Grupos Investigadores

Líneas de Investigación

  • Fabricación Híbrida de componentes metálicos combinando tecnologías de Fabricación Aditiva y post-procesado de acabado mediante operaciones de mecanizado
  • Modelización, monitorizado y control de procesos de fabricación y construcción
  • Aplicaciones de impresión 3D a prefabricados de hormigón
  • Comportamiento mecánico y mecano-biológico de estructuras reticulares para aplicaciones biomédicas
  • Optimización topológica de estructuras creadas por fabricación aditiva

Palabras Clave

  • Fatiga
  • Biomateriales porosos
  • Biomecánica ortopédica
  • Elementos auxiliares de construcción
  • Fabricación aditiva
  • Gradación funcional
  • Hormigón prefabricado
  • Imperfecciones de fabricación
  • Mecanizado
  • Monitorizado de procesos
  • Permeabilidad

Publicaciones Científicas desde 2018

  • Autores: Guner, A.; Bidare, P.; Jiménez Zabaleta, Amaia (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: ADVANCED POWDER TECHNOLOGY
    ISSN: 0921-8831 Vol.35 N° 3 2024 págs. 104348 - *
    Resumen
    In this work, a numerical model is proposed to analyze the influence of particle-particle interaction in laser directed energy deposition or LMD (laser metal deposition) of CM247 Ni-based superalloy. The model is based on the analysis of contact between particles and the potential agglomeration of powder to predict powder conditions at the nozzle exit. Simulation results were experimentally validated and a good agreement was observed. At the nozzle exit mainly large particles (>100 mu m) are found and small ones (<10 m) tend to flow away from this region. This was also observed in the experimental PSD. Additionally, based on the relative velocity of particles, simulations are able to predict the formation of dents. In comparing virgin powder PSD and the one at the nozzle exit, it was observed that largest particles are collected at the exit. In order to explain this phenomena, particle agglomeration was analysed numerically. It was seen that small particles tend to adhere to the big ones due to their higher adhesive forces, which would explain the change in PSD. (c) 2024 The Society of Powder Technology Japan. Published by Elsevier BV and The Society of Powder Technology Japan. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • Autores: Aramburu Ibarlucea, Amaya (Autor de correspondencia); Calderon-Uriszar-Aldaca, I.; Puente Urruzmendi, Íñigo
    Revista: JOURNAL OF BUILDING ENGINEERING
    ISSN: 2352-7102 Vol.73 2023 págs. 106728 - *
    Resumen
    A segmented 3D-printed concrete (3DPC) beam is designed whose structural reliability depends on a rebar that can withstand tensile stress at the joints between segments under bending mo-ments. In this study, a new approach is for the first time presented on rebar placement after concrete hardening. It details an innovative testing procedure of joint behavior and bonding strength through the use of 3DCP beam segments assembled to form T-shaped beams with an underside groove into which a rebar is inserted. The bonding strength of the rebar embedded in mortar within the semi-circular groove and the wet joints between segments are characterized and validated. Different variables are considered in the modularization of the 3DPC beam seg-ments and bonding stresses between rebar and concrete are studied. To do so, the beam test procedure was adapted to 3DPC beam segments with 3 rebar diameters and 2 segment lengths subjected to 3-point and 4-point bending flexural tests. As a main finding, the results of this research indicated that both rebar and matrix, when properly designed, underwent bonding failure at loads above their theoretical ultimate limit design values, at the yield point of the rebar steel, demonstrating that placement of rebars after hardening of the 3DPC segments can therefore form a structurally reliable joint.
  • Autores: Gil del Val, Alain (Autor de correspondencia); Alonso, U.; Veiga Suárez, Fernando; et al.
    Revista: WEAR
    ISSN: 0043-1648 Vol.514-515 2023 págs. 204558 - *
    Resumen
    Ductile irons are among the most used materials in the automotive industry. One of the critical problems during manufacturing of powertrain components is the fast wear of cutting tools because it can lead to defects in the part. This work investigates the wear mechanisms of TiN coated high-speed steel (HSS) taps when machining GGG50 cast iron under high-speed conditions. SEM images and EDS analysis at the chamfered and cylinder teeth demonstrate that adhesion of iron to the cutting tool is the dominating wear mechanism. Fatigue-fracture and coating removal were also observed in many zones of the tap surface. Furthermore, wear progression is reflected on the evolution on the tapping torque with hole number. An on-line monitoring of this variable could be useful to detect an excessive wear of the tap and prevent the loss of tolerances in the threads.
  • Autores: Ardila-Tellez, L. C. (Autor de correspondencia); Jiménez Zabaleta, Amaia; Moreno-Tellez, C. M.; et al.
    Revista: SURFACE AND COATINGS TECHNOLOGY
    ISSN: 0257-8972 Vol.471 2023 págs. 129892 - *
    Resumen
    The reactivity of Al0.66Ti0.33N, Al0.31Ti0.62Si0.07N, Al0.60Cr0.40N, and Al0.38Cr0.54Si0.07N cathodic arc-coated hardmetal tools with Inconel 718 has been evaluated by using diffusion couple experiments at 900 degrees C and 1100 degrees C. As expected, a strong reaction occurs at these temperatures between Inconel 718 and uncoated hard-metal samples leading to the formation of & eta; phases; mainly M12C and M6C carbides. PVD coatings act as diffusion barriers limiting the presence of such reactions as long as they maintain their structure in contact with Inconel 718 at high temperatures. Diffusion couple experiments confirm that Cr-containing coatings are significantly more unstable than Al0.66Ti0.33N or Al0.31Ti0.62Si0.07N materials, thus leading to notable differences in cutting performance. The relation between diffusion couple results and drill wear mechanisms in drilling Inconel 718 with different coating materials are also analysed. The best results are obtained either with Al0.66Ti0.33N or Al0.31Ti0.62Si0.07N coated drills, where the coating remains longer time at the cutting edge leading to more efficient protection, especially at the drill corner.
  • Autores: Bidare, P. (Autor de correspondencia); Jiménez Zabaleta, Amaia (Autor de correspondencia); Abdelkhalek, S. M.; et al.
    Revista: MATERIALS TODAY COMMUNICATIONS
    ISSN: 2352-4928 Vol.37 2023 págs. 107042
    Resumen
    Heat accumulation along the deposited layers in AM is an important issue that may lead to shape distortions. In this context, the present paper is aimed at analysing the feasibility of interlayer post-processing of depositions to improve interlayer bonding and process performance. Concretely, the use of interlayer machining and laser remelting is tested and their effect on the porosity, mechanical properties and component distortion is analysed. Additionally, the results obtained after each interlayer post-processing technique were compared with an asdeposited sample to analyse the benefits of the hybrid additive manufacturing approach on the generated parts. Samples post-treated through machining showed the lowest deformation. As for the porosity, laser remelting post-processing led to best results. Hardness was also tested along the height of samples and it was observed that it increases in build direction for all the cases tested. Highest hardness values were obtained for the samples post-processed through machining.
  • Autores: Loyda, A. (Autor de correspondencia); Arizmendi Jaca, Miguel; Ruiz de Galarreta Moriones, Sergio; et al.
    Revista: CIRP - JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
    ISSN: 1755-5817 Vol.40 2023 págs. 199 - 212
    Resumen
    A hybrid approach combining the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) process and post-processing operations through 5-axis milling was employed to manufacture a Ti6Al4V aerospace component. From the design step, the requirements and needs in all the stages of the Hybrid Additive Manufacturing process were taken into account. A numerical simulation of distortions promoted by residual stresses during the additive process was employed to consider material allowance. The status of the as-built and post-processed component was analysed through scanning and CMM inspection and roughness measurements. The 3D scanned model of the as-built LPBF-ed component was used to understand the distortion behaviour of the component and compared to the numerical simulation. Finally, 5-axis milling operations were conducted in some critical surfaces in order to improve surface quality and dimensional accuracy of the as-built com-ponent. The inspection of the as-built and post-processed component showed the improvement achieved through the proposed hybrid approach. The work aims to provide the baselines needed to enable the metal Hybrid Additive Manufacturing of components with complex geometries where mandatory precision is required by integrating high accuracy machining operations as post-processing technique.(c) 2022 The Author(s). This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by/4.0/).
  • Autores: Asbai-Ghoudan, R. (Autor de correspondencia); Nasello, G.; Perez, M. A.; et al.
    Revista: COMPUTERS IN BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
    ISSN: 0010-4825 Vol.165 2023 págs. 107381 - *
    Resumen
    Mechanical environment plays a crucial role in regulating bone regeneration in bone defects. Assessing the mechanobiological behavior of patient-specific orthopedic scaffolds in-silico could help guide optimal scaffold designs, as well as intra- and post-operative strategies to enhance bone regeneration and improve implant longevity. Additively manufactured porous scaffolds, and specifically triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS), have shown promising structural properties to act as bone substitutes, yet their ability to induce mechanobiologially-driven bone regeneration has not been elucidated. The aim of this study is to i) explore the bone regeneration potential of TPMS scaffolds made of different stiffness biocompatible materials, to ii) analyze the influence of pre-seeding the scaffolds and increasing the post-operative resting period, and to iii) assess the influence of patient-specific parameters, such as age and mechanosensitivity, on outcomes. To perform this study, an in silico model of a goat tibia is used. The bone ingrowth within the scaffold pores was simulated with a mechano-driven model of bone regeneration. Results showed that the scaffold's architectural properties affect cellular diffusion and strain distribution, resulting in variations in the regenerated bone volume and distribution. The softer material improved the bone ingrowth. An initial resting period improved the bone ingrowth but not enough to reach the scaffold's core. However, this was achieved with the implantation of a pre-seeded scaffold. Physiological parameters like age and health of the patient also influence the bone regeneration outcome, though to a lesser extent than the scaffold design. This analysis demonstrates the importance of the scaffold's geometry and its material, and highlights the potential of using mechanobiological patient-specific models in the design process for bone substitutes.
  • Autores: Cumbicus, W. E. (Autor de correspondencia); Estrems, M.; Arizmendi Jaca, Miguel; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    ISSN: 0268-3768 Vol.126 N° 11-12 2023 págs. 5163 - 5178
    Resumen
    This article presents a study of the joining of polyetherimide (PEI) polymer parts reinforced with fibre glass which has great application in the automotive sector. A simulation model based on the finite element method is proposed. For the modelling of the polymeric material, the three-network viscoplastic (TNV) rheological model was used, with very adequate results and producing a good fit with the experimental data. In addition, a methodology is proposed that allows simplifying a three-dimensional to an axisymmetric model, which implies a notable reduction in computational cost. In addition, the work includes an experimental analysis that evaluates the tightening torque under conditions of assembly repetitiveness, relaxation over time and influence of thermal cycles. These scenarios have a different influence depending on the geometry of the self-tapping screw used. Regarding repetitiveness, it has been verified that PF-30 (CELOspArk (R)) loses 17.16% while in Delta-PT (DELTA PT (R)) it loses up to 41.93% in the tenth repetition. In contrast, in the relaxation over time scenario, the PF-30 loses 13.38% and the Delta-PT loses 17.82%. Finally, regarding the thermal cycles, cooling allows to slightly delay the loss of tightening torque in both screws in a similar way; however, in the heating stage, 36.89% is lost with PF-30 and only 14.66% with Delta-PT. This study represents an improvement in the knowledge of the joining processes of self-tapping screws with polymeric materials of an engineering nature. The simulation model can be easily adapted to other materials and other geometries, and the experimental study offers a vision of the evolution of tightening conditions in realistic operating scenarios.
  • Autores: Guner, A.; Bidare, P.; Jiménez Zabaleta, Amaia (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PRECISION ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING
    ISSN: 2234-7593 Vol.23 N° 9 2022 págs. 1077 - 1094
    Resumen
    Laser-based Direct Energy Deposition (L-DED) is one of the most commonly employed metal additive manufacturing technologies. In L-DED, a laser beam is employed as a heat source to melt the metal powder that is deposited on a substrate layer by layer for the generation of a desired component. The powder is commonly fed through a nozzle into the molten pool by means of a carrier gas and therefore, a nozzle design that ensures optimal deposition of the material is of critical importance. Additionally, its design also affects the powder and gas flows that arise in the nozzle and during the deposition. This, in turn will affect the characteristics of the generated clad and the performance of the whole deposition. Therefore, an optimization of deposition nozzle geometry can be as important as the controlling of deposition process parameters in order to obtain best component qualities. In this context, the present review work is aimed at analysing the different nozzle designs employed in powder-based L-DED processes and the influence of different geometrical features and configurations on the resulting powder and gas flows. Concretely, the main characteristics of each design, their advantages and their possible shortcomings are analysed in detail. Additionally, a review of most relevant numerical models employed during the development of new and optimised nozzle designs are also addressed.
  • Autores: Bidare, P. (Autor de correspondencia); Jiménez Zabaleta, Amaia; Hassanin, H.; et al.
    Revista: ADVANCES IN MANUFACTURING
    ISSN: 2095-3127 Vol.10 N° 2 2022 págs. 175 - 204
    Resumen
    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies are currently employed for the manufacturing of completely functional parts and have gained the attention of high-technology industries such as the aerospace, automotive, and biomedical fields. This is mainly due to their advantages in terms of low material waste and high productivity, particularly owing to the flexibility in the geometries that can be generated. In the tooling industry, specifically the manufacturing of dies and molds, AM technologies enable the generation of complex shapes, internal cooling channels, the repair of damaged dies and molds, and an improved performance of dies and molds employing multiple AM materials. In the present paper, a review of AM processes and materials applied in the tooling industry for the generation of dies and molds is addressed. AM technologies used for tooling applications and the characteristics of the materials employed in this industry are first presented. In addition, the most relevant state-of-the-art approaches are analyzed with respect to the process parameters and microstructural and mechanical properties in the processing of high-performance tooling materials used in AM processes. Concretely, studies on the AM of ferrous (maraging steels and H13 steel alloy) and non-ferrous (stellite alloys and WC alloys) tooling alloys are also analyzed.
  • Autores: Aramburu Ibarlucea, Amaya (Autor de correspondencia); Calderón-Uriszar-Aldaca, I.; Puente Urruzmendi, Íñigo
    Revista: CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS
    ISSN: 0950-0618 Vol.354 2022 págs. 129108 - *
    Resumen
    The mechanical behaviour of annular 3D-printed cylindrical specimens is studied in this paper and compared to the expected theoretical behaviour of cast-moulded geometries. First, the compressive performance of the material as per standard EN 12390-3 is presented. The theoretical estimation differed from the test results and the reasons have been verified. Two key procedures are proposed by measuring the 3D-printed shapes: a geometrical characterization, in which both the material and the process parameters are considered, and a suitable formulation for defining the effective section of the printed geometries. The aim is to establish corrections for structural calculations, considering the material and the 3D printing process on the basis of the proposed guidelines and the test specimens.
  • Autores: Alaña, M. (Autor de correspondencia); López de Arancibia, Aitziber; Ghouse, S.; et al.
    Revista: COMPUTERS IN BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
    ISSN: 0010-4825 Vol.150 2022 págs. 105761
    Resumen
    Additively manufactured lattice structures enable the design of tissue scaffolds with tailored mechanical properties, which can be implemented in porous biomaterials. The adaptation of bone to physiological loads results in anisotropic bone tissue properties which are optimized for site-specific loads; therefore, some bone sites are stiffer and stronger along the principal load direction compared to other orientations. In this work, a semi-analytical model was developed for the design of transversely isotropic lattice structures that can mimic the anisotropy characteristics of different types of bone tissue. Several design possibilities were explored, and a particular unit cell, which was best suited for additive manufacturing was further analyzed. The design of the unit cell was parameterized and in-silico analysis was performed via Finite Element Analysis. The structures were manufactured additively in metal and tested under compressive loads in different orientations. Finite element analysis showed good correlation with the semi-analytical model, especially for elastic constants with low relative densities. The anisotropy measured experimentally showed a variable accuracy, highlighting the deviations from designs to additively manufactured parts. Overall, the proposed model enables to exploit the anisotropy of lattice structures to design lighter scaffolds with higher porosity and increased permeability by aligning the scaffold with the principal direction of the load.
  • Autores: Aramburu Ibarlucea, Amaya (Autor de correspondencia); Calderón-Uriszar-Aldaca, I.; Puente Urruzmendi, Íñigo
    Revista: CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS
    ISSN: 0950-0618 Vol.340 2022 págs. 127827
    Resumen
    Passive rebars are inserted into interior hollow channels within a 3D-printed mortar geometry and then bonded with a wet joint of filling mortar, in order to test the bonding strength of the rebars within the mortar structure. Standardized test procedures are adapted for the test procedure. The test results revealed bonding strengths with shear stresses within an interval between 16.75 MPa and 18 MPa, dependent upon rebar diameter, and good early strength development of the bonding mortar of at least 14 MPa during the first week. No specimen failed because of debonding between the filling mortar and the 3D-printed cylinder, nor because of debonding of the cylinder and the concrete poured around its exterior.
  • Autores: Arizmendi Jaca, Miguel (Autor de correspondencia); Veiga Suárez, Fernando; Jiménez Zabaleta, Amaia; et al.
    Revista: NUMERICAL HEAT TRANSFER PART A-APPLICATIONS
    ISSN: 1040-7782 Vol.82 N° 11 2022 págs. 743 - 764
    Resumen
    In this article, an analytical solution is developed to determine the transient temperature distribution in a rotating finite cylinder subject to a heat source acting on its flat surface with convective cooling. The resolution of the heat conduction problem for the cylinder temperature is carried out by means of the successive application of one-dimensional integral transforms: the finite Fourier transform and the finite Hankel transform. The solution can be applied in different engineering applications such as turning, pin-on-disk devices, bearings and braking systems. Taking this solution into account, a numerical analysis of the transient temperature distribution generated in a rotating cylinder subject to a heat source is performed. In this analysis the effect of the rotation speed and of the convective cooling on the transient temperature distribution of the cylinder and on the time required to reach the quasi-steady state is studied by means of two dimensionless parameters: the Peclet number and the Biot number, which depend on the rotation speed and on the convective heat transfer coefficient, respectively. Finally, different heat source geometries (circular, square and circular trapezoid) are considered.
  • Autores: Bidare, P. (Autor de correspondencia); Mehmeti, A.; Jiménez Zabaleta, Amaia; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    ISSN: 0268-3768 Vol.120 N° 11-12 2022 págs. 8063 - 8074
    Resumen
    Nickel-based alloys are known as non-weldable materials due to their complex characteristics. Consequently, additive manufacturing of these alloys is particularly challenging. In this paper, the influence of process parameters on the porosity, crack formation and microstructure of additively manufactured CM247LC nickel-based alloy is analysed. The feasibility of the direct laser deposition (DLD) process to manufacture crack-free and low-porosity CM247LC samples is studied. CM247LC samples were built on Inconel 718 that has similar chemical composition, to form hybrid superalloy parts. It was shown that crack-free and high-density CM247LC samples can be obtained through DLD without significant substrate preheating for certain parameter combinations: laser power in the range of 800-1000 W and powder feed rates between 6 and 8 g/min. High-cost and complex preheating was avoided that was commonly reported as necessary to achieve similar densities. For hybrid parts, a large beam diameter and slow scan speeds were employed to achieve optimal conditions as it was evident from the achieved bonding between the Inconel 718 substrate and the deposited layers. It was observed that good bonding between the two materials can be obtained with laser power values between 800 and 1000 W, scanning speed higher than 300 mm/min and powder flow rates of 6-8 g/min.
  • Autores: Ajami, S. (Autor de correspondencia); Rodríguez Florez, Naiara; Ong, J.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS
    ISSN: 1751-6161 Vol.125 2022 págs. 104929
    Resumen
    Limited information is available on the effect of sagittal craniosynostosis (CS) on morphological and material properties of the parietal bone. Understanding these properties would not only provide an insight into bone response to surgical procedures but also improve the accuracy of computational models simulating these surgeries. The aim of the present study was to characterise the mechanical and microstructural properties of the cortical table and diploe in parietal bone of patients affected by sagittal CS. Twelve samples were collected from pediatric patients (11 males, and 1 female; age 5.2 +/- 1.3 months) surgically treated for sagittal CS. Samples were imaged using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT); and mechanical properties were extracted by means of micro-CT based finite element modelling (micro-FE) of three-point bending test, calibrated using sample-specific experimental data. Reference point indentation (RPI) was used to validate the micro-FE output. Bone samples were classified based on their macrostructure as unilaminar or trilaminar (sandwich) structure. The elastic moduli obtained using RPI and micro-FE approaches for cortical tables (E-RPI 3973.33 +/- 268.45 MPa and Emicro-FE 3438.11 +/- 387.38 MPa) in the sandwich structure and diploe (E(RPI)1958.17 +/- 563.79 MPa and Emicro-FE 1960.66 +/- 492.44 MPa) in unilaminar samples were in strong agreement (r = 0.86, p < .01). We found that the elastic modulus of cortical tables and diploe were correlated with bone mineral density. Changes in the microstructure and mechanical properties of bone specimens were found to be irrespective of patients' age. Although younger patients are reported to benefit more from surgical intervention as skull is more malleable, understanding the material properties is critical to better predict the surgical outcome in patients <1 year old since age-related changes were minimal.
  • Autores: Veiga, F. (Autor de correspondencia); Arizmendi Jaca, Miguel; Suarez, A.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
    ISSN: 1526-6125 Vol.84 2022 págs. 953 - 964
    Resumen
    Additive manufacturing by directed energy deposition is of increasing interest within the scientific community. Over the past decade, this technology has gained ground with the production of parts from SS 316L-Si stainless steel, an industrial product in widespread use. Yet one of the main challenges when extending the use of this technology to the manufacture of medium complexity parts is how to achieve good intersections. This paper focuses on the use of Plasma Arc Welding (PAW) for the additive manufacturing of X-Cross intersections made of SS 316L-Si stainless steel alloy, defining its geometrical suitability and evaluating its productivity. Firstly, two strategies for the production of parts are presented: the energy control strategy on the curved path of a L-shaped wall and the variable amplitude waveform strategy (variable waving) for the continuous production of a X-cross intersection. A metallographic analysis of the samples extracted in the different tests was completed, focusing mainly on the transversal direction. Next, four deposition strategies based on discrete trajectories (cross -over-lapping and cross-waving) and on continuous trajectories (waving and overlapping) are addressed in this paper for the production of cross intersections in a part of medium complexity and for the extension of its use in Near -Net-Shape (NNS) manufacturing. The mechanical properties and microstructure of samples manufactured with these deposition strategies are analysed by means of tensile tests and metallographic characterization. An analysis of the deposition energy and of the productivity is carried out for the four strategies. The productivity is analysed by means of different parameters such as the number of layers, the actual deposition rate and process times (deposition time, waiting time, standby time and idle time). The most advantageous strategies in terms of productivity were cross-waving and waving, achieving torch utilization rates relative to total time of 50 %. Methodologies and conditions for the manufacture of X-cross intersections are established. Finally, a study of the cross-intersection geometry obtained for each deposition strategy is performed. From the geometrical analysis of the crosses produced, it has been observed that the ratio of material used in the cross-overlapping sequence to produce a X-cross intersection in relation to the amount of material deposited is more than 10 % higher than in the other strategies.
  • Autores: Jiménez Zabaleta, Amaia; Bidare, P.; Hassanin, H.; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    ISSN: 0268-3768 Vol.114 N° 1 - 2 2021 págs. 63 - 96
    Resumen
    Recent advances in additive manufacturing (AM) have attracted significant industrial interest. Initially, AM was mainly associated with the fabrication of prototypes, but the AM advances together with the broadening range of available materials, especially for producing metallic parts, have broaden the application areas and now the technology can be used for manufacturing functional parts, too. Especially, the AM technologies enable the creation of complex and topologically optimised geometries with internal cavities that were impossible to produce with traditional manufacturing processes. However, the tight geometrical tolerances along with the strict surface integrity requirements in aerospace, biomedical and automotive industries are not achievable in most cases with standalone AM technologies. Therefore, AM parts need extensive post-processing to ensure that their surface and dimensional requirements together with their respective mechanical properties are met. In this context, it is not surprising that the integration of AM with post-processing technologies into single and multi set-up processing solutions, commonly referred to as hybrid AM, has emerged as a very attractive proposition for industry while attracting a significant R&D interest. This paper reviews the current research and technology advances associated with the hybrid AM solutions. The special focus is on hybrid AM solutions that combine the capabilities of laser-based AM for processing powders with the necessary post-process technologies for producing metal parts with required accuracy, surface integrity and material properties. Commercially available hybrid AM systems that integrate laser-based AM with post-processing technologies are also reviewed together with their key application areas. Finally, the main challenges and open issues in broadening the industrial use of hybrid AM solutions are discussed.
  • Autores: Ruiz de Galarreta Moriones, Sergio (Autor de correspondencia); Doyle, Ruben J. ; Jeffers, Jonathan ; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS
    ISSN: 1751-6161 Vol.123 2021 págs. 104784
  • Autores: Del-Val, A. G.; Veiga, F.; Penalva, M.; et al.
    Revista: METALS
    ISSN: 2075-4701 Vol.11 N° 4 2021 págs. 537
    Resumen
    Automotive, railway and aerospace sectors require a high level of quality on the thread profiles in their manufacturing systems knowing that the tapping process is a complex manufacturing process and the last operation in a manufacturing cell. Therefore, a multivariate statistical process control chart, for each tap, is presented based on the principal components of the torque signal directly measured from spindle motor drive to diagnosis the thread profile quality. This on-line multivariate control chart has implemented an alarm to avoid defected screw threads (oversized). Therefore, it could work automatically without any operator intervention assessing the thread quality and the safety is guaranteed during the tapping process.
  • Autores: Cumbicus Jiménez, Wilmer Euclides (Autor de correspondencia); Estrems, M.; Arizmendi Jaca, Miguel; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MATERIAL FORMING
    ISSN: 1960-6206 Vol.14 N° 4 2021 págs. 777 - 798
  • Autores: Pradera Mallabiabarrena, Ainara (Autor de correspondencia); López de Arancibia, Aitziber; Ruiz de Galarreta Moriones, Sergio; et al.
    Revista: THIN-WALLED STRUCTURES
    ISSN: 0263-8231 Vol.159 2021
    Resumen
    Steel cylindrical shell structures such as silos and tanks are very sensitive to geometric imperfections and prone to a plastic instability failure known as elephant's foot (EF) buckling. This type of buckling arises under axial compression. The aim of this paper is to explore the plastic collapse response in conical shells with low semi-vertex angle values under compression. In a first step, the initial geometric imperfection shapes that dictate which plastic mechanisms arise were identified using finite element (FE) models. In a second step, a parametric study reported two plastic collapse mechanisms and showed that the elephant's foot plastic collapse mechanism is the most likely to appear in compressed conical shells with low d/t values, followed by the Yoshimura collapse mechanism, more common with larger d/t values. Finally, a practical model in which the parameters have been adjusted from numerical models has been derived for the elephant's foot plastic mechanism. This model provides the load-deformation behaviour of compressed conical shells at the post-collapse region. The load vs. end-shortening curves provided by the model have been validated through comparison with curves given by the FE models. The good agreement between the results proves the efficiency of the practical model to predict the collapse response of conical shells.
  • Autores: Jiménez Zabaleta, Amaia (Autor de correspondencia); Arizmendi Jaca, Miguel; Sánchez Moreno, José Manuel
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    ISSN: 0268-3768 Vol.114 N° 9 - 10 2021 págs. 2711 - 2720
    Resumen
    This paper presents an experimental method for predicting tool wear in drilling Inconel 718 superalloy. The method combines analysis of drilling force signals and tool wear progress. Force characteristics were studied both in time and frequency domains (power spectrum and wavelet decomposition) in order to find best correlation with tool wear progress. These analyses show that the mean value of the thrust force component, the high frequency component of the force, the frequencies that arise during drilling, and the evolution of the wavelet decomposition details are all sensitive to tool wear progress. Therefore, these characteristics can be employed as indicators for drill failure prediction. Among all those indicators, the mean value of the thrust force and the standard deviation of high frequency components of that force have shown the greatest sensitivity to drill wear.
  • Autores: Asbai-Ghoudan, Reduan (Autor de correspondencia); Ruiz de Galarreta Moriones, Sergio; Rodríguez Florez, Naiara
    Revista: JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS
    ISSN: 1751-6161 Vol.124 2021 págs. 104804
  • Autores: Markel Alaña (Autor de correspondencia); Antonio Cutolo; Ruiz de Galarreta Moriones, Sergio; et al.
    Revista: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
    ISSN: 2045-2322 Vol.11 N° 19314 2021
  • Autores: Veiga Suárez, Fernando; Arizmendi Jaca, Miguel; Jiménez Zabaleta, Amaia; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL SCIENCES
    ISSN: 0020-7403 Vol.204 2021 págs. 106524
    Resumen
    High temperatures generated in cutting processes significantly affect the surface integrity of machined parts and tool wear, leading to workpiece thermal damage, tensile residual stresses in the workpiece and a reduction in tool life. In recent years, different analytical thermal models to predict cutting temperatures have been developed in literature based on 2D modeling of the cutting process and the assumption that thermal conductivities of work piece and chip are not dependent on temperature. However, this dependence of conductivity on temperature may have a significant influence on predicted temperatures and must be taken into account. In this paper, a thermal model of the orthogonal cutting process that considers thermal conductivity of materials (chip and tool) to be dependent on temperature is developed. A linear variation of thermal conductivity with temperature is assumed for chip (workpiece) and tool materials. The model is based on application of: (1) the Kirchhoff transformation in order to convert the nonlinear heat conduction problem into a linear one, (2) the theory of moving and stationary heat sources in semi-infinite and infinite mediums in order to model primary and secondary deformation zones and (3) imaginary heat sources to meet adiabatic boundary conditions in the chip and tool. Imaginary heat sources were defined in the thermal model proposed in this paper in such a way that the effect of the tool-chip interface dimensions and of cutting tool width on
  • Autores: Heutinck, P.; Knoops, P.; Rodríguez Florez, Naiara; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CRANIO-MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY
    ISSN: 1010-5182 Vol.49 N° 6 2021 págs. 449 - 455
    Resumen
    The aim of this study is, firstly, to create a population-based 3D head shape model for the 0 to 2-year-old subjects to describe head shape variability within a normal population and, secondly, to test a combined normal and sagittal craniosynostosis (SAG) population model, able to provide surgical outcome assessment. 3D head shapes of patients affected by non-cranial related pathologies and of SAG patients (pre- and post-op) were extracted either from head CTs or 3D stereophotography scans, and processed. Statistical shape modelling (SSM) was used to describe shape variability using two models - a normal population model (MODEL1) and a combined normal and SAG population model (MODEL2). Head shape variability was described via principal components analysis (PCA) which calculates shape modes describing specific shape features. MODEL1 (n - 65) mode 1 showed statistical correlation (p < 0.001) with width (125.8 +/- 13.6 mm), length (151.3 +/- 17.4 mm) and height (112.5 +/- 11.1 mm) whilst mode 2 showed correlation with cranial index ( 83.5 mm +/- 6.3 mm, p < 0.001). The remaining 9 modes showed more subtle head shape variability. MODEL2 (n = 159) revealed that post-operative head shape still did not achieve full shape normalization with either spring cranioplasty or total calvarial remodelling. This study proves that SSM has the potential to describe detailed anatomical variations in a paediatric population. (C) 2021 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Autores: Alana, M. (Autor de correspondencia); Cutolo, A. (Autor de correspondencia); Probst, G. ; et al.
    Revista: MATERIALS & DESIGN
    ISSN: 0264-1275 Vol.195 2020 págs. 108971
    Resumen
    Laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) allows the production of metal lattice cellular structures with tailored mechanical properties. In order to generate the specific structural behavior it is of utmost importance to understand the response of the unit cells when different load conditions are considered. In this article the mechanical response of diamond based cellular structures has been investigated focusing on the impact of geometrical inaccuracy generated by the manufacturing process on the elastic anisotropy of the mentioned unit cell. The ii-CT analysis of the structures shows that the manufacturing deviations occur in certain orientations that depend highly on the building direction and proximity to nodes. The measured imperfection types were implemented in a finite element model in order to predict their single and combined effects in the elastic directional response. The results indicate that the L-PBF process can induce a significant change of elastic anisotropy in the diamond unit cells, including a substantial variation of the optimal orientation for minimal compliance. Methods are presented to calculate this anisotropy such that it can be taken into account when designing and using such lattice structures in real-life applications with multi-axial load conditions. (c) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • Autores: Ibrahim, A. (Autor de correspondencia); Rodríguez Florez, Naiara; Gardner, O. F. W.; et al.
    Revista: STEM CELLS TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE
    ISSN: 2157-6564 Vol.9 2020 págs. 1551 - 1666
    Resumen
    While human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) are known to possess osteogenic differentiation potential, the bone tissues formed are generally considered rudimentary and immature compared with those made by bone-derived precursor cells such as human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) and less commonly studied human calvarium osteoprogenitor cells (hOPs). Traditional differentiation protocols have tended to focus on osteoinduction of hADSCs through the addition of osteogenic differentiation media or use of stimulatory bioactive scaffolds which have not resulted in mature bone formation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that by reproducing the physical as well as biochemical bone microenvironment through the use of three-dimensional (3D) culture and vascularization we could enhance osteogenic maturation in hADSCs. In addition to biomolecular characterization, we performed structural analysis through extracellular collagen alignment and mineral density in our bone tissue engineered samples to evaluate osteogenic maturation. We further compared bone formed by hADSCs, hBMSCs, and hOPs against mature human pediatric calvarial bone, yet not extensively investigated. Although bone generated by all three cell types was still less mature than native pediatric bone, a fibrin-based 3D microenvironment together with vascularization boosted osteogenic maturation of hADSC making it similar to that of bone-derived osteoprogenitors. This demonstrates the important role of vascularization and 3D culture in driving osteogenic maturation of cells easily available but constitutively less committed to this lineage and suggests a crucial avenue for recreating the bone microenvironment for tissue engineering of mature craniofacial bone tissues from pediatric hADSCs, as well as hBMSCs and hOPs.
  • Autores: Rodríguez Florez, Naiara; Borghi, A. ; Yauwan, D. D. ; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF CRANIOFACIAL SURGERY
    ISSN: 1049-2275 Vol.31 N° 7 2020 págs. 2084 - 2087
    Resumen
    Spring-assisted cranioplasty (SAC) is a minimally invasive technique for treating sagittal synostosis in young infants. Yet, follow-up data on cranial growth in patients who have undergone SAC are lacking. This project aimed to understand how the cranial shape develops during the postoperative period, from spring insertion to removal. 3D head scans of 30 consecutive infants undergoing SAC for sagittal synostosis were acquired using a handheld scanner pre-operatively, immediately postoperatively, at follow-up and at spring removal; 3D scans of 41 age-matched control subjects were also acquired. Measurements of head length, width, height, circumference, and volume were taken for all subjects; cephalic index (CI) was calculated. Statistical shape modeling was used to compute 3D average head models of sagittal patients at the different time points. SAC was performed at a mean age of 5.2 months (range 3.3-8.0) and springs were removed 4.3 months later. CI increased significantly (P < 0.001) from pre-op (69.5% +/- 2.8%) to spring removal (74.4% +/- 3.9%), mainly due to the widening of head width, which became as wide as for age-matched controls; however, the CI of controls was not reached (82.3% +/- 6.8%). The springs did not constrain volume changes and allowed for natural growth. Population mean shapes showed that the bony prominences seen at the sites of spring engagement settle over time, and that springs affect the overall 3D head shape of the skull. In conclusion, results reaffirmed the effectiveness of SAC as a treatment method for nonsyndromic single suture sagittal synostosis.
  • Autores: Del Val, AG. (Autor de correspondencia); Veiga Suárez, Fernando; Suarez, A.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING AND MATERIALS PROCESSING
    ISSN: 2504-4494 Vol.4 N° 1 2020 págs. 9
    Resumen
    Thread quality control is becoming a widespread necessity in manufacturing to guarantee the geometry of the resulting screws on the workpiece due to the high industrial costs. Besides, the industrial inspection is manual provoking high rates of manufacturing delays. Therefore, the aim of this paper consists of developing a statistical quality control approach acquiring the data (torque signal) coming from the spindle drive for assessing thread quality using different coatings. The system shows a red light when the tap wear is critical before machining in unacceptable screw threads. Therefore, the application could reduce these high industrial costs because it can work self-governance.
  • Autores: Jiménez Zabaleta, Amaia (Autor de correspondencia); Arizmendi Jaca, Miguel; Cumbicus Jiménez, Wilmer Euclides
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    ISSN: 0268-3768 Vol.100 N° 9-12 2019 págs. 2831 - 2855
    Resumen
    In this work, a model for the prediction of drilling stability against low-frequency lateral vibrations, named as whirling in the literature, is proposed. These vibrations are lateral displacements of the tool that arise at frequencies near multiples of the rotation frequency of the drill. The appearance of whirling vibrations leads to the generation of lobe-shaped holes. In order to predict whirling vibrations, the motion equation of the drill is deduced taking into account the modal characteristics of the drill and the cutting and process damping forces that act on it. In this paper, forces that arise in two different regions of the drill are considered: (1) forces on the main cutting edges and (2) forces on the chisel edge. Different force models are presented for each region that include both the regenerative effect of the vibration on the cutting area and the process damping. An oblique cutting model and an orthogonal model are employed for the calculation of cutting forces acting on the main cutting edges and on the chisel edge, respectively. The cutting force model for the main cutting edges takes into account the cutting angle (inclination angle, rake angle, and chip flow angle) variation along the main cutting edges. For the chisel edge region, where the feed speed is no longer negligible with respect to the cutting speed, the dynamic cutting angles are employed for the force model development. Concerning the process damping force model, previous works in the literature consider a constant value of the clearance angle for the calculation of the process damping coefficient. However, in this work, the variation of the normal clearance angle along the main cutting edges is considered. It is shown that, depending on the clearance face grinding parameters employed, the clearance angle can double its value along the main cutting edges. Considering the force models and through the semi-discretization of the motion equation of the drill, the appearance of low-frequency lateral vibrations is predicted regarding the drill geometry and cutting conditions such as drill rotation speed and feed. In addition, given cutting conditions at which whirling vibrations are expected to occur, the model is able to predict the vibration frequencies that are excited. The drilling model and the stability predictions are experimentally validated by means of drilling tests with different drill diameters and cutting conditions. In comparing the experimentally obtained results and the predictions obtained by the model, it is concluded that the model can reasonably predict the appearance of whirling vibrations as a function of drill geometry and cutting conditions. Generated hole shape is also analyzed through the measurement of hole roundness and bottom surface geometry. It is observed that, when drilling in the presence of whirling vibrations, holes with lobed shape and polygonal bottom surface are generated. It is also noticed that both the number of lobes and the number of sides of the polygonal bottom surface are directly related to the vibration frequencies that arise.
  • Autores: Arizmendi Jaca, Miguel (Autor de correspondencia); Jiménez Zabaleta, Amaia
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL SCIENCES
    ISSN: 0020-7403 Vol.163 2019
    Resumen
    This paper presents a model for predicting the surface topography generated in face milling operations. In these operations, when the face mill inserts remove the workpiece material, they leave marks on the machined surfaces. The marks depend on the face mill geometry, the geometry and runout of the face mill inserts, and cutting conditions, e.g. feed and step over. In order to predict the surface topography, the geometry of the face mill cutting edges must first be modelled. The modelling of the cutting edge geometry is for round insert face mills and for square shoulder face mills. Due to the influence of insert runout on the final surface topography, axial and radial runouts of the face mill inserts are also taken into account in the modelling of the cutting edge geometry. Next, the equations expressing the trajectory of any cutting edge point are derived as a function of the feed value, the rotation angle of the face mill, its axial position, and its radial position with respect to the face mill axis. Finally, given the cutting edge geometry and the trajectory of cutting edge points, a methodology based on the discretization of the milled surface in a grid with a finite number of points is developed in this paper for the simulation of the surface topography. The methodology is based on the fact that at each grid point, the final height of the topography will be the height of the workpiece material remaining at this point after many face mill revolutions. For this reason, the procedure initially estimates the rotation angles of the face mill for which the face mill cutting edges in their front-cutting and back-cutting motion pass by the grid point being considered. In order to achieve this, a transcendental equation that is only dependent on the rotation angle is derived from the cutting edge trajectory equations. This equation is transformed into an equivalent polynomial equation by means of Chebyshev expansions. The transformed equation is solved for the rotation angle using a standard root finder that does not require a starting value. Then, by means of the estimated rotation angles and the cutting edge trajectory equations, the radial positions of the cutting edge points passing by the grid point are obtained. Finally, based on these radial positions and the cutting edge geometry, the heights of cutting edge points, which can generate the surface topography at this grid point, are estimated. The final height of the surface topography will correspond to the lowest value among the estimated height values. The methodology can be easily extended and applied to face mills with other insert geometries or to face mills with central and peripheral inserts. In addition, the simulation of the surface topography generated by lateral passes in face milling operations is simplified. The procedure allows the influence of the face mill geometry, the feed value and the step over between passes to be analysed and the roughness values to be predicted. In order to validate the model predictions, a series of face milling tests are carried out. Predicted surface topographies are compared with measured topographies and a good agreement between them is observed.
  • Autores: Calderon-Uriszar-Aldaca, I. (Autor de correspondencia); Briz, E. ; Biezma, M. V. ; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FATIGUE
    ISSN: 0142-1123 Vol.122 2019 págs. 141 - 151
    Resumen
    Fatigue under variable amplitude loading is currently assessed by applying the Palmgren-Miner linear rule in structural standards. However, this linear rule is inadequate in natural scenarios with coupled fatigue and corrosion effects, because the coupled corrosion-fatigue process synergistically accelerates deterioration. In view of the absence of specifications for the coupled fatigue-corrosion effect in structural standards, the objective here is to develop a simple and practical correction factor that will ensure a conservative linear summation of damage, taking the corrosion-fatigue effect into account. The theoretical consistency and the feasibility of the new adapted rule are tested in a case study.
  • Autores: Arizmendi Jaca, Miguel (Autor de correspondencia); Jiménez Zabaleta, Amaia; Cumbicus Jiménez, Wilmer Euclides; et al.
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MACHINE TOOLS AND MANUFACTURE
    ISSN: 0890-6955 Vol.137 2019 págs. 79 - 95
  • Autores: Jiménez Zabaleta, Amaia (Autor de correspondencia); Arizmendi Jaca, Miguel; Cumbicus Jiménez, Wilmer Euclides
    Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    ISSN: 0268-3768 Vol.96 2018 págs. 1971 - 1990
    Resumen
    A model that predicts the appearance of low-frequency lateral vibrations in drilling with pilot hole is proposed in this work. These vibrations, called whirling in the literature, are responsible for the generation of lobe-shaped holes during drilling. The present model considers both the influence of the regenerative effect of vibrations on the cutting forces and the influence of the process damping phenomenon that appears along the main cutting edges. In order to model cutting forces, cutting edges are divided into discrete elements and for each of them oblique cutting model is employed. Specific cutting forces at each cutting edge element are calculated as function of cutting speed and normal rake angle value. A new methodology is developed to analyze the motion equation of the drill in the frequency domain in order to predict the appearance of whirling vibrations during drilling with pilot hole. Regarding the depth of cut and the spindle rotational speed, drilling stability limits against low-frequency lateral vibrations are obtained. Moreover, in the presence of vibrations, the model can predict the whirling frequencies that are excited depending on the established cutting conditions. In addition, the stability model is experimentally validated via drilling tests over pilot holes of different diameters for a wide range of cutting conditions. In order to study the appearance of low-frequency vibrations and to avoid the appearance of other vibrations such as regenerative chatter, the analysis is focused on low spindle speed values. A comparison between predicted vibration frequencies and actual frequencies in measured cutting forces during drilling tests is carried out and a good correlation between them is observed.
  • Autores: Alvarez, A. ; Calleja, A. (Autor de correspondencia); Arizmendi Jaca, Miguel; et al.
    Revista: MATERIALS
    ISSN: 1996-1944 Vol.11 N° 8 2018 págs. 1301
    Resumen
    The emergence of multitasking machines in the machine tool sector presents new opportunities for the machining of large size gears and short production series in these machines. However, the possibility of using standard tools in conventional machines for gears machining represents a technological challenge from the point of view of workpiece quality. Machining conditions in order to achieve both dimensional and surface quality requirements need to be determined. With these considerations in mind, computer numerical control (CNC) methods to provide useful tools for gear processing are studied. Thus, a model for the prediction of surface roughness obtained on the teeth surface of a machined spiral bevel gear in a multiprocess machine is presented. Machining strategies and optimal machining parameters were studied, and the roughness model is validated for 3 + 2 axes and 5 continuous axes machining strategies.

Proyectos desde 2018

  • Título: Optimización del proceso de corte y de la vida útil de la herramienta en operaciones de mecanizado de aceros inoxidables super dúplex
    Código de expediente: PUE_2022_1_0008
    Investigador principal: MIGUEL ARIZMENDI JACA.
    Financiador: EUSKO JAURLARITZA - GOBIERNO VASCO
    Convocatoria: Proyectos de Investigación Básica y/o Aplicada 2022-2024
    Fecha de inicio: 01-09-2022
    Fecha fin: 31-08-2024
    Importe concedido: 50.000,00€
    Otros fondos: -
  • Título: Estrategias de diseño e impresión 3D para el desarrollo de garras robóticas con sensórica integrada. Postprocesados para mejorar tolerancias y funcionalidad: mecanizados y recubrimientos
    Código de expediente: 2021-CIEN-000065-01
    Investigador principal: AITOR CAZON MARTIN.
    Financiador: DIPUTACIÓN FORAL DE GIPUZKOA
    Convocatoria: Programa Red guipuzcoana de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación_DFG 2021
    Fecha de inicio: 01-07-2021
    Fecha fin: 30-11-2022
    Importe concedido: 44.412,00€
    Otros fondos: -