Grupos Investigadores

Líneas de Investigación

  • Nutrición mineral de plantas: aspectos básicos y aplicados. Nuevos fertilizantes.
  • Nuevos métodos químicos para la remediación ambiental en aguas y suelos.
  • Nuevos métodos para el reciclaje eficiente de nutrientes en el contexto de una economía circular.
  • Materia orgánica del suelo. Fisio-química del Humus.
  • Interacciones planta-microorganismo-humus.
  • Desarrollo de moléculas con capacidad de mejorar el crecimiento de las plantas sometidas a estreses bióticos y abióticos.

Palabras Clave

  • Sustancias húmicas
  • Remediación ambiental
  • Reciclaje de nutrientes
  • Nutrición vegetal
  • Materia orgánica
  • Interacción plata-microorganismo-sustancias húmicas
  • Fertilizantes
  • Fertilización de los cultivos
  • Estrés en plantas

Publicaciones Científicas desde 2018

  • Autores: Soriano, G.; Kneeshaw, S.; Jiménez-Alemán, G.; et al.
    Revista: NEW PHYTOLOGIST
    ISSN 0028-646X Vol.233 N° 3 2022 págs. 1401 - 1413
    Resumen
    Jasmonates are fatty acid-derived hormones that regulate multiple aspects of plant development, growth and stress responses. Bioactive jasmonates, defined as the ligands of the conserved COI1 receptor, differ between vascular plants and bryophytes (jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) and dinor-12-oxo-10,15(Z)-phytodienoic acid (dn-OPDA), respectively). The biosynthetic pathways of JA-Ile in the model vascular plant Arabidopsis thaliana have been elucidated. However, the details of dn-OPDA biosynthesis in bryophytes are still unclear. Here, we identify an orthologue of Arabidopsis fatty-acid-desaturase 5 (AtFAD5) in the model liverwort Marchantia polymorpha and show that FAD5 function is ancient and conserved between species separated by more than 450 million years (Myr) of independent evolution. Similar to AtFAD5, MpFAD5 is required for the synthesis of 7Z-hexadecenoic acid. Consequently, in Mpfad5 mutants, the hexadecanoid pathway is blocked, dn-OPDA concentrations are almost completely depleted and normal chloroplast development is impaired. Our results demonstrate that the main source of wounding-induced dn-OPDA in Marchantia is the hexadecanoid pathway and the contribution of the octadecanoid pathway (i.e. from OPDA) is minimal. Remarkably, despite extremely low concentrations of dn-OPDA, MpCOI1-mediated responses to wounding and insect feeding can still be activated in Mpfad5, suggesting that dn-OPDA may not be the only bioactive jasmonate and COI1 ligand in Marchantia.
  • Autores: Montaner, C. (Autor de correspondencia); Zufiaurre, R.; Movila Movila, Maria; et al.
    Revista: FOODS
    ISSN 2304-8158 Vol.11 N° 1 2022 págs. 16
    Resumen
    Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is a traditional vegetable grown and consumed in some Spanish regions. The objective of this study was to determine the variability and evolution of fatty acid composition in a borage germplasm collection formed by wild types, breeding lines, commercial varieties, and landraces. Fatty acids were analysed in petioles, the commonly edible part of the leaves, and the leaf blades, the by-product of the borage industry, in two growth stages: at the optimal harvest period (120 days after sowing) and at the end of the harvest period (150 days after sowing). The results showed that for each of the eight fatty acids identified, there were significant differences among the twelve borage genotypes depending on the developmental plant stage at sampling date and the part of the leaf analysed, the interaction effect also being statistically significant. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids identified were: linoleic acid (18:2 n6, LA), alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 n3, ALA), gamma-linolenic acid (18:3 n6, GLA), and stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4, n-3), account for approximately 70% of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Blue-flowered genotypes differ from white-flowered genotypes by their high content of ALA and SDA, which can be exploited in borage breeding programs. Petioles from young plants present higher n6 fatty acids, while older plants produce a great amount of n3 fatty acids.
  • Autores: Kizildeniz, Tefide (Autor de correspondencia); Movila Movila, Maria; Bettoni, M. M.; et al.
    Revista: VITICULTURE STUDIES
    ISSN 2757-5691 Vol.2 N° 1 2022 págs. 45 - 53
    Resumen
    Since vine propagation methods can cause physiological stress, it has a great impact on sustainable viticulture. The aim of this review is to introduce the applied techniques in decreasing the time period and manage the physiological stage of vine cuttings by simultaneously manipulating the temperature of two nodes of the same cuttings in order to stimulate roots and inhibit shoot formation for vegetative propagation. To avoid mold and other bacterial diseases, antifungal and antibacterial treatment is applied. In asymptomatic situations, all cuttings should be treated with hot water before carrying out the rooting process. The cuttings are exposed to soilless aseptic hydrated media to maintain thermal isolation for emergence of root callus, at 25-27 °C during 3-4 weeks. Meanwhile, spatial temperature under 1 °C may result in chilly stress. More than 2 °C may have a significant influence on cutting performance, and above 4 °C stimulate microbial activity. Therefore, the system must maintain between 2-4 °C. This technique provides to viticulture farmers for regulation of root development and disease-free cuttings in a short time period.
  • Autores: Nicolás, M. (Autor de correspondencia); Torres-Pérez, R.; Wahl, V.; et al.
    Revista: NATURE PLANTS
    ISSN 2055-026X Vol.8 N° 3 2022 págs. 281 - 294
    Resumen
    In potato, the TCP transcription factor BRANCHED1b represses aerial tuber formation in the axils of the leaves. It functions through limiting the number of plasmodesmata, reducing sucrose levels and repressing the tuberigen protein SP6A. The control of carbon allocation, storage and usage is critical for plant growth and development and is exploited for both crop food production and CO2 capture. Potato tubers are natural carbon reserves in the form of starch that have evolved to allow propagation and survival over winter. They form from stolons, below ground, where they are protected from adverse environmental conditions and animal foraging. We show that BRANCHED1b (BRC1b) acts as a tuberization repressor in aerial axillary buds, which prevents buds from competing in sink strength with stolons. BRC1b loss of function leads to ectopic production of aerial tubers and reduced underground tuberization. In aerial axillary buds, BRC1b promotes dormancy, abscisic acid responses and a reduced number of plasmodesmata. This limits sucrose accumulation and access of the tuberigen protein SP6A. BRC1b also directly interacts with SP6A and blocks its tuber-inducing activity in aerial nodes. Altogether, these actions help promote tuberization underground.
  • Autores: Garnica Ochoa, María (Autor de correspondencia); Baigorri Ekisoain, Roberto Pedro; San Francisco, S.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN PLANT SCIENCE
    ISSN 1664-462X Vol.13 2022 págs. 803013
    Resumen
    Many studies have shown the close relationship between the beneficial action of soil and sedimentary humic acids on the growth of plants cultivated in calcareous soils and their ability to improve Fe plant nutrition. These results have been ascribed to the humic acid (HA) capability to improve Fe solubility and bioavailability. However, other effects more related to a humic acid action on the specific mechanisms activated in roots of plants under Fe deficiency cannot be ruled out. Although this question has been studied in dicotyledonous plants, in graminaceous plants there are no specific studies. Here we investigate the ability of a humic acid extracted from peat (HA) to improve Fe nutrition in wheat plants cultivated under Fe deficient and sufficient conditions. The results show that HA can improve the physiological status of Fe deficient wheat plants by alleviating some of the deleterious consequences of Fe deficiency on plant development and increasing the plant ability to secrete phytosiderophores to the nutrient solution. This action of HA is associated with increases in the Fe-active pool in leaves that might be related to the mobilization of the Fe complexed by HA resulting from the interaction of HA with the phytosiderophores in the nutrient solution. The Fe translocation from the root to the shoot may be favored by the action of trans-Zeatin Riboside (tZR) since the leaf concentration of this phytohormone was enhanced by HA in Fe deficient plants.
  • Autores: Olaetxea Indaburu, Maite (Autor de correspondencia); Mora, V.; Baigorri Ekisoain, Roberto Pedro; et al.
    Revista: MOLECULES
    ISSN 1420-3049 Vol.26 N° 1 2021 págs. 3
    Resumen
    Some studies have reported that the capacity of humic substances to improve plant growth is dependent on their ability to increase root hydraulic conductivity. It was proposed that this effect is directly related to the structural conformation in solution of these substances. To study this hypothesis, the effects on root hydraulic conductivity and growth of cucumber plants of a sedimentary humic acid and two polymers-polyacrylic acid and polyethylene glycol-presenting a molecular conformation in water solution different from that of the humic acid have been studied. The results show that whereas the humic acid caused an increase in root hydraulic conductivity and plant growth, both the polyacrylic acid and the polyethylene glycol did not modify plant growth and caused a decrease in root hydraulic conductivity. These results can be explained by the different molecular conformation in water solution of the three molecular systems. The relationships between these biological effects and the molecular conformation of the three molecular systems in water solution are discussed.
  • Autores: Santos-Reis de Andrade da Silva, M.; Huertas-Tavares, O. C.; Gonçalves-Ribeiro, T.; et al.
    Revista: APPLIED SOIL ECOLOGY
    ISSN 0929-1393 Vol.168 2021 págs. 104146
    Resumen
    Humic acids (HA) stimulate the growth of several plant species by regulating their hormonal and redox metabolisms. Nevertheless, studies on their relationship with the plant-associated microbiota are almost nonexistent. Here, we hypothesized that the HA effect occurs in parallel with the regulation of the plant-associated bacterial community. Rice was grown for 264 h in nutrient solution supplied or not with HA (80 mg L-1). Plant growth was evaluated every 24 h and samples for 16S rRNA gene sequencing were taken after 240 h. The plant's net assimilation rate and the absolute and relative growth rates increased from 100 h to 264 h after the first HA application. The root volume and other growth variables were stimulated at different times along the plant growth cycle. Metataxonomics revealed that bacterial community structure and composition were affected upon HA application. The interactions between members of the community increased in HA-treated roots, showing more connected bacterial communities. Chitinophaga and Mucilaginibacter were the predominant genera in HA treated roots. These bacteria are reported to produce enzymes that degrade compounds present in the wall of fungi, oomycetes , and nematode eggs. Pseudomonas and Acidobacteria Gp 1, both siderophore-producers and plant-growth promoters were also enriched, although with lower abundances.
  • Autores: Quiroga, G.; Erice Soreasu, Gorka; Aroca, R.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
    ISSN 0176-1617 Vol.246 - 247 N° 153115 2020 págs. 153115
    Resumen
    Drought stress is one of the most devastating abiotic stresses, compromising crop growth, reproductive success and yield. The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis has been demonstrated to be beneficial in helping the plant to bear with water deficit. In plants, development and stress responses are largely regulated by a complex hormonal crosstalk. Auxins play significant roles in plant growth and development, in responses to different abiotic stresses or in the establishment and functioning of the AM symbiosis. Despite these important functions, the role of indole-3acetic acid (IAA) as a regulator of root water transport and stress response is not well understood. In this study, the effect of exogenous application of IAA on the regulation of root radial water transport in AM plants was analyzed under well-watered and drought stress conditions. Exogenous IAA application affected root hydraulic parameters, mainly osmotic root hydraulic conductivity (Lo), which was decreased in both AM and non-AM plants under water deficit conditions. Under drought, the relative apoplastic water flow was differentially regulated by IAA application in non-AM and AM plants. The effect of IAA on the internal cell component of root water conductivity suggests that aquaporins are involved in the IAA-dependent inhibition of this water pathway.
  • Autores: Monte, I.; Kneeshaw, S.; Franco-Zorrilla, J. M.; et al.
    Revista: CURRENT BIOLOGY
    ISSN 0960-9822 Vol.30 N° 6 2020 págs. 962 - 971
    Resumen
    The jasmonate signaling pathway regulates development, growth, and defense responses in plants. Studies in the model eudicot, Arabidopsis thaliana, have identified the bioactive hormone (jasmonoylisoleucine [JA-Ile]) and its Coronatine Insensitive 1 (COI1)/Jasmonate-ZIM Domain (JAZ) co-receptor. In bryophytes, a conserved signaling pathway regulates similar responses but uses a different ligand, the JA-Ile precursor dinor-12-oxo-10,15(Z)-phytodienoic acid (dn-OPDA), to activate a conserved co-receptor. Jasmonate responses independent of JA-Ile and COI1, thought to be mediated by the cyclopentenone OPDA, have also been suggested, but experimental limitations in Arabidopsis have hindered attempts to uncouple OPDA and JA-Ile biosynthesis. Thus, a clear understanding of this pathway remains elusive. Here, we address the role of cyclopentenones in COI1-independent responses using the bryophyte Marchantia polymorpha, which is unable to synthesize JA-Ile but does accumulate OPDA and dn-OPDA. We demonstrate that OPDA and dn-OPDA activate a COI1-independent pathway that regulates plant thermotolerance genes, and consequently, treatment with these oxylipins protects plants against heat stress. Furthermore, we identify that these molecules signal through their electrophilic properties.
  • Autores: Fuentes Ramírez, Marta; Baigorri Ekisoain, Roberto Pedro (Autor de correspondencia); García-Mina Freire, José María
    Revista: ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
    ISSN 0013-9351 Vol.189 2020
    Resumen
    Humification is a process that plant and microbiota residues experiment in natural or agronomic soils under microorganisms action and environmental conditions. Under this process natural biomolecules - such as protein, carbohydrates or lignin - experience secondary biochemical and chemical reactions yielding to the formation of new organic biomolecules normally known as soil humus or humic substances (HS). In parallel, composting of fresh organic residues may be seen as an artificial process that involves many microorganism-induced secondary biochemical reactions that are probably also included in the first steps of natural humification in soils. In this context, we have applied multivariate statistical analysis to diverse and complementary analytical techniques (UV-Visible, synchronous fluorescence, FTIR, C-13-NMR and pyrolysis GS/MS) to follow the structural evolution of three groups of organic material: (i) fresh organic matter materials, (ii) compost of the fresh organic matter materials, and (iii) humic and fulvic acids including standards and references from the International Humic Substances Society. In order to discriminate among the three groups of organic materials, the set of data obtained from each analytical technique was analyzed using complementary statistical techniques: Correlations, Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The results showed positive correlations between UV-visible and fluorescence indexes and aromatic structures ...
  • Autores: Conesa, C. M.; Saez, A.; Navarro-Neila, S.; et al.
    Revista: PLANTS
    ISSN 2223-7747 Vol.9 N° 2 2020 págs. 251
    Resumen
    Nitrogen (N) is probably the most important macronutrient and its scarcity limits plant growth, development and fitness. N starvation response has been largely studied by transcriptomic analyses, but little is known about the role of alternative polyadenylation (APA) in such response. In this work, we show that N starvation modifies poly(A) usage in a large number of transcripts, some of them mediated by FIP1, a component of the polyadenylation machinery. Interestingly, the number of mRNAs isoforms with poly(A) tags located in protein-coding regions or 5 '-UTRs significantly increases in response to N starvation. The set of genes affected by APA in response to N deficiency is enriched in N-metabolism, oxidation-reduction processes, response to stresses, and hormone responses, among others. A hormone profile analysis shows that the levels of salicylic acid (SA), a phytohormone that reduces nitrate accumulation and root growth, increase significantly upon N starvation. Meta-analyses of APA-affected and fip1-2-deregulated genes indicate a connection between the nitrogen starvation response and salicylic acid (SA) signaling. Genetic analyses show that SA may be important for preventing the overgrowth of the root system in low N environments. This work provides new insights on how plants interconnect different pathways, such as defense-related hormonal signaling and the regulation of genomic information by APA, to fine-tune the response to low N availability.
  • Autores: Chico, J. M.; Lechner, E.; Fernandez-Barbero, G.; et al.
    Revista: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
    ISSN 0027-8424 Vol.117 N° 11 2020 págs. 6205 - 6215
    Resumen
    The jasmonate (JA)-pathway regulators MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 are central nodes in plant signaling networks integrating environmental and developmental signals to fine-tune JA defenses and plant growth. Continuous activation of MYC activity is potentially lethal. Hence, MYCs need to be tightly regulated in order to optimize plant fitness. Among the increasing number of mechanisms regulating MYC activity, protein stability is arising as a major player. However, how the levels of MYC proteins are modulated is still poorly understood. Here, we report that MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 are targets of BPM (BTB/POZ-MATH) proteins, which act as substrate adaptors of CUL3-based E3 ubiquitin ligases. Reduction of function of CUL3(BPM) in amiR-bpm lines, bpm235 triple mutants, and cul3ab double mutants enhances MYC2 and MYC3 stability and accumulation and potentiates plant responses to JA such as root-growth inhibition and MYC-regulated gene expression. Moreover, MYC3 polyubiquitination levels are reduced in amiR-bpm lines. BPM3 protein is stabilized by JA, suggesting a negative feedback regulatory mechanism to control MYC activity, avoiding harmful runaway responses. Our results uncover a layer for JA-pathway regulation by CUL3(BPM)-mediated degradation of MYC transcription factors.
  • Autores: Baigorri Ekisoain, Roberto Pedro (Autor de correspondencia); San Francisco, S.; Urrutia Sagardia, Óscar; et al.
    Revista: AGRONOMY JOURNAL
    ISSN 0002-1962 Vol.10 N° 7 2020 págs. 968
    Resumen
    Because of the low consistency of the results obtained in the field, the use of biochar as a soil amendment is controversial. Thus, in general, in acidic soils, results are positive, while in alkaline soils, they are non-significant or even negative. The results regarding biochar action in acidic soils have been related to a lime-like effect due to its alkaline pH and the high doses normally used. However, the causes of biochar effects in alkaline soils remain unknown. Our objective was to explore the chemical mechanism of biochar interaction in acidic and alkaline soils. We used well-characterized biochar as a component of two complex N and PK granulated fertilizers at two different doses (1% and 5%). These fertilizers were applied to wheat cultivated in pots containing an alkaline soil and grown for 60 days. No effect was shown for the N-biochar fertilizer application. However, the PK-biochar fertilizer application caused a decrease in crop yield. In addition, the adsorption isotherms of Al, Fe, Mo, Mn, and Phosphate (Pi) in biochar were also studied. The results showed that Fe and Al were rapidly adsorbed in biochar, while Pi was only adsorbed on the Fe-, Al-biochar complex. Desorption experiments showed that P and Fe/Al were not desorbed from the P-Fe/Al-biochar complex by water or the Olsen reagent, while partial desorption was observed when HCl 0.1 M was used.
  • Autores: Tcherkez, G.; Mariem, S.B.; Larraya, L.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BOTANY
    ISSN 0022-0957 Vol.71 N° 19 2020 págs. 5990 - 6003
    Resumen
    While the general effect of CO2 enrichment on photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, N content, and yield has been documented, there is still some uncertainty as to whether there are interactive effects between CO2 enrichment and other factors, such as temperature, geographical location, water availability, and cultivar. In addition, the metabolic coordination between leaves and grains, which is crucial for crop responsiveness to elevated CO2, has never been examined closely. Here, we address these two aspects by multi-level analyses of data from several free-air CO2 enrichment experiments conducted in five different countries. There was little effect of elevated CO2 on yield (except in the USA), likely due to photosynthetic capacity acclimation, as reflected by protein profiles. In addition, there was a significant decrease in leaf amino acids (threonine) and macroelements (e.g. K) at elevated CO2, while other elements, such as Mg or S, increased. Despite the non-significant effect of CO2 enrichment on yield, grains appeared to be significantly depleted in N (as expected), but also in threonine, the S-containing amino acid methionine, and Mg. Overall, our results suggest a strong detrimental effect of CO2 enrichment on nutrient availability and remobilization from leaves to grains.
  • Autores: de Hita Mejía, David; Fuentes Ramírez, Marta (Autor de correspondencia); Zamarreño Arregui, Ángel; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN PLANT SCIENCE
    ISSN 1664-462X Vol.11 2020 págs. 837
    Resumen
    The global decrease in soil fertility leads to a new agricultural scenario where eco-friendly solutions play an important role. The plant growth promotion through the use of microbes, especially endophytes and rhizosphere microbiota, has been proposed as a useful solution. Several studies have shown that humic substances are suitable vehicles for the inoculation of plant growth promoting bacteria, and that this combination has an enhanced effect on the stimulation of plant development. In this work, cucumber plants grown hydroponically have been pre-treated with a sedimentary humic acid (SHA) with known plant growth-enhancing effects, and culturable bacterial endophytes have been isolated from these plants. The hypothesis was that this pre-treatment with SHA could lead to the isolation of certain endophytic taxa whose proliferation within the plant could have been promoted as a result of the effects of the treatment with SHA, and that could eventually reinforce a potential synergistic effect of a combined application of those endophytic bacteria and SHA. The culturable endophytes that have been isolated from humic acid-treated cucumber plants have been identified as members of four main phyla:Proteobacteria,Firmicutes,Actinobacteria, andBacteroidetes. Isolates were characterized according to the following plant growth-promoting traits: nitrogen fixation/scavenging, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production and plant hormone production. Most of the isolates were able to fix/scavenge nitrogen and to produce plant hormones (indole-3-acetic acid and several cytokinins), whereas few isolates were able to solubilize phosphate and/or produce siderophores. The most promising endophyte isolates for its use in futures investigations as plant growth-promoting bacterial inocula werePseudomonassp. strains (that showed all traits),Sphingomonassp.,Stenotrophomonassp. strains, or someArthrobactersp. andMicrobacteriumsp. isolates.
  • Autores: de Hita Mejía, David; Fuentes Ramírez, Marta (Autor de correspondencia); Fernandez, V.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN PLANT SCIENCE
    ISSN 1664-462X Vol.11 2020 págs. 493
    Resumen
    Humic substances (HS, fulvic and humic acids) are widely used as fertilizers or plant growth stimulants, although their mechanism of action still remains partially unknown. Humic substances may be applied either directly to the soil or as foliar sprays. Despite both kind of application are commonly used in agricultural practices, most of the studies regarding the elicited response in plants induced by HS are based on the root-application of these substances. The present work aimed at discriminating between the mechanisms of action of foliar application versus root application of a sedimentary humic acid (SHA) on plant development. For this purpose, six markers related to plant phenotype, plant morphology, hormonal balance and root-plasma membrane H+-ATPase were selected. Both application strategies improved the shoot and root growth. Foliar applied- and root applied-SHA shared the capacity to increase the concentration of indole-3-acetic acid in roots and cytokinins in shoots. However, foliar application did not lead to short-term increases in either abscisic acid root-concentration or root-plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity which are, however, two crucial effects triggered by SHA root-application. Both application modes increased the root concentrations of jasmonic acid and jasmonoyl-isoleucine. These hormonal changes caused by foliar application could be a stress-related symptom and connected to the loss of leaves trichomes and the diminution of chloroplasts size seen by scanning electron microscopy. These results support the hypothesis that the beneficial effects of SHA applied to roots or leaves may result from plant adaptation to a mild transient stress caused by SHA application.
  • Autores: Calderin-Garcia, A. (Autor de correspondencia); van Tol de Castro, T. A.; Azevedo-Santos, L.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
    ISSN 0047-2425 Vol.48 N° 6 2019 págs. 1622 - 1632
    Resumen
    The structural identity of humic substances (HS) in the soil is a highly debated issue in the soil sciences. Although the complexity and structural characteristics that determine the functions of HS justify their further study, there is enough scientific evidence explaining the presence of these compounds as a group of structures that are formed by humification and have unique chemical characteristics. This review presents scientific information that follows the structure-property-function relationship with the objective of better explaining the nature of HS. On the basis of the spectroscopic characterization of a number of humic acids, together with the use of chemometric techniques, it is shown that, although the sources of origin are different, HS have a unique structural pattern that is different from that of any other group of soil compounds. From this structural pattern, it is possible to understand how fragments with greater lability in HS can reach root surfaces and interact with the cell membrane, regulate oxidative metabolism, and stimulate root growth in plants. Lability and recalcitrance are properties arising from the characteristics and suprastructural organization of HS and can define the type and intensity of the bioactivity of HS in plants. In this review, we demonstrate that there are methods for studying HS by which a deeper understanding of the functions of these substances on the basis of their chemical properties is possible. Therefore, the understanding of this complex system allows the connection of the scientific elements that justify the existence of these compounds in the soil.
  • Autores: Perminova, I. V. (Autor de correspondencia); García-Mina Freire, José María; Knicker, H. ; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF SOILS AND SEDIMENTS
    ISSN 1439-0108 Vol.19 N° 6 2019 págs. 2663 - 2664
  • Autores: Monte, I.; Franco-Zorrilla, J. M.; García-Casado, G.; et al.
    Revista: MOLECULAR PLANT
    ISSN 1674-2052 Vol.12 N° 2 2019 págs. 185 - 198
    Resumen
    JAZ proteins are negative regulators of jasmonate responses, acting both as repressors of transcription factors and as co-receptors of JA-Ile. The high redundancy of JAZ genes in angiosperms has hindered the characterization of a complete depletion of JAZ function. Moreover, the recent discovery that dn-OPDA is the jasmonate ligand in Marchantia polymorpha demonstrates that JA-Ile is not the sole COI1/JAZ ligand in land plants and highlights the importance of studying JAZ co-receptors in bryophytes. Here, we have exploited the low gene redundancy of the liverwort M. polymorpha to characterize the single MpJAZ in this early diverging plant lineage. We clarify the phylogenetic history of the TIFY family, demonstrate that MpJAZ is the ortholog of AtJAZ with a conserved function, and characterize its repressor activity of dn-OPDA responses. Our results show that, consistent with previous findings in Arabidopsis, MpJAZ represses jasmonates biosynthesis, senescence, and plant defenses, and promotes cell growth and reproductive fitness, highlighting the power of studies in Marchantia.
  • Autores: Baigorri Ekisoain, Roberto Pedro (Autor de correspondencia); Erro Garcés, Javier; Urrutia Sagardia, Óscar; et al.
    Revista: RSC ADVANCES
    ISSN 2046-2069 Vol.9 N° 44 2019 págs. 25790 - 25796
    Resumen
    Phosphate-metal-humic complexes are very relevant in nature due to their crucial role in phosphate availability for plants and microorganisms. Synthetic phosphate-calcium-humic acid (HA) complexes have proven to be efficient sources of available phosphorus for crops. However, the current knowledge about their structure and molecular features is very poor. The structural implications of phosphate interaction with humic binding sites through calcium bridges, in both monocalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate is investigated by using molecular modeling, P-31-NMR, H-1-NMR and X-ray diffractometry. The conformational changes in the molecular configuration of the humic acid involved in the interaction resulting from the synthetic process is also studied by using HPSEC and synchronous fluorescence. The results obtained allow us to identify the phosphate type in the crystalline phase that is involved in the interaction of humic acid binding sites and the different forms of calcium phosphate. Synchronous fluorescence also shows that whereas the conformational configuration of the HA binding site is only partially affected in the monocalcium phosphate interaction, it changes in the case of dicalcium phosphate showing simpler molecular arrangements. These changes in the molecular conformation of the binding site in HA in solution may influence the biological activity of the humic acid.
  • Autores: Garcia-Leon, M.; Cuyas, L.; Abd El-Moneim, D. ; et al.
    Revista: PLANT CELL
    ISSN 1040-4651 Vol.31 N° 10 2019 págs. 2411 - 2429
    Resumen
    The plant endosomal trafficking pathway controls the abundance of membrane-associated soluble proteins, as shown for abscisic acid (ABA) receptors of the PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE1/PYR1-LIKE/REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTORS (PYR/PYL/RCAR) family. ABA receptor targeting for vacuolar degradation occurs through the late endosome route and depends on FYVE DOMAIN PROTEIN REQUIRED FOR ENDOSOMAL SORTING1 (FYVE1) and VACUOLAR PROTEIN SORTING23A (VPS23A), components of the ENDOSOMAL SORTING COMPLEX REQUIRED FOR TRANSPORT-I (ESCRT-I) complexes. FYVE1 and VPS23A interact with ALG-2 INTERACTING PROTEIN-X (ALIX), an ESCRT-III-associated protein, although the functional relevance of such interactions and their consequences in cargo sorting are unknown. In this study we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ALIX directly binds to ABA receptors in late endosomes, promoting their degradation. Impaired ALIX function leads to altered endosomal localization and increased accumulation of ABA receptors. In line with this activity, partial loss-of-function alix-1 mutants display ABA hypersensitivity during growth and stomatal closure, unveiling a role for the ESCRT machinery in the control of water loss through stomata. ABA-hypersensitive responses are suppressed in alix-1 plants impaired in PYR/PYL/RCAR activity, in accordance with ALIX affecting ABA responses primarily by controlling ABA receptor stability. ALIX-1 mutant protein displays reduced interaction with VPS23A and ABA receptors, providing a molecular basis for ABA hypersensitivity in alix-1 mutants. Our findings unveil a negative feedback mechanism triggered by ABA that acts via ALIX to control the accumulation of specific PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors.
  • Autores: de Hita Mejía, David; Fuentes Ramírez, Marta; García, A.C.; et al.
    Revista: WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: WATER SUPPLY
    ISSN 1606-9749 Vol.19 N° 6 2019 págs. 1735 - 1740
    Resumen
    Availability of fresh water for crop irrigation is becoming scarce and rather expensive. In this context, the research about the potential reutilization of non-conventional water sources becomes highly relevant, principally in arid and semi-arid areas. On many occasions, these new water resources involve water with a moderate concentration of salt, making it necessary to improve plant growth under moderate saline conditions. Besides plant breeding techniques, the use of molecules able to improve plant adaptation to saline conditions has great interest. Between these molecules, humic substances (HS) have proven to be efficient as stress-protectors under specific conditions of stress intensity and moment of application. The HS are main components of the soil organic matter and dissolved organic matter resulting from the biotic and abiotic transformation of fresh organic matter in natural ecosystems. Although knowledge about their structure is still under open debate, HS contain aromatic and aliphatic domains presenting O-, N- and S- containing functional groups with high biological and chemical activities. The aim of this presentation is to summarize the main effects of humic acids (HA) applied either on the root or on the shoot, on the metabolism and hormonal balance of plants cultivated under normal and stressing conditions, from studies carried out for our group and collaborations during the last years.
  • Autores: Olaetxea Indaburu, Maite (Autor de correspondencia); Mora, V.; Bacaicoa, E.; et al.
    Revista: PLANT DIRECT
    ISSN 2475-4455 Vol.3 N° 10 2019 págs. 1 - 12
    Resumen
    Although the ability of humic (HA) and fulvic acids (FA) to improve plant growth has been demonstrated, knowledge about the mechanisms responsible for the direct effects of HA and FA on the promotion of plant growth is scarce and fragmentary. Our study investigated the causal role of both root PM H+-ATPase activity and ABA in the SHA-promoting action on both root and shoot growth. The involvement of these processes in the regulation of shoot cytokinin concentration and activity was also studied. Our aim was to integrate such plant responses for providing new insights to the current model on the mode of action of HA for promoting root and shoot growth. Experiments employing specific inhibitors and using Cucumis sativus L. plants show that both the root PM H+-ATPase activity and root ABA play a crucial role in the root growth-promoting action of SHA. With regard to the HA-promoting effects on shoot growth, two pathways of events triggered by the interaction of SHA with plant roots are essential for the increase in root PM H+-ATPase activity-which also mediates an increase in cytokinin concentration and action in the shoot-and the ABA-mediated increase in hydraulic conductivity (Lp(r)).
  • Autores: Calvo-Polanco, M. (Autor de correspondencia); Armada, E.; Zamarreño Arregui, Ángel; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BOTANY
    ISSN 0022-0957 Vol.70 N° 21 2019 págs. 6437 - 6446
    Resumen
    The relatively better performance of mycorrhizal plants subjected to drought stress has commonly been linked to improved root water uptake through the fungal regulation of plant aquaporins and hormones. In this study, we examined the role of ectomycorrhizal fungi in plant water relations and plant hormonal balance under mild drought using split-root seedlings of Populus trichocarpa x deltoides either with or without inoculation with Laccaria bicolor. The root compartments where the drought treatment was applied had higher ABA and lower cytokinin tZR contents, and greater expression of the plant aquaporins PtPIP1;1, PtPIP1;2, PtPIP2;5, and PtPIP2;7. On the other hand, the presence of L. bicolor within the roots down-regulated PtPIP1;4, PtPIP2;3, and PtPIP2;10, and reduced the abundance of PIP2 proteins. In addition, expression of the fungal aquaporins JQ585595 and JQ585596 were positively correlated with root ABA content, while tZR content was positively correlated with PtPIP1;4 and negatively correlated with PtPIP2;7. The results demonstrate a coordinated plant-fungal system that regulates the different mechanisms involved in water uptake in ectomycorrhizal poplar plants.
  • Autores: Foltran, E. C. (Autor de correspondencia); Rocha, J. H. T.; Bazani, J. H.; et al.
    Revista: FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
    ISSN 0378-1127 Vol.435 2019 págs. 170 - 179
    Resumen
    Phosphate fertilizers play an important role in plant nutrition. Different P fertilizer sources such as high-solubility (simple superphosphate, SSP), low-solubility (rock phosphate, RP) and complex superphosphate (CSP) are available for plant supplementation. The objective of this study was to investigate the short- and long-term redistribution of soil P after application of different P sources at establishment of an Eucalyptus forest stand. We carried out two experiments to identify the short- and long- term changes in a Brazilian Oxisol. To property identify the P pools in different times, Hadleýs fractionation methodology was applied to a long-term studies and citrate and oxalate to short-term. From zero to 180 days, the soluble P fractions were not altered in the non-fertilized treatment. Under SSP, a slight increase in this P fraction was found until 30 days, followed by a decrease in later evaluations. During the same period, a slight reduction in Pi extracted by citrate and oxalate was found under the control and a large reduction (approximately 50%) under the SSP treatment. Intermediate behavior was observed under the CSP and RP treatments, whereas there was an increase in P-citrate and P-oxalate until 30 days followed by a reduction afterwards. These results suggest that this pool comprises a potential bioavailability of P to plants.
  • Autores: Gimenez-Ibanez, S. (Autor de correspondencia); Zamarreño Arregui, Ángel; García-Mina Freire, José María; et al.
    Revista: CURRENT BIOLOGY
    ISSN 0960-9822 Vol.29 N° 14 2019 págs. 2270 - 2281
    Resumen
    Evolutionary molecular plant-microbe interactions (EvoMPMI) is an emerging field bridging the gap between molecular phytopathology and evolutionary studies. EvoMPMI research is currently challenging due to the scarcity of pathogenic model systems in early-diverging land plants. Liverworts are among the earliest diverging land-plant lineages, and Marchantia polymorpha has emerged as a liverwort model for evolutionary studies. However, bacterial pathogens of Marchantia have not yet been discovered, and the molecular mechanisms controlling plant-pathogen interactions in this early-diverging land plant remain unknown. Here, we describe a robust experimental plant-bacterial pathosystem for EvoMPMI studies and discover that an ancient immune system governs plant-microbe interactions between M. polymorpha and the hemi-biotrophic pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas syringae. We show that P. syringae pv tomato (Pto) DC3000, causal agent of tomato bacterial speck disease, colonizes M. polymorpha and activates typical hallmarks of plant innate immunity. Virulence of Pto DC3000 on M. polymorpha relies on effector activities inside liverwort cells, including conserved AvrPto and AvrPtoB functions. Host specificity analyses uncovered pathogenic differences among P. syringae strains, suggesting that M. polymorpha-P. syringae interactions are controlled by the genetic backgrounds of both host and pathogen.
  • Autores: Gamez, A. L.; Soba, D.; Zamarreño Arregui, Ángel; et al.
    Revista: PLANTS
    ISSN 2223-7747 Vol.8 N° 6 2019 págs. 173
    Resumen
    The total area under quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cultivation and the consumption of its grain have increased in recent years because of its nutritional properties and ability to grow under adverse conditions, such as drought. Climate change scenarios predict extended periods of drought and this has emphasized the need for new crops that are tolerant to these conditions. The main goal of this work was to evaluate crop yield and quality parameters and to characterize the physiology of two varieties of quinoa grown under water deficit in greenhouse conditions. Two varieties of quinoa from the Chilean coast (Rainbow) and altiplano (Illpa) were used, grown under full irrigation or two different levels of water deficit applied during the grain filling period. There were no marked differences in yield and quality parameters between treatments, but the root biomass was higher in plants grown under severe water deficit conditions compared to control. Photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance decreased with increased water stress in both cultivars, but the coastal variety showed higher water use efficiency and less discrimination of C-13 under water deficit. This response was associated with greater root development and a better stomatal opening adjustment, especially in the case of Rainbow.
  • Autores: Lucena, C. (Autor de correspondencia); Porras, R.; Garcia, M. J.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN PLANT SCIENCE
    ISSN 1664-462X Vol.10 N° 1237 2019
    Resumen
    Iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) are two essential mineral nutrients whose acquisition by plants presents important environmental and economic implications. Both elements are abundant in most soils but scarcely available to plants. To prevent Fe or P deficiency dicot plants initiate morphological and physiological responses in their roots aimed to specifically acquire these elements. The existence of common signals in Fe and P deficiency pathways suggests the signaling factors must act in conjunction with distinct nutrient-specific signals in order to confer tolerance to each deficiency. Previous works have shown the existence of cross talk between responses to Fe and P deficiency, but details of the associated signaling pathways remain unclear. Herein, the impact of foliar application of either P or Fe on P and Fe responses was studied in P- or Fe-deficient plants of Arabidopsis thaliana, including mutants exhibiting altered Fe or P homeostasis. Ferric reductase and acid phosphatase activities in roots were determined as well as the expression of genes related to P and Fe acquisition. The results obtained showed that Fe deficiency induces the expression of P acquisition genes and phosphatase activity, whereas P deficiency induces the expression of Fe acquisition genes and ferric reductase activity, although only transitorily. Importantly, these responses were reversed upon foliar application of either Fe or P on nutrient-starved plants. Taken together, the results reveal interactions between P- and Fe-related phloem signals originating in the shoots that likely interact with hormones in the roots to initiate adaptive mechanisms to tolerate deficiency of each nutrient.
  • Autores: Silva-Navas, J.; Conesa , C.M.; Sáez, A.; et al.
    Revista: NEW PHYTOLOGIST (ONLINE)
    ISSN 1469-8137 Vol.224 N° 1 2019 págs. 242 - 257
    Resumen
    Phosphate (Pi) is an essential nutrient for all organisms. Roots are underground organs, but the majority of the root biology studies have been done on root systems growing in the presence of light. Root illumination alters the Pi starvation response (PSR) at different intensities. Thus, we have analyzed morphological, transcriptional and physiological responses to Pi starvation in dark-grown roots. We have identified new genes and pathways regulated by Pi starvation that were not described previously. We also show that Pi-starved plants increase the cis-zeatin (cZ) : trans-zeatin (tZ) ratio. Transcriptomic analyses show that tZ preferentially represses cell cycle and PSR genes, whereas cZ induces genes involved in cell and root hair elongation and differentiation. In fact, cZ-treated seedlings show longer root system as well as longer root hairs compared with tZ-treated seedlings, increasing the total absorbing surface. Mutants with low cZ concentrations do not allocate free Pi in roots during Pi starvation. We propose that Pi-starved plants increase the cZ : tZ ratio to maintain basal cytokinin responses and allocate Pi in the root system to sustain its growth. Therefore, cZ acts as a PSR hormone that stimulates root and root hair elongation to enlarge the root absorbing surface and to increase Pi concentrations in roots.
  • Autores: Urrutia Sagardia, Óscar (Autor de correspondencia); Erro Garcés, Javier; Zabini, A; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY
    ISSN 0021-8561 Vol.66 N° 19 2018 págs. 4787 - 4799
    Resumen
    This study describes the efficiency of a new coating material for preparing granulated potassium-fertilizers with a potassium release to the soil solution sensitive to rainfall intensity. The composite is prepared by reaction of an alkyd-resin with cement in the absence of water. The complementary use of diverse analytical techniques showed that the presence of the cement fraction induced alkyd resin reticulation and gradual cement-resin hardening. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of micro and nanopores within cement-clusters, whose water permeability is affected by the resin reticulation and amphiphilic character. Potassium release was evaluated in water, soil-columns, and in soil-plant trials in pots and open-field. Agronomic results were consistent with potassium release rates obtained in water solution and soil columns. The composite-coated potassium fertilizer was more efficient than the noncoated one in providing plant available potassium, with this effect being dependent on water presence in soil.
  • Autores: Fuentes Ramírez, Marta (Autor de correspondencia); Baigorri Ekisoain, Roberto Pedro; González Gaitano, Gustavo; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF SOILS AND SEDIMENTS
    ISSN 1439-0108 Vol.18 N° 4 2018 págs. 1389 - 1399
    Resumen
    The traditional method to determine humic content (humic and fulvic acids) in commercial fertilizers, biostimulants, and organic materials is based on the oxidation of the organic carbon contained in the basic-soluble but acid-insoluble fraction (humic acids) and the basic-acid soluble fraction (fulvic acids) of their alkaline water extracts. This methodology, merely operational, makes it impossible to distinguish if the quantified carbon corresponds to substances with "humic" chemical nature or to non-humic organic matter but with similar solubility properties to those of humic matter. The aim of this work is to develop a new methodology that not only quantifies the humic content in commercial products (and raw materials) but also assesses the humic quality of the quantified organic matter. To this end, humic and fulvic (-like) fractions have been isolated/purified from several humic and non-humic materials and characterized by means of elemental analysis and UV-visible, fluorescence, and infrared spectroscopies, and these data have been used to perform a discriminant analysis (DA). The model obtained from the DA is able to discriminate humic and fulvic fractions from apparently humic or fulvic ones and provides discriminant classification functions that have proven to successfully predict the "humic quality" of the fractions isolated from commercial products, after their elemental and spectroscopic characterization. Therefore, the combination of the fractionation, characterization, and evaluation by the DA is proposed as an effective methodology for quantifying and assessing the quality of the humic content claimed in the labels of commercial products.
  • Autores: Olaetxea Indaburu, Maite; de Hita Mejía, David; Garcia, C. A.; et al.
    Revista: APPLIED SOIL ECOLOGY
    ISSN 0929-1393 Vol.123 2018 págs. 521 - 537
    Resumen
    The ability of rhizospheric humic substances to improve plant growth has been well established by many studies carried out using diverse plant species cultivated under many different conditions. These beneficial effects of humic substances on plant development are expressed in both root and shoot. However, the mechanisms responsible for this action of humic substances are only partially known and poorly integrated. In fact, although the studies focused on plant root development are numerous, those dealing with plant shoot development are scarce. Likewise, studies integrating humic effects on root and shoot are also few. In this context, the main goal of this work is to summarize some of the results regarding the effects of humic substances on plant development within a hypothetical holistic framework that will allow us to interconnect these findings and disclose some features of the functional crosstalk between the effects on soil, root and shoot. Furthermore, the significance of all these mechanisms in plants growing in the field is also discussed.
  • Autores: Monte, I.; Ishida, S.; Zamarreño Arregui, Ángel; et al.
    Revista: NATURE CHEMICAL BIOLOGY
    ISSN 1552-4450 Vol.14 N° 5 2018 págs. 480 - 488
    Resumen
    The phytohormone jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) regulates defense, growth and developmental responses in vascular plants. Bryophytes have conserved sequences for all JA-Ile signaling pathway components but lack JA-Ile. We show that, in spite of 450 million years of independent evolution, the JA-Ile receptor COI1 is functionally conserved between the bryophyte Marchantia polymorpha and the eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana but COI1 responds to different ligands in each species. We identified the ligand of Marchantia MpCOI1 as two isomeric forms of the JA-Ile precursor dinor-OPDA (dinor-cis-OPDA and dinor-iso-OPDA). We demonstrate that AtCOI1 functionally complements Mpcoi1 mutation and confers JA-Ile responsiveness and that a single-residue substitution in MpCOI1 is responsible for the evolutionary switch in ligand specificity. Our results identify the ancestral bioactive jasmonate and clarify its biosynthetic pathway, demonstrate the functional conservation of its signaling pathway, and show that JA-Ile and COI1 emergence in vascular plants required co-evolution of hormone biosynthetic complexity and receptor specificity.
  • Autores: Garnica Ochoa, María; Bacaicoa, E.; Mora, V.; et al.
    Revista: BMC PLANT BIOLOGY
    ISSN 1471-2229 Vol.18 N° 105 2018 págs. 14
    Resumen
    Background: The release of phytosiderephores (PS) to the rhizosphere is the main root response to iron (Fe) deficiency in graminaceous plants. We have investigated the role of the Fe status in the shoot as well as of the signaling pathways controlled by three relevant phytoregulators-indolacetic acid (IAA), ethylene and nitric oxide (NO) - in the regulation of this root response in Fe-starved wheat plants. To this end, the PS accumulation in the nutrient solution and the root expression of the genes encoding the nicotianamine aminotransferase (TaNAAT) and ferritin (TaFER) have been evaluated in plants subjected to different treatments. Results: The application of Fe to leaves of Fe-deficient plants prevented the increase in both PS root release and TaNAAT gene expression thus showing the relevant role of the shoot to root communication in the regulation of PS root release and some steps of PS biosynthesis. Experiments with specific hormone inhibitors showed that while ethylene and NO did not positively regulate Fe deficiency induced PS root release, auxin plays an essential role in the regulation of this process. Moreover, the application of IM to Fe-sufficient plants promoted both PS root release and TaNAAT gene expression thus indicating that auxin might be involved in the shoot to root signaling network regulating Fe-deficiency root responses in wheat Conclusions: These results therefore indicate that PS root release in Fe-deficient wheat plants is directly modulated by the shoot Fe status through signaling pathways involving, among other possible effectors, auxin.
  • Autores: Garcia, M. J.; Corpas, F. J. ; Lucena, C.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN PLANT SCIENCE
    ISSN 1664-462X Vol.9 N° 1325 2018
    Resumen
    Ethylene, nitric oxide (NO) and glutathione (GSH) increase in Fe-deficient roots of Strategy I species where they participate in the up-regulation of Fe acquisition genes. However, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), derived from NO and GSH, decreases in Fe-deficient roots. GSNO content is regulated by the GSNO-degrading enzyme S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR). On the other hand, there are several results showing that the regulation of Fe acquisition genes does not solely depend on hormones and signaling molecules (such as ethylene or NO), which would act as activators, but also on the internal Fe content of plants, which would act as a repressor. Moreover, different results suggest that total Fe in roots is not the repressor of Fe acquisition genes, but rather the repressor is a Fe signal that moves from shoots to roots through the phloem [hereafter named LOng Distance Iron Signal (LODIS)]. To look further in the possible interactions between LODIS, ethylene and GSNOR, we compared Arabidopsis WT Columbia and LODIS-deficient mutant opt3-2 plants subjected to different Fe treatments that alter LODIS content. The opt3-2 mutant is impaired in the loading of shoot Fe into the phloem and presents constitutive expression of Fe acquisition genes. In roots of both Columbia and opt3-2 plants we determined 1-aminocyclopropane1-carboxylic acid (ACC, ethylene precursor), expression of ethylene synthesis and signaling genes, and GSNOR expression and activity. The results obtained showed that both 'ethylene' (ACC and the expression of ethylene synthesis and signaling genes) and 'GSNOR' (expression and activity) increased in Fe-deficient WT Columbia roots. Additionally, Fe-sufficient opt3-2 roots had higher 'ethylene' and 'GSNOR' than Fe-sufficient WT Columbia roots. The increase of both 'ethylene' and 'GSNOR' was not related to the total root Fe content but to the absence of a Fe shoot signal (LODIS), and was associated with the up-regulation of Fe acquisition genes. The possible relationship between GSNOR(GSNO) and ethylene is discussed.
  • Autores: Sánchez-Rodríguez, A. R.; Raya-Díaz, S.; Zamarreño Arregui, Ángel; et al.
    Revista: BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
    ISSN 1049-9644 Vol.116 2018 págs. 90 - 102
    Resumen
    Entomopathogenic fungi have traditionally been assumed to help regulate insect populations. However, some hypocrealean ascomycetes, such as Beauveria bassiana, play other, poorly understood ecological roles that might be useful in developing novel strategies for both increased crop production and crop protection. The primary aims of this work were (a) to assess endophytic colonization of bread wheat and durum wheat plants by the applied fungus B. bassiana strain EABb 04/01-Tip; (b) to examine the impact of various B. bassiana inoculation methods on growth, yield, phytohormone levels and nutrient uptake in the plants, and (c) to quantify mortality of cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) larvae fed with leaves from inoculated plants. Three experiments involving different inoculation methods (viz., 'soil treatment', 'seed dressing' and 'leaf spraying'), and a fourth experiment to assess mortality in S. littoralis larvae fed with leaves from endophytically-colonized plants, and were conducted according to a completely randomized design. Beauveria bassiana successfully established within, and colonized, bread wheat and durum wheat plants. The fungus was, for the first time, re-isolated from grains produced by plants inoculated using the 'seed dressing' and 'soil treatment' methods. The fungus boosted spike production in bread wheat inoculated using the 'seed dressing' and 'soil treatment' methods, and also in durum wheat but only using the 'soil treatment' method. 'Seed dressing' increased grain yield by about 40%, and also root length, in bread wheat compared with control plants. Mortality in S. littoralis larvae fed with leaves from inoculated plants ranged from 30% using the 'seed dressing' method to 57% using the 'leaf spraying' method compared with 0% when fed the control leaves. However, no fungal outgrowth was detected in larval cadavers. The sustainability of crop production and crop protection strategies based on B. bassiana therefore depends on the effectiveness of the inoculation method and on the particular host plant.
  • Autores: Garcia, A. C. (Autor de correspondencia); Tavares, O. C. H.; Balmori, D. M.; et al.
    Revista: JOURNAL OF SOILS AND SEDIMENTS
    ISSN 1439-0108 Vol.18 N° 4 2018 págs. 1365 - 1375
    Resumen
    The use of humic substances (HS) in agriculture is beneficial and has positive environmental impacts. However, to optimize the use of HS possible links between their structural characteristics and bioactivity must be shown. The goal of this study is to evaluate the bioactivity of different humic fractions extracted from vermicompost (VC) in rice plants and to shed light to possible structure-function relationships. Humic-like fractions were obtained from cattle manure vermicompost processed by African nightcrawlers (Eudrilus eugeniae spp.). Humic-like acid fraction using only water as extractor (HLAw), HLA fraction extracted following the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) recommended method, and the solid residue (humified residual (HR)) after extraction of HLA were characterized using complementary chemical, physic, and spectroscopic technics (elemental composition, UV-Vis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopies, C-13-CP MAS NMR, and MEV). Biological activity of the three HS was conducted in growth chambers and measured in roots using WinRhizo Arabidopsis software. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to find a grouping pattern between the structural variables evaluated and the obtained root parameters. Differences were found in elemental composition among HS with larger C/N ratio in HR than in HLA and HLAw. HLA and HLAw FTIR spectra showed carboxyl band at 1714.66 cm(-1) better resolved than in HR. Bands at 1642 cm(-1) (amide I) and 1510 cm(-1) (lignin), were better resolved in HLA. C-13-NMR showed the following order of aromaticity: HLA > HLAw > HR. For HLAw bioactivity, the structures C-Alkyl-H,C-R, C-C=O, and C-COO-H,C-R correlated with the number and growth of smaller root. The aromatic C-Ar-H,C-R, C-Ar-O,C-N, and aliphatic C-Alkyl-O,C-N, CAlkyl-O, and CAlkyl-di-O structures in HLA, correlated with larger roots growth. HR also stimulated root growth and development in rice plants. Aliphatic and oxygenated structures in HLAw showed a relation with induction of initial root emissions, whereas the presence of aromatic compounds in HLA was related with root growth stimulation activity. Higher concentration of HLAw was necessary to produce an equivalent stimulus compared with HLA; it could indicate that, although both fractions showed similar types of structures in their composition, differences in the predominant structures may be determining different effects on the root.
  • Autores: Chini, A.; Monte, I.; Zamarreño Arregui, Ángel; et al.
    Revista: NATURE CHEMICAL BIOLOGY
    ISSN 1552-4450 Vol.14 N° 2 2018 págs. 171 - 178
    Resumen
    Biosynthesis of the phytohormone jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) requires reduction of the JA precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) by OPDA reductase 3 (OPR3). Previous analyses of the opr3-1 Arabidopsis mutant suggested an OPDA signaling role independent of JA-Ile and its receptor COI1; however, this hypothesis has been challenged because opr3-1 is a conditional allele not completely impaired in JA-Ile biosynthesis. To clarify the role of OPR3 and OPDA in JA-independent defenses, we isolated and characterized a loss-of-function opr3-3 allele. Strikingly, opr3-3 plants remained resistant to necrotrophic pathogens and insect feeding, and activated COI1-dependent JA-mediated gene expression. Analysis of OPDA derivatives identified 4,5-didehydro-JA in wounded wild-type and opr3-3 plants. OPR2 was found to reduce 4,5-didehydro-JA to JA, explaining the accumulation of JA-Ile and activation of JA-Ile-responses in opr3-3 mutants. Our results demonstrate that in the absence of OPR3, OPDA enters the beta-oxidation pathway to produce 4,5-ddh-JA as a direct precursor of JA and JA-Ile, thus identifying an OPR3-independent pathway for JA biosynthesis.
  • Autores: Fuentes Ramírez, Marta; Bacaicoa, E.; Rivero, M.; et al.
    Revista: FRONTIERS IN PLANT SCIENCE
    ISSN 1664-462X Vol.9 2018 págs. 351
    Resumen
    Iron deficiency in plants is caused by a low availability of iron in the soil, and its main visual symptom is leaf yellowing due to a decrease in chlorophyll content, along with a reduction in plant growth and fruit quality. Foliar sprays with Fe compounds are an economic alternative to the treatment with expensive synthetic Fe-chelates applied to the soil, although the efficacy of foliar treatments is rather limited. Generally, plant response to Fe-foliar treatments is monitored by measuring chlorophyll content (or related parameters as SPAD index). However, different studies have shown that foliar Fe sprays cause a local regreening and that translocation of the applied Fe within the plant is quite low. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar applications of different Fe compounds [FeSO4, Fe(III)-EDTA, and Fe(III)-heptagluconate] on Fe-deficient cucumber plants, by studying the main physiological plant root responses to Fe deficiency [root Fe(III) chelate reductase (FCR) activity; acidification of the nutrient solution; and expression of the Fe deficiency responsive genes encoding FCR, CsFRO1, Fe(II) root transporter CsIRT1, and two plasma membrane H+-ATPases, CsHA1 and CsHA2], along with SPAD index, plant growth and Fe content. The results showed that the overall assessment of Fe-deficiency root responses improved the evaluation of the efficacy of the Fe-foliar treatments compared to just monitoring SPAD indexes. Thus, FCR activity and expression of Fe-deficiency response genes, especially CsFRO1 and CsHA1, preceded the trend of SPAD index and acted as indicators of whether the plant was sensing or not metabolically active Fe due to the treatments. Principal component analysis of the data also provided a graphical tool to evaluate the evolution of plant responses to foliar Fe treatments with time.
  • Autores: Quiroga, G.; Erice, G.; Aroca, R.; et al.
    Revista: AGRICULTURAL WATER MANAGEMENT
    ISSN 0378-3774 Vol.202 2018 págs. 271 - 284
    Resumen
    Climate change is leading to the intensification of drought effects worldwide, which considerably reduce crop production. A better understanding of the drought-tolerance mechanisms would lead into a more productive agriculture. The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis has been shown to improve plant tolerance to drought. Salicylic acid (SA) is a phenolic compound involved in many aspects of plant growth and development. Apart from its role in biotic interactions, it is also involved in the regulation of important plant physiological processes, including plant water relations under stressful conditions. However, despite the importance of SA in plant physiology and in AM colonization, little is known about its effect on regulation of root water transport. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the combined effect of AM symbiosis and SA on root hydraulic properties under drought stress, with special focus on how these factors can alter radial root water transport pathways through aquaporin regulation. Also, the crosstalk between SA and other phytohormones was taken into account. Results showed that the AM symbiosis modifies root hydraulic responses to drought episodes. Under these conditions, AM plants showed increased Lpr and Lo. Exogenous SA application decreased Lpr and Lo under drought. SA modulation of water conductivity could be due to a fine-regulation of root aquaporins (as ZmPIP2:4 or ZmTIP1;1). Furthermore, SA application differently modulated the percentage of water flowing by the apoplastic pathway, decreasing its contribution to total root water flow in AM plants and increasing it in non-AM plants. An intricate relationship between Lpr, aquaporins and endogenous levels of SA, ABA and jasmonic acid was observed. Future studies should explore more in detail the crosstalk mechanism between these hormones in the regulation of water transport in AM roots, in order to better understand the mechanism through which the AM symbiosis copes with drought stress. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Autores: Torres, N.; Goicoechea Preboste, María Nieves; Zamarreño Arregui, Ángel; et al.
    Revista: PLANT SCIENCE
    ISSN 0168-9452 Vol.274 2018 págs. 383 - 393
    Resumen
    Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is a promising tool for improving the quality of grapes under changing environments. Therefore, the aim of this research was to determine if the ability of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to enhance phenolic content (specifically, anthocyanins) in a climate change framework could be mediated by alterations in berry ABA metabolism during ripening. The study was carried out on fruit-bearing cuttings of cv. Tempranillo (CL-1048 and CL-1089) inoculated (+M) or not (¿M) with AMF. Two experimental designs were implemented. In the first experiment +M and -M plants were subjected to two temperatures (24/14¿°C or 28/18¿°C (day/night)) from fruit set to berry maturity. In the second experiment, +M and -M plants were subjected to two temperatures (24/14¿°C or 28/18¿°C (day/night)) combined with two irrigation regimes (late water deficit (LD) and full irrigation (FI)). At 28/18¿°C AMF contributed to an increase in berry anthocyanins and modulated ABA metabolism, leading to higher ABA-GE and 7¿OH-ABA and lower phaseic acid (PA) in berries compared to ¿M plants. Under the most stressful scenario (LD and 28/18¿°C), at harvest +M plants exhibited higher berry anthocyanins and 7¿OH-ABA and lower PA and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA) levels than ¿M plants. These findings highlight the involvement of ABA metabolism into the ability of AMF to improve some traits involved in the quality of grapes under global warming scenarios.
  • Autores: Sanchez-Romera, B.; Calvo-Polanco, M.; Ruiz-Lozano, J. M.; et al.
    Revista: PLANT AND CELL PHYSIOLOGY
    ISSN 0032-0781 Vol.59 N° 2 2018 págs. 248 - 261
    Resumen
    Jasmonic acid (JA) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses are known to protect plants against abiotic and biotic stresses, but are also involved in the regulation of root hydraulic conductance (L). The objective of this experiment was to elucidate the role of JA in the water relations and hormonal regulation of AM plants under drought by using tomato plants defective in the synthesis of JA (def-1). Our results showed that JA is involved in the uptake and transport of water through its effect on both physiological parameters (stomatal conductance and L) and molecular parameters, mainly by controlling the expression and abundance of aquaporins. We observed that def-1 plants increased the expression of seven plant aquaporin genes under well-watered conditions in the absence of AM fungus, which partly explain the increment of L by this mutation under well-watered conditions. In addition, the effects of the AM symbiosis on plants were modified by the def-1 mutation, with the expression of some aquaporins and plant hormone concentration being disturbed. On the other hand, methyl salicylate (MeSA) content was increased in non-mycorrhizal def-1 plants, suggesting that MeSA and JA can act together in the regulation of L. In a complementary experiment, it was found that exogenous MeSA increased L, confirming our hypothesis. Likewise, we confirmed that JA, ABA and SA are hormones involved in plant mechanisms to cope with stressful situations, their concentrations being controlled by the AM symbiosis. In conclusion, under well-watered conditions, the def-1 mutation mimics the effects of AM symbiosis, but under drought conditions the def-1 mutation changed the effects of the AM symbiosis on plants.
  • Autores: Urrutia Sagardia, Óscar; Erro Garcés, Javier; Fuentes Ramírez, Marta; et al.
    Libro: Achieving sustainable crop nutrition
    ISSN 978 1 78676 312 9 2020 págs. 1 - 16
    Resumen
    The role of soil humus in soil fertility and crop production has been well established by many studies and practical farming experience. This role is related to the presence of a family of organic substances, known as humic substances, with the capacity to increase the pool of plant-available nutrients in soil for root uptake. The improvement in plant growth and mineral nutrition is directly linked to the physicochemical features of humic substances, and more specifically, to their capacity to form stable chemical complexes with metals. This chapter reviews the main mechanisms behind the action of humic substances in improving plant mineral nutrition. It also discusses the main signalling pathways that might be involved in the regulation of these humic substances.

Proyectos desde 2018

  • Título: Leguminosas y hormonas vegetales: papel en simbiosis y condiciones de sequía. LEGUSI
    Código de expediente: 0011-1383-2020-000010 PC113 UNAV LEGUSI
    Investigador principal: ANGEL ZAMARREÑO ARREGUI.
    Financiador: GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA
    Convocatoria: 2020 GN Proyectos Colaborativos
    Fecha de inicio: 01-10-2020
    Fecha fin: 30-11-2022
    Importe concedido: 75.750,00 €
    Fondos FEDER: NO
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    Código de expediente: 0011-1508-2020-000008 UNAV_P01
    Investigador principal: JOSE MARIA GARCIA-MINA FREIRE.
    Financiador: GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA
    Convocatoria: 2020 GN adquisición de equipamiento e infraestructuras de I+D
    Fecha de inicio: 27-07-2020
    Fecha fin: 15-11-2020
    Importe concedido: 101.134,00 €
    Fondos FEDER: NO
  • Título: Diseño y manejo de moduladores del metabolismo nitrogenado vegetal para la reducción del contenido de nitrato en hortalizas. HORTA 0.0
    Código de expediente: 0011-1383-2020-000010 PC107 UNAV HORTA 0,0
    Investigador principal: MARIA MOVILA MOVILA.
    Financiador: GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA
    Convocatoria: 2020 GN Proyectos Colaborativos
    Fecha de inicio: 01-12-2019
    Fecha fin: 31-12-2022
    Importe concedido: 160.450,00 €
    Fondos FEDER: NO
  • Título: Alternativas de fertilización nitrogenada en hortalizas para minimizar su contenido en nitratos y mejorar su calidad alimentaria
    Código de expediente: 0011-1383-2019-000005 PC068-069 Nitrohealthy 2
    Investigador principal: IDOIA ARIZ ARNEDO.
    Financiador: GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA
    Convocatoria: 2019 GN Centros
    Fecha de inicio: 01-12-2018
    Fecha fin: 30-11-2019
    Importe concedido: 80.948,51 €
    Fondos FEDER: NO
  • Título: Desarrollo de aplicaciones optimizadas de sustancias húmicas para mejorar el crecimiento vegetal de plantas sometidas a estrés salino (HUMIESTRÉS 2)
    Código de expediente: 0011-1383-2019-000005 PT009 HUMIESTRES 2
    Investigador principal: MARTA FUENTES RAMIREZ.
    Financiador: GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA
    Convocatoria: 2019 GN Centros
    Fecha de inicio: 01-12-2018
    Fecha fin: 30-11-2019
    Importe concedido: 65.293,21 €
    Fondos FEDER: NO
  • Título: Sistema circular para la recuperación y valoración agronómica del fósforo
    Código de expediente: RTC-2017-6049-2
    Investigador principal: JAVIER ERRO GARCES.
    Financiador: MINISTERIO DE CIENCIA E INNOVACIÓN
    Convocatoria: 2017 MINECO RETOS COLABORACIÓN
    Fecha de inicio: 01-07-2018
    Fecha fin: 31-05-2022
    Importe concedido: 173.781,60 €
    Fondos FEDER: SI
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    Código de expediente: 0011-1365-2018-000187
    Investigador principal: OSCAR URRUTIA SAGARDIA.
    Financiador: GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA
    Convocatoria: 2018 GN I+D
    Fecha de inicio: 01-03-2018
    Fecha fin: 31-12-2019
    Importe concedido: 163.052,70 €
    Fondos FEDER: SI
  • Título: Desarrollo de aplicaciones optimizadas de sustancias húmicas para mejorar el crecimiento vegetal de plantas sometidas a estrés salino
    Código de expediente: 0011-1383-2018-000005 PT027-HUMIESTRES
    Investigador principal: MARTA FUENTES RAMIREZ.
    Financiador: GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA
    Convocatoria: 2018 GN Centros
    Fecha de inicio: 01-02-2018
    Fecha fin: 30-11-2018
    Importe concedido: 64.122,38 €
    Fondos FEDER: NO
  • Título: Monitorización de emisiones gaseosas contaminantes en agricultura (CropGas)
    Código de expediente: 0011-1383-2018-000005 PC012-013-014 CROPGAS
    Investigador principal: OSCAR URRUTIA SAGARDIA.
    Financiador: GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA
    Convocatoria: 2018 GN Centros
    Fecha de inicio: 01-02-2018
    Fecha fin: 30-11-2018
    Importe concedido: 30.943,15 €
    Fondos FEDER: NO
  • Título: Alternativas de fertilización nitrogenada en hortalizas para minimizar su contenido en nitratos y mejorar su calidad alimentaria
    Código de expediente: 0011-1383-2018-000005 PC061-062 NITROHEALTHY
    Investigador principal: IDOIA ARIZ ARNEDO.
    Financiador: GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA
    Convocatoria: 2018 GN Centros
    Fecha de inicio: 01-02-2018
    Fecha fin: 30-11-2018
    Importe concedido: 82.657,44 €
    Fondos FEDER: NO