The SARS-Cov-2 pandemic has had a negative impact on the implementation of the Zero Pneumonia recommendations and has been accompanied by an increase in rates of ventilator- associated pneumonia (VAP) in intensive care units in Spain. With the aim of reducing the current rates to 7 episodes per 1000 days of MV, the recommendations of the initial project have been updated.Twenty-seven measures were identified and classified into 12 functional measures (semi- sitting position, strict hand hygiene, airway manipulation training, daily assessment of possible extubation, protocolisation of weaning, early tracheostomy, non-invasive ventilation, microbiological surveillance, tubing change, humidification, respiratory physiotherapy, post- pyloric enteral nutrition), 7 mechanical measures (pneumotap pressure control, subglottic suction tubes, subglottic suctioning of tubes, subglottic suctioning of tubes, post-pyloric enteral nutrition, subglottic suction tubes, small-bore/small-bowel tube nutrition, closed/open circuit secretion suctioning, respiratory filters, tooth brushing, negative pressure techniques for secretion suctioning) and 8 pharmacological (selective digestive decontamination, oropharyngeal decontamination, short course of antibiotics, chlorhexidine mouth hygiene, inhaled antibiotics, antibiotic rotation, probiotics, monoclonal antibodies).Each measure was analysed independently, by at least two members of the working group, through a systematic review of the literature and an iterative review of recommendations from scientific societies and/or expert groups.For the classification of the quality of the evidence and strength of the recommendations, the GRADE group proposal was followed. To determine the level of recommendation, each measure was scored by all members of the working group in relation to its effectiveness, tolerability and applicability in Spanish ICUs in the short term. The support of external experts was requested for some of the measures reviewed. Those measures that achieved the highest score were selected.