Quantification of extraradical mycelium of black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) has been carried out in a natural truffle ground and in seven truffle orchards (around 20 years old) established in Tierra Estella and Valdorba sites, within the natural distribution area of the black truffles in Navarre (northern Spain). Specific primers and a TaqmanA (R) probe were designed to perform real-time PCR with DNA extracted from soil samples. Amplification of T. melanosporum DNA was obtained from 131 out of the 160 soil samples. The detection limit of the technique was 1.48 mu g mycelium/g of soil. The extraradical mycelium biomass detected in the soil from the natural truffle ground was significantly greater (up to ten times higher) than the mycelium biomass detected in any of the orchards. Soil from productive, nonirrigated orchards in the Tierra Estella site contained significantly more extraradical mycelium than the rest of orchards irrigated, productive of T. brumale, or nonproductive. The comparison of soil mycelium biomass in nonirrigated evergreen oak orchards in both sites showed significantly more mycelium biomass in the Tierra Estella site. This study is the first attempt to quantify extraradical mycelium of T. melanosporum in the soil using TaqmanA (R) probes. The obtained quantitative results are of special interest to evaluate the fungal response to cultural treatments and to monitor the dynamics of the extraradical mycelium of T. melanosporum in the soil.