Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of severe vision loss in older individuals in developed countries. Despite advances in our understanding of AMD, its pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been proposed to play a role in AMD development. In this study, we aimed to characterize MMP-13 in AMD. We used retinal pigment epithelial cells, a murine model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization, and plasma samples from patients with neovascular AMD to conduct our study. Our results show that MMP13 expression significantly increased under oxidative stress conditions in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells. In the murine model, MMP13 was overexpressed in both retinal pigment epithelial cells and endothelial cells during choroidal neovascularization. Additionally, the total MMP13 levels in the plasma of patients with neovascular AMD were significantly lower than those in the control group. This suggests a reduced diffusion from the tissues or release from circulating cells in the bloodstream, given that the number and function of monocytes have been reported to be deficient in patients with AMD. Although more studies are needed to elucidate the role of MMP13 in AMD, it could be a promising therapeutic target for treating AMD.