Ochratoxin A kinetics: a review of analytical methods and studies in rat model
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a thermostable mycotoxin that contaminates a great variety of foodstuffs. It is nephrotoxic in all of the mammalian species tested, being the pig the most sensitive one; among rodents, rats are the most susceptible to OTA carcinogenicity. Kinetics, by studying the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of xenobiotics, is an important tool for the extrapolation of animal toxicity data. The most important kinetic studies performed with OTA in rats have been reviewed, together with the different methods used for OTA quantification in biological matrices. Thirteen studies in Wistar, Sprague-Dawley or F344 rats, using radiolabeled OTA or TLC, HPLC-FLD or HPLC-MS have been summarized. Very often methods validated for food have been directly applied to tissues. Strain, sex and age differences have been detected but the interpretation is difficult due to the different experimental conditions, and the connection of the several factors that may account for these differences.