In vivo study of the bioavailability and metabolic profile of (poly)phenols after sous-vide artichoke consumption
Artichokes are a rich source of (poly)phenols, mainly caffeoylquinic acids, but little is known about their bioavailability from this source. This study investigated the absorption, metabolism and excretion of (poly)phenols after sous-vide artichoke consumption (5776 µmol of (poly)phenols) by healthy volunteers. Seventy-six (poly)phenol metabolites were identified by UHPLC-MS/MS using authentic standards, including acyl-quinic acids plus C6¿C3, C6¿C1, C6¿C2, C6¿C1¿N, C6¿C0 metabolites, and their phase-II conjugates. The major metabolites were 3¿-methoxy-4¿-hydroxycinnamic acid, 3¿-methoxycinnamic acid-4¿-sulfate, and 4¿-hydroxycinnamic acid-3¿-sulfate, which appeared early in plasma (Tmax < 4 h); plus 3-(3¿-methoxy-4¿-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid, 3-(4¿-methoxyphenyl)propanoic acid-3¿-glucuronide, 3-(3¿-hydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid and hippuric acids, which appeared later (Tmax > 6 h). The 24 h urinary recovery averaged 8.9% (molar basis) of the (poly)phenols consumed. Hepatic beta-oxidation of 3¿,4¿-dihydroxycinnamic acid and methylated conjugates occurred, but was limited (<0.04%). 3¿-Methylation exceeded 4¿-methylation and interindividual variability was high, especially for gut microbial metabolites (up to 168-fold).