GABAergic neurons within the internal division of the globus pallidus (GPi) are the main source of basal ganglia output reaching the thalamic ventral nuclei in monkeys. Following dopaminergic denervation, pallidothalamic-projecting neurons are known to be hyperactive, whereas a reduction in GPi activity is typically observed in lesioned animals showing levodopa-induced dyskinesia. Besides the mRNAs coding for GABAergic markers (GAD65 and GAD67), we show that all GPi neurons innervating thalamic targets also express transcripts for the isoforms 1 and 2 of the vesicular glutamate transporter (vGlut1 and vGlut2 mRNA). Indeed, dual immunofluorescent detection of GAD67 and vGlut1/2 confirmed the data gathered from in situ hybridization experiments, therefore demonstrating that the detected mRNAs are translated into the related proteins. Furthermore, the dopaminergic lesion resulted in an up-regulation of expression levels for both GAD65 and GAD67 mRNA within identified pallidothalamic-projecting neurons. This was coupled with a down-regulation of GAD65/67 mRNA expression levels in GPi neurons innervating thalamic targets in monkeys showing levodopa-induced dyskinesia. By contrast, the patterns of gene expression for both vGlut1 and vGlut2 mRNAs remained unchanged across GPi projection neurons in control, MPTP-treated and dyskinetic monkeys. In summary, both GABAergic and glutamatergic markers were co-expressed by GPi efferent neurons in primates. Although the status of the dopaminergic system directly modulates the expression levels of GAD65/67 mRNA, the observed expression of vGlut1/2 mRNA is not regulated by either dopaminergic removal or by continuous stimulation with dopaminergic agonists.