Gut metagenomic and short chain fatty acids signature in hypertension: a cross-sectional study
Calderón-Pérez, L. ; Gosalbes, M. J.; Yuste, S. ; Valls, R.M. ; Pedret, A. ; Llauradó, E. ; Jiménez-Hernández, N. ; Artacho, A. ; Pla-Pagà, L. ; Companys, J. ; Ludwig Sanz Orrio, Iziar Amaia
; Romero, M. P.; Rubió, L. ; Solà, R.
Hypertension is an independent and preventable risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases, however, little is known about the impact of gut microbiota composition in its development. We carried out comprehensive gut microbiota analysis and targeted metabolomics in a cross-sectional study of 29 non-treated hypertensive (HT) and 32 normotensive (NT) subjects. We determined fecal microbiota composition by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and bacterial functions by metagenomic analysis. The microbial metabolites analysed were short chain fatty acids (SCFA) both in plasma and feces, and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in plasma. The overall bacterial composition and diversity of bacterial community in the two groups were not significantly different. However, Ruminococcaceae NK4A214, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-010, Christensenellaceae_R-7, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia hominis were found to be significantly enriched in NT group, whereas, Bacteroides coprocola, Bacteroides plebeius and genera of Lachnospiraceae were increased in HT patients. We found a positive correlation between the HT-associated species and systolic and diastolic blood pressure after adjusted for measured confounders. SCFA showed antagonistic results in plasma and feces, detecting in HT subjects significant higher levels in feces and lower levels in plasma, which could indicate a less efficient SCFA absorption. Overall, our results present a disease classifier based on microbiota and bacterial metabolites to discriminate HT individuals from NT controls in a first disease grade prior to drug treatment.