Simple Summary Cancer is a widely heterogeneous disease, and the natural history of patients with cancer-associated thrombosis may differ according to the cancer site. Lung cancer is the most common malignancy, and a leading cause of death. A number of studies in the literature suggest that patients with adenocarcinoma may have a worse outcome than those with squamous or other types of lung cancer. The aim of the current study was to assess the potential impact of lung cancer histology on the incidence rates of VTE recurrences, major bleeding, or death appearing during the course of anticoagulation, in patients with lung cancer and VTE. Our findings, obtained from a large series of consecutive patients with lung cancer and VTE (482 patients), reveal important differences between patients with adenocarcinoma vs. other histologies in their outcomes during anticoagulation. This might likely help to design better therapeutic strategies for patients with lung cancer. Background: In patients with lung cancer and venous thromboembolism (VTE), the influence of cancer histology on outcome has not been consistently evaluated. Methods: We used the RIETE registry (Registro Informatizado Enfermedad TromboEmbolica) to compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes during anticoagulation in patients with lung cancer and VTE, according to the histology of lung cancer. Results: As of April 2022, there were 482 patients with lung cancer and VTE: adenocarcinoma 293 (61%), squamous 98 (20%), small-cell 44 (9.1%), other 47 (9.8%). The index VTE was diagnosed later in patients with squamous cancer than in those with adenocarcinoma (median, 5 vs. 2 months). In 50% of patients with adenocarcinoma, the VTE appeared within the first 90 days since cancer diagnosis. During anticoagulation (median 106 days, IQR: 45-214), 14 patients developed VTE recurrences, 15 suffered major bleeding, and 218 died: fatal pulmonary embolism 10, fatal bleeding 2. The rate of VTE recurrences was higher than the rate of major bleeding in patients with adenocarcinoma (11 vs. 6 events), and lower in those with other cancer types (3 vs. 9 events). On multivariable analysis, patients with adenocarcinoma had a non-significantly higher risk for VTE recurrences (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.79; 95%CI: 0.76-18.8), a lower risk of major bleeding (HR: 0.29; 95%CI: 0.09-0.95), and a similar risk of mortality (HR: 1.02; 95%CI: 0.76-1.36) than patients with other types of lung cancer. Conclusions: In patients with lung adenocarcinoma, the rate of VTE recurrences outweighed the rate of major bleeding. In patients with other lung cancers, it was the opposite.