Avendaño-Sola, C.; de la Cámara, R.; Castellanos, M.; Ezpeleta, D.; García-Azorín, D. (Autor de correspondencia); Iñiguez Martínez, C.; Lecumberri Villamediana, Ramón
; Martí de Gracia, M.; Redondo Margüello, E.; Rovira, A.; Sancho-López, A.; Garrido, P.; Grp Trabajo Multidisciplinar FACME
Introduction: Cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis have been reported in individuals vaccinated against COVID-19 with non-replicating adenoviral vector vaccines. We issue our recommendations on the diagnosis and management of patients presenting this complication. Method: The multidisciplinary working group, led by the Spanish Federation of Medical and Scientific Associations and including representatives of several scientific societies, reviewed the available evidence from the literature and reports of the European Medicines Agency. We establish a definition for suspected cases and issue diagnostic and treatment recommendations regarding vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopaenia. Results: We define suspected cases as those cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis occurring between 3 and 21 days after the administration of non-replicating adenoviral vector vaccines, in patients with a platelet count below 150,000/4 or presenting a decrease of 50% with respect to the previous value. Findings suggestive of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopaenia include the presence of antibodies to platelet factor 4, D-dimer levels 4 times greater than the upper limit of normal, and unexplained thrombosis. The recommended treatment includes intravenous administration of non-specific human immunoglobulin or alternatively plasmapheresis, avoiding the use of heparin, instead employing argatroban, bivalirudin, fondaparinux, rivaroxaban, or apixaban for anticoagulation, and avoiding platelet transfusion. Conclusions: Non-replicating adenoviral vector vaccines may be associated with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with thrombocytopaenia; it is important to treat the dysimmune phenomenon and the cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. (C) 2021 Sociedad Espanola de Neurologia. Published by Elsevier Espana, S.L.U.