This work describes the thermal transformation of patina samples formed on the surface of dolomitic rocks used to build the Romanesque Torme's Church (Burgos, Spain). Analyses were performed using a combination of high-temperature XRD, simultaneous TG/DTA and gas mass spectrometry. The XRD analysis revealed the presence of hydrated calcium oxalates. The following three steps were proposed for the thermal transformation of the raw material: dehydration of weddellite/whewellite to form calcium oxalate, transformation of calcium oxalate to calcium carbonate, and formation of calcium oxide produced via decomposition of the calcite. DTA/TG and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed this mechanism. In addition, a high proportion of organic compounds was detected and was possibly formed via degradation of products applied for the building's conservation by the action of microorganisms attack. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed CO (and CO2) gas evolved during the transformation of CaC2O4 to CaCO3. The CO2 gas also appears at 765 °C due to the decomposition of calcium carbonate, and it appears over a large range of temperatures due to the decomposition of organic compounds. The TG analyses performed in a CO2 atmosphere were used to determine the percentages of Ca and Mg contained in dolomite, and the calcium carbonate formed by oxalate decomposition. DRIFTS and mass spectrometry results revealed the presence of several aliphatic and/or aromatic compounds containing Cdouble bond; length as m-dashO groups.