Background: Profound neuromuscular block (NMB) is important in surgeries where complete immobility is considered essential to improve tracheal intubation and surgical conditions. Rocuronium bromide is a commonly used NMB agent. This work describes a noninvasive approach for estimation of post-tetanic count (PTC) based on two pharmacokinetic (PK) models, the Saldien and the De Haes models. The aim was to investigate the rocuronium bromide PK-pharmacodynamic (PD) relationship in estimating the PTC effect during profound NMB. Methods: In this prospective, non-randomised, observational study, an induction bolus of rocuronium bromide was administered followed by continuous infusion for maintenance of a PTC of 1-2. measured every 3 min. Measurements were analysed as discrete categorical data and by applying the nonlinear mixed-effect modelling approach. Performance of the selected models was evaluated through simulation model-based diagnostics, further assessing the precision of the parameter estimates and the performance of the models at the individual level. Results: Data from 30 adult patients undergoing elective abdominal or neurosurgical procedures were included. Post-tetanic count response profiles during rocuronium bromide infusion were successfully characterised using the population PD analysis. The models showed a good performance for all PTC categories, albeit with a moderate over-prediction of PTC >6. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that using plasma concentrations of rocuronium bromide estimated with either of the two models, combined with a PD model, provides equal model performance when predicting PTC. These promising results may provide an important advance in guiding rocuronium bromide administration when profound NMB in routine clinical practice is desired.