The diversity below (ectomycorrhizae) and above (vascular flora) ground in brûlés of black truffle production areas have been studied together for the first time, both in plantations and in natural areas, as possible indicators of the microecology of these zones. Studies on the ectomycorrhizal community of mature plantations are scarce. However, monitoring the dynamics of such systems is important to understand the conditions that promote truffle fructification. In the study described here the most frequent ectomycorrhizae are Tuber melanosporum and Quercirrhiza quadratum. In the plantations, Q. quadratum is the most abundant morphotype and in the natural area it is Cenococcum geophilum. The development of truffle ecosystems involves the appearance of competitor species with wide networks of hyphae and rhizomorphs. On the other hand, there are few studies concerning the special composition of the vascular flora growing in brûlés. We identified 199 taxa, most of them Mediterranean or Eurosiberian xerophiles and therophytes. This is consistent with the ecology of truffle production areas (dry, sunny and stony). These plants are heavily influenced by the inhibiting substances produced by the truffle and, as a result, they suffer from inhibited growth and in some cases cannot complete their life cycle.