Background: The addition of dendritic cell vaccines (DCV) to NAC could induce immune responses in those patients with residual disease (RD) by transforming the tumor microenvironment. Methods: Core diagnostic biopsies and surgical specimens from 80 patients (38 in the vaccinated group plus NAC (VG) and 42 in the control group (CG, treated only with NAC) were selected. We quantify TILs (CD8, CD4 and CD45RO) using immunohistochemistry and the automated cellular imaging system (ACIS III) in paired samples. Results: A CD8 rise in TNBC samples was observed after NAC plus DCV, changing from 4.48% in the biopsy to 6.70% in the surgical specimen, not reaching statistically significant differences (p = 0.11). This enrichment was seen in up to 67% of TNBC patients in the experimental arm as compared with the CG (20%). An association between CD8 TILs before NAC (4% cut-off point) and pathological complete response in the VG was found in the univariate and multivariate analysis (OR = 1.41, IC95% 1.05-1.90; p = 0.02, and OR = 2.0, IC95% 1.05-3.9; p = 0.03, respectively). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that patients with TNBC could benefit from the stimulation of the antitumor immune system by using DCV together with NAC.