Cytotoxicity and cell interaction studies of bioadhesive poly(anhydre) nanoparticles for oral antigen/drug delivery
The use of bioadhesive polymers as nanodevices has emerged as a promising strategy for oral delivery of therapeutics. In this regard, poly(anhydride) nanoparticles have shown great potential for oral drug delivery and vaccine purposes. However, despite extensive research into the biomedical and pharmaceutical applications of poly(anhydride) nanoparticles, there are no studies to evaluate the interaction of these nanoparticles at a cellular level. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to evaluate the cytotoxicity as well as the cell interaction of different poly(anhydride) nanoparticles: conventional (NP), nanoparticles containing 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (NP-HPCD) and nanoparticles coated with poly(ethylene glycol) 6000 (PEG-NP). For this purpose, nanoparticles were prepared by solvent displacement method and labelled with BSA-FITC. Nanoparticles displayed a size about 175 nm with negative surface charge. Cytotoxicity studies were developed by MTS and LDH assays in HepG2 and Caco-2 cells. Results showed that only in HepG2 cells, NP and NP-HPCD induced significant cytotoxicity at the highest concentrations (1 and 2 mg/mL) and incubation times (48 and 72 h) tested. Studies to discriminate between cytoadhesion and cytoinvasion were performed at 4 degrees C and 37 degrees C in Caco-2 cell line as intestinal cell model. Nanoparticles showed cytoadhesion to the cell surface but not internalization; PEG-NP was the most bioadhesive followed by NP-HPCD and NP as demonstrated by flow cytometry. Finally, cellular localization of particles by fluorescence confocal microscopy confirmed the association of these nanoparticles with cells. Thus, this study demonstrated the safety of NP, NP-HPCD and PEG-NP at cellular level and its bioadhesive properties within cells.