The Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPAR[gamma]2 gene interacts with a Mediterranean Diet to prevent telomere shortening in the PREDIMED-NAVARRA randomized trial
García-Calzón S, Martinez-González MA, Razquin C, Corella D, Salas-Salvadó J, Martinez JA, Zalba G, Marti A.
Background: The gene variant Pro/Ala (rs1801282) in the PPAR¿2 has been associated with lower cardiovascular risk and greater benefit from lifestyle interventions. This polymorphism also seems to be associated with longer lifespan, but no information on telomere length (TL) is available. Our aim was to study the association between the Ala allele and changes in TL in high cardiovascular risk subjects, and the potential interaction with a Mediterranean Diet (MeDiet) pattern. Methods and Results: A total of 521 subjects (55-80 years) participating in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) randomized trial were genotyped. Changes in TL, measured by quantitative real-time PCR, were assessed over 5 years of a nutritional intervention which promoted adherence to the MeDiet. Interestingly, Ala carriers showed lower telomere shortening after 5 years, compared with the Pro/Pro genotype (P=0.031). This association was modulated by MeDiet since those Ala carriers who reported better conformity to the MeDiet exhibited increased TL (P<0.001). Moreover, a reduction in carbohydrate intake (¿9.5 g/d) resulted in increased TL among Ala carriers. Notably, an apparent gene-diet interaction was found through the observed changes in the MUFA+PUFA/Carbohydrates ratio: as this ratio increased, TL lengthening was detected to a greater extent in the Ala carriers compared with the Pro/Pro subjects (P for interaction <0.001). Conclusions: The Pro12Ala polymorphism is associated with TL homeostasis after 5 years follow-up in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. In addition, a higher adherence to the MeDiet