The co-occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) and its five analogs (OTB, OTC, MeOTA, MeOTB and EtOTB) in 96 red wine samples from Mediterranean countries has been demonstrated, for the first time, in this study.
OTA was detected in 99% of the samples (<LOD - 455 ng L-1). This mycotoxin appeared simultaneously with OTB (2.05-119 ng L-1) in all the samples and in 89.6% of them OTC (<LOD - 31.5 ng L-1) also accompanied both. OTB appears at comparable levels and incidence just like OTA does, and OTC median concentration is approximately 10% of that of OTA. A high statistical association was found between the concentrations of OTA OTB and OTA OTC. MeOTA, MeOTB and EtOTB were detected in 62.5, 83.3 and 83.3% of the samples, respectively. In 44.8% of the wines, the 6 ochratoxins appeared simultaneously.
There was no evidence for ochratoxin A levels being greater in wines from Southern Europe than those described from North Europe. Samples from North Africa presented statistically the highest values for OTA, OTB, OTC and EtOTB.