Co-occurrence of aflatoxins, ochratoxin a and zearalenone in breakfast cereals from spanish market
Forty-six breakfast cereal samples from the Spanish market have been analyzed for the occurrence of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFG1, AFB2 and AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEA). According to the results, 9% of the samples were contaminated with AFB1 although no sample exceeded the LOQ (0.2 mu g kg(-1)), and no sample presented detectable levels of the other aflatoxins (AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2). Zearalenone and OTA contaminated 48 and 39% of the samples, respectively, with mean values of the samples having quantification levels of 25.40 and 0.37 mu g kg(-1), respectively. The co-occurrence of OTA and ZEA was observed in 28% of the samples. Aflatoxin B1 appeared only in the corn-based breakfast cereals, whereas ZEA and OTA showed the highest contamination rates in the samples containing wheat and wheat and rice, respectively. No sample of high-fiber content was contaminated with AFB1, whereas OTA and ZEA occurred with higher incidence in high-fiber content samples. Moreover, the daily exposure to AFB1, OTA and ZEA is discussed.