Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) results from haplo-insufficient activity of porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) and is characterized clinically by life-threatening, acute neurovisceral attacks. To date, liver transplantation is the only curative option for AIP. The aim of the present preclinical nonhuman primate study was to determine the safety and transduction efficacy of an adeno-associated viral vector encoding PBGD (recombinant AAV serotype 5-codon-optimized human porphobilinogen deaminase, rAAV5-cohPBGD) administered intravenously as part of a safety program to start a clinical study in patients with AIP. Macaques injected with either 1 × 10(13) or 5 × 10(13) vector genomes/kg of clinical-grade rAAV5-cohPBGD were monitored by standardized clinical parameters, and vector shedding was analyzed. Liver transduction efficacy, biodistribution, vector integration, and histopathology at day 30 postvector administration were determined. There was no evidence of acute toxicity, and no adverse effects were observed. The vector achieved efficient and homogenous hepatocellular transduction, reaching transgenic PBGD expression levels equivalent to 50% of the naturally expressed PBGD mRNA. No cellular immune response was detected against the human PBGD or AAV capsid proteins. Integration site analysis in transduced liver cells revealed an almost random integration pattern supporting the good safety profile of rAAV5-cohPBGD. Together, data obtained in nonhuman primates indicate that rAAV5-cohPBGD represents a safe therapy to correct the metabolic defect present in AIP patients.