Biological sex and aging impact obesity development and type 2 diabetes, changing the secretion of leptin and adiponectin. The balance between these factors has been propounded as a reliable biomarker of adipose tissue dysfunction. Our proposal was to study sexual differences and aging on the adiponectin/leptin (Adpn/Lep) ratio in order to acquire a broader view of the impact of consuming an high-fat diet (HFD) on energy metabolism according to sex and age. Male and female C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal chow diet or an HFD for 12 or 32 weeks (n = 7-10 per group) and evolution of body weight, food intake and metabolic profile were registered. The HFD triggered an increase in body weight (p < 0.001), body weight gain (p < 0.01) and adiposity index (p < 0.01) in both sexes at 32 weeks of age, but female mice fed the HFD exhibited these changes to a significantly lower extent than males. Aged female mice showed an increase (p < 0.01) in the Adpn/Lep ratio, which was negatively correlated with body weight gain, changes in different fat depots and insulin resistance. Females were more metabolically protected from obesity development and its related comorbidities than males regardless of age, making the Adpn/Lep ratio a relevant factor for body composition and glucose metabolism.