In accordance with the global action plan on antimicrobial resistance adopted by the World Health Assembly in 2015, there is a need to develop surveillance programs for antimicrobial resistant bacteria. In this context, we have analyzed the clonal diversity of Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from aquatic environments and human and food samples in Spain, with the aim of determining possible clonal complexes (CCs) that act as markers of the potential risk of transmission of these resistant bacteria. The phylogenetic groups, sequence types (STs) and CCs were determined by different Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) techniques. Phylogroup A was prevalent and was mainly present in food and water strains, while human strains were mostly associated with phylogroup B2. According to the observed prevalence in the different niches, CC23 and CC10 are proposed as markers of phylogroups A and C, related with the spread of bla(CTX-M1) and bla(CTX-M15) genes. Similarly, CC131 and CC38 could be associated to the dissemination of pathogenic strains (phylogroups B2 and D) carrying mainly bla(CTX-M14) and bla(CTX-M15) genes. Some strains isolated from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) showed identical profiles to those isolated from other environments, highlighting the importance that water acquires in the dissemination of bacterial resistance. In conclusion, the detection of these genetic markers in different environments could be considered as an alert in the spread of ESBL.