In vitro genotoxicity evaluation of an antiseptic formulation containing kaolin and silver nanoparticles
Worldwide antimicrobial resistance is partly caused by the overuse of antibiotics as growth promoters. Based on the known bactericidal effect of silver, a new material containing silver in a clay base was developed to be used as feed additive. An in vitro genotoxicity evaluation of this silver-kaolin clay formulation was conducted, which included the mouse lymphoma assay in L5178Y TK+/- cells and the micronucleus test in TK6 cells, following the principles of the OECD guidelines 490 and 487, respectively. As a complement, the standard and Fpg-modified comet assays for the evaluation of strand breaks, alkali labile sites and oxidative DNA damage were also performed in TK6 cells. The formulation was tested without metabolic activation after an exposure of 3 h and 24 h; its corresponding release in medium, after the continuous agitation of the silver-kaolin for 24 h was also evaluated. Under the conditions tested, the test compound did not produce gene mutations, chromosomal aberrations or DNA damage (i.e., strand breaks, alkali labile sites or oxidized bases). Considering the results obtained in the present study, the formulation seems to be a promising material to be used as antimicrobial in animal feed.