Mutations in the GBA1 gene coding for glucocerebrosidase (GCase) are the main genetic risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Indeed, identifying reduced GCase activity as a common feature underlying the typical neuropathological signatures of PD-even when considering idiopathic forms of PD-has recently paved the way for designing novel strategies focused on enhancing GCase activity to reduce alpha-synuclein burden and preventing dopaminergic cell death. Here we have performed bilateral injections of a viral vector coding for the mutated form of alpha-synuclein (rAAV9-SynA53T) for disease modeling purposes, both in mice as well as in nonhuman primates (NHPs), further inducing a progressive neuronal death in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Next, another vector coding for the GBA1 gene (rAAV9-GBA1) was unilaterally delivered in the SNpc of mice and NHPs one month after the initial insult, together with the contralateral delivery of an empty/null rAAV9 for control purposes. Obtained results showed that GCase enhancement reduced alpha-synuclein burden, leading to improved survival of dopaminergic neurons. Data reported here support using GCase gene therapy as a disease-modifying treatment for PD and related synucleinopathies, including idiopathic forms of these disorders.