Crespo, G.; Sierra, M.; Losa, R.; Berros, J. P.; Villanueva, N.; Fra, J.; Fonseca, P. J.; Luque, M.; Fernández, Y.; Blay, P.; Fernández de Sanmamed Gutiérrez, Miguel
; Muriel, C.; Esteban, E.; Lacave, A. J.
Introduction: Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) is currently the reference treatment for platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. The combination of PLD and gemcitabine and the administration of gemcitabine at a fixed dose rate infusion (FDRI) seem to have additive activity in this disease setting. We have launched a phase Ib study with the combination of FDRI gemcitabine followed by PLD in recurrent ovarian cancer with a platinum-free interval of less than 1 year, with parallel pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic studies.
Methods: The starting dose of gemcitabine was 1500 mg/m², 10 mg/m² per minute, every 2 weeks (± 250 mg gemcitabine titration depending on toxicity), followed by PLD 35 mg/m² every 4 weeks. Gemcitabine pharmacokinetics and equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1, deoxycytidine kinase, and ribonucleotide reductase M1 gene expression levels were studied.
Results: Thirty-five patients were treated at 3 different dose levels (DL). Dose level 1 was not tolerated. Nonfrail patients continued to be treated at DL-1 (G 1250 mg/m² on day 1 and PLD 35 mg/m² on days 1 and 15). Of 10 evaluable nonfrail patients, 4 displayed dose-limiting toxicity. Frail patients were treated at DL-2 (G 1250 mg/m on day 1 and PLD 35 mg/m² on days 1 and 15). Of the 12 evaluable frail patients, 3 developed dose-limiting toxicity. Neutropenia, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia and stomatitis were the most common toxicities. The response rate was 42.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 34.5%-51.1%), with 17.1% (6/35) complete responses and 25.7% (9/35) partial responses. The median progression-free survival was 7.7 months (95% CI, 2.2-13.1). The median overall survival was 13.9 months (95% CI, 9.4-18.4). The administration of PLD after gemcitabine did not influence gemcitabine pharmacokinetics or its metabolites. The addition of PLD to gemcitabine caused a larger and longer induction of the ribonucleotide reductase M1 gene. Patients with higher baseline levels of deoxycytidine kinase had longer progression-free survival.
Conclusion: The recommended dose for a phase II study of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer having poor prognosis is PLD, 35 mg/m² on day 1, and gemcitabine, 1000 mg/m² on days 1 and 15 delivered at an FDRI of 10 mg/m per minute in 28-day cycles.