmental impact was calculated through greenhouse gas emissions estimations, specifically CO2 emissions of each participant diet per day, using a European database. Participants were distributed in quartiles according to their estimated CO2 emissions expressed in kg/day: Q1 (<= 2.01 kg CO2), Q2 (2.02-2.34 kg CO2), Q3 (2.35-2.79 kg CO2) and Q4 (>= 2.80 kg CO2). Results More men than women induced higher dietary levels of CO2 emissions. Participants reporting higher consumption of vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, whole cereals, preferring white meat, and having less consumption of red meat were mostly emitting less kg of CO2 through diet. Participants with higher adherence to the Mediterranean Diet showed lower odds for dietary CO2 emissions: Q2 (OR 0.87; 95%CI: 0.76-1.00), Q3 (OR 0.69; 95%CI: 0.69-0.79) and Q4 (OR 0.48; 95%CI: 0.42-0.55) vs Q1 (reference). Conclusions The Mediterranean diet can be environmentally protective since the higher the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, the lower total dietary CO2 emissions. Mediterranean Diet index may be used as a pollution level index.
  • Autores: Martín Calvo, Nerea (Autor de correspondencia); Gómez, B.; Díez Goñi, María de las Nieves; et al.
    Revista: CIRUGIA ESPAÑOLA
    ISSN: 0009-739X Vol.101 N° 7 2023 págs. 482 - 489
    Resumen
    Introduction: The acquisition of laparoscopic technique skills in an operating room is conditioned by the expertise of the tutor and the number of training interventions by the trainee. For students and surgeons to use a laparoscopic simulator to train their skills, it must be validated beforehand. Methods: A laparoscopic simulator box was designed, along with 6 interchangeable training games. The simulator was validated by a group of 19 experts, physicians with an experience from at least 100 laparoscopic surgeries, and 20 students of 4th to 6th grades of medical school (non-experts). To evaluate its construct validity, time-to-completion and the number of successfully completed games were assessed. We used 11 and 9-item questionnaires to gather information on content and face validity respectively. In both questionnaires, answers were collected through Likert-type scales, scored from 1 to 5. Results: The group of experts required less time and successfully completed more games than the group of non-experts (p < 0.01). The group of non-experts gave a score ¿4 points on each of the questions regarding the content validity of the tool, however, the experts rated with a significant lower mean score the need for the simulator to learn the surgical technique (3.68 points; p < 0.01). Regarding the face validity, all items were graded with a score ¿4 points except for the question relating to the spatial realism (3.82 points). Conclusion: The laparoscopy simulation box and the games were valid means for training surgeons and medical students to develop the skills required for the laparoscopic technique.
  • Autores: Khoury, N.; Martínez, M. Á. (Autor de correspondencia); Paz-Graniel, I.; et al.
    Revista: ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
    ISSN: 0013-9351 Vol.227 2023 págs. 115697
    Resumen
    Introduction: The principal source of exposure to Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-furans (PCDD/Fs) in humans comes from food intake. PCDD/Fs, are a family of potential endocrine disruptors and have been associated with different chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. However, studies assessing the relationship between dietary exposure to PCDD/Fs and adiposity or obesity status in a middle-aged population are limited.Objective: To assess cross-sectionally and longitudinally the associations between estimated dietary intake (DI) of PCDD/Fs and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and the prevalence/incidence of obesity and abdominal obesity in a middle-aged population.Methods: In 5899 participants aged 55-75 years (48% women) living with overweight/obesity from the PREDIMED-plus cohort, PCDD/Fs DI was estimated using a 143-item validated food-frequency questionnaire, and the levels of food PCDD/F expressed as Toxic Equivalents (TEQ). Consequently, cross-sectional and pro-spective associations between baseline PCDD/Fs DI (in pgTEQ/week) and adiposity or obesity status were assessed at baseline and after 1-year follow-up using multivariable cox, logistic or linear regression models.Results: Compared to participants in the first PCDD/F DI tertile, those in the highest tertile presented a higher BMI (beta-coefficient [confidence interval]) (0.43kg/m2 [0.22; 0.64]; P-trend <0.001), a higher waist circumfer-ence (1.11 cm [0.55; 1.66]; P-trend <0.001), and a higher prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity (1.05 [1.01; 1.09] and 1.02 [1.00; 1.03]; P-trend = 0.09 and 0.027, respectively). In the prospective analysis, par-ticipants in the top PCDD/F DI baseline tertile showed an increase in waist circumference compared with those in the first tertile after 1-year of follow-up (beta-coefficient 0.37 cm [0.06; 0.70]; P-trend = 0.015).Conclusion: Higher DI of PCDD/Fs was positively associated with adiposity parameters and obesity status at baseline and with changes in waist circumference after 1-year of follow-up in subjects living with overweight/ obesity. Further large prospective studies using a different population with longer follow-up periods are war-ranted in the future to strengthen our results.
  • Autores: Arredondo Montero, J. (Autor de correspondencia); López, A. T.; Ilzarbe, G. H.; et al.
    Revista: PEDIATRIC SURGERY INTERNATIONAL
    ISSN: 0179-0358 Vol.39 N° 1 2023 págs. 274
    Resumen
    IntroductionScientific literature regarding the characterization of lymphocyte subpopulations of the cecal appendix is sparse, with few precedents limited to immunohistochemical techniques.MethodsWe conducted a prospective pilot study to characterize lymphocyte subpopulations of the cecal appendix in children. Participants were divided into three groups: (1) patients without histological acute appendiceal inflammation, (2) patients with histological uncomplicated acute appendicitis, and (3) patients with histological complicated acute appendicitis (gangrenous, perforated). A fresh sample of the base of the appendix was taken from all patients and a flow cytometric study was performed. Quantitative variables were compared using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test.ResultsThis study included 57 patients divided into Group 1 (n = 5), Group 2 (n = 37), and Group 3 (n = 15). Median values (IQR) of the percentage of B-lymphocytes were 67.8 [66.8-68.1] in group 1, 61.15 [53.74-66.4] in group 2, and 52.1 [33-62.02] in group 3 (p = 0.02). Median values (IQR) of the percentage of NK-lymphocytes were 0.26 [0.2-0.3] in group 1, 0.55 [0.37-0.66] in group 2, and 0.84 [0.35-1.45] in group 3 (p = 0.008). Median values (IQR) of the percentage of T-lymphocytes were 31.9 [31.7-33.1] in group 1, 37.68 [32.15-45.69] in group 2, and 46.9 [37.03-67] in group 3 (p = 0.02). Pair comparisons of groups 2 and 3 also showed significant differences in the percentage of B lymphocytes (p = 0.03) and NK-lymphocytes (p = 0.02).ConclusionsSignificant differences in lymphocyte subpopulations were identified according to the histologic grade of the cecal appendix. More specifically, a lower percentage of B-lymphocytes and a higher percentage of T- and NK-lymphocytes were observed in cases of acute appendicitis. These findings must be confirmed and their etiopathogenic, diagnostic, and prognostic implications elucidated in future studies with larger sample sizes.
  • Autores: Arredondo Montero, J.; Recreo Baquedano, A. C.; Bronte Anaut, M.; et al.
    Revista: INDIAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY
    ISSN: 0972-2068 Vol.85 N° 2 2023 págs. 433 - 435
    Resumen
    Malignant melanoma is an aggressive neoplasm with a high tendency to metastasize. Gastrointestinal metastases, although described in the literature, are infrequent. We present the case of a 51-year-old male patient with a surficial spreading melanoma stage IIIc with BRAF mutation who presented a gallbladder outgrowth lesion, compatible with a polyp. A significant growth of the lesion was observed in subsequent TC studies and a laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. The anatomopathological study of the specimen confirmed the diagnosis of gallbladder metastasis due to epithelioid and spindle cell malignant melanoma. The presence of a gallbladder lesion in the context of a patient diagnosed with melanoma should establish the diagnostic suspicion of metastasis, and an early extension study and laparoscopic cholecystectomy should be considered. The palliative surgical approach to avoid hepatobiliary symptomatology can be considered.
  • Autores: Arredondo Montero, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Bardaji Pascual, C.; Antona, G.; et al.
    Revista: PEDIATRIC SURGERY INTERNATIONAL
    ISSN: 0179-0358 Vol.39 N° 1 2023 págs. 175
    Resumen
    BackgroundPediatric acute appendicitis (PAA) continues to be a diagnostic challenge today. The diagnostic performance of classical indices is only moderate, especially in pediatric population. This study aimed to define a clinical, radiological and analytical index for the diagnosis of PAA.Materials and methodsThis prospective study included 151 patients divided into two groups: (1) 53 patients with non-surgical abdominal pain (NSAP) and (2) 98 patients with a confirmed PAA. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were compared between groups using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Fisher exact test. To identify the predictors of PAA, we performed a multivariable logistic regression using a forward stepwise analysis and we assigned multiples of integer values to the selected variables. The diagnostic performance of the index was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Intra-cohort calibration was assessed with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. ResultsWe developed the BIDIAP index (BIomarkers for the DIagnosis of Appendicitis in Pediatrics), which included three variables that independently predicted higher odds of PAA: appendiceal caliber (>= 6.9 mm), systemic immune-inflammation index (>= 890) and peritoneal irritation, which scored 4, 3 and 2 points, respectively. Mean (SD) score of the participants was 2.38 (2.06) in group 1 and 7.89 (1.50) in group 2. The area under the ROC was 0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.99). The cut-off point was established at 4 points, resulting in a sensitivity of 98.98% and a specificity of 77.78%.ConclusionsThe BIDIAP index has an exceptional diagnostic performance in PAA. The importance of these results lies in its novelty and in the simplicity of the index. Although external validation will be necessary, initial results look promising.
  • Autores: Bouzas, C.; Pastor, R.; García, S.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN PUBLIC HEALTH
    ISSN: 2296-2565 Vol.11 2023 págs. 1166787
    Resumen
    Background: A major barrier to a healthy diet may be the higher price of healthy foods compared to low-quality foods.Objectives: This study aimed to assess the association between the monetary cost of food and diet quality in Spanish older adults at high risk of cardiovascular disease.Methods: Cross-sectional analysis was carried out in Spanish older adults (n = 6,838; 48.6% female). A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake. Metabolic syndrome severity, adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), adherence to a provegetarian dietary pattern, and dietary inflammatory index were assessed. The economic cost of the foods was obtained from the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food database (2015-2017, the period of time when the participants were recruited). The total cost of diet adjusted per 1,000 kcal was computed.Results: The healthier dietary pattern was associated with a higher cost of the diet. Higher adherence to the MedDiet, anti-inflammatory diet, and the healthy version of the provegetarian dietary pattern were related to higher costs of the diet.Conclusion: Higher diet quality was associated with a higher dietary cost of the diet per 1,000 kcal/day. Food prices can be an important component of interventions and policies aimed at improving people's diets and preventing diet-related chronic diseases.
  • Autores: Razquin Burillo, Cristina; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Toledo Atucha, Estefanía; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
    ISSN: 1422-0067 Vol.24 N° 1 2023 págs. 270
    Resumen
    Effective prevention and risk prediction are important for peripheral artery disease (PAD) due to its poor prognosis and the huge disease burden it produces. Circulating amino acids (AA) and their metabolites may serve as biomarkers of PAD risk, but they have been scarcely investigated. The objective was to prospectively analyze the associations of baseline levels of plasma AA (and their pathways) with subsequent risk of PAD and the potential effect modification by a nutritional intervention with the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). A matched case-control study was nested in the PREDIMED trial, in which participants were randomized to three arms: MedDiet with tree nut supplementation group, MedDiet with extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) supplementation group or control group (low-fat diet). One hundred and sixty-seven PAD cases were matched with 250 controls. Plasma AA was measured with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry at the Broad Institute. Baseline tryptophan, serine and threonine were inversely associated with PAD (ORfor 1 SD increase = 0.78 (0.61-0.99); 0.67 (0.51-0.86) and 0.75 (0.59-0.95), respectively) in a multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression model. The kynurenine/tryptophan ratio was directly associated with PAD (ORfor 1 SD increase = 1.50 (1.14-1.98)). The nutritional intervention with the MedDiet+nuts modified the association between threonine and PAD (p-value interaction = 0.018) compared with the control group. However, subjects allocated to the MedDiet+EVOO group were protected against PAD independently of baseline threonine. Plasma tryptophan, kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, serine and threonine might serve as early biomarkers of future PAD in subjects at a high risk of cardiovascular disease. The MedDiet supplemented with EVOO exerted a protective effect, regardless of baseline levels of threonine.
  • Autores: Cabrera-Suárez, B. M.; Lahortiga Ramos, Francisca; Sayon-Orea, C.; et al.
    Revista: EXPERIMENTAL GERONTOLOGY
    ISSN: 0531-5565 Vol.175 2023 págs. 112149
    Resumen
    Introduction: There is substantial evidence supporting that improving diet quality leads to improved health -related quality of life (HRQoL). Our major aim was to assess the effectiveness of a Mediterranean diet-based nutritional intervention to improve HRQoL in the context of a secondary prevention trial of depression. Secondarily to assess its effectiveness among adults aged 60 or more years.Methods: The PREDIDEP study is a 2-year multicentre, randomized, single-blinded nutritional trial. At baseline and at 1-year and 2-year follow-up, SF-36 health survey questionnaire was collected to evaluate participants' HRQoL (total and specific range for each of the 8 dimensions: 0 to 100 points). Mixed effect linear models were used to assess changes in HRQoL according to adherence to the Mediterranean diet. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03081065.Results: After 2 years of intervention, the Mediterranean Diet intervention group compared to control group (without nutritional intervention, only usual clinical care) showed an improvement in some dimensions of HRQoL such as Mental Health (7.22; 95 % CI = 2.22-12.22) (between-group difference: 6.79; 95 % CI -0.14-13.73, p = 0.055); Vitality (9.51; 95 % CI = 4.00-15.03) (between-group difference: 9.00; 95 % CI 1.75-16.25, p = 0.020); Mental Summary Component (2.83; 95 % CI = 0.55-5.11) (between-group difference: 1.17; 95 % CI = -1.96-4.30, p = 0.462); and General Health (10.70; 95 % CI = 5.58-15.81) (between-group difference: 6.20; 95 % CI = -0.89-13.28, p = 0.086). Similar results were observed for participants aged 60 or more years.Conclusion: The intervention based on Mediterranean diet in patients with previous depression seems to be effective in improving HRQoL, especially the mental dimensions. This effect is also observed among participants aged 60 or more years.
  • Autores: Gonzalez Casanova, I. (Autor de correspondencia); Alonso-Gómez, A. M.; Romaguera, D.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE
    ISSN: 2077-0383 Vol.12 N° 18 2023 págs. 6066
    Resumen
    Evidence supports associations of lifestyle (including diet and physical activity) and weight with cognitive functioning, but the pathways responsible for these associations have not been fully elucidated. Because healthier lifestyles have been associated with better left atrial structure and function, which in turn is associated with better cognitive functioning, we tested the hypothesis that left atrial structure and function is a potential mediator of the association between lifestyle and cognition. We included 476 participants classed as overweight or obese with metabolic syndrome from three centers in Spain. These participants underwent lifestyle assessments and transthoracic echocardiography at baseline and repeated measurements of the Trail Making A test, a measure of executive function, taken at baseline and at the two-year follow-up. We conducted mediation analyses to test if measures of left atrial structure and function mediated associations between adherence to the Mediterranean diet scores, physical activity, and weight at baseline, as well as a two-year change in Trail Making A scores. The analysis did not find an association between these factors and Trail Making A scores, and no indirect effects appeared to be mediated by echocardiographic measurements. The modest sample size in this analysis is a limitation, and larger studies should be conducted to determine potential cardiovascular factors mediating the association between lifestyle and cognition.
  • Autores: Hernández Hernández, Aitor; Oliver, D.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.15 N° 2 2023 págs. 307
    Resumen
    Alcohol drinking patterns may determine the risk of hypertension and may also modify the detrimental effect of high alcohol intake. We prospectively evaluated the effect of the Mediterranean alcohol-drinking pattern and its interaction with the amount of alcohol consumed on the incidence of arterial hypertension. In the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, we followed-up 13,805 participants, all of them initially free of hypertension, during a maximum period of 16 years. Information about diet, chronic diseases, lifestyle and newly diagnosed hypertension was collected using validated questionnaires. We used a 7-item score (0 to 9 points) that jointly considered moderate alcohol consumption, distributed over the week, with meals, and a preference for red wine and avoidance of binge-drinking. During 142,404 person-years of follow-up, 1443 incident cases of hypertension were identified. Low adherence (score < 2) to the Mediterranean alcohol-drinking pattern was significantly associated with a higher incidence of hypertension (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio 1.81, 95% confidence interval 1.09-2.99) as compared to the high-adherence (score > 7) category. Among alcohol consumers, a high adherence to the MADP is associated with a lower incidence of hypertension. Compared with abstinence, a high adherence did not seem to differ regarding its effect on hypertension risk.
  • Autores: GarcÍa, S.; Pastor, R.; Monserrat-Mesquida, M.; et al.
    Revista: GLOBALIZATION AND HEALTH
    ISSN: 1744-8603 Vol.19 N° 1 2023 págs. 50
    Resumen
    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become a growing risk factor of some non-communicable diseases. Increase of greenhouse gas emissions affects the planet. Aims To assess the association between MetS severity and amount of carbon dioxide -(CO2) emitted in an adult population. Design Cross-sectional study (n = 6646; 55-76-year-old-men; 60-75-year-old-women with MetS). Methods Dietary habits were assessed using a pre-validated semi quantitative 143-item food frequency questionnaire. The amount of-CO2 emitted due to the production of food consumed by person and day was calculated using a European database, and the severity of the MetS was calculated with the MetS Severity Score. Results Higher glycaemia levels were found in people with higher -CO2 emissions. The risk of having high severe MetS was related to high -CO2 emissions. Conclusions Low -CO2 emissions diet would help to reduce MetS severity. Advantages for both health and the environment were found following a more sustainable diet.
  • Autores: Donat-Vargas, C. (Autor de correspondencia); López-García, E.; Banegas, J. R.; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0954-3007 Vol.77 N° 2 2023 págs. 226 - 234
    Resumen
    Background Evidence on the association between virgin olive oil (OO) and mortality is limited since no attempt has previously been made to discern about main OO varieties. Objective We examined the association between OO consumption (differentiating by common and virgin varieties) and total as well as cause-specific long-term mortality Methods 12,161 individuals, representative of the Spanish population >= 18 years old, were recruited between 2008 and 2010 and followed up through 2019. Habitual food consumption was collected at baseline with a validated computerized dietary history. The association between tertiles of OO main varieties and all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality were analyzed using Cox models. Results After a mean follow-up of 10.7 years (129,272 person-years), 143 cardiovascular deaths, and 146 cancer deaths occurred. The hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval) for all-cause mortality in the highest tertile of common and virgin OO consumption were 0.96 (0.75-1.23; P-trend 0.891) and 0.66 (0.49-0.90; P-trend 0.040). The HR for all-cause mortality per a 10 g/day increase in virgin OO was 0.91 (0.83-1.00). Virgin OO consumption was also inversely associated with cardiovascular mortality, with a HR of 0.43 (0.20-0.91; P-trend 0.017), but common OO was not, with a HR of 0.88 (0.49-1.60; P-trend 0.242). No variety of OO was associated with cancer mortality. Conclusion Daily moderate consumption of virgin OO (1 and 1/2 tablespoons) was associated with a one-third lower risk of all-cause as well as half the risk of cardiovascular mortality. These effects were not seen for common OO. These findings may be useful to reappraise dietary guidelines.
  • Autores: Wang, F.; Tessier, A. J.; Liang, L.; et al.
    Revista: NATURE COMMUNICATIONS
    ISSN: 2041-1723 Vol.14 N° 1 2023 págs. 5744
    Resumen
    Experimental studies reported biochemical actions underpinning aging processes and mortality, but the relevant metabolic alterations in humans are not well understood. Here we examine the associations of 243 plasma metabolites with mortality and longevity (attaining age 85 years) in 11,634 US (median follow-up of 22.6 years, with 4288 deaths) and 1878 Spanish participants (median follow-up of 14.5 years, with 525 deaths). We find that, higher levels of N2,N2-dimethylguanosine, pseudouridine, N4-acetylcytidine, 4-acetamidobutanoic acid, N1-acetylspermidine, and lipids with fewer double bonds are associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and reduced odds of longevity; whereas L-serine and lipids with more double bonds are associated with lower mortality risk and a higher likelihood of longevity. We further develop a multi-metabolite profile score that is associated with higher mortality risk. Our findings suggest that differences in levels of nucleosides, amino acids, and several lipid subclasses can predict mortality. The underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. The metabolic alterations underpinning aging processes and mortality in humans are not well understood. Here, the authors show that differences in levels of nucleosides, amino acids, and several lipid subclasses can predict mortality and longevity.
  • Autores: Dominguez-Lopez, I.; Casas, R.; Chiva-Blanch, G.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 1532-1983 Vol.42 N° 12 2023 págs. 2562 - 2568
    Resumen
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Vitamin B12 plays a crucial role in cognition, but its effect might be regulated by the presence of other micronutrients, such as folate. The aim was to evaluate the effects of vitamin B12 on cognitive performance according to adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and whether the Mediterranean dietalso results in increased folate or vitamin B12 levels.METHODS: This is a cohort study nested in a randomized controlled clinical trial performed in Hospital Clinic in Barcelona, Spain. A total of 170 participants of the PREDIMED trial (Barcelona - Hospital Clinic site) aged 55-80 years at high cardiovascular risk were included. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using a validated 14-item questionnaire, memory function was evaluated with a battery of neuropsychological tests and serum vitamin B12 and folate were determined using an automated electrochemiluminiscence immunoassay system.RESULTS: In the multivariable adjusted linear regression model, serum vitamin B12 concentration presented a significant correlation with memory function (r2=0.57; P=0.028) in participants with high adherence to the Mediterranean diet whereas the correlation was weak and inverse for those who presented a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet (r2=0.37, P=0.731). Mediterranean diet adherence showed a positive association with serum folate, but not with serum vitamin B12.CONCLUSIONS: In an older Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk, changes in serum vitamin B12 correlate with better memory function only in the context of a high adherence to the Mediterranean pattern, suggesting that the effects of vitamin B12 goes further than a mere nutritional requirement.INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD STATEMENT: The study was conducted according to the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the 11 participating centres. The study was registered with the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) 35739639 (https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN35739639).
  • Autores: López-Gil, J. F. (Autor de correspondencia); García-Hermoso, A.; Smith, L.; et al.
    Revista: CHILDREN
    ISSN: 2227-9067 Vol.10 N° 4 2023 págs. 738
    Resumen
    Objective: The aim of this paper is to describe the protocol of pilot cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) that will evaluate the effects of a lifestyle-based intervention. The Archena Infancia Saludable project will have several objectives. The primary objective of this project is to determine the 6-month effects of a lifestyle-based intervention on adherence to 24-h movement behaviors and Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) in schoolchildren. The secondary objective of this project is to test the intervention effects of this lifestyle-based intervention on a relevant set of health-related outcomes (i.e., anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, perceived physical fitness, sleep habits, and academic performance). The tertiary objective is to investigate this intervention's halo effect on parents'/guardians' 24-h movement behaviors and adherence to the MedDiet. Methods: The Archena Infancia Saludable trial will be a cluster RCT submitted to the Clinical Trials Registry. The protocol will be developed according to SPIRIT guidelines for RCTs and CONSORT statement extension for cluster RCTs. A total of 153 eligible parents/guardians with schoolchildren aged 6-13 years will be randomized into an intervention group or a control group. This project focuses on two fundamental pillars: 24-h movement behaviors and MedDiet. It will mainly focus on the relationship between parents/guardians and their children. Behavior change strategies for dietary and 24-h movement behaviors in schoolchildren will be based on healthy lifestyle education for parents/guardians through infographics, video recipes, brief video clips, and videos. Conclusions: Most of the current knowledge on 24-h movement behaviors and adherence to the MedDiet is based on cross-sectional or longitudinal cohort studies, warranting a need to design and conduct RCTs to obtain more robust evidence on the effect of a healthy lifestyle program to increase 24-h movement behaviors and to improve adherence to the MedDiet in schoolchildren.
  • Autores: Gayoso, L.; Goñi Mateos, Leticia; De la O Pascual, Víctor; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GASTRONOMY AND FOOD SCIENCE
    ISSN: 1878-450X Vol.32 2023 págs. 100721
    Resumen
    An inverse association has been shown between healthy dietary habits and the risk of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). However, there is a limited knowledge on the benefits that a culinary and nutritional training may have in patients with T2D. The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of a culinary intervention on health parameters and dietary-culinary habits among T2D patients. Fifty-three volunteers with T2D were randomly (1:1) assigned to an intensive culinary intervention group (CIG) or a nutritional intervention group (NIG). The CIG received 8 online cooking lessons and the NIG received written material with nutritional information to follow the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet). Anthropometric parameters, biochemical determinations, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and dietary-culinary related questionnaires were collected at baseline and after 3month follow-up. At 1-year follow-up, self-reported anthropometric measurements and dietary-culinary related questionnaires were collected by telephone. Fifty-one volunteers completed the intervention. No statistically significant differences were observed between groups for changes on MedDiet adherence, anthropometry, biochemical determinations, and AGEs. A significant increase in blood glucose (p = 0.017) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (p = 0.024) levels was observed in the NIG after the 3-month follow-up period. Participants from the CIG showed a significant reduction in the C reactive protein (p = 0.007) and a significant increase in total cholesterol (p = 0.001), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.001) and LDL-c levels (p = 0.001) after 3 months. The CIG also showed a significant reduction in weight (p = 0.008, p = 0.002), body mass index (p = 0.007, p = 0.001), and waist circumference (p = 0.047, p = 0.004) after 3-month and 1-year followup, respectively. Participants from the CIG increased the use of boiling, compared to participants from the NIG (p = 0.034). Likewise, when analysing the CIG only, a significant increase in the use of steaming (p = 0.015) and in the consumption of raw vegetables (p = 0.039) was found after 3-month follow-up, but these changes were not maintained after 1-year follow-up. These findings suggest that a culinary intervention based on MedDiet is a promising approach to promote healthy dietary-culinary habits in patients with T2D. To explore the potential effect of this culinary programme on glycemic parameters, larger randomized controlled trials would be necessary.
  • Autores: Fabios Dusseau, Elise; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel (Autor de correspondencia); García Blanco, Lorena; et al.
    Revista: CHILDREN
    ISSN: 2227-9067 Vol.10 N° 10 2023 págs. 1711
    Resumen
    Suboptimal micronutrient intake in children remains a public health concern around the world. This study examined the relationship between a previously defined dietary carbohydrate quality index (CQI) and the risk of micronutrient intake inadequacy in a pediatric cohort of Spanish preschoolers. Children aged 4-5 years old were recruited at their medical center or at school, and information on sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle variables were collected through a self-administered online questionnaire. Dietary information was obtained from a validated 147-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. We calculated the CQI and categorized participants into quartiles according to their scores. We assessed the intakes of 20 micronutrients and evaluated the probability of intake inadequacy by using the estimated average requirement cut-off point. Generalized estimating equations were used to adjust for potential confounders and account for the intra-cluster correlations between siblings. The adjusted proportions of children with an inadequate intake of >= three micronutrients were 23%, 12%, 11%, and 9% in the first, second, third, and fourth quartiles of the CQI, respectively. Children in the highest quartile of the CQI had 0.22-fold lower odds (95% CI 0.10-0.48) of having >= three inadequate micronutrient intakes than their peers in the lowest quartile. These findings reinforce the relevance of carbohydrate quality in children's diets.
  • Autores: Valle-Hita, C.; Díaz-López, A.; Becerra-Tomás, N.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 1532-1983 Vol.42 N° 12 2023 págs. 2302 - 2310
    Resumen
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption has increased dramatically over the last decades worldwide. Although it has been linked to some cardiometabolic comorbidities, there is limited evidence regarding kidney function. This study aimed to cross-sectionally and longitudinally assess the association between UPF consumption and estimated-glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) based on Cystatin C (CysC).METHODS: Older adults (mean age 65±5.0 years, 46% women) with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) who had available data of CysC at baseline (n=1909), at one-year and at 3-years of follow-up (n=1700) were analyzed. Food consumption was assessed using a validated 143-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and UPF consumption (% of g/d) at baseline and changes after one-year of follow-up were estimated according to NOVA classification system. Multivariable-adjusted linear and logistic regression models were performed to evaluate the cross-sectional associations between UPF consumption with eGFR levels and decreased kidney function (eGFR <60ml/min/1.73m2) at baseline. Multivariable-adjusted mixed-effects linear regression models were fitted to investigate the associations between one-year changes in UPF and eGFR over 3-years of follow-up.RESULTS: Individuals with the highest baseline UPF consumption showed lower eGFR (beta:-3.39ml/min/1.73m2; 95% CI:-5.59 to-1.20) and higher odds of decreased kidney function (OR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.21 to 2.22) at baseline, compared to individuals in the lowest tertile. Participants in the highest tertile of one-year changes in UPF consumption presented a significant decrease in eGFR after one-year of follow-up (beta:-1.45ml/min/1.73m2; 95% CI:-2.90 to-0.01) as well as after 3-years of follow-up (beta:-2.18ml/min/1.73m2; 95% CI:-3.71 to-0.65) compared to those in the reference category.CONCLUSIONS: In a Mediterranean population of older adults with overweight/obesity and MetS, higher UPF consumption at baseline and one-year changes towards higher consumption of UPF were associated with worse kidney function at baseline and over 3-years of follow-up, respectively.CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NUMBER: ISRCTN89898870.
  • Autores: Corbi-Cobo-Losey, M. J.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Gribble, A. K.; et al.
    Revista: ANTIOXIDANTS
    ISSN: 2076-3921 Vol.12 N° 3 2023 págs. 686
    Resumen
    (1) Background: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) affects over a third of the United States population, and has similar prevalence in Europe. Dietary approaches to prevention are important. Coffee consumption has been inversely associated with mortality and chronic disease; however, its relation to the risk of MetS is unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between coffee consumption and incident MetS in the 'Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra' cohort. (2) Methods: From the SUN project, we included 10,253 participants initially free of MetS. Coffee consumption was assessed at baseline, and the development of MetS was assessed after 6 years of follow-up. All data were self-reported by participants. MetS was defined according to the Harmonizing Definition. We used multivariable logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for incident MetS according to four categories of coffee consumption: <1 cup/month; >= 1 cup/month to <1 cup/day; >= 1 cup/day to <4 cups/day; >= 4 cups/day. (3) Results: 398 participants developed MetS. Coffee consumption of >= 1 to <4 cups/day was associated with significantly lower odds of developing MetS (multivariable adjusted OR = 0.71, 95% CI (0.50-0.99)) as compared to consumption of <1 cup/month. (4) Conclusions: In a Mediterranean cohort, moderate coffee consumption may be associated with a lower risk of MetS.
  • Autores: Romanos-Nanclares, A. (Autor de correspondencia); Guasch-Ferré, M.; Willett, W. C.; et al.
    Revista: BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER
    ISSN: 0007-0920 Vol.129 N° 3 2023 págs. 416 - 425
    Resumen
    BackgroundOlive oil consumption may reduce breast cancer risk, but it is unclear whether olive oil is beneficial for breast cancer prevention in populations outside of Mediterranean regions, namely in the U.S., where the average consumption of olive oil is low compared with Mediterranean populations. We examined whether olive oil intake was associated with breast cancer risk in two prospective cohorts of U.S. women.MethodsWe used multivariable-adjusted time-varying Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for breast cancer among 71,330 (Nurses' Health Study, 1990-2016) and 93,295 women (Nurses' Health Study II, 1991-2017) who were free of cancer at baseline. Diet was assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire every 4 years.ResultsDuring 3,744,068 person-years of follow-up, 9,638 women developed invasive breast cancer. The multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) for breast cancer among women who had the highest consumption of olive oil (>1/2 tablespoon/d or >7 g/d) compared with those who never or rarely consumed olive oil, was 1.01 (0.93, 1.09). Higher olive oil consumption was not associated with any subtype of breast cancer.ConclusionWe did not observe an association between higher olive oil intake and breast cancer risk in two large prospective cohorts of U.S. women, whose average olive oil consumption was low. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings and to further investigate whether different varieties of olive oil (e.g., virgin and extra virgin olive oil) may play a role in breast cancer risk.
  • Autores: Cano-Ibanez, N. (Autor de correspondencia); Serra-Majem, L.; Martin-Pelaez, S.; et al.
    Revista: PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION
    ISSN: 1368-9800 Vol.26 N° 3 2023 págs. 598 - 610
    Resumen
    Objective: To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal (2-year follow-up) associations between dietary diversity (DD) and depressive symptoms. Design: An energy-adjusted dietary diversity score (DDS) was assessed using a validated FFQ and was categorised into quartiles (Q). The variety in each food group was classified into four categories of diversity (C). Depressive symptoms were assessed with Beck Depression Inventory-II (Beck II) questionnaire and depression cases defined as physician-diagnosed or Beck II >= 18. Linear and logistic regression models were used. Setting: Spanish older adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Participants: A total of 6625 adults aged 55-75 years from the PREDIMED-Plus study with overweight or obesity and MetS. Results: Total DDS was inversely and statistically significantly associated with depression in the cross-sectional analysis conducted; OR Q4 v. Q1 = 0 center dot 76 (95 % CI (0 center dot 64, 0 center dot 90)). This was driven by high diversity compared to low diversity (C3 v. C1) of vegetables (OR = 0 center dot 75, 95 % CI (0 center dot 57, 0 center dot 93)), cereals (OR = 0 center dot 72 (95 % CI (0 center dot 56, 0 center dot 94)) and proteins (OR = 0 center dot 27, 95 % CI (0 center dot 11, 0 center dot 62)). In the longitudinal analysis, there was no significant association between the baseline DDS and changes in depressive symptoms after 2 years of follow-up, except for DD in vegetables C4 v. C1 = (beta = 0 center dot 70, 95 % CI (0 center dot 05, 1 center dot 35)). Conclusions: According to our results, DD is inversely associated with depressive symptoms, but eating more diverse does not seem to reduce the risk of future depression. Additional longitudinal studies (with longer follow-up) are needed to confirm these findings.
  • Autores: Vázquez Ruiz, Zenaida; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Vitelli-Storelli, F.; et al.
    Revista: ANTIOXIDANTS
    ISSN: 2076-3921 Vol.12 N° 2 2023 págs. 507
    Resumen
    The global incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been steadily increasing in recent decades. The Mediterranean dietary pattern has shown a preventive effect on the risk of T2D. Evaluating the association between bioactive compounds such as phenolic compounds (PC) in a Mediterranean cohort could help to better understand the mechanisms implicated in this protection. We evaluated the association between dietary intake of PC and the risk of T2D in a relatively young cohort of 17,821 Spanish participants initially free of T2D, through the University of Navarra Follow-up Project (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra or SUN cohort) after 10 years of median follow-up using time-dependent Cox models. Intake of PC was estimated at baseline and repeatedly at 10-year follow-up using a 136-item validated food frequency and the Phenol-Explorer database. The incidence of T2D was identified by a biennial follow-up, and only medically confirmed cases were included. During 224,751 person-years of follow-up, 186 cases of T2D were confirmed. A suboptimal intake of stilbenes was independently associated with a higher risk of T2D in subjects over 50 years (HR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.06-2.90, p value < 0.05) after adjusting for potential confounders. Our results suggest that a moderate-high intake of stilbenes can decrease the risk of developing T2D in subjects over 50 years in our cohort.
  • Autores: García-Blanco, L.; de la O, V.; Santiago Neri, Susana; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS
    ISSN: 0340-6199 Vol.182 N° 8 2023 págs. 3537 - 3547
    Resumen
    Due to its rising prevalence, which parallels that of ultraprocessed food (UPF) consumption, inadequate micronutrient intake in childhood is a public health concern. This study aimed to evaluate the association between UPF consumption and inadequate intake of 20 micronutrients in a sample of children from the Mediterranean area. Cross-sectional information from participants in the "Seguimiento del Niño para un Desarrollo Óptimo" (SENDO) project 2015-2021 was used. Dietary information was gathered with a previously validated 147-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and the NOVA system was used to classify food items. Children were classified by tertiles of energy intake from UPF. Twenty micronutrients were evaluated, and inadequate intake was defined using the estimated average requirement as a cutoff. Crude and multivariable adjusted OR (95% CI) for the inadequacy of ¿ 3 micronutrients associated with UPF consumption were calculated fitting hierarchical models to take into account intra-cluster correlation between siblings. Analyses were adjusted for individual and family confounders. This study included 806 participants (51% boys) with a mean age of 5 years old (SD: 0.90) and an average energy intake from UPF of 37.64% (SD: 9.59). An inverse association between UPF consumption and the intake of 15 out of the 20 micronutrients evaluated was found (p < 0.01). After the adjustment for individual and family confounders, compared with children in the first tertile of UPF consumption, those in the third tertile showed higher odds of inadequate intake of ¿ 3 micronutrients (OR 2.57; 95%CI [1.51-4.40]). Conclusion: High UPF consumption is associated with increased odds of inadequate intake of micronutrients in childhood. What is Known: ¿ Micronutrient deficiency is among the 20 most important risk factors for disease and affect around two billion people worldwide. ¿ UPF are rich in total fat, carbohydrates and added sugar, but poor in vitamins and minerals. What is New: ¿ Compared with children in the 1st tertile of UPF consumption, those in the 3rd tertile had 2.57 times higher odds (95% CI: 1.51-4.40) of inadequate intake of ¿ 3 micronutrients after adjusting for potential confounders. ¿ The adjusted proportions of children with inadequate intake of ¿ 3 micronutrients were 23%, 27% and 35% in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd tertiles of UPF consumption respectively.
  • Autores: Henn, Matthias Christoph (Autor de correspondencia); Babio, N.; Romaguera, D.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0261-5614 Vol.42 N° 4 2023 págs. 477 - 485
    Resumen
    Background & aims: Higher consumption of coffee and caffeine has been linked to less weight gain and lower body mass index in prospective cohort studies. The aim of the study was to longitudinally assess the association of changes in coffee and caffeine intake with changes in fat tissue, in particular, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Methods: In the setting of a large, randomized trial of Mediterranean diet and physical activity intervention, we evaluated 1483 participants with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Repeated measurements of coffee consumption from validated food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) and DXA measurements of adipose tissue were collected at baseline, 6 months, 12 months and 3 years of follow-up. DXA-derived measurements of total and regional adipose tissue expressed as % of total body weight were transformed into sex-specific z-scores. Linear multilevel mixed-effect models were used to investigate the relationship between changes in coffee consumption and corresponding concurrent changes in fat tissue during a 3-year follow-up. Results: After adjustment for intervention group, and other potential confounders, an increase in caffeinated coffee consumption from no or infrequent consumption (¿3 cups/month) to moderate consumption (1-7 cups/week) was associated with reductions in total body fat (¿ z-score: -0.06; 95% CI: -0.11 to -0.02), trunk fat (¿ z-score: -0.07; 95% CI: -0.12 to -0.02), and VAT (¿ z-score: -0.07; 95% CI: -0.13 to -0.01). Neither changes from no or infrequent consumption to high levels of caffeinated coffee consumption (>1 cup/day) nor any changes in decaffeinated coffee consumption showed significant associations with changes in DXA measures. Conclusions: Moderate changes in the consumption of caffeinated coffee, but not changes to high consumption, were associated with reductions in total body fat, trunk fat and VAT in a Mediterranean cohort with MetS. Decaffeinated coffee was not linked to adiposity indicators. Moderate consumption of caffeinated coffee may be part of a weight management strategy. Trial registration: The trial was registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial (ISRCTN: http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN89898870) with number 89898870 and registration date of 24 July 2014, retrospectively registered.
  • Autores: Oliver Olid, Asier; de la O, V.; Bueso, O. E.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF THE ACADEMY OF NUTRITION AND DIETETICS
    ISSN: 2212-2672 Vol.123 N° 11 2023 págs. 1555 - 1567
    Resumen
    Background Breastfeeding has been linked to a higher consumption of fruit and veg-etables at ages 4 to 5 years. More recently, it has been suggested that it may also be associated with lower ultraprocessed food (UPF) consumption in childhood.Objective The aim of this study was to assess whether breastfeeding duration was associated with consumption of UPF in a sample of Mediterranean preschoolers.Design This study involved a cross-sectional analysis of baseline information of chil-dren in the Child Follow-Up for Optimal Development cohort. Children were enrolled at ages 4 to 5 years and information was gathered through an online questionnaire completed by parents. Dietary information was collected with a previously validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and foods were classified based on the degree of processing according to the NOVA classification.Participants/setting This study used baseline information for 806 participants enrolled in the Child Follow-Up for Optimal Development cohort between January 2015 and June 2021 in Spain. Main outcomes measures Main study outcome measures were difference in grams per day and in the percentage of total energy intake from UPF consumption related to breastfeeding duration, and odds ratio that UPF represents a high percentage of total energy intake.Statistical analyses Crude and multivariable adjusted estimates were calculated with generalized estimating equations to account for intracluster correlation between siblings.Results The prevalence of breastfeeding in the sample was 84%. After adjusting for potential confounders, children who were breastfed for some time reported signifi-cantly lower consumption of UPF than children who were not breastfed at all. The mean differences were-19.2 g (95% CI-44.2 to 10.8) for children who were breastfed for <6 months,-42.5 g (95% CI-77.2 to-7.80) for those who were breastfed for 6 to 12 months, and-43.6 g (95% CI-79.8 to-7.48) for those who were breastfed for 12 months or more (P value for trend = 0.01). After adjusting for potential confounders, compared with children who were not breastfed, those who were breastfed for >12 months had consistently lower odds of UPF representing more than 25%, 30%, 35%, and 40% of total energy intake.Conclusions Breastfeeding is associated with lower consumption of UPF in Spanish preschoolers.
  • Autores: Rios, S.; Garcia-Gavilan, J. F.; Babio, N.; et al.
    Revista: CARDIOVASCULAR DIABETOLOGY
    ISSN: 1475-2840 Vol.22 N° 1 2023 págs. 252
    Resumen
    Background A healthy lifestyle (HL) has been inversely related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, few studies have identified a metabolite profile associated with HL. The present study aims to identify a metabolite profile of a HL score and assess its association with the incidence of T2D and CVD in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Methods In a subset of 1833 participants (age 55-80y) of the PREDIMED study, we estimated adherence to a HL using a composite score based on the 2018 Word Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations. Plasma metabolites were analyzed using LC-MS/MS methods at baseline (discovery sample) and 1-year of follow-up (validation sample). Cross-sectional associations between 385 known metabolites and the HL score were assessed using elastic net regression. A 10-cross-validation procedure was used, and correlation coefficients or AUC were assessed between the identified metabolite profiles and the self-reported HL score. We estimated the associations between the identified metabolite profiles and T2D and CVD using multivariable Cox regression models. Results The metabolite profiles that identified HL as a dichotomous or continuous variable included 24 and 58 metabolites, respectively. These are amino acids or derivatives, lipids, and energy intermediates or xenobiotic compounds. After adjustment for potential confounders, baseline metabolite profiles were associated with a lower risk of T2D (hazard ratio [HR] and 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.54, 0.38-0.77 for dichotomous HL, and 0.22, 0.11-0.43 for continuous HL). Similar results were observed with CVD (HR, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.42-0.83 for dichotomous HF and HR, 95%CI: 0.58, 0.31-1.07 for continuous HL). The reduction in the risk of T2D and CVD was maintained or attenuated, respectively, for the 1-year metabolomic profile. Conclusions In an elderly population at high risk of CVD, a set of metabolites was selected as potential metabolites associated with the HL pattern predicting the risk of T2D and, to a lesser extent, CVD. These results support previous findings that some of these metabolites are inversely associated with the risk of T2D and CVD.
  • Autores: Barbería Latasa, María; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel (Autor de correspondencia); de la Fuente Arrillaga, María del Carmen; et al.
    Revista: EXPERIMENTAL GERONTOLOGY
    ISSN: 0531-5565 Vol.172 2023 págs. 112048
    Resumen
    Several studies have tried to analyse the association between all-cause mortality and different risk factors, (especially those which are modifiable, such as smoking, diet or exercise), to develop public health preventive strategies. However, a specific analysis of predictors of premature and late mortality is needed to give more precise recommendations. Considering that there are risk factors which exert an influence on some diseases and not on others, we expect that, similarly, they may have a different impact depending on the timing of mortality, separating premature (<65 years) from late mortality (>65 years). Thus, we prospectively followed-up during a median of 12 years a cohort of 20,272 university graduates comprising an ample range of ages at inception. Time-dependent, covariate-adjusted Cox models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and their 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for each predictor. The strongest independent predictor of mortality at any age was physical activity which was associated with reduced risk of total, premature and late mortality (range of HRs when comparing the highest vs. the lowest level: 0.24 to 0.48). Specific strong predictors for premature mortality were smoking, HR: 4.22 (95 % CI: 2.42-7.38), and the concurrence of >2 metabolic conditions at baseline, HR: 1.97 (1.10-3.51). The habit of sleeping a long nap (>30 min/d), with HR: 2.53 (1.30-4.91), and poor adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (<3 points in a 0 to 8 score vs. >6 points), with HR: 2.27 (1.08-4.76), were the strongest specific predictors for late mortality. Smoking, diet quality or lifestyles, probably should be differen-tially assessed as specific predictors for early and late mortality. In the era of precision medicine, this approach will allow tailored recommendations appropriate to each person's age and baseline condition.
  • Autores: Ramos La Cuey, B.; Saloni-Gomez, N.; Ilundain Lopez de Munain, A.; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS
    ISSN: 0340-6199 Vol.182 N° 9 2023 págs. 4227 - 4236
    Resumen
    Since COVID-19 pandemic started, many changes have been seen in the cycling patterns of pediatric pathologies. On year 2020, we described the initial effects of COVID-19, with a significant decrease in emergency visits and admissions, but 2 years later the situation seems to be reversed. Our study bridges a literature gap by exploring the lasting effects of COVID-19 on pediatric non-COVID admissions, particularly the resurgence of respiratory illnesses. ECIEN-2022 is a single-center, retrospective, observational-study conducted 3 years after the pandemic onset, to describe the long-term effects of COVID-19 in pediatric admissions for non-COVID diseases. Admissions during year 2022 were compared with the Pre-Pandemic Period (PPP: 2015-2019). Pediatric Emergency Department (P-ED) visits, hospital, and Intensive Care Unit (P-ICU) admissions were compared across pre- and post-pandemic periods. Monthly distribution and year-waves are presented. P-ED monthly visits (mean and Standard deviation (SD) raised from 3521 (533) in the PPP to 3775 (996) in 2022 (p < 0.001). Monthly hospital admissions in the 3rd quarter of the Pre-Pandemic Period were 111.7/month (SD:29), dropped to 88.5(SD:6.5) in 2020 and raised to 149(SD:38.8) in 2022 (p = 0.036). An increase in respiratory illnesses was observed in 2022 compared to PPP; Bronchiolitis increased 38%, bronchitis 56%, and admissions for Respiratory Syncytial Virus 67%. Conclusion: COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the use and nature of pediatric health services. The initial decrease has been followed by a boomerang effect with an increase of cases, mainly due to an increase in respiratory infections when pandemic control measures and social restrictions have been lifted. It is essential to maintain an active surveillance and monitorization of these patterns to ensure appropriate healthcare access and utilization. What is Known: ¿ COVID-19 pandemic initially led to a significant decrease in emergency visits and admissions for non-COVID diseases. What is New: ¿ ECIEN-2022 study investigated the long-term effects of COVID-19 on pediatric admissions for non-COVID diseases, detecting a "boomerang effect" with an increase in pediatric admissions for non-COVID diseases in year 2022. ¿ Pediatric Emergency Department visits and hospital admissions for non-COVID diseases, especially those due to respiratory infections, increased significantly in 2022 when compared to the Pre-Pandemic Period.
  • Autores: Garcia, S.; Pastor, R.; Monserrat-Mesquida, M.; et al.
    Revista: SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT
    ISSN: 0048-9697 Vol.891 2023 págs. 164417
    Resumen
    Background: Dietary patterns can produce an environmental impact. Changes in people's diet, such as the increased consumption of ultra-processed food (UPF) can not only influence human health but also environment sustainability. Objectives: Assessment of the impact of 2-year changes in UPF consumption on greenhouse gas emissions and water, energy and land use. Design: A 2-year longitudinal study after a dietary intervention including 5879 participants from a Southern European population between the ages of 55-75 years with metabolic syndrome. Methods: Food intake was assessed using a validated 143-item food frequency questionnaire, which allowed classifying foods according to the NOVA system. In addition, sociodemographic data, Mediterranean diet adherence, and physical activity were obtained from validated questionnaires. Greenhouse gas emissions, water, energy and land use were cal-culated by means of the Agribalyse & REG; 3.0.1 database of environmental impact indicators for food items. Changes in UPF consumption during a 2-year period were analyzed. Statistical analyses were conducted using computed General Lin-ear Models. Results: Participants with major reductions in their UPF consumption reduced their impact by -0.6 kg of CO2eq and -5.3 MJ of energy. Water use was the only factor that increased as the percentage of UPF was reduced. Conclusions: Low consumption of ultra-processed foods may contribute to environmental sustainability. The processing level of the consumed food should be considered not only for nutritional advice on health but also for environmental protection. Trial registration: ISRCTN, ISRCTN89898870. Registered 05 September 2013, http://www.isrctn.com/ ISRCTN89898870.
  • Autores: De la O Pascual, Víctor; Zazpe García, Itzíar (Autor de correspondencia); de la Fuente Arrillaga, María del Carmen; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN: 1436-6207 Vol.62 2023 págs. 419 - 432
    Resumen
    Purpose There is no evidence of a dietary index that measures not only the quantity but also the quality of protein. The aim is to investigate the association between a new dietary protein quality index (PQI) and micronutrient intake adequacy in a Mediterranean cohort. Design We assessed 17,535 participants' diet at baseline using a semi-quantitative FFQ. The PQI was calculated according to the ratio of protein (g/d) sources: [fish, seafood, lean meat, pulses, eggs, nuts, low-fat dairy, and whole grains]/[red and ultra-processed meats, whole-fat or semi-skimmed dairy, potatoes and refined grains]. Participants were classified into quintiles of PQI. We evaluated the intakes of Fe, Cr, I, K, Mg, Ca, P, Na, Se, Zn and vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, C, E and folic acid. Micronutrient adequacy was evaluated using DRIs. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the micronutrient adequacy according to quintiles of PQI. Results In this cross-sectional analysis, a total of 24.2% and 4.3% participants did not to meet DRIs in >= 4 and >= 8 micronutrients, respectively. The odds of failing to meet >= 4 and >= 8 DRI were lower in participants in the highest quintile of protein quality (OR = 0.22; IC 95% = 0.18, 0.26; P-trend < 0.001; and OR = 0.08; IC 95% = 0.05, 0.14; P-trend < 0.001, respectively) as compared to participants in the lowest quintile. Conclusion Higher PQI was found to be strongly associated with better micronutrient intake adequacy in this Mediterranean cohort. The promotion of high-quality protein intake may be helpful for a more adequate intake of micronutrients. The odds of failing to meet certain numbers of DRIs were lower rather than saying lower risk.
  • Autores: Fernández-González, E.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Bes Rastrollo, Maira; et al.
    Revista: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0007-1145 Vol.129 2023 págs. 704 - 714
    Resumen
    The aim of the study was to investigate the association between pre-gestational carbohydrate quality index (CQI) and the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Data from the 'Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra' (SUN) cohort were used, which includes 3827 women who notified at least one pregnancy between December 1999 and December 2019. We used a validated semi-quantitative 136-item FFQ to evaluate dietary exposures at baseline and at 10-year follow-up. The CQI was defined by four criteria: glycaemic index, whole-grain/total-grain carbohydrate, dietary fibre intake and solid/total carbohydrate ratio. We fitted generalised estimating equations with repeated measurements of the CQI to assess its relationship with incident GDM. A total of 6869 pregnancies and 202 new cases of incident GDM were identified. The inverse association between the global quality of carbohydrate and the development of GDM was not statistically significant: OR the highest v. the lowest CQI category: 0 center dot 67, 95 % CI (0 center dot 40, 1 center dot 10), P-for trend = 0 center dot 10. Participants at the highest CQI category and with daily carbohydrate amounts >= 50 % of total energy intake had the lowest incidence of GDM (OR = 0 center dot 29 (95 % CI (0 center dot 09, 0 center dot 89)) compared with those with the lowest quality (lowest CQI) and quantity (<= 40 %). Further studies are needed to overcome the limitations of our study. Those studies should jointly consider the quality and the quantity of dietary carbohydrates, as the quality might be of importance, especially in women with a higher intake of carbohydrates.
  • Autores: Munoz-Bravo, C. (Autor de correspondencia); Olmedo, P.; Gil, F.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
    ISSN: 0939-4753 Vol.33 N° 11 2023 págs. 2199 - 2208
    Resumen
    Background and aim: Certain trace elements have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between serum copper (S -Cu) levels and the risk of a first event of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a population of older adults with high cardiovascular risk. Methods and results: We conducted a case-control study nested within the PREDIMED trial. During a median follow-up of 4.8 years, a total of 207 incident cases diagnosed with CVD were matched for sex, age, and intervention group with 436 controls. Personal interviews, reviews of medical records, and validated questionnaires were used to assess known CVD risk factors. Biological serum samples were collected annually. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis was used to determine S-Cu levels. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated using multivariate conditional logistic regression models. All participants had S-Cu levels within the reference values, 750 mg/L to 1450 mg/L. Among men, but not among women, the mean S-Cu concentration was higher in cases 1014.1 mg/L than in controls 959.3 mg/L; (p = 0.004). In men, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for CVD was 2.36 (95% CI 1.07-5.20 for the comparison of the highest vs. the lowest quartile; p for trend = 0.02), in women, it was 0.43 (95% CI 0.11-1.70; p for trend = 0.165). Conclusion: In older Spanish men with high cardiovascular risk, a significant association was observed between high S-Cu levels, but still within the reference values, and an increased risk of a first event of CVD. Our findings suggest a sex difference in CVD risk and S-Cu levels. To confirm this relationship and to analyze the differences observed between men and women, further studies are needed. 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of The Italian Diabetes Society, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • Autores: Shyam, S. (Autor de correspondencia); García-Gavilán, J. F.; Paz-Graniel, I.; et al.
    Revista: BMC MEDICINE
    ISSN: 1741-7015 Vol.21 N° 1 2023 págs. 390
    Resumen
    Background Cross-sectionally, older age and obesity are associated with increased coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) risk. We assessed the longitudinal associations of baseline and changes in adiposity parameters with COVID-19 incidence in older adults at high cardiovascular risk.Methods This analysis included 6874 men and women (aged 55-75 years) with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome in the PREDIMED-Plus lifestyle intervention trial for cardiovascular risk reduction. Body weight, body-mass-index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and a body shape index (ABSI) were measured at baseline and annual follow-up visits. COVID-19 was ascertained by an independent Event Committee until 31 December 2021. Cox regression models were fitted to evaluate the risk of COVID-19 incidence based on baseline adiposity parameters measured 5-6 years before the pandemic and their changes at the visit prior to censoring.Results At the time of censoring, 653 incident COVID-19 cases occurred. Higher baseline body weight, BMI, waist circumference, and WHtR were associated with increased COVID-19 risk. During the follow-up, every unit increase in body weight (HRadj (95%CI): 1.01 (1.00, 1.03)) and BMI (HRadj: 1.04 (1.003, 1.08)) was associated with increased COVID-19 risk.Conclusions In older adults with overweight/obesity, clinically significant weight loss may protect against COVID-19.
  • Autores: Olid, A. O.; Moreno Galarraga, Laura (Autor de correspondencia); Moreno Villares, José Manuel; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.15 N° 5 2023 págs. 1278
    Resumen
    Objective: To assess whether breastfeeding during the first months of life is associated with adherence to the Mediterranean dietary (MedDiet) pattern in preschool children. Design: The Seguimiento del Nino para un Desarrollo & Oacute; ptimo (SENDO) project is an ongoing pediatric cohort with open recruitment, started in 2015 in Spain. Participants, recruited when they are 4 to 5 years old at their primary local health center or school, are followed annually through online questionnaires. For this study, 941 SENDO participants with full data on study variables were included. Breastfeeding history was collected retrospectively at baseline. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed with the KIDMED index (range -3 to 12). Results: After accounting for multiple sociodemographic and lifestyle confounders, including parental attitudes and knowledge about dietary recommendations for children, breastfeeding was independently associated with a higher adherence to the MedDiet. Compared with children who were never breastfed, children breastfed for >= 6 months had a one-point increase on their mean KIDMED score (Mean difference +0.93, 95%confidence interval [CI]. 0.52-1.34, p for trend <0.001). The odds ratio of high adherence to the MedDiet (KIDMED index >= 8) was 2.94 (95%CI 1.50-5.36) in children who were breastfed for at least 6 months, as compared to their peers who were never breastfeed. Children who were breastfed for less than 6 months exhibited intermediate levels of adherence (p for trend <0.01). Conclusion: Breastfeeding for 6 months or longer is associated with a higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet during the preschool years.
  • Autores: Arredondo Montero, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Bronte Anaut, M.; Martín Calvo, Nerea; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL PEDIATRICS
    ISSN: 0009-9228 Vol.62 N° 8 2023 págs. 937 - 941
    Resumen
    International cooperation in pediatrics and pediatric surgery entails important barriers such as sociocultural differences, language difficulties, lack of infrastructure and resources, and short duration of campaigns. In this work, we share our personal experience in relation to the scientific publication of works carried out in pediatric international cooperation, and we make a critical reflection on the aspects to be considered for this field to develop in the future.
  • Autores: Vasilj, Maria; Goñi Mateos, Leticia; Gayoso, L.; et al.
    Revista: NMCD. NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
    ISSN: 1590-3729 Vol.33 N° 9 2023 págs. 1768 - 1777
    Resumen
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: To our knowledge the association between dietary advanced glycation end-products (dAGEs) and cardiometabolic disease is limited. Our aim was to examine the association between dAGEs and serum concentration of carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) or soluble receptor advanced glycation end-products (sRAGEs), and to assess the difference on dAGEs and circulating AGEs according to lifestyle and biochemical measures.METHODS AND RESULTS: 52 overweight or obese adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were included in this cross-sectional analysis. dAGEs were estimated from a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) or from a FFQ+Home Cooking Frequency Questionnaire (HCFQ). Serum concentrations of CML and sRAGEs were measured by ELISA. Correlation tests were used to analyze the association between dAGEs derived from the FFQ or FFQ+HCFQ and concentrations of CML or sRAGEs. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors and biochemical measures were analyzed according to sRAGEs and dAGEs using student t-test and ANCOVA. A significant inverse association was found between serum sRAGEs and dAGEs estimated using the FFQ+HCFQ (r=-0.36, p=0.010), whereas no association was found for dAGEs derived from the FFQ alone. No association was observed between CML and dAGEs. dAGEs intake estimated from the FFQ+HCFQ was significantly higher among younger and male participants, and in those with higher BMI, higher Hb1Ac levels, longer time with type 2 diabetes, lower adherence to Mediterranean diet, and higher use of culinary techniques that generate more AGEs (all p values p<0.05).CONCLUSIONS: These results show knowledge on culinary techniques is relevant to derive the association between dAGEs intake and cardiometabolic risk factors.
  • Autores: Arredondo Montero, J.; Hernández-Martín, S.; Martín Calvo, Nerea; et al.
    Revista: CIRUGÍA ESPAÑOLA
    ISSN: 2173-5077 Vol.101 N° 5 2023 págs. 319 - 324
    Resumen
    Introduction: Video-assisted percutaneous thoracoplasty involves a complex surgical access with risk of damaging vital structures during the procedure. Historically, different traction and sternal elevation systems have been applied during the intervention to minimize the risk associated with the passage of the instruments between the sternum and the pericardium. Material and methods: A new sternal traction system is presented by means of an illustrated description. Clinical and sociodemographic data were extracted from the 36 patients operated in our center for Pectus Excavatum between July 2017 and August 2021. The Haller index was not applied as a criterion to determine the use or not of the sternal traction system. Patients were classified according to whether the sternal traction system (TE) or not (ST) had been employed. Statistical analysis of the data collected was performed with STATA, version 15.0 (StataCorp). Results: Both groups were comparable. Haller's Index was 4.19 ± 0.7 for the sternal traction (TE) group and 3.79 ± 0.3 for the no sternal traction (ST) group. In 25 of the patients the described traction system was used, and in 11 no traction system was used. All patients were operated on by the same surgeon. The mean operative time in minutes was 97.73 ± 46.2 for the ST group and 88.13 ± 18.1 for the TE group (p = 0.87). The mean total days of admission was 7.67 ± 0.82 (TE) and 7.73 ± 1.35 (ST). Mean days of intravenous PCA was 6.08 ± 0.72 (TE) and 5.89 ± 1.45 (ST). The mean number of epidural PCA days was 3.79 ± 0.5 (TE) and 3.36 ± 0.5 (ST) (p = 0.01). All patients presented a favorable postoperative evolution. None of the patients presented discomfort at the level of the sternal wounds during hospitalization. Cosmetic evolution was favorable in all patients. Conclusions: The sternal traction system presented provides safety when performing retrosternal dissection and placement of the thoracoplasty bar, leading to a decrease in surgical time in cases with a Haller Index higher than 3.5. There have been no complications associated with its use, nor has there been an increase in the number of days of hospitalization or analgesic requirements. There are no aesthetic sequelae for the patients.
  • Autores: López-Herreros, J.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Gea Sánchez, Alfredo; et al.
    Revista: EXPERIMENTAL GERONTOLOGY
    ISSN: 0531-5565 Vol.178 2023 págs. 112224
    Resumen
    Objective: To study the association between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and all-cause mortality in a healthy middle-aged Mediterranean cohort. Methods: We included 15,390 participants -mean age 42.8 years at first HRQoL ascertainment, all university graduates-. HRQoL was assessed with the self-administered Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) twice, with a 4-year gap. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models to address the relation between self-reported health and Physical or Mental Component Summary (PCS-36 or MCS-36) and mortality, and their interaction with prior comorbidities or adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). Results: Over 8.7 years of median follow-up time, 266 deaths were identified. Hazard ratio (HR) for the excellent vs. poor/fair category in self-reported health was 0.30 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.16-0.57) in the model with repeated measurements of HRQoL. Both the PCS-36 (HRquartile4(Q4)vs.Q1 0.57 [95%CI, 0.36-0.90], ptrend < 0.001; HRper+10points: 0.64 [95%CI, 0.54-0.75]) and the MCS-36 (HRQ4vs.Q1 0.67 [95%CI, 0.46-0.97], ptrend = 0.025; HRper+10points: 0.86 [95%CI, 0.74-0.99]) were inversely associated with mortality in the model with repeated measurements of HRQoL. Previous comorbidities or adherence to the MedDiet did not modify these associations. Conclusions: Self-reported HRQoL -assessed as self-reported health, PCS-36 and MCS-36- obtained with the Spanish version of the SF-36 were inversely associated with mortality risk, regardless of the presence of previous comorbidities or adherence to the MedDiet.
  • Autores: Asfura-Carrasco, D.; Santiago Neri, Susana; Zazpe García, Itzíar; et al.
    Revista: PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION
    ISSN: 1368-9800 Vol.26 N° 3 2023 págs. 563 - 574
    Resumen
    Objective: To investigate the association between different versions of a provegetarian food pattern (FP) and micronutrient inadequacy. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline through a validated 136-item FFQ. Participants were classified according to groups of different versions of a provegetarian FP: overall, healthful and unhealthful. The prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamins B-1, B-2, B-3, B-6, B-12, C, A, D, E, folic acid, Zn, I, Se, Fe, Ca, K, P, Mg and Cr was evaluated using the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method and the probabilistic approach. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the probability of failing to meet EAR for either >= 3 or >= 6 micronutrients. Setting: Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort. Participants: 17 825 Spanish adults. Results: Overall, subjects in the highest group of the unhealthful provegetarian FP had the highest prevalence of inadequate dietary intake for every vitamin and mineral, compared to those in the lowest group. The adjusted OR of failing to meet >= 3 EAR (highest v. lowest group) was 0 center dot 65 (0 center dot 54, 0 center dot 69) for the overall, 0 center dot 27 (0 center dot 24, 0 center dot 31) for the healthful and 9 center dot 04 (7 center dot 57, 10 center dot 4) for the unhealthful provegetarian FP. Conclusion: A higher adherence to an overall and healthful provegetarian FP was inversely associated with the risk of failing to meet EAR values, whereas the unhealthful version was directly associated with micronutrient inadequacy. Provegetarian FP should be well planned, prioritising nutrient-dense plant foods and minimising ultra-processed and unhealthy ones.
  • Autores: Ni, J. Q.; Nishi, S. K.; Babio, N. (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0002-9165 Vol.118 N° 2 2023 págs. 360 - 368
    Resumen
    Background: Tree nuts and peanuts (henceforth, nuts) are nutrient-dense foods rich in neuroprotective components; thus, their consumption could benefit cognitive health. However, evidence to date is limited and inconsistent regarding the potential benefits of nuts for cognitive function.Objective: To prospectively evaluate the association between nut consumption and 2-y changes in cognitive performance in older adults at cognitive decline risk.Methods: A total of 6,630 participants aged 55 to 75 y (mean age 65.0 & PLUSMN;4.9 y, 48.4% women) with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests at baseline and a 2-y follow-up. Composite cognitive scores were used to assess global, general, attention, and executive function domains. Nut consumption was categorized as <1, >1 to <3, >3 to <7, and >7 servings/wk (1 serving=30 g). Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models were fitted to assess associations between baseline nut consumption and 2-y cognitive changes.Results: Nut consumption was positively associated with 2-y changes in general cognitive function (P-trend <0.001). Compared with participants consuming <1 serving/wk of nuts, those categorized as consuming >3 to <7 and >7 servings/wk showed more favorable changes in general cognitive performance (& beta; z-score [95% CI] = 0.06 [0.00,0.12] and 0.13 [0.06,0.20], respectively). No significant changes were observed in the multivariableadjusted models for other cognitive domains assessed.Conclusion: Frequent nut consumption was associated with a smaller decline in general cognitive performance over 2 y in older adults at risk of cognitive decline. Randomized clinical trials to verify our findings are warranted.
  • Autores: López Iracheta, Roberto; Moreno Galarraga, Laura; Moreno Villares, José Manuel (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: CHILDREN
    ISSN: 2227-9067 Vol.10 N° 6 2023 págs. 944
    Resumen
    Introduction: The COVID-19 lockdown has caused important changes in children's routines, especially in terms of nutrition, physical activity, screen time, social activity, and school time. Regarding these changes, recent studies show that the COVID-19 lockdown is associated with higher levels of anxiety and depression in children. The objective of this study was to assess changes in sleep quality in Spanish children during the lockdown decreed by the Spanish government between March and June 2020. Methodology: We compared the BEAR (bedtime, excessive daytime sleepiness, awakening during the night, and regularity and duration of sleep) scores of 478 participants (median age = 7.5 years; 48% girls) in the SENDO project during the periods before, during, and after lockdown. The questionnaires were filled out by one of the parents. We used hierarchical models with two levels of clustering to account for the intra-cluster correlation between siblings. The interaction of time with a set of a priori selected variables was assessed by introducing the interaction term into the model and calculating the likelihood ratio test. Results: The mean scores in the BEAR questionnaire referred to the periods before, during, and after lockdown were 0.52 (sd 1.25), 1.43 (sd 1.99), and 1.07 (sd 1.55), respectively. These findings indicate a deterioration in sleep quality during the period of confinement. Parental level of education was found to be an effect modifier (p for interaction = 0.004). Children whose parents had higher education (university graduates or higher) showed a smaller worsening than those without. Conclusion: Our study shows that the COVID-19 lockdown was associated with a significant worsening of sleep quality. Moreover, although the end of the lockdown brought about a slight improvement, mean scores on the BEAR scale remained significantly higher than before the lockdown, suggesting that the consequences for sleep quality could persist over time. This worsening was higher in children whose parents had lower educational degrees. Helping children maintain healthy sleeping habits despite the circumstances and providing early psychological support when needed is important to prevent negative psycho-physical symptoms due to lockdown that could persist over the years.
  • Autores: Moreno Montañés, Javier; Lopez-Gil, J. F.; Hershey, M. S.; et al.
    Revista: INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY AND VISUAL SCIENCE
    ISSN: 0146-0404 Vol.64 N° 8 2023 págs. 90
  • Autores: Romero-Cabrera, J. L.; Ankeny, J.; Fernández Montero, Alejandro; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
    ISSN: 1422-0067 Vol.23 N° 21 2022 págs. 13540
    Resumen
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues as the most important cause of mortality. Better risk screening and prediction are needed to reduce the cardiovascular disease burden. The aim of the study was to assess the role of serum biomarkers in the prediction of CVD among asymptomatic middle-aged adults with no prior CVD history. A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out using literature from PubMed and following PRISMA reporting guidelines. Twenty-five studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. The most commonly studied biomarker was high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) (10 studies), which showed that higher hs-CRP levels are associated with an increased risk of subsequent CVD events and mortality. In addition, several less-studied biomarkers (N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), fibrinogen, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and others) also showed significant associations with greater future risk of CVD. A meta-analysis was possible to perform for hs-CRP and NT-proBNP, which showed statistically significant results for the ability of hs-CRP (hazard ratio (HR) 1.19, (95% CI: 1.09-1.30), p < 0.05) and NT-proBNP (HR 1.22, (1.13-1.32), p < 0.05) to predict incident CVD among middle-aged adults without a prior CVD history or symptoms. Several serum biomarkers, particularly hs-CRP and NT-proBNP, have the potential to improve primary CVD risk prevention among asymptomatic middle-aged adults.
  • Autores: Barbería Latasa, María; Gea Sánchez, Alfredo (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez González, Miguel Ángel
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.14 N° 9 2022 págs. 1954
    Resumen
    This review discusses the inconsistent recommendations on alcohol consumption and its association with chronic disease, highlighting the need for an evidence-based consensus. Alcohol is an addictive substance consumed worldwide, especially in European countries. Recommendations on alcohol consumption are controversial. On one hand, many nonrandomized studies defend that moderate consumption has a beneficial cardiovascular effect or a lower risk of all-cause mortality. On the other hand, alcohol is associated with an increased risk of cancer, neurological diseases, or injuries, among others. For years, efforts have been made to answer the question regarding the safe amount of alcohol intake, but controversies remain. Observational studies advocate moderate alcohol consumption following a Mediterranean pattern (red wine with meals avoiding binge drinking) as the best option for current drinkers. However, agencies such as the IARC recommend abstention from alcohol as it is a potent carcinogen. In this context, more randomized trial with larger sample size and hard clinical endpoints should be conducted to clarify the available evidence and provide clinicians with support for their clinical practice.
  • Autores: Pano Espínola, Octavio (Autor de correspondencia); Gamba, M.; Bullon Vela, Maria Vanessa; et al.
    Revista: MATURITAS
    ISSN: 0378-5122 Vol.165 2022 págs. 58 - 71
    Resumen
    Discrepancies between total life expectancy and healthy life expectancy are in part due to unhealthy lifestyles, in which diet plays an important role. Despite this knowledge, observational studies and randomized trials have yet to show consistent improvements in health and well-being, also known as health-related quality of life (HRQoL), given the variety of elements that conform a healthy diet aside from its content. As such, we aimed to describe the evidence and common topics concerning the effects of modifiable eating behaviors and HRQoL in patients with non-communicable diseases (NCD). This scoping review of six electronic databases included 174 reports (69 % were experimental studies, 10 % longitudinal studies, and 21 % cross-sectional studies). Using VOSviewer, a bibliometric tool with text mining functionalities, we identified relevant aspects of dietary assessments and interventions. Commonly observed topics in experimental studies were those related to diet quality (micro-and macronutrients, food items, and dietary patterns). In contrast, less was found regarding eating schedules, eating locations, culturally accepted food items, and the role of food insecurity in HRQoL. Disregarding these aspects of diets may be limiting the full potential of nutrition as a key element of health and well-being in order to ensure lengthy and fulfilling lives.
  • Autores: Martín Calvo, Nerea (Autor de correspondencia); Goñi Mateos, Leticia; Tur, J. A.; et al.
    Revista: OBESITY REVIEWS
    ISSN: 1467-7881 Vol.23 N° Supl. 1 2022 págs. e13380
    Resumen
    In recent decades, the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has increased dramatically in children and adolescents, posing a real public health problem. Beyond unhealthy diets and sedentary lifestyles, growing evidence suggests that some perinatal factors, such as low birth weight (LBW), are associated with higher risk of T2D in adulthood. In this regard, it remains unclear whether the increased risk is already present in childhood and adolescence. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the association of LBW or being small for gestational age (SGA) with insulin resistance in childhood and adolescence. The systematic review resulted in 28 individual studies, and those with the same outcome were included within two random-effects meta-analyses. Compared with children or adolescents born with adequate size for gestational age, those SGA had 2.33-fold higher risk of T2D (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-5.17). Furthermore, LBW and being SGA were associated with 0.20 higher mean homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values (95% CI: 0.02-0.38). Given the high prevalence of preterm babies, from a population perspective, these results may be of great importance as they point to the existence of a potentially vulnerable subgroup of children and adolescents that could benefit from screening tests and early preventive strategies.
  • Autores: Rabassa, M. (Autor de correspondencia); Hernández Ponce, Y.; García-Ribera, S.; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0954-3007 Vol.76 N° 3 2022 págs. 350 - 359
    Resumen
    Background & objectives Food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) have been developed to promote healthy diets and prevent chronic diseases. However, the methodological quality of Spanish FBDGs has not been systematically assessed yet. The objective of this review is to identify and assess the methodological quality of Spanish FBDGs, as well as to describe their food guides and key recommendations. Methods We conducted a systematic search to identify Spanish FBDGs targeted at the general population using multiple sources. Two authors independently screened the references, extracted data, and assessed the quality of the FBDGs using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II and the Recommendation Excellence (AGREE-REX) instruments. We performed a descriptive analysis of the FBDGs. Results We included 19 FBDGs, published between 2007 and 2019. The median scores for each AGREE II domain were: scope and purpose 44% (Q1-Q3: 33-61%); Stakeholder involvement 31% (11-44%), rigor of development 3% (1-14%); clarity of presentation 42% (33-47%), applicability 0% (0-6%); and editorial independence 0% (0-8%). Six FBDGs (32%; 6/19) were categorized as recommended with modifications, and the rest (68%; 13/19) as not recommended. None of the FBDGs scored >= 60% in three or more domains, including the rigor of development domain. FBDGs indexed in literature databases scored significantly higher in overall rating than those not indexed (P = 0.023). The majority of FBDGs (74%; 14/19) used the pyramid as a food guide representation with a larger number of food levels (3-7 levels). The majority of FBDGs recommended a daily intake of cereals and grains, vegetables, fruits, olive oil and dairy products; a weekly intake of vegetable and animal proteins; and the occasional and limited intake of other food groups (e.g., ultraprocessed foods). Conclusions Overall, the methodological quality of FBDGs is poor showing that only 32% of FBDGs are recommended for use with modifications. Our results highlight the need to revise, systematize and improve FBDG development processes in Spain.
  • Autores: Babio, N. (Autor de correspondencia); Becerra-Tomás, N.; Nishi, S. K. (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: OBESITY REVIEWS
    ISSN: 1467-7881 Vol.23 N° Supl. 1 2022 págs. e13400
    Resumen
    A systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies was conducted to assess the associations between total dairy consumption and its different subtypes with the prevalence and incidence of overweight, obesity, and overweight/obesity in children and adolescents. A literature search was conducted in Medline through PUBMED and Cochrane Library databases until October 18, 2021. Articles reporting the risk estimates as odd ratios (OR), risk ratios (RR), or hazard ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between dairy product consumption and the risk of overweight and/or obesity were included. In the meta-analysis from cross-sectional studies, results showed an inverse association between total dairy consumption and obesity prevalence (OR (95% CI): 0.66 (0.48-0.91). No significant associations were found between milk or yogurt and obesity prevalence risk. Regarding prospective studies, total milk consumption was positively associated with overweight prevalence (OR (95% CI): 1.13 (1.01-1.26)) and incidence (RR (95%CI): 1.17 (1.01-1.35)) risk. Evidence from pooled analysis of cross-sectional studies suggested an inverse association between total dairy consumption and obesity. However, there is limited and no conclusive evidence to confirm an inverse relationship from pooled analysis of prospective studies in children and adolescents.
  • Autores: Montero, J. A. (Autor de correspondencia); Bardají-Pascual, C.; Bronte-Anaut, M. ; et al.
    Revista: WORLD JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS
    ISSN: 1708-8569 Vol.18 N° 2 2022 págs. 91 - 99
    Resumen
    Background Despite the radiological and analytical advances of the last decades, there is still a significant rate of diagnostic error in pediatric acute appendicitis. In recent years, multiple biomarkers have emerged as potential diagnostic tools. This study aimed to examine the diagnostic performance of serum interleukin-6 in pediatric acute appendicitis. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature that involved an extensive search in the main databases of medical bibliography (Medline, PubMed, Web of Science and SciELO). Two independent reviewers selected the relevant articles based on the previously defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Methodological quality of the selected article was rated using the QUADAS2 index. Data extraction was performed by two independent reviewers. Results The research in the medical bibliography databases resulted in 68 articles. We removed 26 duplicates. Among the remaining 42 articles, we excluded 33 following the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of the final 9 studies included in this review, 8 provided measured serum interleukin-6 values, and all of them reported significant differences between groups, but inconsistent results regarding sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions The diagnostic performance of interleukine-6 alone for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children is limited. The sensitivity and specificity of interleukine-6 for the diagnosis of non-complicated acute appendicitis in the pediatric population are moderate but increased in complicated appendicitis. There seems to be a direct relationship between serum level of interleukin-6 and the hours of evolution of abdominal pain in children with acute appendicitis. The increasingly widespread use of non-operative management of acute appendicitis warrants further exploration of the classificatory potential of this marker between complicated and uncomplicated appendicitis. We consider that this may be an avenue of research to explore in the future.
  • Autores: Martínez González, Miguel Ángel (Autor de correspondencia); Sayon Orea, María del Carmen; Bullon Vela, Maria Vanessa; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0261-5614 Vol.41 N° 12 2022 págs. 2659 - 2682
    Resumen
    Background: Some large prospective studies on olive oil consumption and risk of chronic disease suggested protective effects. Objective: We conducted an outcome-wide systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCT) assessing the association between olive oil consumption and the primary risk of 4 different outcomes: cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, type 2 diabetes (T2D) or all-cause mortality through January 2022. Methods: Thirty-six studies were included in the systematic review and twenty-seven studies (24 prospective cohorts and 3 different reports from one RCT) were assessed in 4 quantitative random-effects meta-analyses. They included a total of 806,203 participants with 49,223 CVD events; 1,285,064 participants with 58,892 incident cases of cancer; 680,239 participants with 13,389 incident cases of T2D; and 733,420 participants with 174,081 deaths. Olive oil consumption was most frequently measured with validated food frequency questionnaires. Studies follow-up ranged between 3.7 and 28 years. Results: A 16% reduced risk of CVD (relative risk [RR]: 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76 to 0.94), standardized for every additional olive oil consumption of 25 g/d was found. No significant association with cancer risk was observed (RR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.86 to 1.03, per 25 g/d). Olive oil consumption was associated with a 22% lower relative risk of T2D (RR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.69 to 0.87, per 25 g/d) without evidence of heterogeneity. Similarly, it was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (RR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.85 to 0.93, per 25 g/d). Only the results for T2D were homogeneous. Specific sources of heterogeneity for the other 3 outcomes were not always apparent. Conclusions: Prospective studies supported a beneficial association of olive oil consumption with CVD, T2D and all-cause mortality, but they did not show any association with cancer risk.
  • Autores: Fernández-Lázaro, D. (Autor de correspondencia); Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Seco-Calvo, J.; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH
    ISSN: 1660-4601 Vol.19 N° 15 2022 págs. 9533
    Resumen
    Tribulus terrestris L. (TT) is a plant used in traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, and sports nutrition to improve health and performance. However, no conclusive evidence exists about the potential beneficial effects of TT on sport and health biomarkers in physically active adults. Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, and the modified McMaster Critical Review Form for methodological quality assessment, we systematically reviewed studies indexed in Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed, to assess the effects of TT on immunological, hematological, biochemical, renal, lipidic, hormonal behavior, and anti-inflammatory response in physically active adult males. Among 340 records identified in the search, a total of 7 studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Overall, participants supplemented with TT displayed significant improvements in lipid profile. Inflammatory and hematological biomarkers showed moderate beneficial effects with no significant changes on renal biomarkers. No positive effects were observed on the immune system response. Additionally, no TT-induced toxicity was reported. In conclusion, there was no clear evidence of the beneficial effects of TT supplementation on muscle damage markers and hormonal behavior. More studies are needed to confirm the benefits of TT due to the limited number of studies available in the current literature.
  • Autores: Donat-Vargas, C. (Autor de correspondencia); Sandoval-Insausti, H.; Penalvo, J. L.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0261-5614 Vol.41 N° 3 2022 págs. 784 - 785
  • Autores: Arredondo-Montero, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Román-Moleón, M.; Martín Calvo, Nerea; et al.
    Revista: ANALES DE PEDIATRIA
    ISSN: 1695-4033 Vol.97 N° 3 2022 págs. 208 - 211
  • Autores: Henríquez-Sánchez, P. (Autor de correspondencia); Sánchez-Villegas, A.; Ruano-Rodríguez, C.; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN: 1436-6207 Vol.61 N° 1 2022 págs. 569 - 571
  • Autores: Martín Calvo, Nerea; Santiago Neri, Susana; Segura, G.; et al.
    Revista: PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION
    ISSN: 1368-9800 Vol.25 N° 6 2022 págs. 1733
  • Autores: Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio; Zazpe García, Itzíar; Santiago Neri, Susana; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0261-5614 Vol.41 N° 6 2022 págs. 1465
  • Autores: Arredondo Montero, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Bronte Anaut, M.; López-Andrés, N.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS
    ISSN: 0022-3476 Vol.242 2022 págs. 256 - 257
  • Autores: Visioli, F. (Autor de correspondencia); Franco, M.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0954-3007 Vol.76 N° 4 2022 págs. 502 - 504
  • Autores: Marhuenda-Muñoz, M.; Domínguez-López, I.; Langohr, K.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN NUTRITION
    ISSN: 2296-861X Vol.9 2022 págs. 967967
    Resumen
    Carotenoid intake has been reported to be associated with improved cardiovascular health, but there is little information on actual plasma concentrations of these compounds as biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk. The objective was to investigate the association between circulating plasma carotenoids and different cardiometabolic risk factors and the plasma fatty acid profile. This is a cross-sectional evaluation of baseline data conducted in a subcohort (106 women and 124 men) of an ongoing multi-factorial lifestyle trial for primary cardiovascular prevention. Plasma concentrations of carotenoids were quantified by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The associations between carotenoid concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors were assessed using regression models adapted for interval-censored variables. Carotenoid concentrations were cross-sectionally inversely associated with serum triglyceride concentrations [-2.79 mg/dl (95% CI: -4.25, -1.34) and -5.15 mg/dl (95% CI: -7.38, -2.93), p-values = 0.0002 and <0.00001 in women and men, respectively], lower levels of plasma saturated fatty acids [-0.09% (95% CI: -0.14, -0.03) and -0.15 % (95% CI: -0.23, -0.08), p-values = 0.001 and 0.0001 in women and men, respectively], and higher levels of plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids [(0.12 % (95% CI: -0.01, 0.25) and 0.39 % (95% CI: 0.19, 0.59), p-values = 0.065 and 0.0001 in women and men, respectively] in the whole population. Plasma carotenoid concentrations were also associated with higher plasma HDL-cholesterol in women [0.47 mg/dl (95% CI: 0.23, 0.72), p-value: 0.0002], and lower fasting plasma glucose in men [-1.35 mg/dl (95% CI: -2.12, -0.59), p-value: 0.001].
  • Autores: Pérez Araluce, Rafael María (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Gea Sánchez, Alfredo; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN NUTRITION
    ISSN: 2296-861X Vol.8 2022 págs. 805533
    Resumen
    Adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet has been customarily assessed with the Mediterranean diet score (MDS or Trichopolou Index), with values of 0 or 1 assigned to each of the nine elements, and with the use of the sex-specific median as the cutoff. The value of persons whose consumption of the six beneficial items (ratio of monounsaturated to saturated fatty acids, vegetables, legumes, fruits and nuts, cereal, and fish) is at or above the median and is assigned a value of 1. Otherwise they receive 0 points. For detrimental elements (meats and dairy products) persons whose consumption is below the median are assigned a value of 1. An additional ninth point is assigned to moderate ethanol intake. We assessed the effect of each of the nine components of the MDS (replacing the fats ratio with olive oil, the main source of monounsaturated fats in the Mediterranean diet) on the risk of COVID-19 infection, symptomatic and severe COVID-19. From March to December 2020, 9,699 participants of the "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN) cohort answered a COVID-19 questionnaire. After excluding doctors and nurses, 5,194 participants were included in the main statistical analyses. Among them, we observed 382 cases of COVID-19 based on symptoms and clinical diagnosis; 167 of them with test confirmation. For the two COVID-19 definitions used, we found a significant decrease in risk for a higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.42-0.98, p for trend = 0.040; and OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.22-0.88, p for trend = 0.020, for test-diagnosed cases). A protective effect was also found for symptomatic COVID-19 (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.41-1.00, p for trend = 0.050). Among the different individual food groups, only the consumption of whole dairy products showed a harmful direct association. The Mediterranean diet as a whole seems more important than each of its components in preventing the infection and symptoms of COVID-19.
  • Autores: Lan, F. Y.; Scheibler, C.; Hershey, M. S.; et al.
    Revista: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
    ISSN: 2045-2322 Vol.12 N° 1 2022 págs. 10607
    Resumen
    There are knowledge gaps regarding healthy lifestyle (HLS) interventions in fire academy settings and also concerning the impacts of the pandemic on training. We enrolled fire recruits from two fire academies (A and B) in New England in early 2019 as the historical control group, and recruits from academies in New England (B) and Florida (C), respectively, during the pandemic as the intervention group. The three academies have similar training environments and curricula. The exposures of interest were a combination of (1) an HLS intervention and (2) impacts of the pandemic on training curricula and environs (i.e. social distancing, masking, reduced class size, etc.). We examined the health/fitness changes throughout training. The follow-up rate was 78%, leaving 92 recruits in the historical control group and 55 in the intervention group. The results show an HLS intervention improved the effects of fire academy training on recruits healthy behaviors (MEDI-lifestyle score, 0.5 +/- 1.4 vs. - 0.3 +/- 1.7), systolic blood pressure (- 7.2 +/- 10.0 vs. 2.9 +/- 12.9 mmHg), and mental health (Beck Depression score, - 0.45 +/- 1.14 vs. - 0.01 +/- 1.05) (all P < 0.05). The associations remained significant after multivariable adjustments. Moreover, a 1-point MEDI-lifestyle increment during academy training is associated with about 2% decrement in blood pressures over time, after multivariable adjustments (P < 0.05). Nonetheless, the impacts of pandemic restrictions on academy procedures compromised physical fitness training, namely in percent body fat, push-ups, and pull-ups.
  • Autores: Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Martín Calvo, Nerea (Autor de correspondencia); Bretos-Azcona, T.; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH
    ISSN: 1660-4601 Vol.19 N° 20 2022 págs. 13653
    Resumen
    Causal reductions in cardiovascular disease (CVD) with the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) are supported by randomized trials, but the ability of nonrandomized studies to provide causal inferences in nutritional epidemiology is questioned. The "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN) project, conducted during 1999-2019 with 18,419 participants, was used to try to refute non-causal explanations for the inverse association found between adherence to the MedDiet and reduced CVD risk. A framework of different analytical strategies is proposed: alternative definitions of the exposure, exploration of residual confounding, resampling methods, depiction of absolute risks across the follow-up period, trial emulation, and negative controls. Additionally, we calculated the rate advancement period (RAP). We found that one standard deviation increase in the most frequently used MedDiet score was associated with a 29% relative reduction in CVD risk (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 14-41%), which is almost identical to that found in 2 randomized trials. The RAP of CVD would be postponed by an average of 7.9 years (95% CI: 1.6 to 14.2 years) by switching from low (MDS = 0 to2) to high (MDS = 7 to 9) adherence to the MedDiet in the fully adjusted model. Sensitivity analyses, graphical representations of absolute risks, trial emulation, and negative controls also supported causality. In conclusion, a framework of analytical approaches supported the causal effect of the MedDiet on CVD prevention using observational data. Similar methodology could be applied for causal inferences regarding other hypotheses.
  • Autores: Fernández-García, J. C. (Autor de correspondencia); Barrios-Rodríguez, R.; Asenjo-Plaza, M.; et al.
    Revista: METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
    ISSN: 0026-0495 Vol.136 2022 págs. 155290
    Resumen
    Background: Men with obesity tend to be insulin resistant and often have low-normal testosterone concentrations. We conducted a clinical trial aimed to evaluate potential therapeutic strategies for low testosterone in men with obesity.Methods: We did a 1-year, parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, where we evaluated the independent and combined effects of metformin and testosterone in 106 men with obesity, aged 18-50 years, who had low levels of testosterone and no diabetes mellitus. The primary outcome was change in insulin resistance, measured as Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Secondary outcomes included changes in total and free serum testosterone, body composition, metabolic variables, erectile function, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL).Results: In the intention-to-treat analysis, the HOMA-IR index decreased significantly in all active groups compared to placebo (metformin-2.4, 95 % CI-4.1 to-0.8, p = 0.004; testosterone-2.7, 95 % CI-4.3 to-1.1, p = 0.001; combination-3.4, 95 % CI-5.0 to-1.8, p < 0.001). Combination therapy was not superior to testosterone alone in decreasing insulin resistance (-0.7, 95 % CI-2.3 to 0.9, p = 0.383). Only the combination of metformin plus testosterone significantly increased total and free testosterone concentrations, compared to placebo. No significant changes in body composition (except for a higher decrease in fat mass in the metformin and combination group), metabolic variables, erectile function, or HRQoL were found with any treatment.Conclusions: Among men with obesity and low testosterone concentrations, the combination of metformin plus testosterone, metformin only, and testosterone only, compared to placebo, reduced insulin resistance with no evidence of additive benefit.
  • Autores: Ruiz-Canela, Miguel (Autor de correspondencia); Guasch-Ferre, M.; Razquin Burillo, Cristina; et al.
    Revista: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE CARDIOLOGÍA (ENGLISH ED.)
    ISSN: 1885-5857 Vol.75 N° 8 2022 págs. 649 - 658
    Resumen
    Introduction and objectives: Fatty acid metabolic dysregulation in mitochondria is a common mechanism involved in the development of heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF). We evaluated the association between plasma acylcarnitine levels and the incidence of HF or AF, and whether the mediterranean diet (MedDiet) may attenuate the association between acylcarnitines and HF or AF risk. Methods: Two case-control studies nested within the Prevencion con dieta mediterranea (PREDIMED) trial. High cardiovascular risk participants were recruited in Spain: 326 incident HF and 509 AF cases individually matched to 1 to 3 controls. Plasma acylcarnitines were measured with high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Conditional logistic regression models were fitted to estimate multivariable OR and 95%CI. Additive and multiplicative interactions were assessed by intervention group, obesity (body mass index >= 30 kg/m(2)), and type 2 diabetes. Results: Elevated levels of medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines were associated with increased HF risk (adjusted ORper DE, 1.28; 95%CI, 1.09-1.51 and adjusted ORper DE, 1.21; 95%CI, 1.04-1.42, respectively). A significant association was observed for AF risk with long-chain acylcarnitines: 1.20 (1.06-1.36). Additive interaction of the association between long-chain acylcarnitines and AF by the MediDiet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil (P for additive interaction = .036) and by obesity (P = .022) was observed in an inverse and direct manner, respectively. Conclusions: Among individuals at high cardiovascular risk, elevated long-chain acylcarnitines were associated with a higher risk of incident HF and AF. An intervention with MedDiet + extra-virgin olive oil may reduce AF risk associated with long-chain acylcarnitines.
  • Autores: Hernández-Ruiz, Á. (Autor de correspondencia); Muñoz-Ruiz, M.; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; et al.
    Revista: NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA
    ISSN: 0212-1611 Vol.39 N° 6 2022 págs. 1237 - 1255
    Resumen
    Background: the assessment of diet quality (DQ) is fundamental to the study of disease-diet associations, and it is necesary to implement an easy to-apply tool in nursing homes (NHs). Our objective was to propose and apply a novel diet quality indicator (DQIn) using an a priori approach for NHs. Methods: the QUality Index for Nutrition in Nursing homes (QUINN) was implemented in a public NH located in Valladolid, Spain, during a 5-week period (n = 137 subjects). The choice of the QUINN components was based on a rapid review. The QUINN was based on 15 dietary components ¿ 12 were basic (vegetables, fruits, legumes, olive oil, cereals, dairy, white fish and seafood, white-meat, eggs/positive; other fats, red and processed meat, and sweets/negative), and 3 were supplementary (fruits and vegetables variety, oily-fish, and whole-grains/positive). Each component was classified into 4-categories (0, 1, 2 o 3 points; range: 0-45 points). Results: the QUINN was tested on a menu offered by a NH giving a result of 34 points (good diet). The components with the highest scores were related to the Mediterranean diet (high consumption of legumes, olive oil, white fish and shellfish; low intake of other fats; and a wide variety of fruits and vegetables), together with cereals, white meat, dairy, and eggs. The components that required a major change were red- and processed-meats, sweets, and whole grains. Conclusion: the menu of this Spanish NH showed a good DQ according to the QUINN. The assessment of the DQ in NHs using QUINN will allow the proposal of interventions aimed at improving their diet.
  • Autores: Sánchez Bayona, Rodrigo; Bes Rastrollo, Maira; Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.14 N° 13 2022 págs. 2561
    Resumen
    Obesity is associated with a higher risk of several types of cancer, grouped as obesity-related cancers (ORC). Vitamin D deficiency is more prevalent in obese subjects, and it has been suggested to play a role in the association between obesity and cancer risk. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between vitamin D intake and the subsequent risk of ORC in a prospective Spanish cohort of university graduates. The SUN Project, initiated in 1999, is a prospective dynamic multipurpose cohort. Participants answered a 556-item lifestyle baseline questionnaire that included a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We performed Cox regression models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) of ORC according to quartiles of energy-adjusted vitamin D intake (diet and supplements). We included 18,017 participants (mean age = 38 years, SD = 12 years), with a median follow-up of 12 years. Among 206,783 person-years of follow-up, we identified 225 cases of ORC. We found no significant associations between vitamin D intake and ORC risk after adjusting for potential confounders: HRQ2vsQ1 = 1.19 (95% CI 0.81-1.75), HRQ3vsQ1 = 1.20 (95% CI 0.81-1.78), and HRQ4vsQ1 = 1.02 (95% CI 0.69-1.51). Dietary and supplemented vitamin D do not seem to be associated with ORC prevention in the middle-aged Spanish population.
  • Autores: De la O Pascual, Víctor; Zazpe García, Itzíar; Goñi Mateos, Leticia; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN: 1436-6207 Vol.61 N° 2 2022 págs. 957 - 971
    Resumen
    Purpose: To assess the association between a score appraising adherence to the PaleoDiet and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a Mediterranean cohort. Methods: We included 18,210 participants from the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort study. The PaleoDiet score comprised six food groups promoted within this diet (fruit, nuts, vegetables, eggs, meat and fish) and five food groups whose consumption is discouraged (cereals and grains, dairy products, legumes, culinary ingredients, and processed/ultra-processed foods). CVD was defined as acute myocardial infarction with or without ST elevation, non-fatal stroke and cardiovascular death. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for potential confounders were fitted to assess the association between the PaleoDiet score and CVD risk, and the PaleoDiet and MedDiet indices to explore differences between both diets. Results: During 12.2 years of follow-up, 165 incident CVD cases were confirmed. A significant inverse association was found between the PaleoDiet score and CVD (HR Q5 vs. Q1: 0.45, 95% CI 0.27-0.76, P for trend = 0.007). A weaker association that became non-significant was observed when the item for low consumption of ultra-processed foods was removed from the score. Joint analysis of PaleoDiet and MedDiet Trichopoulou scores suggested that the inverse association between PaleoDiet and CVD was mainly present when adherence to the MedDiet was also high (HR for high adherence vs low adherence to both diet scores: 0.22, 95% CI 0.08-0.64). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the PaleoDiet may have cardiovascular benefits in participants from a Mediterranean country. Avoidance of ultra-processed foods seems to play a key role in this inverse association.
  • Autores: Gabaldón-Figueira, J. C. (Autor de correspondencia); Keen, E.; Giménez, G.; et al.
    Revista: ERJ OPEN RESEARCH
    ISSN: 2312-0541 Vol.8 N° 2 2022 págs. 053
    Resumen
    Research question Can smartphones be used to detect individual and population-level changes in cough frequency that correlate with the incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other respiratory infections? Methods This was a prospective cohort study carried out in Pamplona (Spain) between 2020 and 2021 using artificial intelligence cough detection software. Changes in cough frequency around the time of medical consultation were evaluated using a randomisation routine; significance was tested by comparing the distribution of cough frequencies to that obtained from a model of no difference. The correlation between changes of cough frequency and COVID-19 incidence was studied using an autoregressive moving average analysis, and its strength determined by calculating its autocorrelation function (ACF). Predictors for the regular use of the system were studied using a linear regression. Overall user experience was evaluated using a satisfaction questionnaire and through focused group discussions. Results We followed-up 616 participants and collected >62 000 coughs. Coughs per hour surged around the time cohort subjects sought medical care (difference +0.77 coughs.h(-1); p=0.00001). There was a weak temporal correlation between aggregated coughs and the incidence of COVID-19 in the local population (ACF 0.43). Technical issues affected uptake and regular use of the system. Interpretation Artificial intelligence systems can detect changes in cough frequency that temporarily correlate with the onset of clinical disease at the individual level. A clearer correlation with population-level COVID-19 incidence, or other respiratory conditions, could be achieved with better penetration and compliance with cough monitoring.
  • Autores: Rubín-García, M.; Vitelli-Storelli, F.; Álvarez-Álvarez, L. (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION. CARDIOVASCULAR AND CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE
    ISSN: 2047-9980 Vol.11 N° 20 2022 págs. e026053
    Resumen
    Background Dietary polyphenol intake has been associated with a decreased risk of hyperuricemia, but most of this knowledge comes from preclinical studies. The aim of the present study was to assess the association of the intake of different classes of polyphenols with serum uric acid and hyperuricemia. Methods and Results This cross-sectional analysis involved baseline data of 6332 participants. Food polyphenol content was estimated by a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and from the Phenol-Explorer database. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models with serum uric acid (milligrams per deciliter) as the outcome and polyphenol intake (quintiles) as the main independent variable were fitted. Cox regression models with constant follow-up time (t=1) were performed to estimate the prevalence ratios (PRs) of hyperuricemia (>= 7 mg/dL in men and >= 6 mg/dL in women). An inverse association between the intake of the phenolic acid class (beta coefficient, -0.17 mg/dL for quintile 5 versus quintile 1 [95% CI, -0.27 to -0.06]) and hydroxycinnamic acids (beta coefficient, -0.19 [95% CI, -0.3 to -0.09]), alkylmethoxyphenols (beta coefficient, -0.2 [95% CI, -0.31 to -0.1]), and methoxyphenols (beta coefficient, -0.24 [95% CI, -0.34 to -0.13]) subclasses with serum uric acid levels and hyperuricemia (PR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.71-0.95]; PR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.71-0.95]; PR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.70-0.92]; and PR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.69-0.91]; respectively) was found. The intake of hydroxybenzoic acids was directly and significantly associated with mean serum uric acid levels (beta coefficient, 0.14 for quintile 5 versus quintile 1 [95% CI, 0.02-0.26]) but not with hyperuricemia. Conclusions In individuals with metabolic syndrome, a higher intake of some polyphenol subclasses (hydroxycinnamic acids, alkylmethoxyphenol, and methoxyphenol) was inversely associated with serum uric acid levels and hyperuricemia. Nevertheless, our findings warrant further research.
  • Autores: Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Sayon Orea, María del Carmen; Toledo Atucha, Estefanía; et al.
    Revista: BMC MEDICINE
    ISSN: 1741-7015 Vol.20 N° 1 2022 págs. 232
    Resumen
    Background The American Heart Association recommends Life's Simple 7 as ideal cardiovascular health (ICVH) to reduce cardiovascular risk. Rate advancement period (RAP), a useful tool to quantify and communicate exposure impact on risks, may enhance communication about the benefits of achieving ICVH. We aimed to examine whether greater adherence to ICVH metrics was associated with reduced incidence of cardiovascular risk in a population-based cohort and estimate its impact on the timing of occurrence using RAP. Methods Prospective analyses of 3826 participants, initially free from cardiovascular disease at baseline, enrolled in the Vascular Risk in Navarra Study (RIVANA), a Mediterranean population-based cohort of Spanish adults. ICVH metrics were defined using participants' baseline information as follows: never-smoker or quitting > 12 months ago, body mass index < 25 kg/m(2), >= 150 min/week of moderate physical activity or equivalent, healthy dietary pattern (>= 9 points on a validated 14-item Mediterranean diet adherence screener), untreated cholesterol < 200 mg/dL, untreated blood pressure < 120/80 mmHg, and untreated fasting blood glucose < 100 mg/dL. Participants were assigned 1 point for each achieved metric and were grouped according to their number of accumulated metrics in <= 2, 3, 4, and >= 5. The primary endpoint was major cardiovascular events (composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes). Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) and RAPs with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) adjusted for potential confounders were calculated. Results During a median follow-up of 12.8 years (interquartile range 12.3-13.1), a total of 194 primary endpoints were identified. Compared to participants with <= 2 ideal metrics, HR (95% CI) for major cardiovascular events among participants meeting >= 5 metrics was 0.32 (0.17-0.60) with RAP (95% CI) of - 14.4 years (- 22.9, - 5.9). Conclusions Greater adherence to ICVH metrics was associated with lower cardiovascular risk among Spanish adults of the RIVANA cohort. Adherence to ideal metrics may substantially delay cardiovascular risk.
  • Autores: Guasch-Ferre, M. (Autor de correspondencia); Li, Y.; Willett, W. C.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY
    ISSN: 0735-1097 Vol.79 N° 2 2022 págs. 101 - 112
    Resumen
    BACKGROUND Olive oil consumption has been shown to tower cardiovascular disease risk, but its associations with total and cause-specific mortality are unclear. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether olive oil intake is associated with total and cause-specific mortality in 2 prospective cohorts of U.S. men and women. METHODS The authors used multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional-hazards models to estimate HRs for total and cause-specific mortality among 60,582 women (Nurses' Health Study, 1990-2018) and 31,801 men (Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 1990-2018) who were free of cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline. Diet was assessed by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire every 4 years. RESULTS During 28 years of follow-up, 36,856 deaths occurred. The multivariable-adjusted pooled HR for all-cause mortality among participants who had the highest consumption of olive oil (>0.5 tablespoon/day or >7 g/d) was 0.81 (95% 0: 0.78-0.84) compared with those who never or rarely consumed olive oil. Higher olive oil intake was associated with 19% tower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.75-0.87), 17% tower risk of cancer mortality (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.78-0.89), 29% lower risk of neurodegenerative disease mortality (HR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.64-0.78), and 18% lower risk of respiratory disease mortality (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.72-0.93). In substitution analyses, replacing 10 g/d of margarine, butter, mayonnaise, and dairy fat with the equivalent amount of olive oil was associated with 8%-34% lower risk of total and cause-specific mortality. No significant associations were observed when olive oil was compared with other vegetable oils combined. CONCLUSIONS Higher olive oil intake was associated with tower risk of total and cause-specific mortality. Replacing margarine, butter, mayonnaise, and dairy fat with olive oil was associated with lower risk of mortality. (C) 2022 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
  • Autores: Ni, J.; Nishi, S. K.; Babio, N.; et al.
    Revista: MOLECULAR NUTRITION AND FOOD RESEARCH
    ISSN: 1613-4125 Vol.66 N° 14 2022 págs. e2101058
    Resumen
    Scope Dairy consumption has been suggested to impact cognition; however, evidence is limited and inconsistent. This study aims to longitudinally assess the association between dairy consumption with cognitive changes in an older Spanish population at high cardiovascular disease risk. Methods and results Four thousand six hundred sixty eight participants aged 55-75 years, completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline and a neuropsychological battery of tests at baseline and 2-year follow-up. Multivariable linear regression models are used, scaled by 100 (i.e., the units of beta correspond to 1 SD/100), to assess associations between baseline tertile daily consumption and 2-year changes in cognitive performance. Participants in the highest tertile of total milk and whole-fat milk consumption have a greater decline in global cognitive function (beta: -4.71, 95% CI: -8.74 to -0.69, p-trend = 0.020 and beta: -6.64, 95% CI: -10.81 to -2.47, p-trend = 0.002, respectively) compared to those in the lowest tertile. No associations are observed between low fat milk, yogurt, cheese or fermented dairy consumption, and changes in cognitive performance. Conclusion Results suggest there are no clear prospective associations between consumption of most commonly consumed dairy products and cognition, although there may be an association with a greater rate of cognitive decline over a 2-year period in older adults at high cardiovascular disease risk for whole-fat milk.
  • Autores: Arredondo Montero, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Antona, G.; Rivero Marcotegui, A.; et al.
    Revista: WORLD JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS
    ISSN: 1708-8569 Vol.18 N° 12 2022 págs. 810 - 817
    Resumen
    Background Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) has a moderate diagnostic performance in pediatric acute appendicitis (PAA). The evidence regarding its capacity to discern between complicated and uncomplicated PAA is scarce. Methods We designed a prospective observational study to validate serum IL-6 as a marker for diagnostic classification between complicated and uncomplicated PAA. This study included 205 patients divided into three groups: (1) patients who underwent major outpatient surgery (n = 57); (2) patients with non-surgical abdominal pain (NSAP) in whom the diagnosis of PAA was excluded (n = 53), and (3) patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PAA (n = 95). The PAA patients were further classified as uncomplicated or complicated PAA. IL-6 concentration was determined in all patients at diagnosis. Comparative statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test, the Fisher exact test and the Kruskall Wallis test. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated. Results Median (interquartile range, IQR) serum IL-6 values were 2 pg/mL (2.0-3.4) in group 1, 3.9 pg/mL (2.4-11.9) in group 2, and 23.9 pg/mL (11.1-61.0) in group 3 (P < 0.001). Among the participants in group 3, those with uncomplicated PAA had median (IQR) serum IL-6 values of 17.2 pg/mL (8.5-36.8), and those with complicated PAA had 60.25 pg/mL (27.1-169) serum IL-6 (P < 0.001). At the cut-off point of 19.55 pg/mL, the AUC for the discrimination between patients in group 2 vs. 3 was 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76-0.90], with a sensitivity of 61.3% and a specificity of 86.8. The AUC for the discrimination between patients with uncomplicated and complicated PAA was 0.77 (95% CI 0.68-0.86) and the cut-off point was 25.90 pg/mL, with a sensitivity and specificity of 84.6% and 65.6%, respectively. Conclusions Serum IL-6 has a good performance in discerning between complicated and uncomplicated PAA. A score including clinical and radiological variables may increase the diagnostic performance of this molecule.
  • Autores: Fernández Ciriza, Leire; González Hernández, Álvaro; del Pozo León, José Luis; et al.
    Revista: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
    ISSN: 2045-2322 Vol.12 N° 1 2022 págs. 15606
    Resumen
    Scarce data have been reported about cellular immunity and longevity for different COVID-19 vaccination schedules. We carried out a prospective study enrolling 709 healthcare workers receiving two doses of mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, ChAdOx1, ChAdOx1/BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 single dose to compare humoral and cellular immunogenicity across 9 months. Higher SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody levels were observed among individuals with hybrid immunity with one dose of any vaccine in comparison to uninfected individuals receiving two doses (mRNA-1273: 20,145 vs 4295 U/mL; BNT162b2: 15,659 vs 1959 U/mL; ChAdOx1: 5344 vs 2230 U/mL), except for ChAdOx1/BNT162b2 heterologous schedule (12,380 U/mL). Naturally infected individuals did not increase substantially the titers after the second dose and showed higher levels throughout the 9 months follow-up. The mean elimination half-life of antibodies among COVID-19 naive participants was 98, 111, 60 and 36 days, for mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, ChAdOx1/ChAdOx1 and ChAdOx1/BNT162b2, respectively. Cellular immunity was preserved in 96%, 98%, 88% and 92% of uninfected individuals who received mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, ChAdOx1/ChAdOx1 and ChAdOx1/BNT162b2 after 6/9 months. Individuals with specific T cells showed robust long lasting protection, especially when m-RNA based vaccines are inoculated. These data may influence the validity of the vaccination passport and the need for booster vaccinations.
  • Autores: Gomez-Martinez, C.; Babio, N. (Autor de correspondencia); Julvez, J.; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
    ISSN: 1479-5868 Vol.19 N° 1 2022 págs. 101
    Resumen
    Background: Few studies have analyzed the associations between impulsivity and dietary patterns. Some of them have shown a cross-sectional inverse relationship between impulsivity and healthy diet scores, whereas others reported a positive association with unhealthy dietary assessments. We aimed to examine longitudinal associations of impulsivity trait with adherence to healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns in older participants at high risk of cardiovascular disease over 3 years of follow-up. Methods: A 3-year prospective cohort analysis within the PRED-IMED-Plus-Cognition study conducted in 4 PREDIMED-Plus study centers was performed. The PREDIMED-Plus study aimed to test the beneficial effect of a lifestyle intervention on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The participants with overweight or obesity and metabolic syndrome included in the present study (n = 462; mean age of 65.3 years; 51.5% female) completed both the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (range: 0-236 points) and the 143-item Food Frequency Questionnaire at baseline, 1-year and 3-years of follow-up. Ten diet scores assessing healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns were evaluated. Linear mixed models were performed adjusting by several confounders to study the longitudinal associations between impulsivity trait and adherence to dietary pattern scores over 3 years of follow-up (also assessing interactions by sex, age, and intervention group). Results: Impulsivity were negatively associated with adherence to the Healthy Plant-Based [beta=-0.92 (95%CI -1.67, -0.16)], Mediterranean [beta= -0.43 (95%CI -0.79, -0.07)], Energy-Restricted Mediterranean [beta = -0.76 (95%CI -1.16, -0.37)], Alternative Healthy Eating Index [beta = -0.88 (95%CI -1.52, -0.23)], Portfolio [beta = -0.57 (95%CI -0.91, -0.22)], and DASH [beta = -0.50 (95%CI -0.79, -0.22)] diet scores over 3 years of follow-up, whereas impulsivity was positively related with adherence to the unhealthy Western diet [beta = 1.59 (95%CI 0.59, 2.58)] over time. An interaction by intervention group was found, with those participants in the intervention group with high impulsivity levels having lower adherence to several healthy dietary patterns. Conclusions: Heightened impulsivity was longitudinally associated with lower adherence to healthy dietary patterns and higher adherence to the Western diet over 3 years of follow-up. Furthermore, nutritional intervention programs should consider impulsivity as a relevant factor for the intervention success.
  • Autores: García-Gavilan, J.; Nishi, S. K.; Paz-Graniel, I.; et al.
    Revista: MOLECULAR NUTRITION AND FOOD RESEARCH
    ISSN: 1613-4125 Vol.66 N° 23 2022 págs. 2200145
    Resumen
    Scope Consumption of meat has been associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but if plasma metabolite profiles associated with these foods reflect this relationship is unknown. The objective is to identify a metabolite signature of consumption of total meat (TM), red meat (RM), processed red meat (PRM), and fish and examine if they are associated with T2D risk. Methods and results The discovery population includes 1833 participants from the PREDIMED trial. The internal validation sample includes 1522 participants with available 1-year follow-up metabolomic data. Associations between metabolites and TM, RM, PRM, and fish are evaluated with elastic net regression. Associations between the profiles and incident T2D are estimated using Cox regressions. The profiles included 72 metabolites for TM, 69 for RM, 74 for PRM, and 66 for fish. After adjusting for T2D risk factors, only profiles of TM (Hazard Ratio (HR): 1.25, 95% CI: 1.06-1.49), RM (HR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.07-1.52), and PRM (HR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.07-1.51) are associated with T2D. Conclusions The consumption of TM, its subtypes, and fish is associated with different metabolites, some of which have been previously associated with T2D. Scores based on the identified metabolites for TM, RM, and PRM show a significant association with T2D risk.
  • Autores: Rubín-García, M.; Vitelli-Storelli, F. (Autor de correspondencia); Toledo Atucha, Estefanía; et al.
    Revista: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE CARDIOLOGIA
    ISSN: 0300-8932 Vol.75 N° 5 2022 págs. 401 - 411
    Resumen
    Introduction and objectives: Quantification of cardiovascular risk has been based on scores such as Framingham, Framingham-REGICOR, SCORE or Life's Simple 7 (LS7). In vitro, animal, and randomized clinical studies have shown that polyphenols may provide benefits to the vascular system and reduce the inflammatory response. However, some clinical-epidemiological studies have yielded inconsistent results. Our aim was to assess the possible association between intake of the various polyphenol classes and established cardiovascular scores. Methods: This cross-sectional analysis involved 6633 PREDIMED-Plus study participants. Food polyphenol content was estimated by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, adjusted for total energy intake according to the residual method. The association between polyphenol intake and cardiovascular risk was tested using linear regression analyses. Results: Total polyphenol and flavonoid intake were directly and significantly associated only with the LS7 scale. Intake of lignans was directly and significantly associated with SCORE and LS7 scales, stilbene intake with SCORE, and phenolic acid intake with Framingham and Framingham-REGICOR scores. Other polyphenol classes were associated in a protective and significant manner in Framingham, SCORE and LS7 scores. In women, intake of all the polyphenol classes, except phenolic acids, showed a protective trend in the results of the Framingham, Framingham-REGICOR scores and LS7 scale. Conclusions: An inverse association was found between consumption of the 'other polyphenols' class and, especially among women, with estimated cardiovascular risk. The results were similar to those of Framingham, Framingham-REGICOR and LS7 (after eliminating the diet component) and differed from those of SCORE, but the predictors included were limited in the latter case.
  • Autores: Domínguez-López, I.; Arancibia-Riveros, C.; Tresserra-Rimbau, A.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN NUTRITION
    ISSN: 2296-861X Vol.9 2022 págs. 991277
    Resumen
    Desaturase enzyme activities (DEA) are associated with several metabolic diseases. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between estimated plasma DEA and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), as well as their relationship with individual components of the MetS. We conducted a longitudinal study of 148 participants recruited at random from the PREDIMED trial (Hospital Clinic site). At baseline and after 1 year of follow-up, DEA were estimated from product/precursor ratios of individual plasma fatty acids. Logistic regressions were used to assess the relationship of estimated DEA MetS, adjusted for potential cofounders. Estimated Delta 5 desaturase (D5D) activity was associated with lower risk of MetS, whereas stearoyl-CoA (SCD)-16 and SCD-18 were negatively associated with MetS status. SCD-16, SCD-18, and Delta 6 desaturase (D6D) were positively associated with triglycerides, SCD-18 was inversely associated with HDL-cholesterol. Estimated D6D activity was found to be associated with increases in diastolic blood pressure. In contrast, D5D was negatively associated with triglycerides, diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference. The present longitudinal study suggests that estimated SCD-16, SCD-18, and D6D have a negative impact in MetS and its components, whereas D5D may have beneficial effects for metabolic health.
  • Autores: Martínez González, Miguel Ángel (Autor de correspondencia); Barbería Latasa, María; Pérez de Rojas, J.; et al.
    Revista: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0007-1145 Vol.127 N° 9 2022 págs. 1415 - 1425
    Resumen
    The aim of this study was to assess the association between alcohol intake and premature mortality (younger than 65 years) and to explore the effect of potential alcohol underreporting by heavy drinkers. We followed-up 20 272 university graduates. Four categories of alcohol intake were considered (abstainer, light, moderate and heavy consumption). Repeated measurements of alcohol intake and updated information on confounders were used in time-dependent Cox models. Potential underreporting of alcohol intake by some heavy drinkers (likely misclassified as light or moderate drinkers) was explicitly addressed in an attempt to correct potential underreporting by using indirect information. During 12 center dot 3 years of median follow-up (interquartile range: 6 center dot 8-15 center dot 0), 226 participants died before their 65th birthday. A higher risk of early mortality was found for the highest category of alcohol intake (>= 50 g/d) in comparison with abstention (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2 center dot 82, 95 % CI 1 center dot 38, 5 center dot 79). In analyses of alcohol as a continuous variable, the multivariable-adjusted HR was 1 center dot 17 (95 % CI 1 center dot 08, 1 center dot 26), for each 10 g/d of alcohol. This harmful linear association was present both in uncorrected models and in models corrected for potential underreporting. No significant inverse association between light or moderate alcohol intake and premature mortality was observed, even after correcting for potential misclassification. Alcohol intake exhibited a harmful linear dose-response association with premature mortality (<65 years) in this young and highly educated Mediterranean cohort. Our attempts to correct for potential misclassification did not substantially change these results.
  • Autores: Gonzalez Casanova, I. (Autor de correspondencia); Alonso-Gómez, A. M.; Romaguera, D.; et al.
    Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
    ISSN: 0002-9149 Vol.183 2022 págs. 122 - 128
    Resumen
    Atrial fibrillation has been associated with cognitive impairment. Whether subclinical abnormalities in atrial function and substrate predisposing to atrial fibrillation impact cognitive function has received limited attention. We tested associations of echocardiographic markers of atrial structure and function with cognitive function and decrease in 510 participants with obesity and metabolic syndrome (mean age SD of 64.4 [5.2] years in men and 66.5 [3.9] years in women). Left atrial (LA) markers (volume index, emptying fraction, strain, function index, and stiffness index) were estimated based on transthoracic echocardiography. General cognitive functioning (Mini-mental state examination), verbal ability (verbal fluency test), memory and attention (Digit Span Tests), and processing speed and executive function (Trail-Making Tests A and B) were assessed at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. Multiple linear regression was used to test associations of atrial markers (modeled in SD units) with baseline and 2-year changes in cognitive scores adjusted for demographic and health covariates. LA structure and function were not associated with cognitive function at baseline. Larger LA volume index (standardized beta [95% confidence interval] -0.13 [-0.22 to -0.03]), lower peak longitudinal strain (-0.11 [-0.20 to -0.01]), and higher stiffness index (-0.18 [-0.28 to -0.08]) were associated with 2-year worsening in Trail-Making Test A. Strain measurements were also associated with a 2-year change in the Controlled Oral Word Association Test. In conclusion, overall, adverse markers of LA structure and function were associated with 2-year detrimental executive function-related cognitive changes in a sample of participants at high risk for cardiovascular disease, highlighting LA substrate as a potential risk factor for cognitive decrease and dementia. (c) 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Autores: Casas, R.; Ribó-Coll, M.; Ros, E.; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN: 1436-6207 Vol.61 N° 3 2022 págs. 1429 - 1444
    Resumen
    Purpose: It is difficult to change dietary habits and maintain them in the long run, particularly in elderly people. We aimed to assess whether adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and cardiovascular risk factor were similar in the middle-aged and oldest participants in the PREDIMED study. Methods: We analyzed participants belonging to the first and fourth quartiles of age (Q1 and Q4, respectively) to compare between-group differences in adherence to the nutritional intervention and cardiovascular risk factor (CRF) control during a 3-year follow-up. All participants underwent yearly clinical, nutritional, and laboratory assessments during the following. Results: A total of 2278 patients were included (1091 and 1187 in Q1 and Q4, respectively). At baseline, mean ages were 59.6 ± 2.1 years in Q1 and 74.2 ± 2.6 years in Q4. In Q4, there were more women, greater prevalence of hypertension and diabetes, and lower obesity and smoking rates than the younger cohort (P ¿ 0.001, all). Adherence to the MedDiet was similar in Q1 and Q4 at baseline (mean 8.7 of 14 points for both) and improved significantly (P < 0.01) and to a similar extent (mean 10.2 and 10.0 points, respectively) during follow-up. Systolic blood pressure, low density-lipoprotein cholesterol, and body weight were similarly reduced at 3 years in Q1 and Q4 participants. Conclusion: The youngest and oldest participants showed improved dietary habits and CRFs to a similar extent after 3 years' intervention. Therefore, it is never too late to improve dietary habits and ameliorate CRF in high-risk individuals, even those of advanced age. Registration: The trial is registered in the London-based Current Controlled Trials Registry (ISRCTN number 35739639).
  • Autores: Domínguez-López, I.; Arancibia-Riveros, C.; Casas, R.; et al.
    Revista: BIOMEDICINE AND PHARMACOTHERAPY
    ISSN: 0753-3322 Vol.150 2022 págs. 113028
    Resumen
    Systemic inflammation is associated with an increased risk of non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Circulating fatty acids (FA) are known to be related to these conditions, possibly through their role in inflammation, although different types of FAs can have opposite effects on inflammatory mediators. The aim of the present study was to analyze the association of plasma FAs with inflammatory biomarkers in a PREDIMED trial subsample after one year of intervention. In a one-year longitudinal study of 91 participants of the PREDIMED trial (Barcelona-Clinic center), plasma FAs and inflammatory biomarkers were analyzed using gas chromatography and ELISA, respectively. In baseline plasma, a multivariable-adjusted ordinary least squares regression model showed that n-3 polyunsaturated FAs concentrations were inversely associated with concentrations of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and E-selectin, whereas the level of the most abundant saturated FA, palmitic acid, was directly associated with concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) (beta = 0.48 pg/mL, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.93 per 1-SD increase, p-value = 0.037). After one year of nutritional intervention, changes of plasma diet-derived total saturated FAs and palmitic acid were directly associated with changes in IL6 (beta = 0.59 pg/mL [95% CI: 0.28, 0.89] per 1-SD, p-value = 0.001; beta = 0.64 pg/mL, 95% CI: 0.31, 0.98, p-value = 0.001), respectively, after correction for multiple testing. Our findings suggest that saturated FAs of dietary origin, especially palmitic acid, are directly involved in the increase of IL-6 in plasma.
  • Autores: Gil Conesa, Mario; Amer, F.; Carlos Chillerón, Silvia; et al.
    Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH
    ISSN: 0090-0036 Vol.112 N° 4 2022 págs. 570 - 573
    Resumen
    The "Safe Campus Program," implemented in 2020 through 2021 at the University of Navarra (Spain), aimed to guarantee a safe return to university campus and prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreaks, avoiding university-wide lockdown. It included COVID-19 education, campus adaptation, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. We describe the main characteristics of the program and analyze the SARS-CoV-2 cumulative incidence among 14 496 university members. The 14-day cumulative incidence in the university was 415.2 versus 447.7 in the region. The program, sustainable in the long term, achieved low SARS-CoV-2 in-campus rates.
  • Autores: Qi, Q. (Autor de correspondencia); Li, J.; Yu, B.; et al.
    Revista: GUT
    ISSN: 0017-5749 Vol.71 N° 6 2022 págs. 1095 - 1105
    Resumen
    Objective Tryptophan can be catabolised to various metabolites through host kynurenine and microbial indole pathways. We aimed to examine relationships of host and microbial tryptophan metabolites with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D), host genetics, diet and gut microbiota. Method We analysed associations between circulating levels of 11 tryptophan metabolites and incident T2D in 9180 participants of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds from five cohorts. We examined host genome-wide variants, dietary intake and gut microbiome associated with these metabolites. Results Tryptophan, four kynurenine-pathway metabolites (kynurenine, kynurenate, xanthurenate and quinolinate) and indolelactate were positively associated with T2D risk, while indolepropionate was inversely associated with T2D risk. We identified multiple host genetic variants, dietary factors, gut bacteria and their potential interplay associated with these T2D-relaetd metabolites. Intakes of fibre-rich foods, but not protein/tryptophan-rich foods, were the dietary factors most strongly associated with tryptophan metabolites. The fibre-indolepropionate association was partially explained by indolepropionate-associated gut bacteria, mostly fibre-using Firmicutes. We identified a novel association between a host functional LCT variant (determining lactase persistence) and serum indolepropionate, which might be related to a host gene-diet interaction on gut Bifidobacterium, a probiotic bacterium significantly associated with indolepropionate independent of other fibre-related bacteria. Higher milk intake was associated with higher levels of gut Bifidobacterium and serum indolepropionate only among genetically lactase non-persistent individuals. Conclusion Higher milk intake among lactase non-persistent individuals, and higher fibre intake were associated with a favourable profile of circulating tryptophan metabolites for T2D, potentially through the host-microbial cross-talk shifting tryptophan metabolism toward gut microbial indolepropionate production.
  • Autores: García-Gavilán, J. F.; Paz-Graniel, I.; Babio, N.; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN: 1436-6207 Vol.61 N° 3 2022 págs. 1445 - 1455
    Resumen
    Purpose Inflammation could play a key role in tissue damage and bone metabolism. The modified dietary inflammatory score (M-DIS) is a validated tool to estimate the inflammatory potential of the diet. In the present study, we evaluate the associations between the M-DIS and bone mineral density (BMD) in a senior Mediterranean population with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome. Methods Baseline cross-sectional association between the M-DIS and bone mineral density was assessed in 1134 participants of the multicenter PREDIMED-Plus trial (aged 55-75 with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome). BMD was measured using Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry scans and participants answered a food frequency questionnaire to determine the M-DIS. BMD was categorized as low BMD when T score was equal or lower than -1 and normal BMD in another case. Associations between BMD and M-DIS were evaluated by using linear and logistic regressions adjusted by other co-variates. Results Participants in the top tertile of the M-DIS had a lower BMD at total femur [beta (95% CI) - 0.02 (- 0.04, - 0.01)], trochanter areas [beta (95% CI) - 0.03 (- 0.05, - 0.01)] and lumbar spine area [beta (95% CI) - 0.03 (- 0.07, 0.01)] (but in the last case, measures were less precise and hence not statistically significant) compared to those in the lower M-DIS tertile. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of the total femur and femoral trochanter osteopenia/osteoporosis were higher in participants in the top tertile compared to those in the lowest tertile of M-DIS [OR (95% CI) 1.71 (1.12, 2.64), P for trend 0.015; 2.02 (1.29, 3.21), P for trend 0.002, respectively]. Conclusion A high pro-inflammatory diet, measured by the M-DIS, is associated with lower BMD in a senior Mediterranean population with metabolic syndrome.
  • Autores: De Deus Mendonca, R.; Aparecida Mingoti, S.; Gazzinelli Bethony, M. F.; et al.
    Revista: PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION
    ISSN: 1368-9800 Vol.25 N° 3 2022 págs. 781 - 793
    Resumen
    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a nutritional intervention to promote fruit and vegetable (FV) intake. Design: A randomised controlled community trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a 7-month nutritional intervention and to promote FV intake, separately and together. All participants attended physical exercise sessions. The intervention was based on the transtheoretical model and Paulo Freire's pedagogy. The interventions included group educational sessions, motivational cards and informational materials. The primary outcome was a change in FV intake (g/d), and secondary outcomes included stages of change, self-efficacy, decisional balance and knowledge on FV. All data were collected face-to-face; and FV intake was assessed using a validated brief questionnaire. Setting: Health promotion services of Brazilian Primary Health Care. Participants: 3414 users of Brazilian Primary Health Care (1931 in the control group and 1483 in the intervention group (IG)). Results: At baseline, the average daily FV intake was 370 center dot 4 g/d (95 % CI 364 center dot 2, 376 center dot 6). The increase in FV intake (23 center dot 4 g/d; 95 % CI 6 center dot 7, 40 center dot 0) and fruit intake (+17 center dot 3 g/d; 95 % CI 5 center dot 1, 29 center dot 4; P = 0 center dot 01) was greater in the IG among participants in the lowest baseline intake. Participants in the IG also showed progression in the stages of change (P < 0 center dot 001), increased self-efficacy (P < 0 center dot 001) and improved knowledge of FV crops (P < 0 center dot 001). Conclusions: The nutritional intervention was effective in increasing FV intake and fruits intake among individuals with a lower intake at baseline and in maintaining FV intake among those who reported consuming FV as recommended (400 g/d).
  • Autores: Alonso Gómez, A. M. (Autor de correspondencia); Tojal Sierra, L.; Mora Mora, N.; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
    ISSN: 0167-5273 Vol.348 2022 págs. 169 - 174
    Resumen
    Background: Current recommendations for echocardiographic assessment of diastolic function (2016 guidelines of the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE)/Eumpean Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) in patients with metabolic syndrome and overweight/obesity result in a significant number of patients with indeterminate diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). The aim of this article is to study whether the use of the left atrial strain criterion (LALS) reduces the number of indeterminate patients. Methods: 229 patients were studied with a complete echocardiographic study that included left ventricular longitudinal strain (LVLS) analysis, LALS and a maximal ergospirometry test with assessment of oxygen uptake (VO2max). Results: The mean age was 65 +/- 5 years, 153 (67%) males, with a mean EF of 60 +/- 5%. The mean LVLS was -19.4 +/- 2% and the LALS Reservoir was 23.8 +/- 7%. There were 140 patients who did not meet LVDD criteria and 82 who did meet the indeterminate LVDD criterion. When the left atrial volume index (LAVI) >34 ml/m(2) criterion was replaced in the 2016 ASE/EACVI algorithm by LALS Reservoir <= 20%, the number of indeterminate patients was reduced from 36% to 23% (p < 0.001) at the expense of increasing normal studies (61% and 74%). Adding the LALS Reservoir criterion <= 23% in the 82 patients of the indeterminate group resulted in two groups with a different VO2max (11.6 +/- 3 and 18 +/- 5 ml/kg/min, p:0.081). Conclusions: This study confirms the low prevalence of diastolic dysfunction in overweight/obese patients with metabolic syndrome. Adding left atrial strain criterion to the current recommendations significantly reduces the number of indeterminate patients by reclassifying them as normal.
  • Autores: Álvarez-Mon, M. A. (Autor de correspondencia); Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio (Autor de correspondencia); Llavero-Valero, M.; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH
    ISSN: 1660-4601 Vol.19 N° 2 2022 págs. 784
    Resumen
    Background: Media outlets influence social attitudes toward health. Thus, it is important that they share contents which promote healthy habits. The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk. Analysis of tweets has become a tool for understanding perceptions on health issues. Methods: We investigated tweets posted between January 2009 and December 2019 by 25 major US media outlets about MedDiet and its components as well as the retweets and likes generated. In addition, we measured the sentiment analysis of these tweets and their dissemination. Results: In total, 1608 tweets, 123,363 likes and 48,946 retweets about MedDiet or its components were analyzed. Dairy (inversely weighted in MedDiet scores) accounted for 45.0% of the tweets (723/1608), followed by nuts 19.7% (317/1608). MedDiet, as an overall dietary pattern, generated only 9.8% (157/1608) of the total tweets, while olive oil generated the least number of tweets. Twitter users' response was quantitatively related to the number of tweets posted by these US media outlets, except for tweets on olive oil and MedDiet. None of the MedDiet components analyzed was more likely to be liked or retweeted than the MedDiet itself. Conclusions: The US media outlets analyzed showed reduced interest in MedDiet as a whole, while Twitter users showed greater interest in the overall dietary pattern than in its particular components.
  • Autores: Hernando-Redondo, J.; Toloba, A.; Benaiges, D.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN NUTRITION
    ISSN: 2296-861X Vol.9 2022 págs. 950900
    Resumen
    BackgroundObesity is produced by the enlargement of the adipose tissue. Functioning as an endocrine organ, it releases and receives information through a complex network of cytokines, hormones, and substrates contributing to a low-chronic inflammation environment. Diet and healthy habits play key roles in the prevention of obesity and its related pathologies. In this regard, there is a need to switch to healthier and more appetizing diets, such as the Mediterranean one. ObjectiveTo compare the mid-and long-term effects of two Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) interventions, one energy-reduced plus physical activity promotion versus a non-restrictive diet, on peripheral satiety-related hormones, weight loss, glucose/lipid metabolism, and pro-inflammatory markers in subjects with obesity/overweight and metabolic syndrome. Materials and methodsA randomized, lifestyle intervention was conducted in 23 Spanish centers, with a large cohort of patients presenting metabolic syndrome. Our study is a subproject set in IMIM (Hospital del Mar Research Institute). Participants were men and women, aged 55-75 and 60-75, respectively, who at baseline met at least three metabolic syndrome components. Subjects were assigned to two intervention groups: (1) an intensive lifestyle intervention with an energy-reduced MedDiet and physical activity promotion (intervention group) with the aim of weight loss; and (2) a normocaloric MedDiet (control). We quantified in a subsample of 300 volunteers from Hospital del Mar Research Institute (Barcelona), following analytes at baseline, 6 months, and 1 year: glucose, HbA1c, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, C-peptide, ghrelin, GLP-1, glucagon, insulin, leptin, PAI-1, resistin, and visfatin. Anthropometric and classical cardiovascular risk factors were also determined. A multivariate statistical model was employed to compare the two groups. Linear mixed-effect models were performed to compare changes in risk factors and biomarkers between intervention groups and over time. ResultsCompared to participants in the control group, those in intervention one showed greater improvements in weight, waist circumference, insulin (P < 0.001), glucose metabolism-related compounds (P < 0.05), triglyceride-related lipid profile (P < 0.05), leptin, blood pressure, and pro-inflammatory markers such as PAI-1 (P < 0.001) at mid-and/or long-term. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, resistin, and vifastin also decreased in both groups. ConclusionA weight loss intervention employing a hypocaloric MedDiet and physical activity promotion has beneficial effects on adiposity, glucose metabolism, lipid profile, leptin, and pro-inflammatory markers, such as PAI-1 in both mid-and long-term.
  • Autores: Marhuenda-Muñoz, M.; Domínguez-López, I.; Laveriano-Santos, E. P.; et al.
    Revista: ANTIOXIDANTS
    ISSN: 2076-3921 Vol.11 N° 8 2022 págs. 1540
    Resumen
    The intake of polyphenols has been associated with a risk reduction of type 2 diabetes. Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, the molecules that might be metabolically active after ingestion are only starting to be investigated regarding this metabolic disease. To investigate the association between one-year changes in urinary microbial phenolic metabolites (MPM) and the incidence of type 2 diabetes, we performed a case-control study using data and samples of the PREDIMED trial including 46 incident type 2 diabetes cases of 172 randomly selected participants. Eight urinary MPMs were quantified in urine by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and used to assess their associations with type 2 diabetes risk by multivariable logistic regression models. Compared to participants in the lowest tertile of one-year changes in hydroxybenzoic acid glucuronide, those in the highest tertile had a significantly lowered probability of developing type 2 diabetes (OR [95% CI], 0.39 [0.23-0.64]; p < 0.001 for trend). However, when additionally adjusting for fasting plasma glucose, the statistical significance was lost. Changes in the dietary pattern can increase the concentrations of this compound, derived from many (poly)phenol-rich foods, and might be changing the gut microbial population as well, promoting the production of the metabolite.
  • Autores: Sayon Orea, María del Carmen; Carlos Chillerón, Silvia (Autor de correspondencia); Rico-Campa, A.; et al.
    Revista: BMJ OPEN
    ISSN: 2044-6055 Vol.12 N° 1 2022 págs. e048498
    Resumen
    Objectives To evaluate the association between cancer screening counselling provided by medical doctors to their patients and each doctor's own anthropometrics, lifestyle, cancer screening practices, and personal and family history of cancer. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Substudy including physicians participating in a Spanish cohort study with open enrolment. Participants Among 22 800 participants in the cohort as of May 2018, there were 2371 physicians who had replied to the cohort baseline questionnaire, had an email account and were younger than 65 years (retirement age in Spain). From this subsample, 890 replied to an online questionnaire focused on their clinical practices related to the counselling provided to their patients and to their prescription practices of preventive medications. Their mean age was 51.7 (SD 9.4) years and 48% were women. Outcome measures Frequency of counselling given to their patients on specific practices of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer screenings. Results Counselling on cancer screening to their patients was provided by 65% of physicians in a scenario of colorectal cancer, 59% for prostate cancer and 58% for breast cancer. More frequent cancer screening counselling was associated with the specialties of family medicine (OR=9.4, 95% CI 5.1 to 17.1) and internal medicine (OR=2.9, 95% CI 1.5 to 5.7) as compared with other specialties. Recommending cancer screening was associated with more frequent counselling on smoking cessation (OR=3.7, 95% CI 2.6 to 5.4), having personally attended colorectal cancer screening (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.7) and prescribing blood pressure medication more often than their colleagues (OR=2.1, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.7). Conclusions Among medical doctors, cancer screening counselling was provided to their patients more frequently for doctors with family medicine or internal medicine specialties and for physicians who regularly offered counselling on certain lifestyle behaviours, and those having personally attended colorectal cancer screening. Doctors' own personal practices and knowledge of healthy lifestyles may help doctors to more frequently provide counselling on cancer screening to their patients.
  • Autores: Gutiérrez-Bedmar, M. (Autor de correspondencia); Gil, F.; Olmedo, P.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE
    ISSN: 2077-0383 Vol.11 N° 22 2022 págs. 6664
    Resumen
    Background: Selenium is an essential trace mineral with potential interest for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention owing to its antioxidant properties. Epidemiological data on selenium status and CVD remain inconsistent. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether low serum selenium (SSe) concentrations are related to an increased risk of a first CVD event in a population at high cardiovascular risk. Methods: We undertook a case-control study nested within the PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea (PREDIMED) trial. A total of 207 participants diagnosed with CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death) during the follow-up period (2003-2010) were matched by sex, age, and intervention group to 436 controls by incidence density sampling. Median time between serum sample collection and subsequent CVD event occurrence was 0.94 years. SSe levels were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Covariates were assessed through validated questionnaires, in-person interviews, and medical record reviews. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs). Results: Among women, the mean SSe concentration was lower in cases than in controls (98.5 mu g/L vs. 103.8 mu g/L; p = 0.016). In controls, SSe levels were directly associated with percentage of total energy intake from proteins and fish intake (p for linear trend < 0.001 and 0.049, respectively), whereas SSe concentrations were inversely associated with age, body mass index, and percentage of total energy intake from carbohydrates (p for linear trend < 0.001, 0.008 and 0.016 respectively). In the total group, we observed an inverse dose-response gradient between SSe levels and risk of CVD in the fully-adjusted model (highest vs. lowest quartile: OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.27-0.81; ptrend = 0.003). Conclusions: Among elderly individuals at high cardiovascular risk, high SSe concentrations within population reference values are associated with lower first CVD incidence.
  • Autores: Pano Espínola, Octavio; Sayon Orea, María del Carmen (Autor de correspondencia); Hershey de la Cruz, María Soledad; et al.
    Revista: HEALTHCARE
    ISSN: 2227-9032 Vol.10 N° 6 2022 págs. 1088
    Resumen
    Healthy and unhealthy lifestyles are tightly linked to general health and well-being. However, measurements of well-being have failed to include elements of health and easy to interpret information for patients seeking to improve lifestyles. Therefore, this study aimed to create an index for the assessment of general health and well-being along with two cut-off points: the lifestyle and well-being index (LWB-I). This was a cross-sectional analysis of 15,168 individuals. Internally valid multivariate linear models were constructed using key lifestyle features predicting a modified Short Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36) and used to score the LWB-I. Categorization of the LWB-I was based on self-perceived health (SPH) and analyzed using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Optimal cut-points identified individuals with poor and excellent SPH. Lifestyle and well-being were adequately accounted for using 12 lifestyle items. SPH groups had increasingly healthier lifestyle features and LWB-I scores; optimal cut-point for poor SPH were scores below 80 points (AUC: 0.80 (0.79, 0.82); sensitivity 75.7%, specificity 72.3%)) and above 86 points for excellent SPH (AUC: 0.67 (0.66, 0.69); sensitivity 61.4%, specificity 63.3%). Lifestyle and well-being were quantitatively scored based on their associations with a general health measure in order to create the LWB-I along with two cut points.
  • Autores: Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio; Toledo Atucha, Estefanía; Buil Cosiales, Pilar; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN: 1436-6207 Vol.61 N° 3 2022 págs. 1457 - 1475
    Resumen
    Purpose Long-term nutrition trials may fail to respond to their original hypotheses if participants do not comply with the intended dietary intervention. We aimed to identify baseline factors associated with successful dietary changes towards an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) in the PREDIMED-Plus randomized trial. Methods Longitudinal analysis of 2985 participants (Spanish overweight/obese older adults with metabolic syndrome) randomized to the active intervention arm of the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Dietary changes were assessed with a 17-item energy-reduced MedDiet questionnaire after 6 and 12 months of follow-up. Successful compliance was defined as dietary changes from baseline of >= 5 points for participants with baseline scores < 13 points or any increase if baseline score was >= 13 points. We conducted crude and adjusted multivariable logistic regression models to identify baseline factors related to compliance. Results Consistent factors independently associated with successful dietary change at both 6 and 12 months were high baseline perceived self-efficacy in modifying diet (OR6-month: 1.51, 95% CI 1.25-1.83; OR12-month: 1.66, 95% CI 1.37-2.01), higher baseline fiber intake (OR6-month: 1.62, 95% CI 1.07-2.46; OR12-month: 1.62, 95% CI 1.07-2.45), having > 3 chronic conditions (OR6-month: 0.65, 95% CI 0.53-0.79; OR12-month: 0.76, 95% CI 0.62-0.93), and suffering depression (OR6-month: 0.80, 95% CI 0.64-0.99; OR12-month: 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.88). Conclusion Our results suggested that recruitment of individuals with high perceived self-efficacy to dietary change, and those who initially follow diets relatively richer in fiber may lead to greater changes in nutritional recommendations. Participants with multiple chronic conditions, specifically depression, should receive specific tailored interventions.
  • Autores: Vanegas, P.; Zazpe García, Itzíar; Santiago Neri, Susana; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN: 1436-6207 Vol.61 N° 7 2022 págs. 3517 - 3530
    Resumen
    Purpose To assess the association between a multi-dimensional Macronutrient Quality Index (MQI) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a Mediterranean cohort. Methods Prospective analyses among 18,418 participants (mean age 36 years, 60.8% women) of the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort. Dietary intake information was obtained through a validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The MQI (expressing high-quality macronutrient intake) was calculated based on three previously reported quality indices: the Carbohydrate Quality Index (CQI), the Fat Quality Index (FQI), and the Healthy Plate Protein source Quality Index (HPPQI). Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and Provegetarian Diet was evaluated using the Trichopoulou index and the score proposed by Martinez-Gonzalez, respectively. CVD was defined as new-onset stroke, myocardial infarction, or CVD death. Results After a median follow-up time of 14 years (211,744 person-years), 171 cases of CVD were identified. A significant inverse association was found between the MQI and CVD risk with multivariable-adjusted HR for the highest vs. the lowest quartile of 0.60 (95% IC, 0.38-0.96; P-trend = 0.024). Conclusion In this Mediterranean cohort, we found a significant inverse relationship between a multidimensional MQI (expressing high-quality macronutrient intake) and a lower risk of CVD.
  • Autores: Mico, V. (Autor de correspondencia); San-Cristóbal, R. (Autor de correspondencia); Martin, R.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY
    ISSN: 1664-2392 Vol.13 2022 págs. 936956
    Resumen
    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is one of the most important medical problems around the world. Identification of patient ' s singular characteristic could help to reduce the clinical impact and facilitate individualized management. This study aimed to categorize MetS patients using phenotypical and clinical variables habitually collected during health check-ups of individuals considered to have high cardiovascular risk. The selected markers to categorize MetS participants included anthropometric variables as well as clinical data, biochemical parameters and prescribed pharmacological treatment. An exploratory factor analysis was carried out with a subsequent hierarchical cluster analysis using the z-scores from factor analysis. The first step identified three different factors. The first was determined by hypercholesterolemia and associated treatments, the second factor exhibited glycemic disorders and accompanying treatments and the third factor was characterized by hepatic enzymes. Subsequently four clusters of patients were identified, where cluster 1 was characterized by glucose disorders and treatments, cluster 2 presented mild MetS, cluster 3 presented exacerbated levels of hepatic enzymes and cluster 4 highlighted cholesterol and its associated treatments Interestingly, the liver status related cluster was characterized by higher protein consumption and cluster 4 with low polyunsaturated fatty acid intake. This research emphasized the potential clinical relevance of hepatic impairments in addition to MetS traditional characterization for precision and personalized management of MetS patients.
  • Autores: Donat-Vargas, C. (Autor de correspondencia); Sandoval-Insausti, H.; Peñalvo, J. L.; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0261-5614 Vol.41 N° 1 2022 págs. 122 - 130
    Resumen
    Background & aims: The specific association of olive oil consumption with coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke has not been totally established. Objective: to examine whether olive oil consumption is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, the risk of total cardiovascular disease (CVD), CHD, and stroke. Methods: Three cohorts were included: AWHS (2318 men), SUN Project (18,266 men and women), and EPIC-Spain (39,393 men and women). Olive oil consumption was measured at baseline using validated questionnaires. Results: In the AWHS, 747 participants had a positive coronary artery calcium score (CACS>0), and the OR (95% CI) was 0.89 (0.72, 1.10) in those with virgin olive oil consumption >30 g/day (v. <10 g/day). In the SUN Project (follow-up 10.8 years) 261 total CVD cases occurred, and the HR was 0.57 (0.34, 0.96) for consumptions >30 g/day (v. <10 g/day). In the EPIC-Spain (follow-up 22.8 years) 1300 CHD cases and 938 stroke cases occurred; the HRs for stroke according, 0 to <10 (ref), 10 to <20, 20 to <30, and >30 g/day of olive oil consumption, were 0.84 (0.70, 1.02), 0.80 (0.66, 0.96), 0.89 (0.74, 1.07). A weaker association was observed for CHD. The association was stronger among those consuming virgin olive oil, instead of common (refined). Conclusions: Olive oil is associated with lower risk of CVD and stroke. The maximum benefit could be obtained with a consumption between 20 and 30 g/day. The association could be stronger for virgin olive oil and might operate from the early stages of the disease.
  • Autores: Martínez-Urbistondo, D. (Autor de correspondencia); San Cristóbal, R.; Villares, P.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY
    ISSN: 1664-2392 Vol.13 2022 págs. 868795
    Resumen
    ObjectiveTo evaluate the effect of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) status in the impact of lifestyle over Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). MethodsBaseline and 1 year follow up data from the PREDIMED-plus cohort (men and women, 55-75 years old with overweight/obesity and MetS) were studied. Adherence to an energy-restricted Mediterranean Diet (er-MeDiet) and Physical Activity (PA) were assessed with a validated screeners. Hepatic steatosis index (HSI) was implemented to evaluate NAFLD while the SF-36 questionnaire provided HRQoL evaluation. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the influence of baseline NAFLD on HRQoL as affected by lifestyle during 1 year of follow up. ResultsData from 5205 patients with mean age of 65 years and a 48% of female participants. Adjusted linear multivariate mixed regression models showed that patients with lower probability of NAFLD (HSI < 36 points) were more responsive to er-MeDiet (beta 0.64 vs beta 0.05 per er-MeDiet adherence point, p< 0.01) and PA (beta 0.05 vs beta 0.01 per MET-h/week, p = 0.001) than those with high probability for NAFLD in terms Physical SF-36 summary in the 1 year follow up. 10 points of er-MeDiet adherence and 50 MET-h/week were thresholds for a beneficial effect of lifestyle on HRQoL physical domain in patients with lower probability of NAFLD. ConclusionThe evaluation of NAFLD by the HSI index in patients with MetS might identify subjects with different prospective sensitivity to lifestyle changes in terms of physical HRQoL (http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN89898870).
  • Autores: Hershey de la Cruz, María Soledad; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Álvarez-Álvarez, I.; et al.
    Revista: BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0007-1145 Vol.128 N° 7 2022 págs. 1413 - 1424
    Resumen
    Diet and physical activity (PA) have been studied extensively in epidemiology as single or combined lifestyle factors; however, their interaction has not been studied thoroughly. Studying potential synergisms between lifestyle components with a comprehensive interaction analysis, including additive measures of interaction, provides key insights into the nature of their joint effect and helps target interventions more effectively. First, a comprehensive review was conducted to assess the potential research gap regarding reported interaction analyses conducted in studies assessing the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) in combination with PA on all-cause mortality. Thereafter, we prospectively assessed the joint association of the MedDiet with PA on all-cause mortality in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, followed by both multiplicative and additive interaction analyses. The conjoint effect of low adherence to the MedDiet and low PA observed an increased risk greater than the individual risk factors, suggesting a potential additive interaction or synergism between both exposures, with relative risk due to interaction (RERI) and (95 % confidence interval (95 % CI)) = 0.46 (-0.83 to 1.75) and attributable proportion (95 % CI) due to interaction of 36 % (-0.62, 1.34). No multiplicative interaction was detected. Studying interactions between lifestyle factors, such as the MedDiet and PA, is particularly relevant given the current research gaps in studying the complexities of combined aspects of lifestyle in comparison with isolated behaviours. Our findings underline the important public health message of adhering to both the MedDiet and PA for the prevention of premature mortality.
  • Autores: Camacho-Barcia, L.; García-Gavilán, J.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; et al.
    Revista: AGE AND AGEING
    ISSN: 0002-0729 Vol.51 N° 2 2022 págs. afab246
    Resumen
    Background In the last years, evidence that dietary vitamin K could have a role in the cognitive domain has increased. However, data from large trials are limited. The objective of this study was to assess the association of 2 year changes in the dietary intake of vitamin K with cognitive function measured through neuropsychological performance tests. Methods In 5,533 participants of the multicentre PREDIMED-Plus study (48.1% women, age 65.1 +/- 4.9 years with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome), we assessed the adjusted odds ratios of cognitive function decline according to 2 year changes in vitamin K intake. Participants answered a battery of cognitive function tests and Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) in order to estimate the vitamin K dietary intake. Results After adjusting for potential cofounders, the highest tertile of change of dietary vitamin K intake (median [IQR]; 194.4 mu g/d [120.9, 373.1]) was inversely associated with a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score <= 24 (OR [95% CI]; 0.53 [0.35, 0.79] P for trend = 0.002) compared with a decrease in the intake of vitamin K (median [IQR]; -97.8 mu g/d [-292.8, -51.5]). A significant positive association between changes in dietary vitamin K intake and the semantic verbal fluency test scores (OR [95% CI]; 0.69 [0.51, 0.94] P for trend = 0.019) was found. Conclusions An increase of the intake of dietary vitamin K was associated with better cognitive function scores, independently of recognised risk factors for cognitive decline, in an older adult Mediterranean population with high cardiovascular risk.
  • Autores: Moreno Montañés, Javier; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, I.; Gándara Rodríguez de Campoamor, Elsa Pilar; et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF OPHTHALMOLOGY
    ISSN: 1120-6721 Vol.32 N° 2 2022 págs. 999 - 1008
    Resumen
    Purpose: To assess the association between carbohydrates (CH) intake and glaucoma incidence. Methods: 18,247 volunteer participants (183,067 person-years at risk) with 10-year of median follow-up were included in this prospective dynamic cohort. Baseline total CH intake (g/d) was categorised in quartiles and classified in nine different CH food sources. Self-reported diagnosis of glaucoma was collected at baseline and on biennial follow-up questionnaires. CH intake and glaucoma diagnosis were validated in a subsample of participants. We studied potential confounders and effect modificators, including diabetes. The relationship between CH intake and glaucoma incidence was analysed using multivariable Cox proportional hazards ratio (HR) models to adjust for potential confounding factors. Results: During 10 years of median follow-up, a total of 242 new cases of glaucoma were identified. Participants in the highest quartile of baseline CH intake had a significantly higher risk of glaucoma as compared to participants in the lowest quartile [HR 1.50 (95% Confidence interval (CI): 1.01-2.25), p for trend = 0.042]. None of the nine CH food groups was individually related to glaucoma. In stratified analyses, after excluding all cases of diabetes, the HR comparing extreme quartiles of CH intake was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.15-2.74). Conclusions: Our results suggest that a higher intake of total carbohydrates is associated with a higher risk of incident glaucoma. The total amount of CH, rather than the specific food sources of CH, seems to play a major role, and this association does not seem to be confounded or modified by diabetic status.
  • Autores: Goñi Mateos, Leticia; Gil Conesa, Mario; De la O Pascual, Víctor; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.14 N° 6 2022 págs. 1136
    Resumen
    Home cooking and the type of cooking techniques can have an effect on our health. However, as far as we know, there is no questionnaire that measures in depth the frequency and type of cooking techniques used at home. Our aim was to design a new Home Cooking Frequency Questionnaire (HCFQ) and to preliminarily assess its psychometric properties. For this purpose we used a five-phase approach, as follows: Phase 1: item generation based on expert opinion, relevant literature and previous surveys; Phase 2: content validity assessed by experts for relevance and clarity (epidemiologists, dietitians, chefs); Phase 3: face validity and inter-item reliability; Phase 4: criterion validity using a 7-day food and culinary record; and Phase 5: test stability and inter-item reliability. The content validity index for scale and item level values provided evidence of the content validity for relevance and clarity. Criterion validity analysis showed intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.31-0.69. Test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from 0.49-0.92, with ¿ values &gt; 0.44. Overall Cronbach's alpha was 0.90. In conclusion, the HCFQ is a promising tool with sound content and face validity, substantial criterion validity, and adequate reliability. This 174-item HCFQ is the first questionnaire to assess how often people cook and which cooking methods they use at home.
  • Autores: Hernández-Ruiz, A. (Autor de correspondencia); García-Villanova, B.; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; et al.
    Revista: REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE NUTRICION HUMANA Y DIETETICA
    ISSN: 2173-1292 Vol.26 N° 1 2022 págs. 19 - 29
    Resumen
    Introduction: The aims of the present study were to estimate the vitamin K-1 content of the menu offered in a nursing home and its adequacy to the recommendations, to determine its dietary sources and to classify the dishes on the menu. Methodology: Cross-sectional descriptive study. The dietary intake of vitamin K1 from the dietary menu offered in a public nursing home (Valladolid, Spain) was studied. The dietary study was performed by estimating the theoretical dietary intake of the basal menu offered during 14 consecutive days consumed by 138 elderly individuals. Vitamin Ki intake was estimated using data from the food composition table of Ortega-Anta et al, 2010. Results: The mean vitamin K-1 intake was 224 (standard deviation, 128 mu g/day) with a very similar amount between weeks and a great variation between days (97-586 mu g/day). The main source of this micronutrient was vegetables, especially green leafy vegetables (chard, cabbage, lettuce). The vitamin K-1 content of the menu offered was more than three times higher (320%) than the adequate intake recommended by EFSA and more than double (249-280%) the AESAN dietary intakes. The food groups that contributed most vitamin K-1 to the diet were vegetables (41.7%) and fruits (28.6%). Based on the Nutrition Care Manual classification, dishes were categorised into 4 free of vitamin K-1, 23 with low, 13 with moderate and 4 with a high amount of this micronutrient. Conclusions: In the menu offered in this nursing home, the estimated dietary intake of vitamin K-1 was between two and three times higher than recommended (AESAN and EFSA). In the long term, high intakes of vitamin K-1 could have health benefits associated with age-related diseases.
  • Autores: Melero Bermejo, Ignacio; Villalba Esparza, María; Recalde Zamacona, Borja; et al.
    Revista: CHEST
    ISSN: 0012-3692 Vol.162 N° 5 2022 págs. 1006 - 1016
    Resumen
    BACKGROUND: Excessive inflammation is pathogenic in the pneumonitis associated with severe COVID-19. Neutrophils are among the most abundantly present leukocytes in the inflammatory infiltrates and may form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) under the local influence of cytokines. NETs constitute a defense mechanism against bacteria, but have also been shown to mediate tissue damage in a number of diseases. RESEARCH QUESTION: Could NETs and their tissue-damaging properties inherent to neutrophil- associated functions play a role in the respiratory failure seen in patients with severe COVID-19, and how does this relate to the SARS-CoV-2 viral loads, IL-8 (CXCL8) chemokine expression, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte infiltrates? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixteen lung biopsy samples obtained immediately after death were analyzed methodically as exploratory and validation cohorts. NETs were analyzed quantitatively by multiplexed immunofluorescence and were correlated with local levels of IL-8 messenger RNA (mRNA) and the density of CD8+ T-cell infiltration. SARS-CoV-2 presence in tissue was quantified by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry analysis. RESULTS: NETs were found in the lung interstitium and surrounding the bronchiolar epithelium with interindividual and spatial heterogeneity. NET density did not correlate with SARS-CoV-2 tissue viral load. NETs were associated with local IL-8 mRNA levels. NETs were also detected in pulmonary thrombi and in only one of eight liver tissues. NET focal presence correlated negatively with CD8+ T-cell infiltration in the lungs. INTERPRETATION: Abundant neutrophils undergoing NETosis are found in the lungs of patients with fatal COVID-19, but no correlation was found with viral loads. The strong association between NETs and IL-8 points to this chemokine as a potentially causative factor. The function of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes in the immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 may be interfered with by the presence of NETs.
  • Autores: Pimenta, A. M. (Autor de correspondencia); Mendonca, R. D.; Lahortiga Ramos, Francisca; et al.
    Revista: CADERNOS DE SAUDE PUBLICA
    ISSN: 0102-311X Vol.38 N° 2 2022 págs. e00076621
    Resumen
    The study aimed to prospectively examine the association between different sedentary behaviors and the risk of depression. We included 12,691 Spanish university graduates (mean age: 36.7 year; SD: 11.5), participants of the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra cohort (the SUN Project), initially free of depression who were followed-up fir a median of 10.9 years. Based on items presented in our baseline questionnaire, time spent in four sedentary behaviors (hours/day) were evaluated: overall sitting time; TV-viewing; computer use; and driving. Participants were classified as incident cases of depression if they reported a physician diagnosis of depression in at least one of the followup assessments conducted after the first two years offollow-up. Cox regression models were used to assess the relationship between sedentary behaviors and depression. A total of 560 incident cases of depression were identified during follow-up. We found no significant association between overall sitting time, TV-viewing or driving and risk of depression. On the other hand, computer use was directly associated with the risk of developing depression during the follow-up (p-value for trend = 0.020), with the participants in the highest quartile of computer use (3.64 to 10 hours/week) having a higher risk of developing depression (HR = 1.33; 95%CI: 1.05-1.70) than those in the lowest quartile (0 to 0.25 hours/week) after adjusting for potential confounders. Prolonged use of computer was independently associated with an increased risk of developing depression among young middle-aged adult university graduates from a Spanish cohort.
  • Autores: Arredondo Montero, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Antona, G.; Bardaji Pascual, C.; et al.
    Revista: PEDIATRIC SURGERY INTERNATIONAL
    ISSN: 0179-0358 Vol.38 N° 11 2022 págs. 1569 - 1576
    Resumen
    Introduction NGAL has recently been studied as a biomarker in the diagnostic context of pediatric acute appendicitis (PAA), although existing series are scarce and have limited sample sizes. Materials and methods A prospective observational study was designed to validate serum NGAL as a diagnostic tool in PAA. This study included 215 patients, divided into 3 groups: (1) patients undergoing major outpatient surgery (n = 63), (2) patients with non-surgical abdominal pain in whom a diagnosis of PAA was excluded (n = 53) and (3) patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PAA (n = 99). Patients in group 3 were divided into complicated or uncomplicated appendicitis. In 201 patients, a serum sample was obtained at the time of diagnosis and NGAL concentration was determined by ELISA. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to assess normality. Comparative statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test, the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Fisher's exact test. To calculate the discriminative ability of the molecule, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUC) was calculated. A p value < 0.05 established statistical significance. Results Median (interquartile range) of serum NGAL values were 38.88 (27.15-48.04) ng/mL (group 1), 51.84 (37.33-69.80) ng/mL (group 2) and 65.06 (50.50-86.60) ng/mL (group 3). The AUC (group 2 vs 3) was 0.642 (95% CI 0.542-0.741) (p < 0.001) and the best cutoff point was found to be at 40.97 ng/mL, with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 34.6%. No statistically significant differences in serum NGAL values were found between patients with uncomplicated PAA and those with complicated PAA. Conclusions This prospective validation study with a large sample size confirms that the diagnostic yield of NGAL in the context of PAA is only moderate, and therefore, it should not be used as a unique diagnostic tool. Furthermore, NGAL is not a valid biomarker to discern between uncomplicated and complicated PAA.
  • Autores: Moreno Montañés, Javier; Gándara Rodríguez de Campoamor, Elsa Pilar; Moreno-Galarraga, L.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.14 N° 23 2022 págs. 5129
    Resumen
    Background: Previous studies regarding antioxidant consumption and glaucoma have shown contradictory results. The aim of this study was to analyze the combined effect of the consumption of three vitamins (A, C and E) on the incidence of glaucoma in the SUN Project. Methods: For this study, 18,669 participants were included. The mean follow-up was 11.5 years. An index including vitamins A, C and E (ACE-Vitamin Index) was calculated. Vitamin intake was extracted from participants' dietary data and vitamin supplements, if taken. Information on glaucoma incidence was collected by previously validated self-reported questionnaires. The association between glaucoma and vitamin intake was assessed by repeated-measures Cox regression using multi-adjusted hazard ratios. Results: A total of 251 (1.3%) cases of glaucoma were detected. Participants with a higher ACE-Vitamin Index presented a reduced risk of glaucoma compared to participants with lower consumption (adjusted HR = 0.73; 95% CI, (0.55-0.98)). When each vitamin was analyzed individually, none of them had a significant protective effect. The protective effect of the ACE-Vitamin Index was higher in men and older participants (>= 55 year). Conclusions: The consumption of vitamins A, C and E considered separately do not seem to exert a protective effect against glaucoma, but when these vitamins are considered together, they are associated with a lower risk of glaucoma.
  • Autores: Tresserra-Rimbau, A. (Autor de correspondencia); Castro-Barquero, S.; Becerra-Tomas, N.; et al.
    Revista: ANTIOXIDANTS
    ISSN: 2076-3921 Vol.11 N° 2 2022 págs. 316
    Resumen
    Previous studies suggested that dietary polyphenols could reduce the incidence and complications of type-2 diabetes (T2D); although the evidence is still limited and inconsistent. This work analyzes whether changing to a diet with a higher polyphenolic content is associated with an improved glucose profile. At baseline, and at 1 year of follow-up visits, 5921 participants (mean age 65.0 ± 4.9, 48.2% women) who had overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome filled out a validated 143-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), from which polyphenol intakes were calculated. Energy-adjusted total polyphenols and subclasses were categorized in tertiles of changes. Linear mixed-effect models with random intercepts (the recruitment centers) were used to assess associations between changes in polyphenol subclasses intake and 1-year plasma glucose or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Increments in total polyphenol intake and some classes were inversely associated with better glucose levels and HbA1c after one year of follow-up. These associations were modified when the analyses were run considering diabetes status separately. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the relationship between changes in the intake of all polyphenolic groups and T2D-related parameters in a senior population with T2D or at high-risk of developing T2D.
  • Autores: Muralidharan, J.; Papandreou, C.; Soria-Florido, M. T.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0022-3166 Vol.152 N° 3 2022 págs. 789 - 795
    Resumen
    Background: Cell membrane fatty acid composition has been related to inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Dysregulation of HDL function is also considered a CVD risk factor. Objectives: We aimed to investigate whether the content of cell membrane fatty acids and HDL functionality are linked to each other as well as to inflammation. Methods: This cross-sectional analysis involved 259 participants (mean age: 67.9 y) with overweight/obesity (mean BMI: 29.5 kg/m(2)) from a coronary artery disease case-control study nested within the PREDIMED (PREvencion con Dleta MEDiterranea) trial for which HDL functional parameters [apoA-I, apoA-IV, and apoC-III; cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC); HDL oxidative inflammatory index (HOII); sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P); serum amyloid A (SAA); and complement-3 (C3) protein] were quantified. We also assessed 22 fatty acids in blood cell membranes using GC and inflammatory markers (IFN-gamma and IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) in serum. Associations of HDL-related variables with cell membrane fatty acids and with inflammatory markers were assessed using multivariable linear regression analyses with elastic net penalty. Results: ApoA-I, apoC-III, CEC, HOII, S1P and SAA, but not apoA-IV and C3 protein, were associated with membrane fatty acids. S1P and SAA were directly associated with IL-6, whereas apoA-I and C3 protein showed inverse associations with IL-6. Specific fatty acids including myristic acid (14:0) and long-chain n-6 fatty acids being negatively and positively associated with IL-8, respectively, were also found to be positively associated with SAA. Conclusions: This study suggests interrelations between indicators of inflammation and both blood cell membrane fatty acid composition and HDL structure/functional parameters in a Mediterranean population at high CVD risk.
  • Autores: Vázquez Ruiz, Zenaida; Toledo Atucha, Estefanía; Vitelli-Storelli, F.; et al.
    Revista: ANTIOXIDANTS
    ISSN: 2076-3921 Vol.11 N° 4 2022 págs. 783
    Resumen
    The health benefits of plant-based diets have been reported. Plant-based diets found in Spain and other Mediterranean countries differ from typical diets in other countries. In the Mediterranean diet, a high intake of phenolic compounds through olives, olive oil, and red wine may play an important role in cardiovascular prevention. Prospective studies carried out in Mediterranean countries may provide interesting insights. A relatively young Mediterranean cohort of 16,147 Spanish participants free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) was followed (61% women, mean (SD) age 37(12) years at baseline) for a median of 12.2 years. Dietary intake was repeatedly assessed using a 136-item validated food frequency questionnaire, and (poly)phenol intake was obtained using the Phenol-Explorer database. Participants were classified as incident cases of CVD if a medical diagnosis of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death was medically confirmed. Time-dependent Cox regression models were used to assess the relationship between (poly)phenol intake and the incidence of major CVD. A suboptimal intake of phenolic compounds was independently associated with a higher risk of CVD, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for the lowest versus top 4 quintiles: 1.85 (95% CI: 1.09-3.16). A moderate-to-high dietary intake of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, is likely to reduce CVD incidence in the context of a Mediterranean dietary pattern.
  • Autores: Pardavila Belio, Idoia; De la O Pascual, Víctor; Hershey de la Cruz, María Soledad; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0899-9007 Vol.103 - 104 2022 págs. 111761
    Resumen
    Objectives: Although low-quality diets and smoking are independently associated with higher mortality risk, a joint analysis of both risk factors in relation to mortality has not been sufficiently studied. The aim of this study was to explore the effect modification between level of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern (MedDiet) and smoking status on all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality.Methods: We conducted a prospective analysis to assess the association between diet and smoking status in the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) cohort study. Deaths were confirmed by review of the National Death Index. Participants were classified into six categories according to the MedDiet (adherence/non-adherence) and their exposure to smoking (never/former/current smoker). Multivariate-adjusted Cox regression models were fitted to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for mortality. During a mean follow-up of 11.5 y (SD 4.5), we observed 18 948 participants (mean age 38.4 y; SD 12.4) and 431 deaths (51.3% cancer deaths). Results: A higher risk for death was found among smokers with a low adherence to the MedDiet (HR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.45-3.34) compared with never smokers with high adherence to the MedDiet. The P value for supra-multiplicative effect modification was not statistically significant, meaning that the effect of both factors is multiplicative. A higher risk for premature death from cancer was found in smokers and in those nonadherent with the MedDiet.Conclusion: Smoking and poor adherence to the MedDiet exerted a multiplicative effect in increasing allcause mortality and cancer-related mortality in a Spanish population of university graduates.(c) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
  • Autores: Valle-Hita, C.; Becerra-Tomás, N.; Díaz-López, A. (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN NUTRITION
    ISSN: 2296-861X Vol.9 2022 págs. 986190
    Resumen
    BackgroundDiets high in acid load may contribute to kidney function impairment. This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary acid load and 1-year changes in glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR). MethodsOlder adults with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome (mean age 65 +/- 5 years, 48% women) from the PREDIMED-Plus study who had available data on eGFR (n = 5,874) or UACR (n = 3,639) at baseline and after 1 year of follow-up were included in this prospective analysis. Dietary acid load was estimated as potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) at baseline from a food frequency questionnaire. Linear and logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the associations between baseline tertiles of dietary acid load and kidney function outcomes. One year-changes in eGFR and UACR were set as the primary outcomes. We secondarily assessed >= 10% eGFR decline or >= 10% UACR increase. ResultsAfter multiple adjustments, individuals in the highest tertile of PRAL or NEAP showed higher one-year changes in eGFR (PRAL, beta: -0.64 ml/min/1.73 m(2); 95% CI: -1.21 to -0.08 and NEAP, beta: -0.56 ml/min/1.73 m(2); 95% CI: -1.13 to 0.01) compared to those in the lowest category. No associations with changes in UACR were found. Participants with higher levels of PRAL and NEAP had significantly higher odds of developing >= 10% eGFR decline (PRAL, OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.07-1.54 and NEAP, OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.03-1.50) and >= 10 % UACR increase (PRAL, OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.04-1.46) compared to individuals with lower dietary acid load. ConclusionsHigher PRAL and NEAP were associated with worse kidney function after 1 year of follow-up as measured by eGFR and UACR markers in an older Spanish population with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome.
  • Autores: Barbería Latasa, María; Bes Rastrollo, Maira; Pérez Araluce, Rafael María; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.14 N° 24 2022 págs. 5310
    Resumen
    Background: Most of the available epidemiological evidence on alcohol and chronic disease agrees on recommending alcohol abstention to young people, but some controversy exists about the most appropriate recommendation for alcohol abstention for people of older ages. A growing body of evidence suggests that the pattern of alcohol consumption is likely to be a strong effect modifier. The Mediterranean Alcohol Drinking Pattern (MADP) represents a score integrating several dimensions of drinking patterns (moderation, preference for red wine, drinking with meals, and avoiding binge drinking). Our aim was to clarify this issue and provide more precise recommendations on alcohol consumption. Methods: We prospectively followed-up 2226 participants (men older than 50 years and women older than 55 years at baseline) in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort. We classified participants into three categories of adherence to the MADP score (low, moderate, and high), and we added a fourth category for abstainers. Cox regression models estimated multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of all-cause death and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using low MADP adherence as the reference category. Results: The strongest reduction in risk of mortality was observed for those with high adherence to the MADP, with an HR of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.37-0.80). The moderate adherence group (HR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44-0.96) and the abstention group (HR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.36-0.98) also exhibited lower risks of mortality than the low MADP adherence group. Conclusions: based on the available evidence, a public health message can be provided to people older than 50 years as follows: among those who drink alcohol, high adherence to the MADP score could substantially reduce their risk of all-cause mortality.
  • Autores: Bullon Vela, Maria Vanessa; Sayon Orea, María del Carmen; Gómez-Donoso, C.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN NUTRITION
    ISSN: 2296-861X Vol.9 2022 págs. 951738
    Resumen
    Background and aimsFront-of-Pack (FoP) nutrition labelling has been established as a policy, empowering consumers to choose healthy food options for preventing diet-related non-communicable diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the association between the nutrient profile underlying the Chilean warning label score and all-cause mortality and to conduct a calibration with the Nutri-Score in a large cohort of Spanish university graduates. Materials and methodsThis prospective cohort study analysed 20,666 participants (8,068 men and 12,598 women) with a mean (standard deviation) age of 38 years (+/- 12.4) from the SUN cohort. Dietary food intake was assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire at baseline and after 10 years of follow-up. The warning label score was calculated by considering the threshold of nutrients (sugar, saturated fat, and sodium) and energy density per 100 g/ml of product, as established by Chilean Legislation. Participants were classified according to quartiles of consumption of daily label score: Q1 (<= 5.0), Q2 (>5.0-7.1), Q3 (>7.1-9.8), and Q4 (>9.8). Time-dependent, multivariable-adjusted Cox models were applied. To compare the performance of the warning label score and Nutri-Score to predict mortality, we used the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) methods. ResultsDuring a median of 12.2 years of follow-up, 467 deaths were identified. A higher score in the warning label values (lower nutritional quality) was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR (95% CI) Q4 vs. Q1: 1.51 (1.07-2.13); p-trend = 0.010] and cancer mortality [HR (95% CI) Q4 vs. Q1: 1.91 (1.18-3.10); p-trend = 0.006]. However, no statistically significant association was found for cardiovascular mortality. Furthermore, the warning label score and Nutri-Score exhibited comparable AIC and BIC values, showing similar power of prediction for mortality. ConclusionA diet with a higher warning label score (>9.8 per day) was a good predictor of all cases and cancer mortality in a large Spanish cohort of university graduates. Also, the warning label score was capable to predict mortality as well as the Nutri-Score. Our findings support the validity of the warning label score as a FoP nutrition labelling policy since it can highlight less healthy food products.
  • Autores: García-Blanco, L.; Berasaluce, A.; Romanos Nanclares, Andrea; et al.
    Revista: WORLD JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS
    ISSN: 1708-8569 Vol.18 N° 7 2022 págs. 482 - 489
    Resumen
    Background The association between parental perception of child's weight and their attitudes towards his/her dietary habits has not been reported yet. This study aimed to assess the association between parental underestimation of child's weight and parental attitudes towards child's dietary habits. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of SENDO cohort participants recruited between January 2015 and June 2020. All information was collected through online questionnaires completed by parents. We calculated crude and multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for unhealthy attitudes towards child's dietary habits associated with parental underestimation of child's weight. Results Sixteen percent of children in the SENDO project had parents who underestimated their weight. Parents who underestimated their child's weight status were more likely to have unhealthy attitudes toward his/her dietary habits [OR 3.35; 95% CI (1.71-6.53)]. Conclusions Parental underestimation of child's weight was associated with unhealthy attitudes towards child's dietary habits. Pediatricians and public health practitioners should pay attention to the parental perception of child's weight to identify parents who underestimate it as an at-risk group in which to inquire about lifestyle and dietary habits.
  • Autores: Hershey de la Cruz, María Soledad; Sánchez-Villegas, A.; Sotos-Prieto, M.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0022-3166 Vol.152 N° 1 2022 págs. 227 - 234
    Resumen
    Background: Recent evidence has indicated a greater number of protective factors are associated with a greater decreased risk for depression and depressive symptoms compared with individual factors alone. Moreover, adherence to healthy modifiable lifestyle behaviors may lower the risk of depression regardless of underlying genetic risk. Objectives: We longitudinally evaluated the association of the Mediterranean lifestyle (MEDLIFE) with the risk of depression. Methods: We prospectively analyzed data from 15,279 participants (6089 men and 9190 women, mean age 37 y) in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra cohort. The MEDLIFE index is composed of 28 items on food consumption, dietary habits, physical activity, rest, social habits, and conviviality, each of which was assigned 0 or 1 point. Final scores ranged from 0 to 28 points and were categorized into quartiles of MEDLIFE adherence. Cox proportional regression models determined the association of total MEDLIFE adherence, each item, and block with incident depression. Results: After a mean follow-up of 11.7 y, 912 (6%) incident cases of depression were reported. The mean +/- SD final score for MEDLIFE adherence was 11.9 +/- 2.7 points. The multivariable model showed that compared with the first quartile, the second and third quartiles of MEDLIFE adherence were significantly associated with a decreased relative risk for incident depression (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.96 and HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.89, respectively). The fourth quartile did not show a statistically significant association with incident depression (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.73, 1.09). Conclusions: MEDLIFE adherence may decrease the risk of depression in a Spanish cohort of university graduates. Given no clear association was observed among the highest MEDLIFE adherence, future studies are warranted to better understand the nature of this association. Evidence on MEDLIFE, beyond the Mediterranean diet, may contribute toward more effective prevention strategies for depression.
  • Autores: López, L.; Rossello, X. (Autor de correspondencia); Romaguera, D.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE
    ISSN: 2297-055X Vol.9 2022 págs. 909347
    Resumen
    Background: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Characterization of cardiac structural and functional abnormalities due to the MetS can help recognize individuals who would benefit the most from preventive interventions. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) provides an opportunity to identify those abnormalities in a reproducible and cost-efficient manner. In research settings, implementation of protocols for the acquisition and analysis of TTE images are key to ensure validity and reproducibility, thus facilitating answering relevant questions about the association of the MetS with cardiac alterations. Methods and Results: The Palma Echo Platform (PEP) is a coordinated network that is built up to evaluate the underlying structural and functional cardiac substrate of participants with MetS. Repeated TTE will be used to evaluate 5-year changes in the cardiac structure and function in a group of 565 individuals participating in a randomized trial of a lifestyle intervention for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The echocardiographic studies will be performed at three study sites, and will be centrally evaluated at the PEP core laboratory. Planned analyses will involve evaluating the effect of the lifestyle intervention on cardiac structure and function, and the association of the MetS and its components with changes in cardiac structure and function. Particular emphasis will be placed on evaluating parameters of left atrial structure and function, which have received more limited attention in past investigations. This PEP will be available for future studies addressing comparable questions. Conclusion: In this article we describe the protocol of a central echocardiography laboratory for the study of functional and structural alterations of the MetS.
  • Autores: Arias Colinas, Mónica; Gea Sánchez, Alfredo (Autor de correspondencia); Khattab, A.; et al.
    Revista: APPLIED SCIENCES
    ISSN: 2076-3417 Vol.12 N° 7 2022 págs. 3484
    Resumen
    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a known measure of cardiac autonomic function. A cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction (CAD), measured as changes in HRV, is usually presented after an infectious process. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between serum inflammatory markers and CAD. For this purpose, 50 volunteers (13 of them recovering from an infection) were recruited and followed-up for 6 weeks. Their serum inflammatory biomarkers (CRP, IL1, IL4, IL6, IL10, and TNFalpha) were quantified throughout those weeks, along with their HRV resting, in response to the Valsalva maneuver, metronome breathing, standing and sustained handgrip. The correlation of within-subject changes in both HRV and inflammatory biomarkers was assessed to evaluate the concurrent changes. An inverse within-subject correlation was found between CRP and HRV in response to the Valsalva maneuver (rho (95% CI): -0.517 (-0.877 to -0.001); p = 0.032) and HRV standing (rho (95% CI): -0.490 (-0.943 to -0.036); p = 0.034). At the beginning, increased values of CRP are found along with reduced levels of HRV. Then, the CRP was reduced, accompanied by an improvement (increase) in HRV. These results suggest that CRP is a potential marker of CAD. Whether it is the cause, the consequence or a risk indicator non-causally associated is still to be determined.
  • Autores: Moreno Montañés, Javier; Gándara Rodríguez de Campoamor, Elsa Pilar; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, I.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRIENTS
    ISSN: 2072-6643 Vol.14 N° 4 2022 págs. 779
    Resumen
    Background: The relationship between modifiable risk factors, such as diet and lifestyle, and glaucoma remains controversial. We analyse the effect of the Mediterranean lifestyle (ML) on glaucoma incidence in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Project. Methods: The SUN Healthy Lifestyle Score (SHLS) includes 10 healthy habits: never having smoked, moderate to high physical activity, Mediterranean diet adherence, moderate alcohol consumption, low television exposure, no binge drinking, short afternoon napping, meeting up with friends, working at least 40 h/wk, and low body mass index. The information was collected biennially through self-reported questionnaires. The relationship between new glaucoma cases and the SHLS was assessed by Cox regression using hazard ratios. Crude, multi-adjusted, and sensitivity analyses were performed. Results: During a median of 12 years of follow-up, 261 (1.42%) new cases of glaucoma were identified among 18,420 participants. After adjusting for potential confounders, participants in the healthiest SHLS category showed a significantly reduced risk of glaucoma compared to those in the lowest SHLS category (adjusted HR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.28-0.93). For each point added to the SHLS, the risk of glaucoma relatively dropped 5%. Conclusions: Higher adherence to a ML, measured by the SHLS, was significantly associated with a lower risk of developing glaucoma. Based on our study, the ML is a protective factor for glaucoma incidence.
  • Autores: Razquin Burillo, Cristina; Menendez-Acebal, C. ; Cervantes Ibáñez, Sebastián; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITIONAL NEUROSCIENCE
    ISSN: 1028-415X Vol.25 N° 3 2022 págs. 612 - 620
    Resumen
    Background:Severe cognitive decline is one of the major public health problems in developed countries. Finding modifiable risk factors could become essential to develop strategies to prevent or delay dementia progression and stop its rising incidence. Objective:Our aim was to investigate the association between hypertension and cognitive function and to assess whether better adherence to the Mediterranean diet may modify this association. Methods:A subsample of 764 participants from the 'Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra' (SUN) cohort older than 55 years was evaluated with the Spanish Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) at two-time points, separated by 6 years. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models were used to prospectively assess the association between hypertension -also according to adherence to the Mediterranean diet- and 6-y changes in cognitive function. Results:The adjusted between-group difference in the 6-year change of the TICS-m score between hypertensive participants and their non-hypertensive counterparts was -0.36 (95% CI -0.70, -0.02). This association was stronger among participants with a lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet [-0.62 (95% CI: -1.09, -0.15)] but the differences between hypertensive and non-hypertensive participants were no longer significant among participants with a higher baseline adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Conclusion:In this Mediterranean cohort, hypertension was inversely associated with cognitive function, but an attenuation of this detrimental association by a moderate/high adherence to the Mediterranean diet was suggested.
  • Autores: Pérez Araluce, Rafael María; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio; et al.
    Revista: CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0261-5614 Vol.41 N° 12 2022 págs. 3061 - 3068
    Resumen
    Background & aims: A potential protection against COVID-19 by a high-quality dietary pattern is to be expected given the biological plausibility supporting the beneficial effects of an adequate dietary intake on the immune system. However, knowledge on the relationship between long-term maintained healthy dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet, and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection is still sparse. We longitudinally assessed this association in a well-known Mediterranean cohort. Methods: We assessed 9,677 participants from the SUN Project, a prospective cohort of middle-aged university graduates in Spain. We inquired about a positive result in a COVID-19 diagnostic test during the months of February to December 2020. After excluding health professionals (HP), 5,194 participants were included in the statistical analyses (mean age: 52.6, SD: 12.4; 55.2% women). Food habits were assessed at baseline using a previously validated semiquantitative 136-item food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (cumulative average of 2 repeated measurements 10 years apart) was assessed using the 0-to-9 Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS). We used multivariable logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for incident COVID-19 according to the MDS. Results: Among 5,194 non-HP participants, 122 reported to have received a positive COVID-19 diagnostic test. Participants with intermediate adherence to the Mediterranean diet (3 < MDS ¿ 6) had a significantly lower odds of developing COVID-19 (multivariable-adjusted OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.34-0.73), and those with the highest adherence (MDS > 6) exhibited the lowest risk (multivariable-adjusted OR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.16-0.84, p for trend < 0.001) as compared with participants with MDS ¿ 3. This inverse association remained robust within subgroups and in sensitivity analyses. Notwithstanding, no significant associations were observed for health professionals (p for interaction = 0.06). Conclusion: In conclusion, better adherence to the Mediterranean diet may be associated with a lower risk of COVID-19. Our results are applicable only to persons who are not health professionals.
  • Autores: Diez-Ricote, L.; San-Cristóbal, R.; Concejo, M. J.; et al.
    Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
    ISSN: 0002-9165 Vol.116 N° 6 2022 págs. 1565 - 1579
    Resumen
    Background: Choline and betaine intakes have been related to cardiovascular health. Objectives: We aimed to explore the relation between 1-y changes in dietary intake of choline or betaine and 1-y changes in cardiometabolic and renal function traits within the frame of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea)-Plus trial. Methods: We used baseline and 1-y follow-up data from 5613 participants (48.2% female and 51.8% male; mean ± SD age: 65.01 ± 4.91 y) to assess cardiometabolic traits, and 3367 participants to assess renal function, of the Spanish PREDIMED-Plus trial. Participants met ¿3 criteria of metabolic syndrome and had overweight or obesity [BMI (in kg/m2) ¿27 and ¿40]. These criteria were similar to those of the PREDIMED parent study. Dietary intakes of choline and betaine were estimated from the FFQ. Results: The greatest 1-y increase in dietary choline or betaine intake (quartile 4) was associated with improved serum glucose concentrations (-3.39 and -2.72 mg/dL for choline and betaine, respectively) and HbA1c levels (-0.10% for quartile 4 of either choline or betaine intake increase). Other significant changes associated with the greatest increase in choline or betaine intake were reduced body weight (-2.93 and -2.78 kg, respectively), BMI (-1.05 and -0.99, respectively), waist circumference (-3.37 and -3.26 cm, respectively), total cholesterol (-4.74 and -4.52 mg/dL, respectively), and LDL cholesterol (-4.30 and -4.16 mg/dL, respectively). Urine creatinine was reduced in quartile 4 of 1-y increase in choline or betaine intake (-5.42 and -5.74 mg/dL, respectively). Conclusions: Increases in dietary choline or betaine intakes were longitudinally related to improvements in cardiometabolic parameters. Markers of renal function were also slightly improved, and they require further investigation.This trial was registered at https://www.isrctn.com/ as ISRCTN89898870.
  • Autores: Valle-Hita, C.; Díaz-López, A.; Becerra-Tomás, N. (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
    ISSN: 1436-6207 Vol.61 N° 6 2022 págs. 3095 - 3108
    Resumen
    Purpose To assess the association between three different a priori dietary patterns adherence (17-item energy reduced-Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet), Trichopoulou-MedDiet and Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH)), as well as the Protein Diet Score and kidney function decline after one year of follow-up in elderly individuals with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods We prospectively analyzed 5675 participants (55-75 years) from the PREDIMED-Plus study. At baseline and at one year, we evaluated the creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and food-frequency questionnaires-derived dietary scores. Associations between four categories (decrease/maintenance and tertiles of increase) of each dietary pattern and changes in eGFR (ml/min/1.73m(2)) or >= 10% eGFR decline were assessed by fitting multivariable linear or logistic regression models, as appropriate. Results Participants in the highest tertile of increase in 17-item erMedDiet Score showed higher upward changes in eGFR (beta: 1.87 ml/min/1.73m(2); 95% CI: 1.00-2.73) and had lower odds of >= 10% eGFR decline (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.47-0.82) compared to individuals in the decrease/maintenance category, while Trichopoulou-MedDiet and DASH Scores were not associated with any renal outcomes. Those in the highest tertile of increase in Protein Diet Score had greater downward changes in eGFR (beta: - 0.87 ml/min/1.73m(2); 95% CI: - 1.73 to - 0.01) and 32% higher odds of eGFR decline (OR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.00-1.75). Conclusions Among elderly individuals with overweight/obesity and MetS, only higher upward change in the 17-item erMedDiet score adherence was associated with better kidney function after one year. However, increasing Protein Diet Score appeared to have an adverse impact on kidney health. Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN89898870 (Data of registration: 2014).
  • Autores: Almanza-Aguilera, E.; Hernáez, A.; Corella, D.; et al.
    Revista: NUTRITIONAL NEUROSCIENCE
    ISSN: 1028-415X Vol.25 N° 2 2022 págs. 256 - 265
    Resumen
    Background: The Traditional Mediterranean Diet (TMD) is known to have beneficial effects on several chronic diseases. However, data concerning the whole transcriptome modulation of the TMD are scarce. Objective: We aimed to explore the effects of the TMD on the whole transcriptome of individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Methods: Thirty-four participants at high cardiovascular risk were randomly assigned to a TMD enriched with extra-virgin olive oil (TMD + VOO), mixed nuts (TMD + Nuts), or a control diet based on low-fat diet recommendations. A microarray analysis in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the participants was conducted before and after 3 months of the intervention. The association of changes in gene expression was modeled into canonical pathways by conducting an untargeted functional analysis with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis(R)(IPA). Effects were considered significant when the absolutez-score values were >= 2.0 and the logarithmP(adjusted by the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure [BH]) values were >= 1.30. Results: According to IPA, interventions with TMD + Nuts, TMD + VOO, and control diet downregulated neuroinflammation, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 , and cholecystokinin/gastrin-mediated signaling pathways, respectively. The gene expression among these pathways included cytokines, T-cell activation receptors, nuclear factor kappa beta/inflammasome components, pro-inflammatory enzymes and cell cycle regulators. Conclusion: The current findings suggest that the TMD enriched with mixed nuts or VOO downregulate transcriptomic pathways, including those related to neuroinflammation, which could influence development of neurodegenerative diseases. Our data should be corroborated in other tissue cells, such as neurons and glial cells.
  • Autores: Díez Goñi, María de las Nieves (Autor de correspondencia); García del Barrio, Loreto; Rodríguez Díez, María Cristina; et al.
    Revista: FAMILY MEDICINE
    ISSN: 0742-3225 Vol.54 N° 8 2022 págs. 621 - 628
    Resumen
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Empathy is considered a prerequisite for a successful physician-patient relationship. The Jefferson Scale of Patient Perceptions of Physician Empathy (JSPPPE) is a regularly-used, patient-rated measure of physician empathy. The aim of this study is to translate and analyze the reliability and validity of the JSPPPE Spanish (Spain) version (Sp-JSPPPE) in primary care in order to use it with medical trainees. METHODS: After translation and back translation of the JSPPPE, 369 patients from 21 primary care physicians in Pamplona (Navarre, Spain) completed the Sp-JSPPPE, a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Spanish (Spain) Consultation and Relational Empathy Measure (Sp-CARE), and a question about overall satisfaction. We studied internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha and ordinal alpha), homogeneity (corrected item-total correlations), construct validity (confirmatory factor analysis [CFA]) and concurrent validity (Spearman's correlation) of Sp-JSPPPE. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha and ordinal alpha were 0.870 and 0.919, respectively, for the Sp-JSPP