Anfray, C.; Mainini, F.; Digifico, E.; Maeda, A.; Sironi, M.; Erreni, M.; Anselmo, A.; Ummarino, A.; Gandoy, S.; Expósito Rincón, Francisco
; Redrado Jordán, Miriam
; Serrano Tejero, Diego
; Calvo González, Alfonso
; Martens, M.; Bravo, S.; Mantovani, A.; Allavena, P.; Torres Andón, F. (Autor de correspondencia)
Background Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a key immunosuppressive role that limits the ability of the immune system to fight cancer and hinder the antitumoral efficacy of most treatments currently applied in the clinic. Previous studies have evaluated the antitumoral immune response triggered by (TLR) agonists, such as poly(I:C), imiquimod (R837) or resiquimod (R848) as monotherapies; however, their combination for the treatment of cancer has not been explored. This study investigates the antitumoral efficacy and the macrophage reprogramming triggered by poly(I:C) combined with R848 or with R837, versus single treatments. Methods TLR agonist treatments were evaluated in vitro for toxicity and immunostimulatory activity by Alamar Blue, ELISA and flow cytometry using primary human and murine M-CSF-differentiated macrophages. Cytotoxic activity of TLR-treated macrophages toward cancer cells was evaluated with an in vitro functional assay by flow cytometry. For in vivo experiments, the CMT167 lung cancer model and the MN/MCA1 fibrosarcoma model metastasizing to lungs were used; tumor-infiltrating leukocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry, RT-qPCR, multispectral immunophenotyping, quantitative proteomic experiments, and protein-protein interaction analysis. Results Results demonstrated the higher efficacy of poly(I:C) combined with R848 versus single treatments or combined with R837 to polarize macrophages toward M1-like antitumor effectors in vitro.