Oxidised LDL levels decreases after the consumption of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract within a hypocaloric diet
Background and Aims: Cocoa flavanols are recognised by their favourable antioxidant and vascular effects. This study investigates the influence on health of the daily consumption of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract within a hypocaloric diet, on middle-aged overweight/obese subjects.
Methods and Results: Fifty healthy male and female middle-aged volunteers [57.26 ± 5.24 years and body mass index (BMI) 30.59 ± 2.33 kg/m(2)] were recruited to participate in a 4 week randomised, parallel and double-blind study. After following 3 days on a low-polyphenol diet, 25 volunteers received meals supplemented with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (645.3 mg of polyphenols) and the other 25 participants received control meals, within a 15% energy restriction diet. On the 4th week of intervention individuals in both dietary groups improved (p < 0.05) anthropometric, body composition, blood pressure and blood biochemical measurements. Oxidised LDL cholesterol (oxLDL), showed a higher reduction (p = 0.030) in the cocoa group. Moreover, myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels decreased only in the cocoa supplemented group (p = 0.007). Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (sICAM-1) decreased significantly in both groups, while Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) did not present differences after the 4 weeks of intervention. Interestingly, cocoa intake showed a different effect by gender, presenting more beneficial effects in men.
Conclusions: The consumption of cocoa extract as part of ready-to-eat meals and within a hypocaloric diet improved oxidative status (oxLDL) in middle-aged subjects, being most remarkable in males.