Bioactive extracts from persimmon waste: influence of extraction conditions and ripeness
In this work, a bioactive persimmon extract was produced from discarded fruits. A central composite design was used to evaluate the effect of different extraction parameters and ripeness stages of persimmon fruits on the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the resulting extracts. Significantly greater phenolic contents were obtained from immature persimmon (IP) fruits. The optimum IP extract with the conditions set by the experimental design was industrially up-scaled and its composition and functional properties were evaluated and compared with those obtained under lab-scale conditions. Both extracts contained significant protein (>20%) and phenolic contents (similar to 11-27 mg GA/g dry extract) and displayed significant antiviral activity against murine norovirus and hepatitis A virus. Moreover, the extract showed no toxicity and significantly reduced the fat content and the cellular ageing of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) without affecting the worm development. These effects were mediated by down-regulation of fat-7, suggesting an anti-lipogenic activity of this extract.