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Severe infections in patients with lymphoproliferative diseases treated with new targeted drugs: A multicentric real-world study

Autores: Infante, M. S. (Autor de correspondencia); Fernández-Cruz, A.; Núñez, L.; Carpio, C.; Jiménez-Ubieto, A.; López-Jiménez, J.; Vásquez, L.; Del Campo, R.; Romero, S.; Alonso, C.; Morillo, D.; Prat, M.; Plana, J. L.; Villafuerte, P.; Bastidas, G.; Bocanegra, A.; Serna, A.; De Nicolás, R.; Marquet, J.; Más-Ochoa, C.; Córdoba, R.; García-Suárez, J.; Comai, A.; Martín, X.; Bastos-Oreiro, M.; Seri, C.; Navarro-Matilla, B.; López-Guillermo, A.; Martínez-López, J.; Hernández-Rivas, J. A.; Ruiz-Camps, I.; Grande García, Carlos
Título de la revista: CANCER MEDICINE
ISSN: 2045-7634
Volumen: 10
Número: 21
Páginas: 7629 - 7640
Fecha de publicación: 2021
Background Lymphoid neoplasms treatment has recently been renewed to increase antitumor efficacy and conventional chemotherapies toxicities. Limited data have been published about the infection risk associated with these new drugs, therefore this study analyzes the infectious complications in patients with lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD) treated with monoclonal antibodies (obinutuzumab, ofatumumab, brentuximab, nivolumab, or pembrolizumab), BTK inhibitors (ibrutinib and acalabrutinib), PI3K inhibitors (idelalisib) and BCL2 inhibitors (venetoclax). Methods Multicenter retrospective study of 458 LPD patients treated with targeted therapies in real-life setting, in 18 Spanish institutions, from the time of their commercial availability to August 2020. Results Severe infections incidence was 23% during 17-month median follow-up; cumulative incidence was higher in the first 3-6 months of targeted drug treatment and then decreased. The most frequent etiology was bacterial (54%). Nine (6%) Invasive fungal infections (IFI) were observed, in its majority in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients treated predominantly with ibrutinib. Significant risk factors for severe infection were: severe lymphopenia (p = 0.009, OR 4.7, range 1.3-1.7), combined targeted treatment vs single agent treatment (p = 0.014 OR 2.2 range 1.1-4.2) and previous rituximab (p = 0.03 OR 1.8, range 1.05-3.3). Infection-related mortality was 6%. In 22% of patients with severe infections, definitive discontinuation of the targeted drug was observed. Conclusion A high proportion of patients presented severe infections during follow-up, with non-negligible attributable mortality, but infection incidence is not superior to the one observed during the chemotherapy era. In selected cases with specific risk factors for infection, antimicrobial prophylaxis should be considered.