The MD (Mediterranean diet) is recognized as one of the healthiest diets worldwide and is associated with the prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Dietary habits are considered one of the strongest modulators of gut microbiota, which seem to play a significant role in health status of the host. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate interactive associations between gut microbiota composition and habitual dietary intake in 360 Spanish adults from the Obekit cohort (normal weight, overweight, and obese participants). Dietary intake and adherence to the MD tests were administered and fecal samples were collected from each participant. Fecal 16S rRNA (ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid) gene sequencing was performed and checked against the dietary habits. MetagenomeSeq was the statistical tool applied to analyze data at the species taxonomic level. Results from this study identified several beneficial bacteria that were more abundant in the individuals with higher adherence to the MD. Bifidobacterium animalis was the species with the strongest association with the MD. Some SCFA (Short Chain Fatty Acids) -producing bacteria were also associated with MD. In conclusion, this study showed that MD, fiber, legumes, vegetable, fruit, and nut intake are associated with an increase in butyrate-producing taxa such as Roseburia faecis, Ruminococcus bromii, and Oscillospira (Flavonifractor) plautii.