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Physical activity and metabolic syndrome severity among older adults at cardiovascular risk: 1-Year trends

Autores: Gallardo-Alfaro, L.; Bibiloni, M. D.; Bouzas, C.; Mascaro, C. M.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Salas-Salvadó, J.; Corella, D.; Schroder, H.; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; Alonso-Gómez, A. M.; Warnberg, J.; Vioque, J.; Romaguera, D.; López-Miranda, J.; Estruch, R.; Tinahones, F. J.; Lapetra, J.; Serra-Majem, L.; Bueno-Cavanillas, A.; Mico, R. M.; Pinto, X.; Gaforio, J. J.; Ortiz-Ramos, M.; Altes-Boronat, A.; Luca, B. L.; Daimiel, L.; Ros, E.; Sayon Orea, María del Carmen; Becerra-Tomás, N.; Giménez-Alba, I. M.; Castañer, O.; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Tojal-Sierra, L.; Pérez-López, J.; Torres-Collado, L.; Colom, A.; García-Ríos, A.; Castro-Barquero, S.; Bernal, R.; Santos-Lozano, JM.; Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio; Hernández-Alonso, P.; Saiz, C.; Zomeño, M. D.; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; Bello-Mora, M. C.; Basterra Gortari, Francisco Javier; Canudas, S.; Goday, A.; Tur, J. A. (Autor de correspondencia)
ISSN: 0939-4753
Volumen: 31
Número: 10
Páginas: 2870 - 2886
Fecha de publicación: 2021
Background and aims: Modifiable lifestyle factors, such as physical activity (PA) and Mediterranean diet (MD), decrease metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim was to assess 1-year changes of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), sedentary behavior, and diet quality according to MetS severity in older population at high cardiovascular risk. Methods and results: Prospective analysis of 55-75-year-old 4359 overweight/obese participants with MetS (PREDIMED-Plus trial) categorized in tertiles according to 1-year changes of a validated MetS severity score (MetSSS). Anthropometrics, visceral adiposity index, triglycerides and glucose index, dietary nutrient intake, biochemical marker levels, dietary inflammatory index, and depression symptoms were measured. Diet quality was assessed by 17-item MD questionnaire. PAs were self-reported using the Minnesota-REGICOR Short Physical Activity Questionnaire and 30-s chair stand test. Sedentary behaviors were measured using the Spanish version of the Nurses' Health Study questionnaire. After 1-year follow-up, decreasing MetSSS was associated with an anti-inflammatory dietary pattern, high intake of vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, whole grain cereals, white fish, and bluefish and low intake of refined cereals, red and processed meat, cookies/sweets, and snacks/ready-to-eat-meals. It resulted in high intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, protein, fiber, vitamins B1, B6, B9, C, D, potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus and low glycemic index and saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and carbohydrates intake. Regarding PA and sedentary behavior, decreasing MetSSS was associated with increased moderate-to-vigorous LTPA, chair stand test, and decreased sedentary and TV-viewing time. Conclusion: Decreasing MetSSS was associated with an anti-inflammatory dietary pattern, high LTPA, high MD adherence, low sedentary time, and low depression risk. 2021 The Italian Diabetes Society, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University.