Background: Laparoscopic resection is the ideal treatment of colon cancer. The aim of the study was to analyze the predictive factors for postoperative complications and their impact on oncologic outcomes in laparoscopic resections in colon cancer.
Materials and Methods: In all patients undergoing elective laparoscopic surgery the number and degree of severity of postoperative complications were recorded and classified according to Clavien-Dindo. A univariate analysis was made of the demographic, surgical, and oncologic variables of patients with and without complications. The statistically significant variables were then entered into a multivariate model. In both groups overall and disease-free survival were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier estimates.
Results: Of 524 patients, 138 (26.3%) experienced some type of complication, 110 less severe (79.7%) and 28 (20.4%) severe. Twenty-nine conversions to open surgery occurred (5.5%) and hospital mortality was 0.2%. In the multivariate analysis, use of corticosteroids [odds ratio (OR): 3.619], oral anticoagulants (OR: 3.49), blood transfusions (OR: 4.30), and conversion to open surgery (OR: 3.93) were significantly associated with the development of complications. However, sigmoid resections were associated with fewer complications (OR: 0.45). Overall 5-year and 10-year survival in both groups, was 83.3%, 74.1%, 76.0%, and 67.1%, respectively (P = 0.18). Disease-free survival at 5 and 10 years, excluding stage IV tumors, was 88.6% and 90.4%, respectively (P = 0.881).
Conclusions: The use of corticosteroids, oral anticoagulants, blood transfusions, and conversion to open surgery are all independent predictive factors of postoperative complications. Sigmoid resections are associated with fewer complications. In laparoscopic resections of the colon, complications do not negatively affect long-term oncologic outcomes.