Renal cell adenocarcinoma requires different therapeutic pathways because it is one of the most therapy-resistant tumors, on the other hand it is biologically one of the most attractive tumors. Its pathological classification has a genetic base. There is an anomaly of the Von Hippel Lindau gene in 80% of adenocarcinomas, being this fact determinant to know the biological characteristics of tumor initiation and development, as well as the identification of factors susceptible to be used as therapeutic targets. Since 2005 a group of molecules have been used in the treatment of metastatic adenocarcinomas and, even though therapeutic results are significant but not clinically relevant yet, we are sure they are a key way for more efficient future developments. The present study tries to make a tour on the research of the biological anomalies in renal adenocarcinoma with special emphasis in the Von HippelLindau gene.