Decreased cardiotrophin-1 levels are associated with a lower risk of developing the metabolic syndrome in overweight/obese children after a weight loss program
Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) shares some similarities with other cytokines, and participates in the control of energy metabolism. Higher circulating levels are observed in obese humans, but little information is gathered in weight loss (WL) programs. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association of serum CT-1 levels with metabolic variables and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) after a WL program in overweight/obese children.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS:
Forty-four overweight/obese children (mean age 11.5y; 50% males) undergoing a 10-week WL program were enrolled. Subjects were dichotomized at the median of Body Mass Index-Standard Deviation Score (BMI-SDS) change, as high and low responders after intervention.
CT-1 levels were significantly reduced (-48 fmol/mL, p=0.043) in the high responder group after the WL program. They had significantly lower body weight (-3.7kg, p<0.001), body fat mass (-8%, p<0.001), BMI-SDS (-0.78, p<0.001) and waist circumference (-5.4cm, p<0.001), and a significant improvement in lipid and glucose profiles (p<0.05). Interestingly, decreased CT-1 levels significantly predicted changes in total cholesterol (41%) and LDL-cholesterol (28%). Moreover, in our participants the lower the CT-1 levels, the higher the reduction in MetS risk components, after the 10-week intervention, (p-ANCOVA=0.040, p-trend=0.024).
We showed, for the first time, a reduction in serum CT-1 levels after a WL program and this decrease in CT-1 was strongly associated with a reduction in cholesterol levels and in MetS risk factors in overweight/obese children. Our findings may suggest that CT-1 could be an indirect marker for the diagnosis of MetS in this population.