The burden of dysentery due to shigellosis among children in the developing world is still a major concern. A safe and efficacious vaccine against this disease is a priority, since no licensed vaccine is available. This review provides an update of vaccine achievements focusing on subunit vaccine strategies and the forthcoming strategies surrounding this approach. In particular, this review explores several aspects of the pathogenesis of shigellosis and the elicited immune response as being the basis of vaccine requirements. The use of appropriate Shigella antigens, together with the right adjuvants, may offer safety, efficacy and more convenient delivery methods for massive worldwide vaccination campaigns.