Changes in brown adipose tissue lipid mediator signatures with aging, obesity, and DHA supplementation in female mice
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dysfunction in aging and obesity has been related to chronic unresolved inflammation, which could be mediated by an impaired production of specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPMs), such as Lipoxins-LXs, Resolvins-Rvs, Protectins-PDs, and Maresins-MaRs. Our aim was to characterize the changes in BAT SPMs signatures and their association with BAT dysfunction during aging, especially under obesogenic conditions, and their modulation by a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich diet. Lipidomic, functional, and molecular studies were performed in BAT of 2- and 18-month-old lean (CT) female mice and in 18-month-old diet-induced obese (DIO) mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD), or a DHA-enriched HFD. Aging downregulated Prdm16 and UCP1 levels, especially in DIO mice, while DHA partially restored them. Arachidonic acid (AA)-derived LXs and DHA-derived MaRs and PDs were the most abundant SPMs in BAT of young CT mice. Interestingly, the sum of LXs and of PDs were significantly lower in aged DIO mice compared to young CT mice. Some of the SPMs most significantly reduced in obese-aged mice included LXB4, MaR2, 4S,14S-diHDHA, 10S,17S-diHDHA (a.k.a. PDX), and RvD6. In contrast, DHA increased DHA-derived SPMs, without modifying LXs. However, MicroPET studies showed that DHA was not able to counteract the impaired cold exposure response in BAT of obese-aged mice. Our data suggest that a defective SPMs production could underlie the decrease of BAT activity observed in obese-aged mice, and highlight the relevance to further characterize the physiological role and therapeutic potential of specific SPMs on BAT development and function.