We develop a maximum likelihood method to infer relevant physical properties of elongated active particles. Using individual trajectories of advected swimmers as input, we are able to accurately determine their rotational diffusion coefficients and an effective measure of their aspect ratio, also providing reliable estimators for the uncertainties of such quantities. We validate our theoretical construction using numerically generated active trajectories upon no flow, simple shear, and Poiseuille flow, with excellent results. Being designed to rely on single-particle data, our method eases applications in experimental conditions where swimmers exhibit a strong morphological diversity. We briefly discuss some of such ongoing experimental applications, specifically, in the characterization of swimming E. coli in a flow.