Simple Summary Peritoneal carcinomatosis mouse models as a platform to test, improve and/or predict the appropriate therapeutic interventions in patients are crucial to providing medical advances. Here, we overview reported mouse models to explore peritoneal carcinomatosis in translational biomedical research. Peritoneal carcinomatosis of primary tumors originating in gastrointestinal (e.g., colorectal cancer, gastric cancer) or gynecologic (e.g., ovarian cancer) malignancies is a widespread type of tumor dissemination in the peritoneal cavity for which few therapeutic options are available. Therefore, reliable preclinical models are crucial for research and development of efficacious treatments for this condition. To date, a number of animal models have attempted to reproduce as accurately as possible the complexity of the tumor microenvironment of human peritoneal carcinomatosis. These include: Syngeneic tumor cell lines, human xenografts, patient-derived xenografts, genetically induced tumors, and 3D scaffold biomimetics. Each experimental model has its own strengths and limitations, all of which can influence the subsequent translational results concerning anticancer and immunomodulatory drugs under exploration. This review highlights the current status of peritoneal carcinomatosis mouse models for preclinical development of anticancer drugs or immunotherapeutic agents.