The recent evolution of human work seems to signal a change of epoch that presents a challenge for theology. We urgently need a theological reflection that contributes, together with the other sciences, to addressing the challenges of contemporary work from a fully human perspective. This article justifies and presents a research project on recent theology of work which constitutes a starting point for the task mentioned. The article begins with a description of the present labor situation in the world and future prospects. Then, in the second part, it presents a preliminary review of recent theological literature in the fields of dogmatic, biblical, moral, and spiritual (practical) theology, pointing out possible avenues for further exploration. Some theological categories that can help respond to current challenges are suggested.