The identification of fish species from head bone remains is employed in various sciences, including archaeology, paleontology and field ecology, with the estimation of fish size from biometric relationships being useful in the assessment of predation pressure exerted by increasing numbers of piscivorous species (e.g. Eurasian otter Lutra lutra and great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo). This is particularly relevant for crucian carp, Carassius carassius, which is in decline in Europe due to changes in land use and to increasing numbers of non-native Carassius species (i.e. goldfish C. auratus, gibel carp C. gibelio), which hybridize with C. carassius. However, diagnostic keys and biometric relationships are lacking for C. carassius and its most common hybrids, crosses with C. auratus. The present paper addresses this gap in knowledge, providing diagnostic keys and biometric relationships for the head bones of all Carassius species found in Europe as well as for C. carassius x C. auratus hybrids. All bone size to body length relationships were statistically significant. Similarly, all bone size to body weight relationships were significant for C. carassius, C. auratus, and C. gibelio, but none were significant for C. carassius x C. auratus hybrids. Diagnostic structures were found to distinguish easily between the Carassius species and hybrids, which will assist in determining the identity and sizes of prey found in faecal and archaeological remains.