García-Gavilan, J.; Nishi, S. K.; Paz-Graniel, I.; Guasch-Ferre, M.; Razquin Burillo, Cristina
; Clish, C. B.; Toledo Atucha, Estefanía
; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel
; Corella, D.; Deik, A.; Drouin-Chartier, J. P.; Wittenbecher, C.; Babio, N.; Estruch, R.; Ros, E.; Fito, M.; Aros, F.; Fiol, M.; Serra-Majem, L.; Liang, L. M.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel
; Hu, F. B.; Salas-Salvado, J. (Autor de correspondencia)
Scope Consumption of meat has been associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but if plasma metabolite profiles associated with these foods reflect this relationship is unknown. The objective is to identify a metabolite signature of consumption of total meat (TM), red meat (RM), processed red meat (PRM), and fish and examine if they are associated with T2D risk. Methods and results The discovery population includes 1833 participants from the PREDIMED trial. The internal validation sample includes 1522 participants with available 1-year follow-up metabolomic data. Associations between metabolites and TM, RM, PRM, and fish are evaluated with elastic net regression. Associations between the profiles and incident T2D are estimated using Cox regressions. The profiles included 72 metabolites for TM, 69 for RM, 74 for PRM, and 66 for fish. After adjusting for T2D risk factors, only profiles of TM (Hazard Ratio (HR): 1.25, 95% CI: 1.06-1.49), RM (HR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.07-1.52), and PRM (HR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.07-1.51) are associated with T2D. Conclusions The consumption of TM, its subtypes, and fish is associated with different metabolites, some of which have been previously associated with T2D. Scores based on the identified metabolites for TM, RM, and PRM show a significant association with T2D risk.