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Metabolic Syndrome Features and Excess Weight Were Inversely Associated with Nut Consumption after 1-Year Follow-Up in the PREDIMED-Plus Study

Autores: Julibert, A.; Bibiloni, M. D. ; Gallardo-Alfaro, L. ; Abbate, M. ; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Salas-Salvado, J. ; Corella, D. ; Fito, M.; Martinez, J. A. ; Alonso-Gomez, A. M. ; Warnberg, J. ; Vioque, J. ; Romaguera, D. ; Lopez-Miranda, J. ; Estruch, R; Tinahones, F. J. ; Lapetra, J. ; Serra-Majem, L.; Cano-Ibanez, N. ; Martin-Sanchez, V. ; Pinto, X. ; Gaforio, J. J. ; Matia-Martin, P. ; Vidal, J. ; Vazquez, C. ; Daimiel, L. ; Ros, E. ; Sayon Orea, María del Carmen; Becerra-Tomas, N. ; Gimenez-Alba, I. M. ; Castaner, O. ; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Tojal-Sierra, L. ; Perez-Lopez, J. ; Notario-Barandiaran, L. ; Colom, A. ; Garcia-Rios, A. ; Castro-Barquero, S. ; Bernal, R. ; Santos-Lozano, J. M. ; Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio; Hernandez-Alonso, P. ; Saiz, C. ; Zomeno, MD. ; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; Bello-Mora, MC. ; Basterra Gortari, Francisco Javier; Canudas, S. ; Goday, A. ; PREDIMED-PLUS Investigators
Título de la revista: JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
ISSN: 0022-3166
Volumen: 150
Número: 12
Páginas: 3161 - 3170
Fecha de publicación: 2020
Background: High nut consumption has been previously associated with decreased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) regardless of race and dietary patterns. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess whether changes in nut consumption over a 1-y follow-up are associated with changes in features of MetS in a middle-aged and older Spanish population at high cardiovascular disease risk. Methods: This prospective 1-y follow-up cohort study, conducted in the framework of the PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea (PREDIMED)-Plus randomized trial, included 5800 men and women (55-75 y old) with overweight/obesity [BMI (in kg/m(2)) >= 27 and <40] and MetS. Nut consumption (almonds, pistachios, walnuts, and other nuts) was assessed using data from a validated FFQ. The primary outcome was the change from baseline to 1 y in features of MetS [waist circumference (WC), glycemia, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure] and excess weight (bodyweight and BMI) according to tertiles of change in nut consumption. Secondary outcomes included changes in dietary and lifestyle characteristics. A generalized linear model was used to compare 1-y changes in features of MetS, weight, dietary intakes, and lifestyle characteristics across tertiles of change in nut consumption. Results: As nut consumption increased, between each tertile there was a significant decrease in WC, TG, systolic blood pressure, weight, and BMI (P < 0.05), and a significant increase in HDL cholesterol (only in women, P = 0.044). The interaction effect between time and group was significant for total energy intake (P < 0.001), adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) (P < 0.001), and nut consumption (P < 0.001). Across tertiles of increasing nut consumption there was a significant increase in extra virgin olive oil intake and adherence to the MedDiet; change in energy intake, on the other hand, was inversely related to consumption of nuts. Conclusions: Features of MetS and excess weight were inversely associated with nut consumption after a 1-y follow-up in the PREDIMED-Plus study cohort.